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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 74.5m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 148,000
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 205.1
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:21.1%
People dying from cancer /yr: 91,800
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Turkey Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Turkey

Turkey Cancer Organisations and Resources (8 links)

Latest Research Publications Related to Turkey

Lin X, Khalid S, Qureshi MZ, et al.
VEGF mediated signaling in oral cancer.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016; 62(14):64-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasingly it is being realized that oral cancer arises from genetic/epigenetic mutations, dysregulations of spatio-temporally controlled signal transduction cascades and loss of apoptosis. Epidemiological studies have provided a stronger association between tobacco use (chewed and smoked) and oral cancer. Nevertheless, alcohol has also gained attention as a significant risk factor, having a multiplicative synergistic cancer promoting effect with tobacco. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) mediated signaling has gained limelight because of its instrumental role in endothelial cell proliferation, survival, invasion, migration, chemotaxis of bone marrow (BM)-derived progenitor cells, vasodilation and vascular permeability. In this review we provide most recent updates on involvement of VEGF/VEGFR signaling axis in oral cancer. We partition this multi-component review into different sections and summarize latest advancements related to therapies against VEGF/VEGFR signaling axis and how microRNAs tactfully modulate VEGF and VEGFR in oral cancers. Data obtained through preclinical and clinical studies has revealed that therapeutic benefits associated with VEGF-targeted therapy are complicated in different cancers and involve myriad of mechanisms. A better understanding of VEGF/VEGFR mediated signaling in oral cancers and testing of novel therapeutic agents in preclinical models will prove to be helpful in effective translation of safest drugs from benchtop to the bedside.

Cacan E
Epigenetic-mediated immune suppression of positive co-stimulatory molecules in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(3):328-339 [PubMed] Related Publications
The immunological response against cancer is a critical balance between immune-activating and immune-suppressing mechanisms. Ovarian cancer creates a suppressive microenvironment to escape immune elimination; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether chemotherapeutic drugs exert an immunoreactive or immunosuppressive effect on the tumor microenvironment. 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL/CD157) and OX-40 ligand (OX-40L/CD252) are important regulators of effector cytotoxic T-cells activity. This study demonstrates that expression of positive co-stimulatory molecules, OX-40L and 4-1BBL, is suppressed while expression of immunosuppressive molecule programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1/CD274) is enhanced in chemoresistant cells compared to parental chemosensitive ovarian cancer cells. Here, the molecular mechanisms of silencing of OX-40L and 4-1BBL expression were investigated in chemoresistant A2780-AD ovarian cancer cells. The suppression of OX-40L and 4-1BBL are due to DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, two important mechanisms that contribute to gene silencing during cancer progression. We identify important epigenetic regulators, histone deacetylase 1/3 (HDAC1/HDAC3) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), that exhibit aberrant association with OX-40L and 4-1BBL promoters in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of HDAC1 or DNMT1 expression, and pharmacological inhibition of DNMT or HDAC enzymatic activity, significantly increase OX-40L and 4-1BBL expression in chemoresistant cells. This study suggests that loss of histone acetylation and accumulation of DNA methylation correlates with suppressed expression of OX-40L and 4-1BBL in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. This study marks the first report of the regulation of these two molecules by histone deacetylation and DNA methylation in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells.

Soyer OM, Baran B, Ormeci AC, et al.
Role of biochemistry and cytological analysis of cyst fluid for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cysts: A retrospective cohort study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5513 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Management of pancreatic cysts is based on neoplastic-nonneoplastic discrimination. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) enables to differentiate neoplastic-nonneoplastic lesions and also allows fine-needle aspiration (FNA). In this study, we aim to assess feasibility and clinical relevance of cytological and biochemical analysis in differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions in patients who had undergone endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) due to pancreatic cysts.
METHODS: Participants were 96 patients who had undergone EUS-FNA for differential diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Pancreatic cysts were classified as benign-mucinous, nonmucinous, and malignant according to patient history, physical examination, EUS appearance, and cystic fluid assessment. Tumor markers (CEA, CA(cancer antigens) 72.4, CA 19-9) , amylase, lipase and cytological assesment were compared between 3 different groups. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to identify appropriate cut-off values.
RESULTS: Fluid CEA and CA 72.4 levels for benign-mucinous and malignant cysts were significantly higher than for nonmucinous cysts (P ≤ 0.04). A cut-off CEA level of 207 ng/mL differentiated mucinous etiology with a sensitivity of 72.7%, specificity of 97.7%, and accuracy of 89.5%. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the CA 72.4 cut-off level of 3.32 ng/mL were 80%, 69.5%, and 73.6%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Cyst fluid CEA and CA 72.4 levels have a high accuracy in discriminating mucinous from nonmucinous cysts. When combined with cytology their accuracy rate increases.

