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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 74.5m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 148,000
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 205.1
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:21.1%
People dying from cancer /yr: 91,800
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Turkey Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Turkey

Turkey Cancer Organisations and Resources (8 links)

Latest Research Publications Related to Turkey

Erol T, İmamoğlu NE, Aydin B, et al.
Primary tumor resection for initially staged IV breast cancer: An emphasis on programmed death-ligand 1 expression, promoter methylation status, and survival.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(33):e16773 [PubMed] Related Publications
Conventional therapy modalities for advanced breast cancer are problematic, whereas checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has been considered as a promising approach. This study aims to determine programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and methylation status of PD-L1 promoter in primary tumor tissue and metastatic foci of patients with stage IV breast cancer.Clinicopathological data and survival rates of 57 breast cancer patients, who were initially staged IV, and operated for intact tumors, were retrospectively analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 using 57 primary tumors, 33 paired metastatic lymph nodes, and 14 paired distant metastases was performed. Additionally, the methylation rate of the PD-L1 gene promoter region was determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in 38 samples.Overall PD-L1 expression in primary tumors was 23.1% (12/52). PD-L1 positivity was reduced in lymph nodes by 15.2% (5/33) and in distant metastases by 21.4% (3/14). PD-L1 expression diverged between primary and metastatic foci in a subset of cases (18.2% for lymph node and 33.3% for distant metastasis). In general, the PD-L1 promoter was not methylated, and mean methylation rates were low (min. 0%-max. 21%). We observed no correlation between PD-L1 expression, promoter methylation, and survival.Neither the expression nor the methylation status of PD-L1 in patients, who were presented with stage IV breast cancer and operated for an intact primary tumor, had a statistically significant relation with survival. Discordance in PD-L1 expression between primary tumor and metastasis should be considered during pathological and clinical management of patients who would undergo checkpoint blockade therapy.

Merdin A, İskender D, Ulu BU, et al.
Pralatrexate induced durable response in a relapsed/refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma patient with a history of autologous stem cell transplantation: Case report of a patient followed-up over 3 years under pralatrexate treatment.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(30):e16482 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: Relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphomas are aggressive diseases. Pralatrexate is an antimetabolite. Hereby, we are reporting a pralatrexate induced durable response in a relapsed/refractory peripheral T-Cell lymphoma patient with a history of autologous stem cell transplantation.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A male patient born in February 1947 was diagnosed with lymphoma based on his cervical lymph node excisional biopsy.
DIAGNOSES: He was diagnosed with PTCL-NOS on February 19, 2013.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient received 6 cycles of CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicine, vincristine, methylprednisolone) chemotherapy, which achieved a complete remission. The patient underwent autologous stem cell transplantation in December 2013. After relapse was detected in the third month of the transplantation, the patient was treated with 2 cycles of ViGePP (vinorelbine, gemcitabine, procarbazine, prednisone/ methylprednisolone) chemotherapy. The patient was considered refractory to treatment after the ViGePP chemotherapy, and he was given brentuximab vedotin. Once a full response to treatment was achieved after 2 cycles, the patient received 6 cycles of brentuximab vedotin treatment. After 6 cycles, a skin biopsy was performed and the patient was diagnosed with relapsed/refractory PTCL-NOS. Pralatrexate therapy was then started on February 1, 2016 at a dose of 30 mg/m once weekly for 6 weeks in 7-week cycles.
OUTCOMES: The patient responded to pralatrexate treatment. And he has been under pralatrexate treatment over 3 years.
LESSONS: Pralatrexate should also be kept in mind as a treatment alternative in relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients.

Guney Eskiler G
Talazoparib to treat BRCA-positive breast cancer.
Drugs Today (Barc). 2019; 55(7):459-467 [PubMed] Related Publications
Talazoparib tosylate (BMN-673, Talzenna; Pfizer) is an oral poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi) that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of germline BRCA-mutated locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (BC). In preclinical and clinical studies, talazoparib exerted superior efficacy and offered a significant clinical benefit in advanced or metastatic BC patients harboring germline BRCA mutations compared with other PARPi and standard chemotherapy regimens through the concept of synthetic lethality. Thus, this review provides insight into the results of preclinical and clinical studies, highlights the current challenges of talazoparib and suggests innovative approaches to further improve its clinical efficacy and expand the use of talazoparib in advanced BC and/or triple-negative BC treatments beyond BRCA mutations.

