Research IndicatorsGraph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: SPRR1A (cancer-related)
Heikinheimo K, Kurppa KJ, Laiho A, et al.Early dental epithelial transcription factors distinguish ameloblastoma from keratocystic odontogenic tumor.
J Dent Res. 2015; 94(1):101-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aim of the study was to characterize the molecular relationship between ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) by means of a genome-wide expression analysis. Total RNA from 27 fresh tumor samples of 15 solid/multicystic intraosseous ameloblastomas and 12 sporadic KCOTs was hybridized on Affymetrix whole genome arrays. Hierarchical clustering separated ameloblastomas and KCOTs into 2 distinct groups. The gene set enrichment analysis based on 303 dental genes showed a similar separation of ameloblastomas and KCOTs. Early dental epithelial markers PITX2, MSX2, DLX2, RUNX1, and ISL1 were differentially overexpressed in ameloblastoma, indicating its dental identity. Also, PTHLH, a hormone involved in tooth eruption and invasive growth, was one of the most differentially upregulated genes in ameloblastoma. The most differentially overexpressed genes in KCOT were squamous epithelial differentiation markers SPRR1A, KRTDAP, and KRT4, as well as DSG1, a component of desmosomal cell-cell junctions. Additonally, the epithelial stem cell marker SOX2 was significantly upregulated in KCOT when compared with ameloblastoma. Taken together, the gene expression profile of ameloblastoma reflects differentiation from dental lamina toward the cap/bell stage of tooth development, as indicated by dental epithelium-specific transcription factors. In contrast, gene expression of KCOT indicates differentiation toward keratinocytes.
Tyszkiewicz T, Jarzab M, Szymczyk C, et al.Epidermal differentiation complex (locus 1q21) gene expression in head and neck cancer and normal mucosa.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2014; 52(2):79-89 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) comprises a number of genes associated with human skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. These genes have also been linked to numerous cancers, among them skin, gastric, colorectal, lung, ovarian and renal carcinomas. The involvement of EDC components encoding S100 proteins, small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs) and other genes in the tumorigenesis of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) has been previously suggested. The aim of the study was to systematically analyze the expression of EDC components on the transcript level in HNSCC. Tissue specimens from 93 patients with HNC of oral cavity and 87 samples from adjacent or distant grossly normal oral mucosawere analyzed. 48 samples (24 tumor and 24 corresponding surrounding tissue) were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0 ST Arrays. For validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) the total RNA from all180 samples collected in the study was analyzed with Real-Time PCR system and fluorescent amplicon specific-probes. Additional set of samples from 14 patients with laryngeal carcinoma previously obtained by HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray was also included in the analyses. The expression of analyzed EDC genes was heterogeneous. Two transcripts (S100A1 and S100A4) were significantly down-regulated in oral cancer when compared to normal mucosa (0.69 and 0.36-fold change, respectively), showing an opposite pattern of expression to the remaining S100 genes. Significant up-regulation in tumors was found for S100A11, S100A7, LCE3D, S100A3 and S100A2 genes. The increased expression of S100A7 was subsequently validated by QPCR, confirming significant differences. The remaining EDC genes, including all encoding SPRR molecules, did not show any differences between oral cancer and normal mucosa. The observed differences were also assessed in the independent set of laryngeal cancer samples, confirming the role of S100A3 and LCE3D transcripts in HNC. In HNC of oral cavity only one family of EDC genes (S100 proteins) showed significant cancer-related differences. A number of other transcripts which showed altered expression in HNC require further validation.
BACKGROUND: Certain markers have been identified over the last 10 years that facilitate the prediction of a patient's prognosis; these markers have been proposed to be useful for risk stratification of lymphoma patients and for the development of specific therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we assessed the potential prognostic value of SPRR1A expression in 967 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
METHODS: All patients were enrolled between 2001 and 2007 (median follow-up, 53.3 months) in the Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, First Hospital of China Medical University, and Liaoning Cancer Hospital. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate the expression of SPRR1A. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was conducted to adjust the effect of SPRR1A expression for potential, well-known, independent prognostic factors.
RESULTS: Of the 967 patients examined, SPRR1A expression was detected in 305 (31.54%) patients on immunohistochemical analysis. The 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients with SPRR1A expression than in those without (26.9% vs. 53.2%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified SPRR1A expression as an independent predictor of survival in addition to lactate dehydrogenase level, clinical stage, and histologic subtype.