Ersoy B
Soft-tissue osteoma of the thenar eminence.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2017; 51(1):91-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of osteoma in soft tissues without a direct contact with the adjacent osseous and articular structures is a very rare event. The involvement of the hand is even rarer, with only two previous cases reported so far. A 25-year-old man presented with a painless solid mass in the thenar region of his right palm, which appeared almost 2 years ago and showed a progressive enlargement in the last months. Under regional anesthesia an excisional biopsy was performed and the histopathological evaluation of the lesion confirmed the diagnosis of soft tissue osteoma. The postoperative follow-up period was uneventful without any complication or recurrence. Following a brief period of hand physiotherapy the patient has returned to normal daily activities.

Sadullahoglu C, Nart D, Veral A
The importance of EZH2 and MOC-31 expression in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant effusions.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2017; 45(2):118-124 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: All malignant tumors may spread throughout the pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial cavities. The presence of tumor cells in serosal fluid is a poor prognostic indicator. It may be difficult to differentiate nuclear atypia of mesothelial cells due to injury of serosal surfaces from mesothelioma or malignant epithelial tumor cells. Epithelial and mesothelial immunohistochemical markers can be used in such conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of two immunohistochemical markers (MOC-31 and EZH2) in serosal effusions.
METHODS: The study included a total of 142 patients diagnosed with benign or malignant cytology between January 2012 and April 2014. MOC-31 and EZH2 were applied to the cell blocks of 53 patients with benign cytology and 89 patients with malignant cytology determined based on the clinical, radiological data, histopathology diagnosis, and clinical follow-up in the absence of any surgical material of the patient in the hospital archive system.
RESULTS: None of the benign cases showed MOC-31 and EZH2 expression, although these markers were positive in 96 and 93% respectively of the malignant cases.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it could be considered cost-effective to use a double immunohistochemical antibody kit for these two markers, MOC-31 membranous and EZH2 nuclear staining, in the diagnosis of malignant effusions. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:118-124. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Demirci S, Doğan A, Türkmen NB, et al.
Schiff base-Poloxamer P85 combination demonstrates chemotherapeutic effect on prostate cancer cells in vitro.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 86:492-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a multistep and complicated cancer type that is regulated by androgens at the cellular level and remains the second commonest cause of death among men. Discovery and development of novel chemotherapeutic agents enabling rapid tumor cell death with minimal toxic effects to healthy tissues might greatly improve the safety of chemotherapy. The present study evaluates the anti-cancer activity of a novel heterodinuclear copper(II)Mn(II) complex (Schiff base) in combination with poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) block copolymer (Pluronic) P85. We used assays for cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration and invasion, DNA binding and cleavage to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of action, in addition to the anti-inflammatory potency of the new combination. The combined treatment of Schiff base and P85 lead to a remarkable anti-cancer effect on prostate cancer cell lines. Cell proliferation was inhibited in Schiff base-P85 treatment. The activity of this formulation is on DNA binding and cleavage and prevents inflammation in in vitro conditions. This is the first study presenting the anti-cancer activity of the present Schiff base derivative and its combination with P85 to treat prostate cancer in vitro.

Soydal C, Koksoy EB, Yasar A, et al.
Prognostic Importance of Bone Marrow Uptake on Baseline (18)F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2016; 31(10):361-365 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To define the role of (18)F-flourodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the detection of bone marrow (BM) involvement in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four (mean age: 55.5 ± 18.3 years, 20 female and 34 male) DLBCL patients who underwent pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT were included to the study. Focal or diffuse BM (18)F-FDG uptake that is higher than mediastinal blood pool uptake was accepted as positive. After staging of disease by CT and (18)F-FDG PET/CT, all the patients received R-CHOP treatment after diagnostic blinded bone marrow biopsy (BMB). Presence of positive BM uptake in (18)F-FDG PET/CT and histopathological examination results of BMBs were analyzed by Chi-square test. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of BM involvement were calculated. Prognostic importance of the presence of BM (18)F-FDG uptake was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
RESULTS: BM (18)F-FDG uptake was detected in 8 patients. Histopathological examination of BMB revealed BM involvement in 6 out of 8 patients. BMB was negative in all patients who have no (18)F-FDG uptake in the evaluation of PET/CT images. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of BM involvement were calculated as 100%, 96%, 96%, 75%, and 100%, respectively. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that presence of pretreatment (18)F-FDG uptake in BM has a prognostic importance. Whereas mean time to progression (TTP) in patients with BM uptake was 32.25 ± 10.9 months and mean TTP in those without was 51.69 ± 3.6 months (p = 0.013).
CONCLUSIONS: BM uptake in pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT is an important prognostic factor in DLBCL patients. Moreover, in consideration of high NPV, (18)F-FDG PET/CT could eliminate unnecessary BMB in FDG-negative patients.