Tokgun PE, Tokgun O, Kurt S, et al.
MYC-driven regulation of long non-coding RNA profiles in breast cancer cells.
Gene. 2019; 714:143955 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: MYC deregulation contributes to breast cancer development and progression. Deregulated expression levels of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have been demonstrated to be critical players in development and/or maintenance of breast cancer. In this study we aimed to evaluate lncRNA expressions depending on MYC overexpression and knockdown in breast cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were infected with lentiviral vectors by either knockdown or overexpression of c-MYC. LncRNA cDNA was transcribed from total RNA samples and lncRNAs were evaluated by qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: Our results indicated that some of the lncRNAs having tumor suppressor (GAS5, MEG3, lincRNA-p21) and oncogenic roles (HOTAIR) are regulated by c-MYC.
CONCLUSION: We observed that c-MYC regulates lncRNAs that have important roles on proliferation, cell cycle and etc. Further studies will give us a light to identify molecular mechanisms related to MYC-lncRNA regulatory pathways in breast cancer.

Dilek O, Gulek B, Yilmaz C, et al.
The comparison of the efficacy of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequences with 3 different T2-weighted sequences in the detection of focal liver lesions.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2019 Apr-Jun; 82(2):267-272 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In this study we aimed to compare and evaluate the efficacies of the low and high b value diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequences with three different T2-weighted (T2W) sequences.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 255 liver lesions of 147 patients who had undergone MR examinations of the upper abdomen were evaluated. A maximum number of 4 lesions was taken for consideration in patients with multiple lesions. Low and high b valued DWI and 3 different T2W sequences (SSFSE, FIESTA, and PROPELLER FSE) were utilized. The evaluations were done by 3 different radiologists, by utilizing the double blind principle.
RESULTS: The lesion detection performances of the b 0 DWI, b 600 DWI, FIESTA T2W, SSFSE T2W, and PROPELLER FSE T2W sequences, were 95.7 %, 66.3 %, 94.4 %, 92.8 %, and 93.8 %, in sequence order. The high b value DWI sequence was able to detect malignant lesions with a higher accuracy rate than the T2W sequences. There was a moderate to high rate of agreement among the interpreters, and the lesion-detection rates of the interpreters were in line with their levels of expertise.
CONCLUSION: Even though the higher lesion detection rates of the DWI sequences were not found to be statistically significant, it was concluded that making the evaluations with the addition of DWI to the imaging protocol would certainly decrease the lesion-missing rate, and it would be wise to utilize the DWI technique in routine liver MR imaging.

Aksu T, Gode S, Oz K, et al.
Rapidly Progressive Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Right Atrium: a Rare Case Report.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg. 2019; 34(3):372-376 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We are going to present a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the right atrium, which is a very rare entity. The patient had a right atrial mass, which prolapsed through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, causing functional tricuspid valve stenosis. The tumor was completely resected and the patient had an uneventful postoperative period. Histopathological examination reported malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The patient presented to the emergency department five weeks after discharge with dyspnea and palpitation. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed recurrent right atrial tumor mass. His clinical status has worsened, with syncope and acute renal failure. On the repeated echocardiography, suspected tumor recurrence was observed in left atrium, which probably caused systemic embolization. Considering the aggressive nature of the tumor and systemic involvement, our Heart Council decided to provide palliative treatment by nonsurgical management. His status deteriorated for the next few days and the patient succumbed to a cardiac arrest on the 4th day.

Cansu A, Bulut E, Dinc G, et al.
Diagnostic Efficacy of T2 Dark Spot, T2 Dark Rim Signs, and T2 Shading on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Differentiating Endometriomas From Hemorrhagic Cysts.
J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2019 Jul/Aug; 43(4):619-622 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of T2 dark spot, T2 dark rim, and T2 shading signs on magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation of endometriomas from hemorrhagic cysts.
METHODS: Seventy-two hemorrhagic lesions were included in this retrospective study. The presence of T2 dark spot, T2 dark rim, and T2 shading signs in the lesions and the presence of complete or incomplete rim in lesions exhibiting T2 dark rim signs were evaluated.
RESULTS: Of 72 lesions, 50 were diagnosed with endometrioma and 22 were diagnosed with hemorrhagic cyst. Twenty-six of 50 endometriomas and none of the hemorrhagic cysts showed T2 dark spot sign. T2 shading was observed in 90% of endometriomas and 18% of hemorrhagic cysts. Incomplete T2 dark rim was detected in 67% of endometriomas and 21% of hemorrhagic cysts.
CONCLUSIONS: T2 dark spot and T2 dark rim signs could be useful for distinguishing endometriomas from hemorrhagic cysts.