CONCLUSIONS: SPRR1A expression may be useful as a prognostic factor for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Transcription factor c-Jun plays a key role in controlling epithelium cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. However, molecular mechanism and biological functions of c-Jun in squamous differentiation and the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain elusive. In this study, we found that c-Jun bound directly to the promoter region, and activated the transcription of differentiation-associated genes including cystatin A, involucrin and SPRR3 in vivo. Ectopic expression of c-Jun enhanced SPRR3 transactivation in KYSE450 cells. Conversely, TAM67, a dominant negative mutant of c-Jun, inhibited SPRR3 transactivation. c-Jun increased expression of SPPR3 mainly via a PKC/JNK pathway in response to TPA in KYSE450 cells. Furthermore, c-Jun was remarkably reduced in esophageal cancer. Interestingly, cystatin A, involucrin and SPRR3 were significantly downregulated as well, and associated with differentiation grade. Expression of c-Jun was correlated with the expression of these genes in normal epithelium and ESCC. Importantly, the expression of these genes was remarkably decreased during the malignant transformation from normal epithelium to low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN) or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN). The expression of cystatin A and involucrin was significantly reduced from LGIN to HGIN. These results suggest c-Jun was involved in the regulation of differentiation-associated genes in ESCC. These genes might serve as the potential markers in distinguishing normal epithelium from esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.
Leclerc D, Lévesque N, Cao Y, et al.Genes with aberrant expression in murine preneoplastic intestine show epigenetic and expression changes in normal mucosa of colon cancer patients.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013; 6(11):1171-81 [PubMed
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An understanding of early genetic/epigenetic changes in colorectal cancer would aid in diagnosis and prognosis. To identify these changes in human preneoplastic tissue, we first studied our mouse model in which Mthfr⁺/⁻ BALB/c mice fed folate-deficient diets develop intestinal tumors in contrast to Mthfr⁺/⁺ BALB/c mice fed control diets. Transcriptome profiling was performed in normal intestine from mice with low or high tumor susceptibility. We identified 12 upregulated and 51 downregulated genes in tumor-prone mice. Affected pathways included retinoid acid synthesis, lipid and glucose metabolism, apoptosis and inflammation. We compared murine candidates from this microarray analysis, and murine candidates from an earlier strain-based comparison, with a set of human genes that we had identified in previous methylome profiling of normal human colonic mucosa, from colorectal cancer patients and controls. From the extensive list of human methylome candidates, our approach uncovered five orthologous genes that had shown changes in murine expression profiles (PDK4, SPRR1A, SPRR2A, NR1H4, and PYCARD). The human orthologs were assayed by bisulfite-pyrosequencing for methylation at 14 CpGs. All CpGs exhibited significant methylation differences in normal mucosa between colorectal cancer patients and controls; expression differences for these genes were also observed. PYCARD and NR1H4 methylation differences showed promise as markers for presence of polyps in controls. We conclude that common pathways are disturbed in preneoplastic intestine in our animal model and morphologically normal mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer, and present an initial version of a DNA methylation-based signature for human preneoplastic colon.
Michifuri Y, Hirohashi Y, Torigoe T, et al.Small proline-rich protein-1B is overexpressed in human oral squamous cell cancer stem-like cells and is related to their growth through activation of MAP kinase signal.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 439(1):96-102 [PubMed
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Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are considered to be essential for tumor maintenance, recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of CSCs/CICs are still elusive. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the cell growth of oral CSCs/CICs. Oral CSCs/CICs were isolated as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 bright (ALDH1(br)) cells by the ALDEFLUOR assay. Small proline-rich protein-1B (SPRR1B) gene was shown to be overexpressed in ALDH1(br) cells by a cDNA microarray and RT-PCR. SPRR1B was shown to have a role in cell growth and maintenance of ALDH1(br) cells by SPRR1B overexpression and knockdown experiments. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which SPRR1B regulates cell growth, further cDNA microarray analysis was performed using SPRR1B-overexpressed cells and cells with SPRR1B knocked down by siRNA. Expression of the tumor suppressor gene Ras association domain family member 4 (RASSF4) was found to be suppressed in SPRR1B-overexpressed cells. On the other hand, the expression of RASSF4 was enhanced in cells in which SPRR1B expression was knocked down by SPRR1B-specific siRNA. RASSF4 has an RA (Ras association) domain, and we thus hypothesized that RASSF4 modulates the MAP kinase signal downstream of the Ras signal. MAP kinase signal was activated in SPRR1B-overexpressed cells, whereas the signal was suppressed in SPRR1B knocked down cells. Taken together, the results indicate that the expression of SPRR1B is upregulated in oral CSCs/CICs and that SPRR1B has a role in cell growth by suppression of RASSF4.
