TPO; thyroid peroxidase (2p25)

Gene Summary

Gene:TPO; thyroid peroxidase
Aliases: MSA, TPX, TDH2A
Summary:This gene encodes a membrane-bound glycoprotein. The encoded protein acts as an enzyme and plays a central role in thyroid gland function. The protein functions in the iodination of tyrosine residues in thyroglobulin and phenoxy-ester formation between pairs of iodinated tyrosines to generate the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Mutations in this gene are associated with several disorders of thyroid hormonogenesis, including congenital hypothyroidism, congenital goiter, and thyroid hormone organification defect IIA. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:thyroid peroxidase
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (15)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction KEGG
- Hematopoietic cell lineage KEGG
- Jak-STAT signaling pathway KEGG
- Methane metabolism KEGG
- Phenylalanine metabolism KEGG
- Stilbene, coumarine and lignin biosynthesis KEGG
- Tyrosine metabolism KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Receptors, Thyrotropin
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Receptors, Cytokine
  • Thyroglobulin
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Thyroid Nodule
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Autoantigens
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Gene Expression
  • Receptors, Thrombopoietin
  • Chromosome 2
  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Tumor Markers
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Transfection
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Iodide Peroxidase
  • Transcription Factors
  • Adolescents
  • Cancer RNA
  • Iron-Binding Proteins
  • Symporters
  • Mutation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • DNA Primers
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Papillary Carcinoma
  • Transcription
  • Thyroiditis, Autoimmune
  • Thyroid Gland
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (1)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Thyroid CancerTPO and Thyroid Cancer View Publications37

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: TPO (cancer-related)

Ishido Y, Yamazaki K, Kammori M, et al.
Thyroglobulin suppresses thyroid-specific gene expression in cultures of normal but not neoplastic human thyroid follicular cells.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(4):E694-702 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: It was shown in the rat thyroid that thyroglobulin (Tg) stored in the follicular lumen is a potent regulator of thyroid-specific gene expression to maintain the function of individual follicles. However, the actions of Tg as a regulatory molecule in human thyroid have not been studied.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the effect of Tg on gene expression in normal and diseased human thyroid and to examine whether the proposed model of negative-feedback autocrine regulation of thyroid function by Tg is applicable in the human as well as the rat.
DESIGN: Primary cultures of human thyrocytes were established from normal thyroid, Graves' disease thyroid, adenomatous goiter, follicular adenoma, and papillary carcinoma tissues obtained during surgery. Cells were stimulated with physiologic (ie, follicular) concentrations of Tg, and mRNA and protein expression of genes involved in thyroid hormonogenesis were evaluated. The effects of Tg on thyroid-specific gene expression were also assessed in 2 human papillary carcinoma cell lines.
RESULTS: Transcript levels of genes participating in thyroid hormone biosynthesis were significantly reduced by Tg in thyrocyte cultures derived from normal and Graves' thyroid, but not in cultures derived from thyroid neoplasms and adenomatous goiter.
CONCLUSION: It was confirmed that Tg acts as a negative-feedback regulator of gene expression in human thyrocytes, suggesting that Tg signaling may constitute a common mechanism for maintaining thyroid homeostasis in species with follicular thyroid morphology. However, certain diseases of intrinsic thyroid overgrowth appear to be associated with an escape from the regulatory mechanism of Tg.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Cipollini M, Pastor S, Gemignani F, et al.
TPO genetic variants and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in two European populations.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(12):2843-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid cancer risk involves the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The thyroperoxidase (TPO) has a key role in the iodine metabolism, being essential for the thyroid function. Mutations in the TPO gene are common in congenital hypothyroidism, and there are also signs of the implication of TPO in thyroid cancer. We performed a case-control association study of genetic variants in TPO and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in 1,586 DTC patients and 1,769 controls including two European populations (Italy: 1,190 DTC and 1,290 controls; Spain: 396 DTC and 479 controls). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed separately for each population and each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). From the three studied polymorphisms, significant associations were detected between DTC and rs2048722 and rs732609 in both populations (p < 0.05). In the Italian population, both SNPs showed a negative association (rs2048722, odds ratio [OR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.63-1.00, p = 0.045; rs732609, OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.55-0.94, p = 0.016), whereas in the Spanish population, these SNPs showed a positive association (rs2048722, OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.03-1.89, p = 0.033; rs732609, OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.06-1.87, p = 0.018). The corresponding associations for papillary or follicular thyroid cancer were similar to those for all DTC, within population. No association was detected for the third TPO polymorphism in the Italian and the Spanish populations. Our results, for the first time, point to TPO as a gene involved in the risk of DTC, and suggest the importance of interactions between TPO variants and other unidentified population-specific factors in determining thyroid cancer risk.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Cheng W, Fu H, Feng F, et al.
Efficacy of lentiviral-mediated transfection of hTSHR in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line.
Nucl Med Biol. 2013; 40(4):576-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Dedifferentiated thyroid cancer is often incurable because it does not respond to radioiodine. This study aimed to investigate iodide uptake and the expressions of thyroid-specific molecules after the transfection of human thyrotropin receptor (hTSHR) gene in poorly differentiated follicular thyroid cancer cell line (FTC-133).
METHODS: pGC-FU-hTSHR-GFP-lentivirus and pGC-FU-GFP-lentivirus were added into FTC-133 cells respectively. The parental cells were defined as the blank group. Cells transduced with pGC-FU-GFP and pGC-FU-hTSHR-GFP were defined as the control group and experimental group respectively. The efficiency of transfection was observed under a fluorescence microscope. (125)I uptake by FTC-133 was analyzed by measuring the radioactivity. Real time-PCR, western blotting and radioimmunoassay were applied to detect the expressions of mRNAs and proteins of Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS), thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in FTC-133.
RESULTS: The green fluorescence was present in 80% of the transduced cells under fluorescence microscope. The iodine uptake of cells transduced with pGC-FU-TSHR-GFP was 3.3 times higher than that in the other two groups (P<0.01). NIS, TSHR, TPO and Tg had been significantly up-regulated in the experimental group as compared to the control group (P<0.01) and the blank group (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: The hTSHR transfection in FTC-133 improved the expression of thyroid-specific molecules including TSHR, NIS, TPO and Tg and radioiodide uptake.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Sunohara M, Morikawa S, Fuse A, Sato I
Role of promoter element in c-mpl gene expression induced by TPO.
Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2013; 89(4):131-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thrombopoietin (TPO) and its receptor, c-Mpl, play the crucial role for the development of megakaryocyte and considered to regulate megakaryocytopoiesis. Previously we reported that TPO increased the c-mpl promoter activity determined by a transient expression system using a vector containing the luciferase gene as a reporter and the expression of the c-mpl gene is modulated by transcription through a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway in the megakaryoblastic cells. In this research, to elucidate the required elements in c-mpl promoter, the promoter activity of the deletion constructs and site-directed mutagenesis were measured by a transient transfection assay system. Destruction of -77GATA in c-mpl promoter decreased the activity by 22.8%. Our study elucidated that -77GATA involved in TPO-induced c-mpl gene expression in a human megakaryoblastic cell line, CMK.