Alvur O, Tokgun O, Baygu Y, et al.
The triazole linked galactose substituted dicyano compound can induce autophagy in NSCLC cell lines.
Gene. 2019; 712:143935 [PubMed] Related Publications
As seen in other types of cancer, development of drug resistance in NSCLC treatment causes adverse effects on disease fighting process. Recent studies have shown that one of the drug resistance development mechanisms is that cancer cells may acquire the ability to escape from cell death. Therefore, development of anticancer drugs which have the strategy to redirect cancer cells to any cell death pathways may provide positive results for cancer treatments. Autophagy may be a target mechanism of alternative cancer treatment strategy in cases of blocked apoptosis. There is also a complex molecular link between autophagy and apoptosis, has not been fully understood yet. The dicyano compound which we used in our study caused cell death in NSCLC cell lines. When we analyzed the cells which were treated with dicyano compound by transmission electron microscope, we observed autophagosome structures. Upon this result, we investigated expression levels of autophagic proteins in the dicyano compound-treated cells by immunoblotting and observed that expression levels of autophagic proteins were increased significantly. The TUNEL assay and qRT-PCR for pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression, which we performed to assess apoptosis in the dicyano compound-treated cells, showed that the cell death does not occur through apoptotic pathway. We showed that the dicyano compound, which was developed in our laboratories, may play a role in molecular link between apoptosis and autophagy and may shed light on development of new anticancer treatment strategies.

Yabaş Kızıloğlu Ö, Paksoy Türköz F, Totuk Gedar ÖM, et al.
Breast Carcinoma Metastasis to the Medial Rectus Muscle: Case Report
Turk J Ophthalmol. 2019; 49(3):168-170 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A 63-year-old woman with metastatic breast carcinoma presented to the ophthalmology clinic with diplopia and right abduction deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed isolated enlargement of the right medial rectus muscle. Biopsy of the enlarged muscle revealed metastasis of breast carcinoma. Ocular motility deficit in a patient with breast carcinoma should raise suspicion of metastasis to the orbit involving the extraocular muscles. Orbital imaging and biopsy are necessary for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Yeter HG, Kosemehmetoglu K, Soylemezoglu F
Poorly differentiated chordoma: review of 53 cases.
APMIS. 2019; 127(9):607-615 [PubMed] Related Publications
Poorly differentiated chordoma (PDC) is a newly described variant of chordomas, which is not considered as a subtype yet, but has its own distinct features in terms of morphology, immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics, and clinical outcome. To provide a brief review of clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of poorly differentiated chordoma. PubMed search using keyword 'poorly differentiated chordoma'. A critical review of all studies with a total of 53 cases using inclusion criteria of involvement of axial skeleton (vertebra and clivus), INI1 loss (either with the aid of immunohistochemistry or various molecular techniques), and immunohistochemical brachyury expression. PDC is characterized by a young population with slight female predominance, clivus/cervix location, multinodular sheets of epithelioid cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and prominent pleomorphism, and loss of SMARCB1/INI1 expression, which can be demonstrated both with immunohistochemical and molecular studies, and is unexpected for other types of chordoma. However, classical chordomas lacking SMARCB1/INI1 expression were also reported and how to classify these cases has not been addressed yet. This unique entity is a candidate to be recognized and distinguished from other types of chordoma or SMARCB1-deficient tumors which are clinically important differential diagnoses that represent a challenging task for the pathologists.

Şahin S, Uyanık M
The impact of occupation-based problem-solving strategies training in women with breast cancer.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2019; 17(1):104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: By identifying the occupations of women with breast cancer who have performance problems, to examine the impact of the application of occupation-based problem-solving strategies (OB-PSS) training on cancer-related fatigue, depression, and quality of life.
METHODS: The study comprises 22 women outpatients in the clinic. Socio- demographic and Clinical Features Information Collection Form, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire C-30 and BR23 (EORTC QOL-C30 - EORT QOL-BR23) tests have been applied to survivors. OB-PSS training was conducted on a face-to-face basis once a week for 6 weeks.
RESULTS: When activity distribution results in accordance with the performance areas are studied, women with breast cancer were seen to suffer problems mostly in their most productive areas (housework management). As a means of solving these performance problems, they developed adaptive strategies like including additional new steps to these activities. Statistically meaningful results have been obtained between measurements before and after the treatment process through all tests (p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: OB-PSS provides positive gains in women with breast cancer in terms of a reduction in the degree of cancer-related fatigue and depression, and a progress in performance and satisfaction levels particularly in activities where performance problems are experienced and an improvement in quality of life. OB-PSS training could be used as an appropriate rehabilitation approach for coping with problems in women' life with breast cancer.

Örs Kumoğlu G, Döşkaya M, Gulce Iz S
The biomarker features of miR-145-3p determined via meta-analysis validated by qRT-PCR in metastatic cancer cell lines.
Gene. 2019; 710:341-353 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the cancer biology such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The pivotal roles that miRNA expression plays, make them ideal candidates for detection of cancer progression as well as cancer metastasis. Especially for breast, lung and prostate cancer which are originated from soft tissues and prone to metastasis. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the expression level of miR-145-3p which is a shared potential biomarker identified by meta-analysis of breast, prostate and lung cancer data sets. Six different data sets representative of three different cancer types were analyzed. These data sets are pooled together to have a master metamiRNA list while getting rid of the platform differentiations between them. As a result, 24 common differentially expressed miRNAs are determined in which miR-145-3p has the topmost rank. To mimic in vivo cancer microenvironment, hypoxia and serum deprivation were used to induce metastasis in breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453), prostate (PC3, LNCaP, DU145), lung (A549, NCIH82,) cancer cell lines and noncancerous cell lines of the coresponding tissues (MCF10A, RWPE-1, MRC-5). miR-145-3p expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR. It has been shown that it is down regulated by the induction of metastasis in cancer cell lines while it is up regulated in normal cell lines to suppress the tumor formation. As a conclusion, as representing the same results in three different cancer cell types, miR-145-3p will be a promising biomarker to follow up its expression to detect cancer metastasis.