Arıkan M, Toğral G, Yıldırım A, Irkkan Ç
A rare case of chondroblastoma of the acromion.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2016; 50(6):691-693 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present a 37-year-old patient with a chondroblastoma in his right acromion. The acromion is an unusual site for this type of tumor and the typical surgical treatment involves resection of the involved acromion bone. The patient was surgically treated with resection of the right acromion and autogenous iliac bone grafting. Twenty five months postoperatively, he demonstrated full shoulder function, without evidence of local recurrence or metastasis.

Bekmez S, Ayvaz M, Yucekul A, Tokgozoglu M
Modular cementless prosthetic reconstruction after resection of lower extremity malignant tumor.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2016; 50(6):674-680 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to report the preliminary clinical and functional outcomes of a modular cementless tumor resection prosthesis system (Megasystem-C(®), Waldemar Link GmbH&Co. KG, Hamburg, Germany) in patients undergoing limb salvage surgery with wide resection in a lower extremity primary or metastatic malignant bone tumor.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-two consecutive patients (33 male and 19 female; mean age 37.1 years (range, 16 to 79) with primary or metastatic lower extremity malignant bone tumor who underwent wide resection and reconstruction with cementless Megasystem-C(®) system were included in the study. Patients were analyzed for age at diagnosis, gender, type and localization of the tumor, time of follow-up, patient and prosthesis survival, complications, oncological and functional outcomes.
RESULTS: Mean follow-up time was 43.2 months (range, 8 to 66). Cumulative patient survival rate was 92.3 percent and cumulative prosthetic survival rate was 65.4 percent. 18 complications were recorded and 9 of them required revision (17.3 percent). Mean overall Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score score was 72.7 percent (range, 52 to 86). Subgroup analyzes demonstrated no difference in complication rates, overall patient or prosthetic survivals. Functional scores according to age, diagnosis and location of the reconstruction also were not significantly different.
CONCLUSION: The preliminary short-term follow-up results revealed that, the new generation modular cementless endoprosthetic system offers promising clinical and functional outcomes with reasonable complication rates.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, Therapeutic study.

Artac M, Korkmaz L, El-Rayes B, Philip PA
An update on the multimodality of localized rectal cancer.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016; 108:23-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
New strategies have reduced the local recurrence (LR) rate and extended the duration of overall survival (OS) in patients with localized rectal cancer (RC) in recent decades. The mainstay of curative treatment remains radical surgery; however, downsizing the tumor by neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and adjuvant cytotoxic therapy for systemic disease has shown significant additional benefit. The standardization of total mesorectal excision (TME), radiation treatment (RT) dose and fractionation, and optimal timing and sequencing of treatment modalities with the use of prolonged administration of fluoropyrimidine concurrent with RT have significantly decreased the rates of LR in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients. This review focuses on the optimization of multi-modality therapies in patients with localized RC.

Iliaz R, Akyuz U, Tekin D, et al.
Role of several cytokines and adhesion molecules in the diagnosis and prediction of survival of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Arab J Gastroenterol. 2016; 17(4):164-167 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: There is still need for accurate markers for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and assessment of prognosis. The aim of this study is to investigate interleukin (IL)-32, IL-1 beta, IL-18, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in the diagnosis and assessment of prognosis of HCC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with HCC and 15 healthy volunteers were enroled into this prospective study. Serum samples were obtained at the first admission before any treatment was given. Serum IL-32, IL-1 beta, IL-18, VCAM-1, and EpCAM levels were determined using ELISA kits.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patient group and controls was 60±9years and 56±8years, respectively. The mean serum level of IL-32 was higher in patients with HCC than in the control subjects (65.1 vs. 14.1pg/mL; p<0.001). IL-18 levels were significantly higher in the HCC group (546.5 vs. 157.8pg/mL; p<0.001). EpCAM (20.3 vs. 1.5pg/mL; p<0.001) and VCAM (6.5 vs. 1.8μg/mL; p<0.001) levels were also higher in patients with HCC. The mean level of IL-1 beta in the HCC group was similar to that in the control subjects (1.9 vs. 1.9pg/mL; p=0.97). Fifty-eight per cent of the patients with HCC died at 7.3months (median). Cytokine levels except EpCAM did not correlate with survival (p>0.05). Alpha-foetoprotein, IL-32, IL-18, EpCAM, and VCAM had valuable cutoff levels to differentiate between patients with HCC and control group (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Although cytokines can be a diagnostic marker for HCC, they did not have any significant prognostic value in patients with HCC. Only EpCAM may be used to determine the prognosis of HCC, thereby assisting with treatment management.