Related: Signal Transduction

Reddi HV, Driscoll CB, Madde P, et al.
Redifferentiation and induction of tumor suppressors miR-122 and miR-375 by the PAX8/PPARγ fusion protein inhibits anaplastic thyroid cancer: a novel therapeutic strategy.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2013; 20(5):267-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is an aggressive, fatal disease unresponsive to traditional therapies, generating a need to develop effective therapies. The PAX8/PPARγ fusion protein (PPFP) has been shown to favorably modulate tumor growth in follicular thyroid cancer, prompting our evaluation of its efficacy to inhibit ATC cell and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. PPFP was constitutively expressed in five ATC cell lines: BHT-101, FRO, C-643, KTC-2 and KTC-3, and inhibited cell growth in four of five cell lines and xenograft tumor growth in four of four cell lines. PPFP-mediated growth inhibition involved multiple mechanisms, including upregulation of miR-122 and miR-375, associated with decreased angiogenesis and AKT pathway inactivation, respectively. Also, PPFP expression resulted in marked increase of thyroid-specific marker transcripts, including PAX8, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroglobulin, to varying degrees by activating their respective promoters, suggesting that PPFP induced cellular redifferentiation. Functional studies demonstrate that increased NIS messenger RNA is not associated with increased 125I uptake. However, ectopic expression of wild-type NIS-induced perchlorate-sensitive iodine uptake, suggesting that endogenous NIS in ATC cell lines is defective. As current treatment for ATC is only palliative, overexpression of PPFP may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ATC.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Erickson-Miller CL, Pillarisetti K, Kirchner J, et al.
Low or undetectable TPO receptor expression in malignant tissue and cell lines derived from breast, lung, and ovarian tumors.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:405 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous efficacious chemotherapy regimens may cause thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) agonists, such as eltrombopag, represent a novel approach for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. The TPO-R MPL is expressed on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors, although little is known about its expression on other tissues.
METHODS: Breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples were analyzed for MPL expression by microarray and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and for TPO-R protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cell line proliferation assays were used to analyze the in vitro effect of eltrombopag on breast, lung, and ovarian tumor cell proliferation. The lung carcinoma cell lines were also analyzed for TPO-R protein expression by Western blot.
RESULTS: MPL mRNA was not detectable in 118 breast tumors and was detectable at only very low levels in 48% of 29 lung tumors studied by microarray analysis. By qRT-PCR, low but detectable levels of MPL mRNA were detectable in some normal (14-43%) and malignant (3-17%) breast, lung, and ovarian tissues. A comparison of MPL to EPOR, ERBB2, and IGF1R mRNA demonstrates that MPL mRNA levels were far lower than those of EPOR and ERBB2 mRNA in the same tissues. IHC analysis showed negligible TPO-R protein expression in tumor tissues, confirming mRNA analysis. Culture of breast, lung, and ovarian carcinoma cell lines showed no increase, and in fact, showed a decrease in proliferation following incubation with eltrombopag. Western blot analyses revealed no detectable TPO-R protein expression in the lung carcinoma cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiple analyses of breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples and/or cell lines show no evidence of MPL mRNA or TPO-R protein expression. Eltrombopag does not stimulate growth of breast, lung, or ovarian tumor cell lines at doses likely to exert their actions on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors.