Aslan K, Gunbey HP, Tomak L, Incesu L
Multiparametric MRI in differentiating solitary brain metastasis from high-grade glioma: diagnostic value of the combined use of diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy parameters.
Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2019; 53(3):227-237 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combined use of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging (DSCI) parameters could provide a more accurate diagnosis in the differentiation of high-grade glioma (HGG) from solitary brain metastasis (SBM) in the enhancing tumour and in the peritumoural region.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients who received DWI, DSCI, and MRS before surgery were assessed. In differentiating SBM from HGG, the cutoff values of the DWI-apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin, ADCmax, and ADCmean), DSCI-relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and MRS-Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA, and NAA/Cr parameters for the peritumoural region were determined with ROC. The combined ROC curve was used for the different combinations of the peritumoural region DWI, DSCI, and MRS parameters in differentiating between the two tumours, and the best model combination was formed. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at our institutes.
RESULTS: In the enhancing tumour, all the parameters except NAA/Cr (P = 0.024) exhibited no statistical difference in differentiating between these two groups (P > 0.05). AUC values for ADCmin, ADCmax, ADCmean, rADCmin, rADCmax, rADCmean, rCBV, Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA, and NAA/Cr parameters in the peritumoural region in differentiating SBM from HGG were 0.860, 0.822, 0.848, 0.822, 0.801, 0.822, 0.906, 0.851, 0.903, and 0.784, respectively. In differentiating HGG from SBM, the best model consisted of the combination of peritumoural ADCmin, rCBV, and Cho/NAA parameters. AUC values were 0.970.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of peritumoural region ADCmin, rCBV, and Cho/NAA parameters can help in differentiating SBM from HGG, with a diagnostic accuracy of 97%.

Kobya Bulut H, Canan Demirbağ B, Kahriman İ
The Investigation of Unplanned Hospital Visits and Admissions in the Children Receiving Chemotherapy.
Cancer Invest. 2019; 37(4-5):209-215 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to determine incidence, risk factors of unplanned hospital visits children receiving chemotherapy. The study was conducted with 65 children. Data were collected using form consisting of questions regarding causes of their unplanned hospital visits. Chi-square test were used analysis of data. Three quarters of children receiving chemotherapy were determined to have unplanned hospital visits, majority of them were found to be admitted. Knowing high-risk factors for unplanned hospital visits and admissions of children receiving chemotherapy and applying appropriate interventions for discharge education and home care regarding these factors may contribute to reduce unplanned hospital visits.

Taskin OC, Akkas G, Memis B, et al.
Sarcomatoid carcinomas of the gallbladder: clinicopathologic characteristics.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(1):59-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sarcomatoid carcinomas recently came into the spotlight through genetic profiling studies and also as a distinct model of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The literature on sarcomatoid carcinomas of gallbladder is limited. In this study, 656 gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) were reviewed. Eleven (1.7%) with a sarcomatoid component were identified and analyzed in comparison with ordinary GBC (O-GBC). Patients included 9 females and 2 males (F/M = 4.5 vs. 3.9) with a mean age-at-diagnosis of 71 (vs. 64). The median tumor size was 4.6 cm (vs. 2.5; P = 0.01). Nine patients (84%) presented with advanced stage (pT3/4) tumor (vs. 48%). An adenocarcinoma component constituting 1-75% of the tumor was present in nine, and eight had surface dysplasia/CIS; either in situ or invasive carcinoma was present in all cases. An intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasm was identified in one. Seven showed pleomorphic-sarcomatoid pattern, and four showed subtle/bland elongated spindle cells. Three had an angiosarcomatoid pattern. Two had heterologous elements. One showed few osteoclast-like giant cells, only adjacent to osteoid. Immunohistochemically, vimentin, was positive in six of six; P53 expression was > 60% in six of six, keratins in six of seven, and p63 in two of six. Actin, desmin, and S100 were negative. The median Ki67 index was 40%. In the follow-up, one died peri-operatively, eight died of disease within 3 to 8 months (vs. 26 months median survival for O-GBC), and two were alive at 9 and 15 months. The behavior overall was worse than ordinary adenocarcinomas in general but was not different when grade and stage were matched. In summary, sarcomatoid component is identified in < 2% of GBC. Unlike sarcomatoid carcinomas in the remainder of pancreatobiliary tract, these are seldom of the "osteoclastic" type and patients present with large/advanced stage tumors. Limited data suggests that these tumors are aggressive with rapid mortality unlike pancreatic osteoclastic ones which often have indolent behavior.