Kim JC, Yu JH, Cho YK, et al.Expression of SPRR3 is associated with tumor cell proliferation in less advanced stages of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 133(3):909-16 [PubMed
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Small proline rich repeat protein 3 (SPRR3), a member of the SPRR family of cornified envelope precursor proteins, is a marker for terminal squamous cell differentiation. Previously, this laboratory showed that SPRR3 is strongly upregulated in colorectal tumors, and is involved in the tumorigenesis. The current study was performed to investigate the expression status and effect of SPRR3 in breast cancers (BCs). SPRR3 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 241 tumor samples from BC patients. SPRR3 was overexpressed in more than half of all BC samples. SPRR3 overexpression was significantly associated with less advanced stage (0-1 vs. II-III) and the absence of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004 and 0.013, respectively). HER2/neu overexpression was closely correlated with SPRR3 overexpression in a multivariate analysis (OR, 3.23, P = 0.017). To assess the influence of SPRR3 on cell proliferation and related signaling pathways, SPRR3-transfected clones from the SPRR3-negative T-47D human BC cell line were generated. Among the total of six SPRR3-overexpressing clones, five showed marked proliferation compared with SPRR3-nonexpressing control cells from day 3 of culture (P < 0.001). The SPRR3-overexpressing BC clones showed increased phosphorylation of AKT and MDM2, p21 overexpression, and p53 downregulation. Furthermore, phosphorylation of MEK and MAPK was markedly increased. This study demonstrates that SPRR3 promotes BC cell proliferation by enhancing p53 degradation via the AKT and MAPK pathways and is, therefore, a potential novel therapeutic target for less advanced stages of BC.
Pasini FS, Maistro S, Snitcovsky I, et al.Four-gene expression model predictive of lymph node metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Acta Oncol. 2012; 51(1):77-85 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous knowledge of cervical lymph node compromise may be crucial to choose the best treatment strategy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Here we propose a set four genes, whose mRNA expression in the primary tumor predicts nodal status in OSCC, excluding tongue.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified differentially expressed genes in OSCC with and without compromised lymph nodes using Differential Display RT-PCR. Known genes were chosen to be validated by means of Northern blotting or real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Thereafter we constructed a Nodal Index (NI) using discriminant analysis in a learning set of 35 patients, which was further validated in a second independent group of 20 patients.
RESULTS: Of the 63 differentially expressed known genes identified comparing three lymph node positive (pN +) and three negative (pN0) primary tumors, 23 were analyzed by Northern analysis or RT-PCR in 49 primary tumors. Six genes confirmed as differentially expressed were used to construct a NI, as the best set predictive of lymph nodal status, with the final result including four genes. The NI was able to correctly classify 32 of 35 patients comprising the learning group (88.6%; p = 0.009). Casein kinase 1alpha1 and scavenger receptor class B, member 2 were found to be up regulated in pN + group in contrast to small proline-rich protein 2B and Ras-GTPase activating protein SH3 domain-binding protein 2 which were upregulated in the pN0 group. We validated further our NI in an independent set of 20 primary tumors, 11 of them pN0 and nine pN + with an accuracy of 80.0% (p = 0.012).
CONCLUSIONS: The NI was an independent predictor of compromised lymph nodes, taking into the consideration tumor size and histological grade. The genes identified here that integrate our "Nodal Index" model are predictive of lymph node metastasis in OSCC.