Ozbayer C, Degirmenci I, Ustuner D, et al.
miRSNPs of miR1274 and miR3202 Genes that Target MeCP2 and DNMT3b Are Associated with Lung Cancer Risk: A Study Conducted on MassARRAY Genotyping.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2016; 35(3):223-236 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic variants of miRNAs that target DNMTs and MBDs involved in DNA methylation were scanned with current databases, and 35 miRSNPs in 22 miRNA genes were identified. The aim of the study was to determine the association between these variants of miRNA genes and lung cancer (LC). DNA samples were isolated from blood samples and genotyped using a Sequenom MassARRAY System. An association between the rs188912830 gene variant of miR3202 that targets the MeCP2 protein and LC was indicated in both subtypes. The presence of the C-allele in patients with LC and its subtypes was significantly lower, and the absence of the C-allele was determined to increase the risk of LC by 7,429-times compared to the presence (p=0,010). The rs318039 gene variant of miR1274 that targets DNMT3b was found to be associated with LC subtypes. When allele distributions were compared, the numbers of individuals with the C-allele were significantly lower in the NSCLC and SCLC groups. No significant associations were found for the rs72563729 variant of the miR200b gene that targets DNMT3a or for the rs145416750 variant of the miR513c gene that targets TRDMT1. The other 33 variants were found to be ancestral genotypes. Consequently, rs188912830 and rs318039 variations were associated with LC subtypes. Importantly, this study is the first to indicate the functional characterisation of miRSNPs of genes that target DNA methylation.

Senol S, Aydin A, Kosemetin D, et al.
Gastric Adenocarcinoma Biomarker Expression Profiles and their Prognostic Value.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2016; 35(3):207-222 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression levels of several molecules implicated in carcinogenesis were examined by immunohistochemical staining, and the prognostic significance of their expression levels in gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) was evaluated. A total of 115 GA and 20 control gastric tissue samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using 33 antibodies targeting molecules known to play a part in the development of various tumors. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and loss of AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), and CD44 expression in GA patients were significantly correlated with lymph node (LN) metastasis, advanced tumor stage, and poor prognosis. The results demonstrated that ALDH1A and ARID1A may be strong independent prognostic factors associated with overall survival and recurrence-free survival (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Our results demonstrated that ALDH1, CD44, ARID1A, and CAIX in immunoreactive GA tumor cells exhibit different expression profiles compared with control cells and that these differences are associated with patient survival. The molecules with differential expression profiles were associated with some common functions, including hypoxia, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and SW1/SNF-mediated chromatin remodeling. In addition, the loss of ALDH1, ARID1A, and CD44 and the overexpression of CAIX are important for tumor invasion and metastasis; therefore, they may serve as useful prognostic indicators of long-term survival in patients with GA. In conclusion, our study found that abnormal expression of some of the proteins evaluated in GA tumor cells might have an important role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression and thus may influence the prognosis of patients with GA.

Yildiz E, Karakaş SA, Güngörmüş Z, Cengiz M
Levels of Care Burden and Self-efficacy for Informal Caregiver of Patients With Cancer.
Holist Nurs Pract. 2017 Jan/Feb; 31(1):7-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
This descriptive study was conducted to determine the levels of self-efficacy and caregiver burden experienced by caregivers for patients with cancer. The study was conducted at the oncology clinic of a hospital in Erzurum city, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 101 caregivers of patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cancer. The Self-Efficacy Scale Turkish version and the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale, which is a sociodemographic questionnaire, were used for data collection. The level for the burden of care for caregivers to patients with cancer was moderate, and the level of self-efficacy was moderate. A statistically significant, positive relationship was found between the scores for the Care Burden Scale and the Completing Behavior Subscale (r = 0.213; P < .05). A statistically significant, negative relationship was observed between the mean scores of the Care Burden Scale with Self-Efficacy Scale's total score (r = -0.104; P < .05), Sustaining Behavior Subscale (r = -0.324; P < .01), and Initiating Behavior Subscale (r = -0.199; P ≤ .05). Therefore, initiatives focused on self-efficacy levels should be developed to increase the abilities of caregivers for patients with cancer.