Atalay F, Kars A, Önder MOK, et al.
Cervical Thymic Cyst Around Hypoglossal Nerve.
J Craniofac Surg. 2019; 30(4):e295-e297 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical thymic cyst is rare lesions leading to cervical mass. As it is a rare entity, it might be confused with other congenital neck masses or neoplastic lesions. Preoperative diagnosis is almost impossible. In the present study, a patient who was operated with prediagnosis of branchial cyst and diagnosed with thymic cyst according to the histopathologic examination was presented. A 16-month-old girl was admitted to our clinic with the complaint of growing right neck mass that was realized about 4 months ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the neck demonstrated a rim-enhanced hypointense cystic lesion in the posterior aspect of the submandibular gland, without tracheal right lateral and mid plane on MRI, curving common carotid artery to the medial. Patients underwent surgery under general anesthesia in company with existing findings. Hypoglossal nerve was surrounded by the mass, and the mass was totally resected. The final pathology result was reported as thymic cyst. Cervical thymic masses might be unnoticed in the differential diagnosis of the cervical mass as they are rarely seen entities. Histopathologic examination of the thymus tissue was performed for diagnosis. Surgical excision is the ideal treatment approach and no postoperative recurrence has been reported.

Chi KN, Agarwal N, Bjartell A, et al.
Apalutamide for Metastatic, Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2019; 381(1):13-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Apalutamide is an inhibitor of the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor. Whether the addition of apalutamide to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) would prolong radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival as compared with placebo plus ADT among patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer has not been determined.
METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer to receive apalutamide (240 mg per day) or placebo, added to ADT. Previous treatment for localized disease and previous docetaxel therapy were allowed. The primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival.
RESULTS: A total of 525 patients were assigned to receive apalutamide plus ADT and 527 to receive placebo plus ADT. The median age was 68 years. A total of 16.4% of the patients had undergone prostatectomy or received radiotherapy for localized disease, and 10.7% had received previous docetaxel therapy; 62.7% had high-volume disease, and 37.3% had low-volume disease. At the first interim analysis, with a median of 22.7 months of follow-up, the percentage of patients with radiographic progression-free survival at 24 months was 68.2% in the apalutamide group and 47.5% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for radiographic progression or death, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.60; P<0.001). Overall survival at 24 months was also greater with apalutamide than with placebo (82.4% in the apalutamide group vs. 73.5% in the placebo group; hazard ratio for death, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.89; P = 0.005). The frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events was 42.2% in the apalutamide group and 40.8% in the placebo group; rash was more common in the apalutamide group.
CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer, overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival were significantly longer with the addition of apalutamide to ADT than with placebo plus ADT, and the side-effect profile did not differ substantially between the two groups. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; TITAN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02489318.).

Önner H, Canaz F, Dinçer M, et al.
Which of the fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography parameters are better associated with prognostic factors in breast cancer?
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(22):e15925 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between the immunohistochemical and histopathological prognostic factors and the metabolic fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) parameters in breast cancer.A total of 94 female patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer (median age: 54.5 years, 94 lesions with size >15 mm) who underwent PET/CT imaging before any treatment were enrolled to this retrospective study. Maximum and average standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVavg), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and tumor/liver uptake ratio (TLR) of the primary tumors were calculated and compared between various histopathological and immunohistochemical prognostic factor groups.All metabolic parameters were associated with clinical T stage, metabolic M stage, and nuclear grade. The MTV, TLG, and TLR were significantly higher in patients with suspected lymph node metastasis. There were significant differences according to estrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor-2 status in the metabolic values other than MTV. In case of progesterone receptor, there were significant differences in the metabolic characteristics except for the MTV and TLG values. The Ki-67 labeling index was moderately correlated with SUVmax, SUVavg, and TLR. All metabolic characteristics except MTV were significantly higher in triple negative breast cancer compared with the other molecular subtypes.The results of the present study suggest that the TLG and TLR values have stronger associations with several prognostic factors in breast cancer (BC) compared with other metabolic parameters.

Ozen O, Guler Y, Yuksel Y
Giant colonic lipoma causing intussusception: CT scan and clinical findings.
Pan Afr Med J. 2019; 32:27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colonic lipomas are uncommon and usually asymptomatic tumors. A 30-year-old woman with abdominal pain lasting 10 days was admitted to the surgical clinic. Her physical examination revealed sensitivity on the right upper quadrant and her bowel sounds were normal. A lesion and invagination findings in the colon were found in the ultrasound examination and CT was performed. CT scan revealed a lipoma and invagination in the colon and the patient has undergone surgery. Pathological diagnosis of the lesion was reported as submucosallipoma. In this case report, we present clinical and radiological findings of a submucosal colonic lipoma causing intussusception.