Related: Breast Cancer Lung Cancer Ovarian Cancer

Chertok Shacham E, Ishay A, Irit E, et al.
Minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma developed in dyshormonogenetic multinodular goiter due to thyroid peroxidase gene mutation.
Thyroid. 2012; 22(5):542-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of thyroid carcinoma in patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) caused by dyshormonogenesis is very rare, and has only been reported in one patient harboring mutations in the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene.
PATIENT FINDINGS: We report on a 29-year follow-up of two consanguineous siblings with CH due to total iodide organification defect who also had sensorineural hearing loss. Molecular analysis revealed a novel biallelic mutation of the TPO gene in which phenylalanine substitutes serine at codon 292 (c.875C>T, p.S292F) in exon 8. Despite early initiation, adequate doses of levothyroxine treatment and consequently normal thyrotropin (TSH) levels, the proposita developed a huge multinodular goiter (MNG) and underwent total thyroidectomy due to tracheal compression. Pathological examination revealed a unifocal follicular thyroid carcinoma without vascular invasion in the left lobe of the thyroid gland.
SUMMARY: Our finding of follicular thyroid carcinoma arising from dyshormonogenetic MNG in a patient without elevated serum TSH levels indicates that genetic and environmental factors other than TSH level might be involved in the development of thyroid carcinoma in dyshormonogenetic MNG.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the rare occurrence of thyroid carcinoma in dyshormonogenetic MNG, we recommend long-term follow-up and regular neck ultrasound imaging to prevent delayed diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Feng F, Wang H, Fu H, et al.
Dedifferentiation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC-133 is enhanced by 131I pretreatment.
Nucl Med Biol. 2011; 38(7):1053-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) usually has a high iodine uptake. However, dedifferentiation of DTC with decreased or no radioiodine ((131)I) uptake is observed in clinical practice, with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of (131)I radiation on radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and the expression of thyroid-specific molecules.
METHODS: FTC-133 cells were treated with (131)I, the dosage dictated by methylthiazol tetrazolium test results and preliminary experiments. The experimental cell group was incubated with (131)I for 48 h and then cultured for 3 months in (131)I-free medium. The control group was set without (131)I. Primary cells were defined as the blank group. Following treatment, RAIU was measured with a gamma counter as the counts/cell number. Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS), thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were detected by Western blotting and radioimmunoassay, and their mRNAs were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: RAIU of FTC-133 cells decreased gradually after coincubation with (131)I and did not recover even if (131)I was removed. The relative RAIU of the control and experimental groups was 0.567 and 0.182, respectively, a statistically significant difference (P<.01). Expression of NIS, TSHR, TPO and Tg decreased in the experimental group to a statistically significant degree compared to that of controls (P<.05).
CONCLUSION: Changes in the mRNA levels were in accordance with the expression of thyroid-specific proteins. Thus, FTC-133 cells undergo dedifferentiation during long-term culture in vitro, and (131)I may promote this progress.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Tan J, Li W, Wang P
Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-driven expression of iodine pump genes for targeted radioiodine therapy of malignant glioma cells.
Chin J Cancer. 2011; 30(8):574-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radioiodine is a routine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancers. Non-thyroid cancers can intake radioiodine after transfection of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter, an excellent tumor-specific promoter, has potential value for targeted gene therapy of glioma. We used the hTERT promoter to drive the expression of the hNIS and human thyroid peroxidase (hTPO) gene as a primary step for testing the effects of radioiodine therapy on malignant glioma. The U87 and U251 cells were co-transfected with two adenoviral vectors, in which the hNIS gene had been coupled to the hTERT promoter and the hTPO gene had been coupled to the CMV promoter, respectively. Then, we performed Western blot, 125I intake and efflux assays, and clonogenic assay with cancer cells. We also did 99mTc tumor imaging of nude mice models. After co-transfection with Ad-hTERT-hNIS and Ad-CMV-hTPO, glioma cells showed the 125I intake almost 1.5 times higher than cells transfected with Ad-hTERT-hNIS alone. Western blots revealed bands of approximately 70 kDa and 110 kDa, consistent with the hNIS and hTPO proteins. In clonogenic assay, approximately 90% of co-transfected cells were killed, compared to 50% of control cells after incubated with 37 MBq of 131I. These results demonstrated that radioiodine therapy was effective in treating malignant glioma cell lines following induction of tumor-specific iodide intake by the hTERT promoter-directed hNIS expression in vitro. Co-transfected hNIS and hTPO genes can result in increased intake and longer retention of radioiodine. Nude mice harboring xenografts transfected with Ad-hTERT-NIS can take 99mTc scans.

Related: TERT

Li W, Tan J, Wang P, Wu P
Cotransfected sodium iodide symporter and human tyroperoxidase genes following human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter for targeted radioiodine therapy of malignant glioma cells.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2011; 26(4):443-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Radioiodine is a routine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancers. In principle, undifferentiated thyroid cancers as well as nonthyroid cancers can concentrate and, thus, be treated with radioiodine after transfection with the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter is an effective tumor-specific promoter of gene expression and, thus, may be useful in targeted gene therapy of cancer.
METHODS: We used hTERT promoter-modulated expression of the hNIS and human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) genes in an experimental model of radioiodine-based treatment of malignant glioma. Cells were cotransfected by adenovirus in which the hNIS gene had been coupled to the hTERT promoter and the hTPO gene had been coupled to the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (Ad-hTERT-hNIS and Ad-CMV-hTPO, respectively), and they were evaluated in cells thus transfecting transgene expression by western blots, (125)I uptake and influx, and clonogenecity after (131)I treatment.
RESULTS: After cotransfection with two adenovirus, cells showed about 31-34 times higher (125)I uptake than the control cells transfected with Ad-CMV-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) and almost 1.3-1.4 times higher (125)I uptake than cells only transfected with Ad-hTERT-hNIS. Western blots revealed two bands of ∼70 and 110 kDa, respectively. The in vitro clonogenic assay indicated that, after exposure to 100-1000 μCi of (131)I-iodide for 12 hours, 91%-94% of cells cotransfected with the hNIS and hTPO genes, 88%-93% of cells transfected with the hNIS gene, and only 62%-68% of control (nontransfected) cells were killed.
CONCLUSIONS: The experiments demonstrated that an effective therapy of (131)I was achieved in malignant glioma cell lines after induction of tumor-specific iodide uptake activity by the hTERT promoter-directed NIS expression in vitro. Cotransfection of the hNIS and hTPO genes can lead to longer retention of radioiodide, but did not increase cell killing over that achieved with transfection with the hNIS gene alone.

Related: Thyroid Cancer TERT

Basu A, Drame A, Muñoz R, et al.
Pathway specific gene expression profiling reveals oxidative stress genes potentially regulated by transcription co-activator LEDGF/p75 in prostate cancer cells.
Prostate. 2012; 72(6):597-611 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a stress survival transcription co-activator and autoantigen that is overexpressed in tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa). This oncoprotein promotes resistance to cell death induced by oxidative stress and chemotherapy by mechanisms that remain unclear. To get insights into these mechanisms we identified candidate target stress genes of LEDGF/p75 using pathway-specific gene expression profiling in PCa cells.
METHODS: A "Human oxidative stress and antioxidant defense" qPCR array was used to identify genes exhibiting significant expression changes in response to knockdown or overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PC-3 cells. Validation of array results was performed by additional qPCR and immunoblotting.
RESULTS: Cytoglobin (CYGB), Phosphoinositide-binding protein PIP3-E/IPCEF-1, superoxidase dismutase 3 (SOD3), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and albumin (ALB) exhibited significant transcript down- and up-regulation in response to LEDGF/p75 knockdown and overexpression, respectively. CYGB gene was selected for further validation based on its emerging role as a stress oncoprotein in human malignancies. In light of previous reports indicating that LEDGF/p75 regulates peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), and that PRDXs exhibit differential expression in PCa, we also examined the relationship between these proteins in PCa cells. Our validation data revealed that changes in LEDGF/p75 transcript and protein expression in PCa cells closely paralleled those of CYGB, but not those of the PRDXs.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies CYGB and other genes as stress genes potentially regulated by LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells, and provides a rationale for investigating their role in PCa and in promoting resistance to chemotherapy- and oxidative stress-induced cell death.