Çetinkaya M, Özer H, Selek HY, Erekul S
Total patellectomy for patellar aneurysmal bone cyst.
Eklem Hastalik Cerrahisi. 2016; 27(3):175-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Herein we report a case of patellar aneurysmal bone cyst of a 32-year-old female patient who was admitted to our outpatient clinic due to the swelling on her left knee. She was describing no trauma history but increasing pain and that the mass was expanding gradually by the time. Although it occurs rarely in patella, evaluation by radiographic and magnetic resonance images revealed that the mass was due to the patellar aneurysmal bone cyst, which also destructed the surface of the joint. Although there was no impairment in the range of motion of the patient's left knee in the preoperative evaluation, because of the destruction, we performed total patellectomy and extensor mechanism reconstruction by Zaricznyj technique instead of curettage and grafting. The patient was satisfied with the procedure performed after the surgery and there was no complication in the follow-up.

Akyol Z, Çoker-Gürkan A, Arisan ED, et al.
DENSpm overcame Bcl-2 mediated resistance against Paclitaxel treatment in MCF-7 breast cancer cells via activating polyamine catabolic machinery.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:2029-2041 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The Bcl-2 mediated resistance is one of the most critical obstacle in cancer therapy. Conventional chemotherapeutics such as Paclitaxel, a commonly used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, is not sufficient to overcome Bcl-2 mediated drug resistance mechanism. Thus, combinational drug regimes are favored by researchers to overcome resistance phenotype against drugs. N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSpm), a polyamine analogue, which is a promising drug candidate induced-cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various cancer cells such as prostate, melanoma, colon and breast cancer cells via activated polyamine catabolism and reactive oxygen generation. Recent studies indicated the potential therapeutic role of DENSpm in phase I and II trials in breast cancer cases. Although the molecular targets of Paclitaxel in apoptotic cell death mechanism is well documented, the therapeutic effect of DENSpm and Paclitaxel in breast cancer cells has not been investigated yet. In this study, our aim was to determine the time dependent effect of DENSpm and Paclitaxel on apoptotic cell death via determination of polyamine metabolism related targets in wt and Bcl-2 overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: In our experimental study, Paclitaxel decreased cell viability in dose-dependent manner within 24h. Co-treatment of Paclitaxel (30nM) with DENSpm (20μM) further increased the cytoxicity of Paclitaxel (30nM) compared to alone Paclitaxel (30nM) treatment in MCF-7 Bcl-2+ breast cancer cells. In addition, we determined that resistance against Paclitaxel-induced apoptotic cell death in Bcl-2 overexpressed MCF-7 cells was overcome due to activation of polyamine catabolic pathway, which caused depletion of polyamines.
CONCLUSIONS: DENSpm combinational treatment might increase the effect of low cytotoxic paclitaxel in drug-resistant breast cancer cases.

Dervisevic M, Senel M, Sagir T, Isik S
Highly sensitive detection of cancer cells with an electrochemical cytosensor based on boronic acid functional polythiophene.
Biosens Bioelectron. 2017; 90:6-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The detection of cancer cells through important molecular recognition target such as sialic acid is significant for the clinical diagnosis and treatment. There are many electrochemical cytosensors developed for cancer cells detection but most of them have complicated fabrication processes which results in poor reproducibility and reliability. In this study, a simple, low-cost, and highly sensitive electrochemical cytosensor was designed based on boronic acid-functionalized polythiophene. In cytosensors fabrication simple single-step procedure was used which includes coating pencil graphite electrode (PGE) by means of electro-polymerization of 3-Thienyl boronic acid and Thiophen. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used as an analytical methods to optimize and measure analytical performances of PGE/P(TBA0.5Th0.5) based electrode. Cytosensor showed extremely good analytical performances in detection of cancer cells with linear rage of 1×10(1) to 1×10(6) cellsmL(-1) exhibiting low detection limit of 10 cellsmL(-1) and incubation time of 10min. Next to excellent analytical performances, it showed high selectivity towards AGS cancer cells when compared to HEK 293 normal cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-hMSCs). This method is promising for future applications in early stage cancer diagnosis.

Oskay Halacli S
FOXP1 enhances tumor cell migration by repression of NFAT1 transcriptional activity in MDA-MB-231 cells.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(1):102-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Until now, forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in several correlation studies in breast cancer. Although FOXP1 is defined as a transcriptional repressor that interacts with other transcription factors in various mechanistic studies, there is no study that explains its repressor functions in breast cancer biology. This study demonstrated the repressor function of FOXP1 on nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT1) and the migratory effect of this repression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were performed for the investigation of protein-protein interaction between two transcription factors. Protein-protein interaction on DNA was investigated with EMSA and transcriptional effects of FOXP1 on NFAT1, luciferase reporter assay was performed. Wound healing assay was used to analyze the effects of overexpression of FOXP1 on tumor cell migration. This study showed that FOXP1 has protein-protein interaction with NFAT1 on DNA and enhances breast cancer cell migration by repressing NFAT1 transcriptional activity and FOXP1 shows oncogenic function by regulating breast cancer cell motility.