de A Simão T, Souza-Santos PT, de Oliveira DS, et al.Quantitative evaluation of SPRR3 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by qPCR and its potential use as a biomarker.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2011; 91(2):584-9 [PubMed
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is highly fatal due to late diagnosis and inefficient treatment. Early disease detection could improve diagnosis and patient survival. Esophageal squamous epithelial cells express SPRR3, a member of the small proline-rich protein family, which is downregulated in ESCC. Therefore, SPRR3 expression may be used as a biomarker to follow the transition from healthy mucosa to ESCC. Both SPRR3 mRNA splice variants, v1 and v2, were evaluated by real time PCR in tumor and histologically normal adjacent tissue biopsies from 84 ESCC patients and 18 healthy controls. SPRR3-v1 was most highly expressed in the esophageal mucosa of healthy subjects, with an increasingly lower expression in the adjacent mucosa of ESCC patients and in tumors, respectively. SPRR3-v2 expression was low in normal mucosa and in tumors but it was higher in the adjacent mucosa of ESCC patients. In addition, we found a significant correlation between a lower SPRR3-v1 and SPRR3-v2 expression and age and alcohol consumption, respectively. SPRR3 protein expression presented a good correlation with SPRR3 mRNA expression. Cut-off points to discriminate between healthy mucosa, tumor and adjacent mucosa were determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. This analysis showed that SPRR3-v1 expression discriminates the esophageal mucosa of healthy subjects from the adjacent mucosa and the tumor of ESCC patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our data shows that the quantitative analysis of SPRR3 mRNA is a robust and reliable method to monitor the malignant transformation of the healthy esophageal mucosa into ESCC.
Hereditary colorectal cancer develops through a series of well-defined genetic and histological changes. However, elucidation of the canonical pathway based on hereditary colorectal cancer has not provided a clear explanation of the molecular mechanisms of sporadic colorectal cancer. To identify the alterative pathways involved in sporadic colorectal tumorigenesis, we performed gene expression analysis in patients with sporadic colorectal tumors. A comparison analysis of gene expression profiles revealed a pattern of upregulation of small proline rich repeat protein 3 (SPRR3) in tumor samples. SPRR3 has previously been reported to be downregulated in esophageal cancer. However, in the present study, we observed that SPRR3 was strongly upregulated in 31 of 35 samples of sporadic colorectal tumors (88%). We also determined that overexpression of SPRR3 not only accelerates colorectal cancer cell proliferation but also is associated with lymphovascular invasion in colorectal cancer. Moreover, AKT was activated and p53 levels were decreased in cells that overexpressed SPRR3. In contrast to the pattern seen in esophageal cancer, these results suggest that increased expression of SPRR3 is involved in colorectal tumorigenesis.
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) loss-of-function mutations are exclusively associated with estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) human breast cancers. To dissect the role of Cav-1 loss-of-function in the pathogenesis of human breast cancers, we used Cav-1(-/-) null mice as a model system. First, we demonstrated that Cav-1(-/-) mammary epithelia overexpress two well-established ER co-activator genes, CAPER and Foxa1, in addition to ER-alpha. Thus, the functional loss of Cav-1 may be sufficient to confer estrogen-hypersensitivity in the mammary gland. To test this hypothesis directly, we subjected Cav-1(-/-) mice to ovariectomy and estrogen supplementation. As predicted, Cav-1(-/-) mammary glands were hyper-responsive to estrogen and developed dysplastic mammary lesions with adjacent stromal angiogenesis that resemble human ductal carcinoma in situ. Based on an extensive biomarker analysis, these Cav-1(-/-) mammary lesions contain cells that are hyperproliferative and stain positively with nucleolar (B23/nucleophosmin) and stem/progenitor cell markers (SPRR1A and beta-catenin). Genome-wide transcriptional profiling identified many estrogen-related genes that were over-expressed in Cav-1(-/-) mammary glands, including CAPER--an ER co-activator gene and putative stem/progenitor cell marker. Analysis of human breast cancer samples revealed that CAPER is overexpressed and undergoes a cytoplasmic-to-nuclear shift during the transition from pre-malignancy to ductal carcinoma in situ. Thus, Cav-1(-/-) null mice are a new preclinical model for studying the molecular paradigm of estrogen hypersensitivity and the development of estrogen-dependent ductal carcinoma in situ lesions.