Related: Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction

Clinckspoor I, Verlinden L, Overbergh L, et al.
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and a superagonistic analog in combination with paclitaxel or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid have potent antiproliferative effects on anaplastic thyroid cancer.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011; 124(1-2):1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid cancer represents one of the most aggressive cancers. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), has been shown to have antiproliferative and/or redifferentiating properties in several malignancies, including thyroid cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and the superagonistic analog CD578 in anaplastic thyroid cancer, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, a taxane, and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor with promising effects in undifferentiated thyroid cancer. Four human thyroid cancer cell lines (FTC-133, C643, 8505C and HTh74) were treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or CD578, alone or in combination with paclitaxel or SAHA. Effects on cell growth and differentiation were evaluated. Clear effects on growth arrest were observed in a clonogenic assay, and absolute cell counts demonstrated a 24-36% reduction in all cell lines after 72h treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (10(-6)M) and a 60% inhibition after 120h in the most sensitive cell line HTh74. A similar growth inhibition was shown after treatment with a 1000-fold lower concentration of analog CD578. This growth arrest was explained by antiproliferative effects, further supported by an increased % of cells in the G(0)-G(1) phase of the cell cycle and by a decreased transcription factor E2F1 mRNA expression. Combination treatments of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or CD578 with paclitaxel or SAHA resulted in an additive and in some conditions a synergistic effect on the inhibition of proliferation. Redifferentiation analysis revealed only a modest increase in sodium iodide symporter and thyroglobulin mRNA expression after treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), without additive effect after combination treatment. No effects were observed on TSH-receptor or thyroid peroxidase mRNA expression. Our in vitro findings demonstrate that the superagonistic vitamin D analog CD578 holds promise as adjuvant antiproliferative therapy of anaplastic thyroid cancer, especially in combination with other drugs such as paclitaxel or SAHA.

Related: Paclitaxel Thyroid Cancer

Nishihara E, Chen CR, Higashiyama T, et al.
Subclinical nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism in a family segregates with a thyrotropin receptor mutation with weakly increased constitutive activity.
Thyroid. 2010; 20(11):1307-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hyperthyroidism is usually associated with Graves' disease or toxic nodular goiter. Here we report a family with hereditary subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by a constitutively activating germline mutation of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene.
METHODS: The proband was a 64-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a thyroid nodule and was found to be euthyroid with a suppressed serum TSH. The nodule was not hot. Although antibodies to thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies were present, TSHR antibodies were not detected by TSH-binding inhibition or by bioassay. Two of her middle-aged sons, but not her daughter, also had subclinical hyperthyroidism without TSHR antibodies. Without therapy, the clinical condition of the affected individuals remained unchanged over 3 years without development of overt hyperthyroidism.
RESULTS: A novel heterozygous TSHR point mutation causing a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at codon 575 (E575K) in the second extracellular loop was detected in the three family members with subclinical hyperthyroidism, but was absent in her one daughter with normal thyroid function. In vitro functional studies of the E575K TSHR mutation demonstrated a weak, but significant, increase in constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway.
CONCLUSION: Although hereditary nonautoimmune overt hyperthyroidism is very rare, TSHR activating mutations as a cause of subclinical hyperthyroidism may be more common and should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially if familial.

Espadinha C, Santos JR, Sobrinho LG, Bugalho MJ
Expression of iodine metabolism genes in human thyroid tissues: evidence for age and BRAFV600E mutation dependency.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009; 70(4):629-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Children present a higher susceptibility to developing thyroid cancer after radioiodine exposure and also a higher frequency of functional metastases than adults.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the mRNA expression of the sodium/iodide (Na(+)/I(-)) symporter (NIS), the Pendred syndrome gene (PDS), thyroperoxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg) and TSH receptor (TSH-R) in normal thyroid tissues (NTTs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) among different age groups.
METHODS: Analysis included 59 samples: 21 NTTs and 38 PTCs, of which 21 were the classic type (CPTC) and 17 the follicular variant (FVPTC). Patients were divided into three age groups: I (n = 16) 5-21 years, II (n = 13) 22-59 years, and III (n = 10) 60-91 years. The relative mRNA expression of the five target genes was determinate by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR).
RESULTS: Expression of all genes was significantly higher in NTTs than in PTCs, and it was not age dependent in the NTT group. Among PTCs, the mean expression of PDS, TPO and TSH-R was significantly lower in group II than in group I. PDS, TPO and Tg expression was significantly lower in classic PTCs than in FVPTCs. The difference was related to a higher frequency of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in the former group.
CONCLUSIONS: The finding of higher PDS, TPO and TSH-R mRNA expression in paediatric vs. adult primary tumour tissues supports the hypothesis that this might contribute to the increased functional activity of metastases in the paediatric group. The finding that mRNA expression of the target genes in NTT was not age dependent does not provide an explanation for the higher susceptibility in the paediatric group.

Related: BRAF gene Thyroid Cancer

Romei C, Ciampi R, Faviana P, et al.
BRAFV600E mutation, but not RET/PTC rearrangements, is correlated with a lower expression of both thyroperoxidase and sodium iodide symporter genes in papillary thyroid cancer.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008; 15(2):511-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
A low sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression has been shown in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) harboring the BRAFV600E mutation. In the present study, we analyzed the mRNA expression of thyroid differentiation genes, glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and GLUT-3, in 78 PTCs according to the presence of BRAFV600E or RET/PTC rearrangements. We found BRAFV600E and RET/PTC rearrangements in 35.8 and 19.4% of PTCs respectively. The mRNA expression of NIS and thyroperoxidase (TPO) genes were significantly lower (P<0.0001 and P=0.004 respectively) in BRAFV600E-positive PTC with respect to non-mutated samples. In support of this result, immunohistochemistry showed that the percentage of NIS-positive cells was significantly lower (P=0.005) in BRAFV600E-mutated PTC (mean 53.5%) than in negative cases (mean 72.6%). In contrast, no difference either in NIS or in any other thyroid differentiation genes' mRNA expression was found in PTC with or without RET/PTC rearrangements. When GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 mRNA expression was considered, no correlation was found either in BRAFV600E- nor in RET/PTC-mutated cases. In conclusion, this study confirmed the presence of a genetic alteration of BRAF and/or RET oncogenes in 64% of PTC cases and revealed a significant correlation of BRAFV600E mutation with a lower expression of both NIS and TPO. This latter finding could indicate that an early dedifferentiation process is present at the molecular level in BRAFV600E-mutated PTC, thus suggesting that the previously demonstrated poor prognostic significance of BRAFV600E mutation could be related to the dedifferentiation process more than to a more advanced stage at diagnosis.