Youl Lee J, Taniguchi T, Zhang K, et al.
Report of the forth Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP) study meeting.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2019; 49(6):581-586 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP) Study is an Asia-wide prospective registry study for surveying the treatment outcome of prostate cancer patients who have received a histopathological diagnosis. The study aims to clarify the clinical situation for prostate cancer in Asia and use the outcomes for the purposes of international comparison. Following the first meeting in Tokyo on December 2015, the second meeting in Seoul, Korea 2016, the third meeting in Chiang Mai, Thailand, on October 2017, the fourth meeting was held in Seoul, again on August 2018 with the participation of members and collaborators from 13 countries and regions. In the meeting, participating countries and regions presented the current status of data collection and the A-CaP office presented a preliminary analysis of the registered cases received from each country and region. Participants discussed ongoing challenges relating to data cleaning and data up-dating which is the next step of the A-CaP study following the data collection phase between 2016 and 2018. There was specific difference in term of the patient characteristics, and initial treatment pattern among East Asia, Southeast Asia and Turkey, and Jordan. Finally, a close relationship between prevalence of PSA test and disease stage of the patients at diagnosis in Japan and Malaysia was discussed.

Sager O, Dincoglan F, Demiral S, et al.
A Concise Review of Pelvic Radiation Therapy (RT) for Rectal Cancer with Synchronous Liver Metastases.
Int J Surg Oncol. 2019; 2019:5239042 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background and Objective: Colorectal cancer is a major health concern as a very common cancer and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The liver is a very common site of metastatic spread for colorectal cancers, and, while nearly half of the patients develop metastases during the course of their disease, synchronous liver metastases are detected in 15% to 25% of cases. There is no standardized treatment in this setting and no consensus exists on optimal sequencing of multimodality management for rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases.
Methods: Herein, we review the use of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) as part of potentially curative or palliative management of rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases.
Results: There is accumulating evidence on the utility of pelvic RT for facilitating subsequent surgery, improving local tumor control, and achieving palliation of symptoms in patients with stage IV rectal cancer. Introduction of superior imaging capabilities and contemporary RT approaches such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) offer improved precision and toxicity profile of radiation delivery in the modern era.
Conclusion: Even in the setting of stage IV rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases, there may be potential for extended survival and cure by aggressive management of primary tumor and metastases in selected patients. Despite lack of consensus on sequencing of treatment modalities, pelvic RT may serve as a critical component of multidisciplinary management. Resectability of primary rectal tumor and liver metastases, patient preferences, comorbidities, symptomatology, and logistical issues should be thoroughly considered in decision making for optimal management of patients.

Aktaş Z, Öztürk A, Yılmaz A, et al.
Complications of silicone Y stents placed due to malignant airway stenosis.
Tuberk Toraks. 2019; 67(1):22-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Introduction: Malignant central airway obstruction around the main carina often requires placement of Y‑shaped stents. In this study, we aimed to determine the safety of silicone Y stents placed around the main carina in the malignant airway obstruction by examining the long term complications, emergence times and treatment approaches of complications.
Materials and Methods: Between May 2012 and July 2015, 47 silicone Y stents were placed in 46 patients with malignant external compression or mixed type stenosis around the main carina. Patient stents were placed via rigid bronchoscopy under total intravenous anesthesia in operating room conditions.
Result: In the half of the patients (23/46), stents were placed under urgent conditions due to acute respiratory failure. Stents were deployed successfully in all the patients. No procedure related deaths were observed. The median time of survival following stent insertion was 157 days. The total long-term complication rate of silicone Y stents was 28.3%. Mucostasis (8.7%) and migration (2.2%) were observed within the first month after placement of the silicone Y stents (median 18 days), stent-edge granulation tissue development (13.0%) was observed at the earliest one month (median 64, range 34-386 days) and stent-edge tumor tissue development (4.3%) were observed at the earliest 3 months (median 151, range 85-217 days). A total of 7 (15.2%) stents were removed, 2 of which were due to mucostasis and 5 of which were due to granulation tissue development. One patient's stent was replaced with a longer silicone Y stent due to stent-edge tumor tissue development.
Conclusions: The best palliative treatment of malignant tumor stenosis around the main carina is still silicone Y stent placement, but the long-term complication rate can be high. For this group of patients, bronchoscopy to be performed at the first and third months after silicone Y stent placement may provide early detection of stent-edge tissue development.