Kimchi ET, Posner MC, Park JO, et al.Progression of Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the suppression of the transcriptional programs of epidermal differentiation.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(8):3146-54 [PubMed
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We did expressional profiling on 24 paired samples of normal esophageal epithelium, Barrett's metaplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinomas. Matching tissue samples representing the three different histologic types were obtained from each patient undergoing esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma. Our analysis compared the molecular changes accompanying the transformation of normal squamous epithelium with Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma in individual patients rather than in a random cohort. We tested the hypothesis that expressional profiling may reveal gene sets that can be used as molecular markers of progression from normal esophageal epithelium to Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma. Expressional profiling was done using U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix), which represent approximately two thirds of the human genome. The final selection of 214 genes permitted the discrimination of differential gene expression of normal esophageal squamous epithelium, Barrett's esophagus, and adenocarcinoma using two-dimensional hierarchical clustering of selected genes. These data indicate that transformation of Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma is associated with suppression of the genes involved in epidermal differentiation, including genes in 1q21 loci and corresponding to the epidermal differentiation complex. Correlation analysis of genes concordantly expressed in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma revealed 21 genes that represent potential genetic markers of disease progression and pharmacologic targets for treatment intervention. PCR analysis of genes selected based on DNA array experiments revealed that estimation of the ratios of GATA6 to SPRR3 allows discrimination among normal esophageal epithelium, Barrett's dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma.
Kim KY, Kim BC, Xu Z, Kim SJMixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3)-activated p38 MAP kinase mediates transforming growth factor-beta-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells.
J Biol Chem. 2004; 279(28):29478-84 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Although transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) acts via the Smad signaling pathway to initiate de novo gene transcription, the TGF-beta1-induced MAPK kinase activation that is involved in the regulation of apoptosis is less well understood. Even though the p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNKs) are involved in TGF-beta1-induced cell death in hepatoma cells, the upstream mediators of these kinases remain to be defined. We show here that the members of the mixed lineage kinase (MLK) family (including MLK1, MLK2, MLK3, and dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK)) are expressed in FaO rat hepatoma cells and are likely to act between p38 and TGF-beta receptor kinase in death signaling. TGF-beta1 treatment leads to an increase in MLK3 activity. Overexpression of MLK3 enhances TGF-beta1-induced apoptotic death in FaO cells and Hep3B human hepatoma cells, whereas expression of the dominant-negative forms of MLK3 suppresses cell death induced by TGF-beta1. The dominant-negative forms of MLK1 and -2 also suppress TGF-beta1-induced cell death. In MLK3-overexpressing cells, ERK, JNKs, and p38 MAP kinases were further activated in response to TGF-beta1 compared with the control cells. In contrast, overexpression of the dominant-negative MLK3 resulted in suppression of TGF-beta1-induced MAP kinase activation and TGF-beta1-induced caspase-3 activation. We also show that only the inhibition of the p38 pathway suppressed TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis. These observations support a role for MLKs in the TGF-beta1-induced cell death mechanism.
Luo A, Kong J, Hu G, et al.Discovery of Ca2+-relevant and differentiation-associated genes downregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using cDNA microarray.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(6):1291-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To identify genes that are differentially expressed in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we have developed a cDNA microarray representing 34 176 clones to analyse gene expression profiles in ESCC. A total of 77 genes (including 31 novel genes) were downregulated, and 15 genes (including one novel gene) were upregulated in cancer tissues compared with their normal counterparts. Immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis were carried out to verify the cDNA microarray results. It was revealed that genes involved in squamous cell differentiation were coordinately downregulated, including annexin I, small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs), calcium-binding S100 proteins (S100A8, S100A9), transglutaminase (TGM3), cytokeratins (KRT4, KRT13), gut-enriched Krupple-like factor (GKLF) and cystatin A. Interestingly, most of the downregulated genes encoded Ca(2+)-binding or -modulating proteins that constitute the cell envelope (CE). Moreover, genes associated with invasion or proliferation were upregulated, including genes such as fibronectin, secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein (SPARC), cathepsin B and KRT17. Functional analysis of the alteration in the expression of GKLF suggested that GKLF might be able to regulate the expression of SPRR1A, SPRR2A and KRT4 in ESCC. This study provides new insights into the role of squamous cell differentiation-associated genes in ESCC initiation and progression.
Duffy CL, Phillips SL, Klingelhutz AJMicroarray analysis identifies differentiation-associated genes regulated by human papillomavirus type 16 E6.