Related: SLC2A1 SLC2A3 BRAF gene RET Thyroid Cancer

Tuncel M, Aydin D, Yaman E, et al.
The comparative effects of gene modulators on thyroid-specific genes and radioiodine uptake.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2007; 22(3):443-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to comparatively investigate the effects of 5-azacytidine-C (5-Aza), trichostatin-A (TSA), and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the mRNA expressions of the sodium and iodine (Na/I) symporter (NIS), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R), as well as radioiodine (RAI) uptake in cancer (B-CPAP) and normal (Nthy-ori 3-1) thyroid cell lines. Cell lines were treated with 10 ng/mL of TSA, 5 microM of 5-AZA, and 1 microM of ATRA, according to the MTT (methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium) test results. Additionally, recombinant thyroid-stimulating hormone (rTSH) was also applied, with a selected dose of 100 ng/mL. Following the treatment, NIS, Tg, TPO, and TSH-R mRNA levels were detected by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RAI uptakes were measured by using a well counter as counts/cell number. 5-Aza increased TSH-R mRNA expression in both of the cell lines and decreased TPO, NIS, and Tg mRNA levels in the cancer cell line. In the normal thyroid cell line, 5-AZA increased TPO mRNA levels by 2-fold and made no differences in NIS and Tg mRNA levels. TSA treatment repressed NIS and Tg mRNA levels and made no change on other thyroid-specific genes that were investigated in the cancer cell line. In the normal thyroid cell line, TSA increased TSH-R mRNA levels in 72 hours and created no important difference in the other genes. ATRA repressed the TSH-R mRNA levels in the normal thyroid cell line and increased the TPO and Tg mRNA levels slightly in both the cell lines. Furthermore, in short-term treatment, ATRA repressed the NIS gene expression slightly, but in the long term, this repression turned to basal levels. 5-Aza, TSA, and ATRA did not make any changes in RAI uptake in the cancer cell line, but rTSH increased RAI uptake significantly. In the normal thyroid cell line, TSA and ATRA decreased RAI uptake (to 1/10 and 1/2, respectively), but 5-Aza and rTSH increased RAI uptake significantly (2- and 4-fold, respectively). In our study, we showed an increase in TSH-R gene expression and radioiodine uptake with 5-Aza. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to support our findings and the potential clinical use of this agent.

Related: Apoptosis Azacitidine Thyroid Cancer

Tuncel M, Aydin D, Yaman E, et al.
The comparative effects of gene modulators on thyroid-specific genes and radioiodine uptake.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2007; 22(2):281-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to comparatively investigate the effects of 5-azacytidine-C (5-Aza), trichostatin-A (TSA), and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on mRNA expressions of Na/I symporter (NIS), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R), and radioiodine (RAI) uptake in cancer (B-CPAP) and normal (Nthy-ori 3-1) thyroid cell lines. Cell lines were treated with 10 ng/mL of TSA, 5 microM of 5-Aza, and 1 microM of ATRA, according to the MTT (methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium) test results. Additionally, recombinant thyroid stimulating hormone (rTSH) was also applied, with a selected dose of 100 ng/mL. Following the treatment, NIS, Tg, TPO, and TSH-R mRNA levels were detected by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RAI uptakes were measured by using a well counter as the counts/cell number. 5-Aza increased TSH-R mRNA expression in both of the cell lines and decreased TPO, NIS, and Tg mRNA levels in the cancer cell line. In the normal thyroid cell line, 5-Aza increased TPO mRNA levels 2-fold and made no differences in NIS and Tg mRNA levels. TSA treatment repressed NIS and Tg mRNA levels, and made no differences on other thyroid specific genes investigated in the cancer cell line. In the normal thyroid cell line, TSA increased TSH-R mRNA levels in 72 hours and created no important differences in other genes. ATRA repressed the TSH-R mRNA levels in the normal thyroid cell line and increased the TPO and Tg mRNA levels slightly in both cell lines. Furthermore, in short-term treatment, ATRA repressed NIS gene expression slightly, but in the long term, this repression turned to basal levels. 5-Aza, TSA, and ATRA did not make any differences in RAI uptake in the cancer cell line, but rTSH increased RAI uptake significantly. In the normal thyroid cell line, TSA and ATRA decreased RAI uptake (to 1/10 and 1/2, respectively), but 5-Aza and rTSH increased RAI uptake significantly (2- and 4-fold, respectively). We have shown an increase in TSH-R gene expression and radioiodine uptake with 5-Aza. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to support our findings and the potential clinical use of this agent.