Dursun M, Besiroglu H, Otunctemur A, Ozbek E
Is Cardiometabolic Index a Predictive Marker for Renal Cell Cancer Aggressiveness?
Prague Med Rep. 2019; 120(1):10-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies show that metabolic syndrome is a factor for developing renal cell cancer (RCC) and tumour aggressiveness. In our study, we evaluated the association between renal cell cancer and cardiometabolic index (CMI) which meets the main components of the metabolic syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 310 consecutive patients with RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy at our institution. We evaluated the tumour size, histologic subtype, Fuhrman nuclear grade. CMI was calculated as the product of waist circumference (WC) to waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-c). CMI were statistically higher in patients with tumour size ≥ 7 cm than those < 7 cm (p<0.05). Mean CMI level was 2.34 ± 0.84 in patients with high tumour size; and 1.18 ± 0.74 in the other group. The patients with high tumour size had higher TG levels, higher WC and lower HDL-c levels. Similarly, CMI levels were statistically higher in patients with Fuhrman grade 3 and 4 than patients with Fuhrman grade 1 and 2 (p<0.001). The patients with high Fuhrman grade had higher TG levels, higher WC and lower HDL-c levels. The simplicity of WC and height measurement and TG and HDL assessment make CMI an easily applicable index for the evaluation of cardiovascular dysfunction. The components of CMI may have effect on tumour carcinogenesis in similar pathways. In this context, CMI which meets the main components of the metabolic syndrome, can be a useful index for the evaluation and calculation of renal cell cancer aggressiveness.

Atici SD, Arican C, Avci EK, et al.
Intussusception Can Be the First Sign of Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disease.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(4):1184-1186 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intussusception is usually seen in the pediatric age group and rarely seen in adults. It results in the progression of the proximal segment of the intestine into the distal intestine. A 50-year-old immunosuppressive male patient presented with the complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and no gas or stool discharge for 2 days. He was hospitalized with the presumptive diagnosis of acute abdomen. He has a history of renal transplantation due to chronic renal insufficiency. An explorative laparotomy was performed. The operative findings were compatible with jejunojejunal intussusception, and a segmental small bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed. The patient was uncomplicated postoperatively and discharged on the fifth postoperative day. The pathology was reported as Epstein-Barr virus negative with diffuse large-cell B lymphoma. In this case report, we aim to report on a jejunojejunal intussusception that was presented as the first sign of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

Dundar HZ, Aksoy F, Aksoy SA, et al.
Overexpression of miR-21 Is Associated With Recurrence in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Mediated Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Liver Transplantation.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(4):1157-1161 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver transplantation (LT) is the best treatment option for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nevertheless, recurrence is the most important issue after LT. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the relation of dysregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in recurrence formation in HBV-mediated HCC cases. A total of 42 HBV-mediated HCC patients were evaluated in this study. Among 21 miRNAs, the expression level of miR-106a and miR-21 were higher and miR-143 and miR145 were lower in patients with HCC compared with noncancerous liver tissues (P = .0388, P = .0214, P = .0321, and P = .002, respectively). Compared with nonrecurrent patients, the expression level of miR-21 was 3.54-fold higher and miR-145 was 2.42-fold lower in patients with recurrence during the 5-year follow-up (P = .004 and P = .032; respectively). In addition, according to multivariate Cox regression analysis, the overexpression of miR-21 was found to be a prognostic indicator in HBV-mediated HCC patients (P = .002). In conclusion, we show a significant association between high expression of miR-21 and recurrence in HBV-mediated HCC. Therefore, up-regulation of miR-21 could serve as a promising prognostic marker for HCC.

Akcam AT, Saritas AG, Ulku A, Rencuzogullari A
Oncological Outcomes of Hepatic Resection vs Transplantation for Localized Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(4):1147-1152 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Scarce data are available comparing outcomes of hepatic resection vs orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients both meeting and exceeding the Milan criteria. This study compared the clinical and oncological outcomes of patients undergoing hepatic resection vs transplantation localized HCC.
METHOD: Between January 2005 and February 2017, clinical and oncological outcomes of patients who underwent liver resection (n = 38) vs OLT (n = 28) for localized HCC were compared using a prospectively maintained database.
RESULTS: A total of 66 patients (with a median age of 62) who met the study criteria were analyzed. Comparable postoperative complications (13.2% vs 28.6%, P = .45) and perioperative mortality rates (7.9% vs 10.7%, P = .2) were noted for the resection vs OLT groups. While Child-Pugh Class A patients were more prevalent in the resection group (78.9% vs 7.1%, P = .0001), the rate of patients who met the Milan criteria was higher in the OLT group (89.3% vs 34.25, P = .0001). Recurrence rates were 36.8% in the resection group and 3.6% in the OLT group at the end of the median follow-up period (32 vs 39 months, respectively). The HCC-related mortality rate was significantly higher in the resection group (39.5% vs 10.7%, P = .034). However, a subgroup analysis of patients who met the Milan criteria revealed similar rates of recurrence and HCC-related mortality (15.4% vs 8%, P = .63). Based on logistic regression analysis, number of tumors (P = .034, odds ratio: 2.1) and "resection"-type surgery (P = .008, odds ratio: 20.2) were independently associated with recurrence.
CONCLUSION: Compared to liver transplantation, hepatic resection for localized hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a higher rate of recurrence and disease-related mortality.