Demiroglu-Zergeroglu A, Candemir G, Turhanlar E, et al.
EGFR-dependent signalling reduced and p38 dependent apoptosis required by Gallic acid in Malignant Mesothelioma cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:2000-2007 [PubMed] Related Publications
The unrestrained EGFR signalling contributes to malignant phenotype in a number of cancers including Malignant Mesotheliomas. Present study was designed to evaluate EGFR-dependent anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Gallic acid in transformed Mesothelial (MeT-5A) and Malignant Mesothelioma (SPC212) cells. Gallic acid reduced the viability of Malignant Mesothelioma cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. However, viability of mesothelial cells reduced only at high concentration and longer time periods. Gallic acid restrained the activation of EGFR, ERK1/2 and AKT proteins and down regulated expression of Cyclin D and Bcl-2 genes, but upregulated the expression of p21 gene in EGF-induced SPC212 cells. GA-induced transitory G1 arrest and triggered mitochondrial and death receptor mediated apoptosis, which requires p38MAPK activation. The data provided here indicate that GA is able to inhibit EGFR dependent proliferation and survival signals and induces p38 pathway dependent apoptosis in Malignant Mesothelioma cells. On the basis of these experimental findings it is worthwhile to investigate further the biological activity of Gallic acid on other Mesothelioma cell lines harbouring aberrant EGFR signals.

Ceylan Y, Günlüsoy B, Degirmenci T, et al.
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and neutrophil-to-monocyte rates in the decision for a prostate re-biopsy in patients with a previous benign pathology and consistently 2,5-10 ng/ml PSA value.
Arch Esp Urol. 2016; 69(9):627-635 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: In this study we compared neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and neutrophilto- monocyte ratio(NMR) between patients with prostate cancer after first transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)- guided biopsy and patients with benign prostate hyperplasia(BPH) after second TRUS-guided biyopsy.
METHODS: A total of 224 patients who underwent multi (≥12)-core TRUS -guided biopsy at our clinic for elevated PSA or abnormal digital rectal examination in between January 2008 and March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 146 patients with a diagnosis of prostate cancer after the first TRUSguided biyopsy and group 2 consisted of 78 patients with a diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia after second TRUS-guided biyopsy. Age, PSA, NLR and NMR values were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS: There were no statistically significant correlation between PSA and NLR(p=0.46). The mean of age, PSA, NLR, NMR values in the group 1 and 2 were respectively 64.6±7.7 and 61.6±6.9, 6.5±1.9 and 5.3±1.2, 2.8±1.5 and 2.3±1.1, 9.2±3.9, 8.1±2.9 (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.012 and p=0.30). The mean PSA, NLR ,NMR values of the group 1 were significantly higher than those in group 2 (p=0.002). Gleason grade and pathological stage were significantly increases as NLR increases.
CONCLUSION: NLR and NMR in patients with BPH after second TRUS-guided biopsy were lower than that of those with a diagnosis of prostate cancer after the first TRUS-guided biopsy.White blood test subtypes can be considered for the decision to perform a second TRUSguided biopsy in patients with previous negative biopsy with persistently elevated PSA.

Karam I, Yao M, Heron DE, et al.
Survey of current practices from the International Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Consortium (ISBRTC) for head and neck cancers.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(7):603-613 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To provide a multi-institutional description of current practices of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for head and neck cancer.
MATERIALS & METHODS: 15 international institutions with significant experience in head and neck SBRT were asked to complete a questionnaire covering clinical and technical factors.
RESULTS: SBRT is used 10-100% of the time for recurrent primary head and neck cancer, and 0-10% of the time in newly diagnosed disease. Five centers use a constraint for primary disease of 3-5 cm and 25-30 cc. Nine institutions apply a clinical target volume expansion of 1-10 mm and 14 use a planning target volume margin of 1-5 mm. Fractionation regimens vary between 15 and 22 Gy in 1 fraction to 30-50 Gy in 5 or 6 fractions. The risk of carotid blowout quoted in the re-irradiation setting ranges from 3 to 20%.
CONCLUSION: There is considerable heterogeneity in patient selection and techniques in head and neck SBRT practice among experienced centers.