Related: Apoptosis Azacitidine Thyroid Cancer

Di Cristofaro J, Silvy M, Lanteaume A, et al.
Expression of tpo mRNA in thyroid tumors: quantitative PCR analysis and correlation with alterations of ret, Braf , ras and pax8 genes.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006; 13(2):485-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunocytochemistry (ICC) of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) using the monoclonal antibody MoAb47 has been used as malignancy marker on thyroid fine needle aspiration. However, little is known about the fate of TPO in thyroid carcinoma. We performed a qualitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis to measure the expression of variants of tpo mRNA in 13 normal tissue samples, 30 benign tumors (BT), 21 follicular carcinomas (FC), 20 classical papillary carcinomas (PCc), 12 follicular variants of papillary carcinomas (PCfv) and nine oncocytic carcinomas (OC). We also studied mutations involving the ras, Braf, ret or pax8 genes. Results of Q-PCR were closely correlated with those of ICC (P < 0.0001; R = 0.59) and showed that overall tpo expression was lower in all carcinomas than in normal and BT (P < 0.05). The ratio tpo2 or tpo3 to tpo1 was inversed in follicular tumors. Genetic mutations were observed in 90% of PCc, 61.9% of FC, 41.7% of PCfv, 0% of OC and 10% in BT. pax8-ppar gamma1 rearrangement was correlated with qualitative changes in tpo mRNA (P < 0.01). These results confirmed the decrease of TPO expression in 97% of thyroid carcinomas regardless of histological type and the overexpression of shorter splice variants in follicular tumors. Both reduction in quantity of TPO and impairment of its maturation process could account for the atypical immunohistochemical reaction of MoAb47 with TPO.

Related: BRAF gene RET Thyroid Cancer PAX8 gene

Pfarr N, Musholt TJ, Musholt PB, et al.
Congenital primary hypothyroidism with subsequent adenomatous goiter in a Turkish patient caused by a homozygous 10-bp deletion in the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006; 64(5):514-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Congenital primary hypothyroidism occurs in 1 of 4000 births. Whereas the majority of the cases are due to developmental defects of the thyroid gland, 20% carry a defect in thyroid hormonogenesis. We report a Turkish boy who had goitrous hypothyroidism due to a mutation in the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene.
DESIGN: The TPO gene was sequenced directly from genomic DNA and cDNA which was transcribed from three RNA samples harvested from different parts of the patient's excised thyroid gland. Patient The boy was thyroidectomized because of continuing growth of his thyroid gland and development of multiple nodes suspected of malignancy by ultrasound examination. Histopathological examination verified a dyshormonogenetic goiter with multiple follicular adenomas.
RESULTS: The patient had a novel homozygous 10-bp deletion of the TPO gene at position 2812 in exon 16. This frame shift mutation results in a severely altered intracellular part of the protein. The deletion identified in leucocyte DNA was also found in thyroid tissue cDNA - so that instability of the transcript or a splicing defect was excluded. Both unaffected parents were heterozygous carriers of the mutation whereas 50 healthy individuals of the same ethnic background did not harbour the mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: The identified TPO gene deletion is the first mutation coding for an inactive TPO molecule, which has a severely altered intracellular segment. Because the most likely reason for the enlarging goiter was poor compliance of the patient, this report underlines the importance of a careful and regular follow-up of patients with dyshormonogenesis.

Eszlinger M, Krohn K, Beck M, et al.
Comparison of differential gene expression of hot and cold thyroid nodules with primary epithelial cell culture models by investigation of co-regulated gene sets.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006; 1763(3):263-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) and cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) are characterized by an increased proliferation, however, they have opposite functional activities. Therefore, with the aim to further understand the distinct molecular pathology of each entity and to discover common mechanisms like those leading to increased proliferation in both, AFTNs and CTNs, we now compared gene expression of AFTNs and CTNs with in vitro model systems (TSH-stimulated and ras-transfected primary cultures (PC)) whose gene expression patterns can be attributed to specific molecular alterations. Since combinations of co-regulated genes are more likely to reveal molecular mechanisms, we used a procedure which groups co-regulated genes within "gene sets". We found a co-regulated gene set in the AFTNs that overlaps with differential expression in TSH-stimulated PCs but not in CTNs or ras-transfected PCs. In addition to thyroid peroxidase and sialyltransferase 1, this set of co-regulated genes comprises metallothioneins and the G-protein-coupled receptor 56. Although their role in the thyroid is unknown so far, their appearance in one group indicates a functional relevance in TSH-TSH receptor-stimulated mechanisms. Furthermore, we identified down-regulated gene sets with concordant expression patterns in AFTNs, CTNs and ras-transfected PCs. However, these expression patterns are not of relevance in the TSH-stimulated PCs. These findings suggest that TSH-stimulated PCs can be used as a model of increased thyroid function (AFTNs), whereas the ras-transfected PCs better reflect the increased proliferation of both AFTNs and CTNs.

Maeda I, Takano T, Yoshida H, et al.
Tensin3 is a novel thyroid-specific gene.
J Mol Endocrinol. 2006; 36(1):R1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid-specific genes, such as thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, Na+/I- symporter and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, play fundamental roles in thyroid function and relate to many pathological conditions. Using sequence specific-differential display, we detected three genes that showed higher expression levels in normal thyroid tissues than in thyroid tumor tissues. After subcloning and sequencing analysis, one of the genes was revealed to be tensin3. The expression level of tensin3 was examined with real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Its expression levels were more depressed in thyroid tumor tissues than in normal thyroid tissues. The decrease was even more evident in two anaplastic carcinomas. High and moderate levels of tensin3 mRNA expression were observed in the thyroid and placenta respectively. Tensin3 mRNA was expressed only in low levels in other tissues, such as the brain, heart, lung, liver, pancreas, kidney, skeletal muscle, white blood cells and prostate. These results show that tensin3 is a novel thyroid-specific gene and further investigations may reveal its relation to thyroid function or thyroid disease.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Taniguchi K, Takano T, Miyauchi A, et al.
Differentiation of follicular thyroid adenoma from carcinoma by means of gene expression profiling with adapter-tagged competitive polymerase chain reaction.
Oncology. 2005; 69(5):428-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Since preoperative differentiation between follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and carcinoma (FTC) remains very difficult, the purpose of this study was to identify the genes differentially expressed in FTA and FTC in order to construct a diagnostic system based on such genes for differentiation of FTA and FTC.
METHODS: Gene expression profiles of 45 FTAs and 22 FTCs were analyzed by means of adapter-tagged competitive polymerase chain reaction (ATAC-PCR) with 2,516 genes (learning set). The genes differentially expressed in FTAs and FTCs were then used to construct a diagnostic system based on the weighted-voting algorithm. In addition, a validation study of this diagnostic system was conducted using 12 FTAs and 6 FTCs (validation set).
RESULTS: The diagnostic system for differentiation of FTA and FTC, constructed with the aid of the learning set samples, was based on 60 genes differentially expressed in FTA and FTC, which included several genes previously identified as overexpressed in FTC (DPP4, KRT19 and IGFBP3) or FTA (trefoil factor 3 and thyroid peroxidase). The leave-one-out cross-validation study showed that the accuracy of this diagnostic system was as high as 90% (sensitivity: 77.3% and specificity: 95.6%), and was confirmed by the validation study (diagnostic accuracy: 83.3%; 95% confidence interval: 62.8-95.4%, sensitivity: 66.7% and specificity: 91.2%).
CONCLUSIONS: This diagnostic system using the ATAC-PCR assay is expected to be clinically useful for preoperative differentiation between FTA and FTC since ATAC-PCR can be used for the small amount of RNA obtained from fine needle aspiration biopsy.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Zhang L, Sharma S, Hershman JM, et al.
Iodide sensitizes genetically modified non-small cell lung cancer cells to ionizing radiation.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2006; 13(1):74-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
While external ionizing radiation has been used for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), improved efficacy of this modality would be an important advance. Ectopic expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroperoxidase (TPO) genes in NSCLC cells facilitated concentration of iodide in NSCLC cells, which markedly induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Pre-incubation of the NIS/TPO-modified NSCLC cells in iodide followed by ionizing radiation generates bystander tumoricidal effects and potently enhances tumor cell killing. This iodide-induced bystander effect is associated with enhanced gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) activity and increased connexin-43 (Cx43) expression. Thus, iodide may serve as an enhancer to markedly improve the efficacy of radiation therapy in combined therapeutic modalities.

Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Knauf JA, Ma X, Smith EP, et al.
Targeted expression of BRAFV600E in thyroid cells of transgenic mice results in papillary thyroid cancers that undergo dedifferentiation.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(10):4238-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The BRAFT1799A mutation is the most common genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). It is also found in a subset of papillary microcarcinomas, consistent with a role in tumor initiation. PTCs with BRAFT1799A are often invasive and present at a more advanced stage. BRAFT1799A is found with high prevalence in tall-cell variant PTCs and in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated carcinomas arising from PTCs. To explore the role of BRAFV600E in thyroid cancer pathogenesis, we targeted its expression to thyroid cells of transgenic FVB/N mice with a bovine thyroglobulin promoter. Two Tg-BRAFV600E lines (Tg-BRAF2 and Tg-BRAF3) were propagated for detailed analysis. Tg-BRAF2 and Tg-BRAF3 mice had increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (>7- and approximately 2-fold, respectively). This likely resulted from decreased expression of thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter, and thyroglobulin. All lines seemed to successfully compensate for thyroid dysfunction, as serum thyroxine/triiodothyronine and somatic growth were normal. Thyroid glands of transgenic mice were markedly enlarged by 5 weeks of age. In Tg-BRAF2 mice, PTCs were present at 12 and 22 weeks in 14 of 15 and 13 of 14 animals, respectively, with 83% exhibiting tall-cell features, 83% areas of invasion, and 48% foci of poorly differentiated carcinoma. Tg-BRAF3 mice also developed PTCs, albeit with lower prevalence (3 of 12 and 4 of 9 at 12 and 22 weeks, respectively). Tg-BRAF2 mice had a 30% decrease in survival at 5 months. In summary, thyroid-specific expression of BRAFV600E induces goiter and invasive PTC, which transitions to poorly differentiated carcinomas. This closely recapitulates the phenotype of BRAF-positive PTCs in humans and supports a key role for this oncogene in its pathogenesis.