Agalar C, Egeli T, Unek T, et al.
The Predictive Ability of the Glasgow Prognostic Score and Variants in Both Deceased Donor and Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Cancer.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(4):1134-1138 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Liver transplantation (LT) is the most promising treatment method in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Due to the shortage of organ donors and the possible risks associated with living donation, the selection of patients for LT is critical. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive ability of the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), modified GPS (mGPS), and hepatic GPS (hGPS) on prognoses in a patient group who underwent deceased donor LT (DDLT) or living-donor LT (LDLT) for HCC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study includes 62 DDLT and 55 LDLT patients who underwent LT for HCC between 1998 and 2016 in a single center. The study endpoints were recurrence, 0- to 1-year mortality, 0- to 3-year mortality, mortality, and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 70.24 ± 48.47 months. GPS and hGPS positivity were found to be prognostic indicators of 0- to 3-year mortality and overall mortality in DDLT (P = .012, P = .006; P = .044 and P = .022 respectively). In the LDLT group, GPS was found to be effective in predicting 0- to 1-year and 0- to 3-year mortality (P = .045, P = .022 respectively); GPS and hGPS were also found to be effective in predicting overall mortality (P = .001 and P = .046 respectively). The OS was significantly longer in the GPS 0 group and hGPS 0 group compared to the GPS 1-2 and hGPS 1-2 group in both DDLT and LDLT.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study and the literature indicate that using GPS and hGPS is appropriate in selecting patients with HCC who are candidates for LT.

Ercan S, Arinc S, Yilmaz SG, et al.
Investigation of Caspase 9 Gene Polymorphism in Patients With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2437-2441 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common forms of lung cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Caspase 9 (CASP9) plays a central role in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of caspase 9 gene polymorphism in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 96 NSCLC cases and 67 controls. CASP9 Ex5+32 G>A polymorphism was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the groups in the frequency of CASP9 genotypes (p=0.008). The number of the carriers of the ancestral GG genotype, was significantly higher in the NSCLC group than in the control (p=0.009). The heterozygote GA genotype and mutant A allele frequency were significantly higher in the control group compared to the NSCLC group (p=0.005, p=0.009, respectively). Serum CASP9 levels were significantly lower in the patients group than in the control group (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION: CASP9 Ex5+32 GG genotype was a risk factor whereas the variant A allele could be a risk-reducing factor for NSCLC.

Sarac E, Yuksel M, Turkmen IC, Ozdemir M
Case for diagnosis. Atypical fibroxanthoma.
An Bras Dermatol. 2019 Mar-Apr; 94(2):239-241 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare superficial fibrohistiocytic tumor. Clinically, it presents itself as a painless, solitary, ulcerated, and slow-growing nodule found mainly on sun-exposed areas - especially of the head and neck - of elderly individuals. The diagnosis is based on histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Immunohistochemical staining plays a critical role for the exclusion of differential diagnoses. Since atypical fibroxanthoma has an indolent clinical course, surgical excision is adequate for treatment. We present a case of atypical fibroxanthoma on the ear of a patient.

Kara A, Guven M, Demir D, et al.
Are calculated ratios and red blood cell and platelet distribution width really important for the laryngeal cancer and precancerous larynx lesions.
Niger J Clin Pract. 2019; 22(5):701-706 [PubMed] Related Publications
Introduction: In this research, it is planned to investigate the differences in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, reticulocyte distribution width, and platelet distribution width values of groups of benign laryngeal lesion, precancerous laryngeal lesion, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and among patients with different stages of tumors in laryngeal carcinoma and precancerous laryngeal lesion groups, and whether these values carry a prognostic features.
Materials and Methods: The investigated parameters determined from preoperative blood samples of patients have been compared among the groups and in the subgroups according to severity of illness in laryngeal carcinoma and precancerous laryngeal lesion groups. Also, the laryngeal carcinoma and precancerous laryngeal lesion groups were divided into two subgroups as good and poor prognosis and were compared with patients having good prognosis requiring no additional treatment during the follow-up, and the statistical significance of the differences was examined.
Results: On comparison, statistically significant differences were only observed between the gross larynx carcinoma group and other lesions. Apart from that, when the values were evaluated in terms of prognosis, no significant statistical results were found in any of the values.
Conclusion: Despite the significant statistical results seen in the gross tumors, it is known that there are more objective methods for identifying those lesions in clinical use. We conclude that caution should be exercised when using these new hematological parameters, which can be affected by many factors.

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