Deniz MA, Deniz ZT, Adin ME, et al.
Detection of incidental pulmonary embolism with multi-slice computed tomography in cancer patients.
Clin Imaging. 2017 Jan - Feb; 41:106-111 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to show the frequency of incidentally found (pulmonary thromboembolism) PTE in oncological patients and evaluate dispersion of incidents in terms of underlying primary tumor and seek risk factors associated with incidental PTE. Among one thousand oncology patients, 46 (4.6%) individuals found to have incidental PTE. Of positive patients, the highest proportion (24%) was belong to breast cancer group (n=11). The most common location for pulmonary emboli was the lower lobe branch of right pulmonary artery (n=33, 71.7%). Evident PTE had not been reported in final radiology reports of 21 cases.

Soydal C, Kucuk NO, Balci D, et al.
Prognostic Importance of the Presence of Early Metabolic Response and Absence of Extrahepatic Metastasis After Selective Internal Radiation Therapy in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastasis.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2016; 31(9):342-346 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: In this study, the authors aimed to identify prognostic factors after selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis.
METHODS: Forty-nine (28 male, 21 female; mean age: 64.6 ± 10.8) patients who received SIRT for CRC liver metastasis were studied. Effects of number (<5 vs. ≥5), maximum dimension, and standardized uptake value (SUV) of liver metastases, liver tumor load (<25% vs. 26%-50% vs. 51%-75%), presence of extrahepatic disease, and metabolic early response on overall survival were analyzed.
RESULTS: Mean follow-up time was 44.1 ± 27.5 months. Overall survival time was calculated as 10.03 ± 1.61 (95% CI; 6.86-13.20) months. SUV (0.004) of liver metastases, early metabolic response (p = 0.015), and presence of extrahepatic metastasis (p = 0.001) were identified as significant factors influencing overall survival. The hazard ratio was 1:2.3 for the presence of extrahepatic metastasis and 1:2.7 for the absence of early metabolic response.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that patients with CRC liver metastasis who have lower SUV at presentation and early metabolic response have better outcomes after SIRT.

Bakir B, Sanli S, Bakir VL, et al.
Role of diffusion weighted MRI in the differential diagnosis of endometrial cancer, polyp, hyperplasia, and physiological thickening.
Clin Imaging. 2017 Jan - Feb; 41:86-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our purpose was to evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of various common pathologies of the uterine cavity, by comparing them with contrast-enhanced MRI findings. One hundred sixty-four patients with lesions in endometrial cavity were included in the study. The patients were grouped in four (one malignant and three benign groups). We have observed that the differences of the apparent diffusion coefficient, b1000q, and Cq values between various common benign and malignant lesions were statistically significant (P<.001). However, the differences of the values between benign groups were not statistically significant (P>.05). Alternatively, endometrial polyp group's signal intensity on DWI was different than the other groups.

Bilgin R, Ergül N, Çermik TF
Incidental Meningioma Mimicking Metastasis of Prostate Adenocarcinoma in 68Ga-Labeled PSMA Ligand PET/CT.
Clin Nucl Med. 2016; 41(12):956-958 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 67-year-old man with prostate adenocarcinoma underwent Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand PET/CT for restaging due to a rising prostate-specific antigen level. Local recurrence in the prostatic region and a metastasis in the left iliac bone were detected showing high PSMA expression. A mass lesion was seen in the left orbitofrontal region with high Ga PSMA uptake. The successive MRI confirmed that the lesion was consistent with meningioma.

Ozer B, Sezerman U
Analysis of the interplay between methylation and expression reveals its potential role in cancer aetiology.
Funct Integr Genomics. 2017; 17(1):53-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
With ongoing developments in technology, changes in DNA methylation levels have become prevalent to study cancer biology. Previous studies report that DNA methylation affects gene expression in a direct manner, most probably by blocking gene regulatory regions. In this study, we have studied the interplay between methylation and expression to improve our knowledge of cancer aetiology. For this purpose, we have investigated which genomic regions are of higher importance; hence, first exon, 5'UTR and 200 bp near the transcription start sites are proposed as being more crucial compared to other genomic regions. Furthermore, we have searched for a valid methylation level change threshold, and as a result, 25 % methylation change in previously determined genomic regions showed the highest inverse correlation with expression data. As a final step, we have examined the commonly affected genes and pathways by integrating methylation and expression information. Remarkably, the GPR115 gene and ErbB signalling pathway were found to be significantly altered for all cancer types in our analysis. Overall, combining methylation and expression information and identifying commonly affected genes and pathways in a variety of cancer types revealed new insights of cancer disease mechanisms. Moreover, compared to previous methylation-based studies, we have identified more important genomic regions and have defined a methylation change threshold level in order to obtain more reliable results. In addition to the novel analysis framework that involves the analysis of four different cancer types, our study exposes essential information regarding the contribution of methylation changes and its impact on cancer disease biology, which may facilitate the identification of new drug targets.