Related: BRAF gene Thyroid Cancer

Le Fourn V, Ferrand M, Franc JL
Differential expression of thyroperoxidase mRNA splice variants in human thyroid tumors.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004; 1689(2):134-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The levels of human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) mRNA expression and the rates of hTPO mRNA with alternatively spliced exons 10, 14, and 16 were analyzed in normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues (13 normal thyroid tissues, 9 adenomas, 4 papillary carcinomas, 11 follicular variant of papillary carcinomas, 16 minimally invasive follicular carcinomas, 6 widely invasive follicular carcinomas) using a semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction procedure. The level of hTPO mRNA decreased in the follicular variant of papillary carcinomas and in minimally invasive follicular carcinomas and was more heterogeneous in the other pathological tissues than in normal tissues. Based on the mean values recorded, the splicing of exons 10 and 16 increased by at least 50% in all the carcinomas, as well as in the benign tissues in the case of exon 10. By contrast, no significant increase was observed in the splicing of exon 14 except in the case of the follicular variant of papillary carcinomas. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the splicing of hTPO increases in benign and malignant thyroid tissues. This event might partly explain the decrease in both the quantity and the level of activity of hTPO observed in thyroid cancer due to the loss of stability of the spliced isoforms. In addition, an increase in the alternative splicing of other mRNAs may contribute to the process of malignancy.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Pauws E, Veenboer GJ, Smit JW, et al.
Genes differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma identified by comparison of SAGE expression profiles.
FASEB J. 2004; 18(3):560-1 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify transcripts that distinguish malignant from benign thyroid disease serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) profiles of papillary thyroid carcinoma and of normal thyroid are compared. Of the 21,000 tags analyzed, 204 tags are differentially expressed with statistical significance in the tumor. Thyroid tumor specificity of these transcripts is determined in silico using the tissue preferential expression (TPE) algorithm. TPE values demonstrate that 42 tags of the 204 are thyroid tumor specific. BC013035, a cDNA encoding a novel protein, is up-regulated from 0 to 24 tags in the thyroid tumor SAGE library. In a tissue panel of 30 thyroid tumors and 12 controls, it has an expression pattern similar to thyroid peroxidase, indicating possible involvement of BC013035 in thyroid differentiation. A tag coding for extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) is absent in the normal thyroid SAGE library and present 55 times in the tumor. ECM1, a protein recently associated with angiogenesis and expressed in metastatic breast carcinoma, is up-regulated in 50% of all thyroid carcinoma and absent in normal controls and follicular adenoma. In conclusion, SAGE analysis and subsequent determination of TPE values facilitates the rapid distinction of genes specifically expressed in cancer tissues.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Roddiger SJ, Bojunga J, Klee V, et al.
Detection of thyroid peroxidase mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with malignant and benign thyroid diseases.
J Mol Endocrinol. 2002; 29(3):287-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid peroxidase (TPO) mRNA expression in peripheral blood of patients with benign and malignant thyroid disease. Included were 120 thyroid cancer patients, 85 patients with goitre or Graves' disease (GD) and 54 healthy volunteers. TPO mRNA expression was analysed in peripheral blood by nested RT-PCR. In cancer patients, RT-PCR results were compared with staging, grading and serum thyroglobulin (TG) measurement. TPO transcripts were detected in 7/10 (70%) patients with known metastases of thyroid cancer and in 39 of 110 (36%) patients without metastases (P<0.05), in 15/44 (34%) patients with goitre, in 17/41 (41%) cases with GD and in 4/54 (7.4%) subjects in the control group (P<0.05, controls vs all patients with thyroid disease). Among cancer patients without metastatic disease, RT-PCR results correlated positively with lymph node status (P=0.05), grading (P=0.01) and elevated serum thyroglobulin levels (P=0.03). This is the largest study investigating the use of the TPO-RT-PCR assay. Positivity in TPO-RT-PCR correlates significantly with metastatic disease in cancer patients and with the presence of thyroid disease in general. To date, TPO-RT-PCR cannot substitute for standard techniques in the diagnosis of local recurrence or metastatic spread in thyroid cancer patients. However, as results of TPO-RT-PCR correlate significantly with lymph node status, grading and serum TG measurements in patients with non-metastatic disease, TPO seems to be an interesting molecular marker to look at in follow-up studies.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Minagawa A, Iitaka M, Suzuki M, et al.
A case of primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid: molecular evidence of its origin.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002; 57(4):551-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid is very rare, and its origin has not been fully determined. We report a case of MEC, the origin of which was demonstrated by thyroid specific genes expressed in a metastatic lymph node. A 52-year-old male presented with chest pain, weight loss and diffuse goitre. Ultrasonography showed the thyroid to be diffusely enlarged with numerous small calcifications. The tumour was found to be infiltrating the thyroid, lung, lymph nodes and first thoracic vertebra. A variant type of papillary thyroid carcinoma was suspected by fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid. An open biopsy specimen from an axillary lymph node revealed the tumour to be composed of three distinct cell types: mucin-producing cells, intermediate cells and a small amount of epidermoid cells with scattered psammoma bodies. Immunohistochemical studies showed the tumour cells to be negative for thyroglobulin and calcitonin, but positive for CEA. To examine the primary origin of the tumour, the expression of thyroid specific genes in the lymph node specimen was examined by RT-PCR. TTF-1, TTF-2, Pax-8, Na-I symporter and thyroid peroxidase mRNA were detected. The presence of these thyroid-specific mRNAs indicates that this MEC originated from thyroid follicular epithelium. This is the first molecular evidence of dedifferentiation from thyroid follicular cells to MEC.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Weber T, Klar E
Minimal residual disease in thyroid carcinoma.
Semin Surg Oncol. 2001; 20(4):272-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The detection of disseminated tumor cells in differentiated (DTC) and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) is one of the main topics in current thyroid cancer research. Immunocytochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provide the tools for the identification of a small number of thyroid cancer cells in peripheral blood and cervical lymph nodes. Thyroid-specific markers, such as thyroglobulin (Tg) mRNA and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) mRNA, have been detected with RT-PCR in blood samples of tumor patients and healthy control subjects. To prevent false-positive results, quantitative PCR systems were established. Tumor-specific markers, such as telomerase activity and cytokeratin 20 (CK20), have been detected in various epithelial tumors. Amplification products of these markers were found in blood samples and in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies of patients with thyroid carcinomas. Using molecular detection of disseminated tumor cells in cervical lymph nodes with CK20 RT-PCR, a higher percentage of involved lymph nodes was detected compared to immunohistochemistry. The results of the presented studies may help researchers to develop more sensitive methods for early tumor cell dissemination, and refine risk groups that might benefit from more extensive surgical procedures or adjuvant therapy. However, the prognostic value of minimal residual disease (MRD) in thyroid carcinoma has to be confirmed in large or multicenter prospective studies.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Krohn K, Paschke R
Loss of heterozygocity at the thyroid peroxidase gene locus in solitary cold thyroid nodules.
Thyroid. 2001; 11(8):741-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline mutations in both alleles of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene have been reported as a frequent cause of congenital hypothyroidism resulting from a total iodide organification defect (TIOD). Because TPO mutations have a prevalence of 1 in 66,000 newborns and is inherited in an autosomal recessive mode the frequency of a heterozygous germline mutation in the TPO gene should reach about 1 in 260 in the population. A somatic TPO mutation coinciding with a somatic loss of one of the TPO alleles or a TPO germline mutation could lead to somatic loss of TPO activity with impairment of thyroid hormone synthesis and decrease of growth control. The latter would lead to increased thyroid epithelial cell proliferation and the subsequent development of a scintigraphically cold thyroid nodule (CTN). To test this hypothesis we studied 40 CTN for the presence of mutations or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the TPO gene. For comparisons we also studied LOH in 17 autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN). Genomic DNA was extracted from nodular and surrounding tissue, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified, sequenced, and analyzed for LOH. In 6 CTNs of 37 informative cases we detected LOH using the genomic markers sRA, D2S2268, and D2S319 within or near the TPO gene locus (2p24-25). In contrast, a genomic marker closer to the centromer (D2S144, 2p24-21) shows LOH in only 1 CTN. We did not detect LOH in AFTN. In none of the cases a germline or somatic mutation in the TPO gene was detectable in the TPO gene. LOH in 6 of 37 CTNs suggests that genetic defects at the TPO or the chromosomal locus 2p24-25 might play a role in the etiology of CTNs. However, we did not find the combination of LOH with a somatic mutation in the TPO gene. It is therefore likely that a gene defect near the TPO locus is part of the neoplastic process in a subgroup of CTNs.

Related: Chromosome 2


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