Virology. 2003; 314(1):196-205 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In this study, we used oligonucleotide microarray analysis to determine which cellular genes are regulated by the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 oncoprotein. We found that E6 causes the downregulation of a large number of cellular genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation, including genes such as small proline-rich proteins, transglutaminase, involucrin, elafin, and cytokeratins, which are normally involved in the production of the cornified cell envelope. In contrast, E6 upregulates several genes, such as vimentin, that are usually expressed in mesenchymal lineages. E6 also modulates levels of genes involved in inflammation, including Cox-1 and Nag-1. By using E6 mutants that differentially target p53 for degradation, we determined that E6 regulates cellular genes by both p53-dependent and independent mechanisms. The microarray data also indicate that HPV-16 E6 modulates certain effects of HPV-16 E7 on cellular gene expression. The identification of E6-regulated genes in this analysis provides a basis for further studies on their role in HPV infection and cellular transformation.
Lehr E, Brown DRInfection with the oncogenic human papillomavirus type 59 alters protein components of the cornified cell envelope.
Virology. 2003; 309(1):53-60 [PubMed
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Infection of the genital tract with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) leads to proliferative and dysplastic epithelial lesions. The mechanisms used by the virus to escape the infected keratinocyte are not well understood. Infection of keratinocytes with HPV does not cause lysis, the mechanism used by many viruses to release newly formed virions. For HPV 11, a type associated with a low risk of neoplastic disease, the cornified cell envelope (CCE) of infected keratinocytes is thin and fragile, and transcription of loricrin, the major CCE protein, is reduced. The effects of high-risk HPV infection on components of the CCE have not been previously reported. HPV 59, an oncogenic genital type related to HPV types 18 and 45 was identified in a condylomata acuminata lesion. An extract of this lesion was used to infect human foreskin fragments, which were grown in athymic mice as xenografts. Continued propagation using extracts of xenografts permitted growth of additional HPV 59-infected xenografts. CCEs purified from HPV 59-infected xenografts displayed subtle morphologic abnormalities compared to those derived from uninfected xenografts. HPV 59-infected xenografts revealed dysplastic-appearing cells with mitotic figures. Detection of loricrin, involucrin, and cytokeratin 10 was reduced in HPV 59-infected epithelium, while small proline-rich protein 3 (SPR3) was increased. Reduction in loricrin was most apparent in regions of epithelium containing abundant HPV 59 DNA. Compared to uninfected epithelium, loricrin transcription was decreased in HPV 59-infected epithelium. We conclude that HPV 59 shares with HPV 11 the ability to alter CCE components and to specifically reduce transcription of the loricrin gene. Because loricrin is the major CCE protein, a reduction in this component could alter the physical properties of the CCE, thus facilitating virion release.
Reddy SP, Vuong H, Adiseshaiah PInterplay between proximal and distal promoter elements is required for squamous differentiation marker induction in the bronchial epithelium: role for ESE-1, Sp1, and AP-1 proteins.
J Biol Chem. 2003; 278(24):21378-87 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Overexpression of SPRR1B in bronchial epithelial cells is a marker for early metaplastic changes induced by various toxicants/carcinogens. Previously, we have shown that the transcriptional stimulation of SPRR1B expression by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is mainly mediated by a -150/-94 bp enhancer harboring two critical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive elements (TREs) and by Jun.Fra-1 dimers. Here, we show that a region between -54 and -39 bp containing an ETS-binding site (EBS) and a GC box is essential for both basal and PMA-inducible SPRR1B transcription. In vivo footprinting demonstrated binding of transcription factors to these elements. However, unlike enhancer TREs, exposure of cells to PMA did not significantly alter the footprinting pattern at these elements. Mutations that crippled both the EBS and GC box suppressed both basal and PMA-inducible SPRR1B transcription. Consistent with this, overexpression of EBS-binding proteins ESE-1 and ESE-3 significantly stimulated SPRR1B promoter activity. Furthermore, preceding SPRR1B transcription, PMA up-regulated mRNA expression of ETS family members such as ESE-1 and ESE-3. Although ESE-1 synergistically activated c-Jun- and PMA-enhanced SPRR1B transcription, coexpression of Sp1 and ESE-1 showed no synergistic or additive effect on promoter activity, indicating an obligatory role for AP-1 proteins in such regulation. In support of this notion, deletion or mutation of two functional TREs inhibited ESE-1- and Sp1-enhanced promoter activation. Thus, the interaction between ESE-1 and Sp1, and AP-1 proteins that bind to the proximal and distal promoter regions, respectively, play a critical role in the induction of squamous differentiation marker expression in bronchial epithelial cells.