Kazan H
Modeling Gene Regulation in Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Random Forests.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:1035945 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. Poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying HCC prevents early detection and leads to high mortality. We developed a random forest model that incorporates copy-number variation, DNA methylation, transcription factor, and microRNA binding information as features to predict gene expression in HCC. Our model achieved a highly significant correlation between predicted and measured expression of held-out genes. Furthermore, we identified potential regulators of gene expression in HCC. Many of these regulators have been previously found to be associated with cancer and are differentially expressed in HCC. We also evaluated our predicted target sets for these regulators by making comparison with experimental results. Lastly, we found that the transcription factor E2F6, one of the candidate regulators inferred by our model, is predictive of survival rate in HCC. Results of this study will provide directions for future prospective studies in HCC.

Avcu G, Karapinar DY, Akinci AB, et al.
Utility of the serum galactomannan assay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Int J Infect Dis. 2017; 54:8-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children with hematological malignancies. The monitoring of serum galactomannan (GM) antigen is considered useful in the diagnosis of IA . The aim of this study was to determine the utility of serum GM monitoring in the early diagnosis of IA and the role of positive antigenemia in the management of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
METHODS: The cases of 141 children who were being treated for ALL in the Division of Pediatric Hematology of the Medical School of Ege University between January 2006 and February 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Cases of proven and probable IA were defined according to the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria.
RESULTS: The incidence of proven and probable IA was 3.5% (5/141). The incidence of positive GM antigenemia among 3264 serum samples was 5.5% (n=179). Of the cases detected, 21.7% were true-positive, 52.1% were false-positive, and the remaining 26.1% were classified as 'undetermined.' An increase in the incidence of true-positive tests and induction of antifungal therapy was determined through multiple consecutive positive tests.
CONCLUSIONS: GM may be detected in the serum before the clinical signs of IA appear, but its sensitivity and specificity are variable. False-positivity is a significant disadvantage, and consecutive positive GM must be taken into account in the case of clinical and imaging findings that are relevant to IA.

Yilmaz UC, Bagca BG, Karaca E, et al.
Evaluation of the miRNA profiling and effectiveness of the propolis on B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1266-1273 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most frequent causes of death from cancer. Since the discovery of chemotherapeutic agents, ALL has become a model for improvement of survival. In parallel to this, serious side effects were observed and new natural therapeutic options has been discussed. One of these substances is called propolis which is a resinous substance gathered by honeybees. In the molecular era, miRNAs have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of many clinical conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Aydın propolis on 81 human miRNA activity in CCRF-SB leukemia cell line. Apoptotic effects of propolis on cell lines were also evaluated and apoptosis were found to be induced 1.5 fold in B-cell leukemia cells. The expression of 63 miRNAs (46 miRNAs were downregulated, 19 miRNAs were upregulated) in propolis treated leukemia cells have changed significantly (p<0.05). In conclusion propolis has changed expression of miRNAs which have epigenetic effects on leukemic cells. It is thought that it can be a promising agent for ALL treatment for future studies.

Sharma M, Lingam VC, Nahar VK
A systematic review of yoga interventions as integrative treatment in breast cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(12):2523-2540 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is a significant public health problem all over the world. The treatment of breast cancer has many side effects. Yoga has been suggested as an integrative form of therapy for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to systematically review yoga interventions for breast cancer and determine the efficacy of these interventions as integrative modalities of treatment in altering various outcomes related to breast cancer.
METHODS: Studies were included if (1) exclusively targeted breast cancer patients; (2) published between 2013 and May 2016; (3) written in the English language; (4) published in a peer-reviewed journals indexed in MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, ERIC and Alt Health Watch; (5) they used any type of yoga as a part of or the whole intervention; and (6) utilized a quantitative design for evaluation.
RESULTS: A total of 23 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Majority of the studies had been done in USA (n = 9), followed by Germany (n = 3), India (n = 3) and Turkey (n = 2). One study each was from Australia, Canada, Iran, Taiwan, Poland, and UK. Twenty-two of the 23 interventions had statistically significant changes in studied outcome measures.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitations of wide variabilities in sample size, lack of standardized approach in conducting yoga, multiplicity of outcome measures, varying durations of interventions and lack of using behavioral theories, yoga as an integrative form of therapy for breast cancer is a promising approach. More interventions utilizing yoga need to be tested.

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