Vuong H, Patterson T, Adiseshaiah P, et al.JNK1 and AP-1 regulate PMA-inducible squamous differentiation marker expression in Clara-like H441 cells.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002; 282(2):L215-25 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Exposure of distal bronchiolar region to various toxicants and pollutants suppresses Clara cell differentiation marker expression and greatly enhances the induction of squamous cell differentiation (SCD). Here, we demonstrate for the first time phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate (PMA)-inducible expression of SCD markers, SPRRs, in Clara-like H441 cells. The transcriptional stimulation of human SPRR1B expression is mainly mediated by a -150- to -84-bp region that harbors two critical activator protein (AP)-1 sites. In unstimulated cells, the -150- to -84-bp region is weakly bound by AP-1 proteins, mainly JunD and Fra1. However, PMA prominently induced the binding of JunB and Fra1. Consistent with this, overexpression of wild-type Jun proteins upregulated the SPRR1B promoter activity. Conversely, a c-jun mutant suppressed both basal and PMA-inducible reporter gene expression. Intriguingly, overexpression of fra2 suppressed PMA-inducible reporter activity, whereas fra1 significantly enhanced basal level activity, indicating an opposing role for these proteins in SPRR1B expression in a manner similar to that observed in proximal tracheobronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B clone S6). Interestingly, unlike in S6 cells, a catalytically inactive c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) 1 mutant significantly reduced the PMA-inducible SPRR1B promoter activity in H441 cells. Thus either temporal expression and/or spatial activation of AP-1 proteins by JNK1 might contribute to the induction of SCD in Clara cells.
Patterson T, Vuong H, Liaw YS, et al.Mechanism of repression of squamous differentiation marker, SPRR1B, in malignant bronchial epithelial cells: role of critical TRE-sites and its transacting factors.
Oncogene. 2001; 20(5):634-44 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The overexpression of SPRR1B in bronchial epithelium is a marker for early metaplastic changes and the loss of its expression is associated with an irreversible malignant transformation. In the present study, we have used a model system consisting of normal and malignant bronchial epithelial (BE) cells to elucidate the differential transcriptional control of SPRR1B. SPRR1B expression is either detectable or PMA (phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate) -inducible in several malignant BE cells including squamous, adeno, small and large cell carcinomas. Loss of SPRR1B expression is correlated well with the lack of strong in vivo protein-DNA interactions at the -152 bp promoter, which contains two functional TRE sites. Even though the basal level AP-1 protein DNA binding pattern is different between normal and malignant cells, PMA significantly enhances Jun and Fos binding to the consensus TRE site in both cell types. Intriguingly, the composition of AP-1 protein binding to the -152 to -86 bp SPRR1B promoter is quite different. In untreated cells, SPRR1B promoter is predominantly occupied by JunD and Fra2. PMA significantly induced binding of JunB and Fra1 in normal cells, while JunB and Fra2 bound to TREs in the malignant cells. Overexpression of fra1 in malignant cells significantly enhanced SPRR1B promoter activity. In contrast, overexpression of fra2, but not fra1, strongly reduced both basal and PMA-inducible promoter activities in normal cells. Together, these results indicate that either temporal expression and/or differential activation of AP-1 proteins, especially Fra1 and Fra2, might contribute to the dysregulation of terminal differentiation marker, SPRR1B, expression in various BE cells.
Hippo Y, Yashiro M, Ishii M, et al.Differential gene expression profiles of scirrhous gastric cancer cells with high metastatic potential to peritoneum or lymph nodes.
Cancer Res. 2001; 61(3):889-95 [PubMed
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Scirrhous gastric cancer is often accompanied by metastasis to the peritoneum and/or lymph nodes, resulting in the highest mortality rate among gastric cancers. Mechanisms involved in gastric cancer metastasis are not fully clarified because metastasis involves multiple steps and requires the accumulation of altered expression of many different genes. Thus, independent analysis of any single gene would be insufficient to understand all of the aspects of gastric cancer metastasis. In this study, we performed global analysis on differential gene expression of a scirrhous gastric cancer cell line (OCUM-2M) and its derivative sublines with high potential for metastasis to the peritoneal cavity (OCUM-2MD3) and lymph nodes (OCUM-2MLN) in a nude mice model. By applying a high-density oligonucleotide array method, expression of approximately 6800 genes was analyzed, and selected genes were confirmed by the Northern blot method. In our observations in OCUM-2MD3 cells, 12 genes were up-regulated, and 20 genes were down-regulated. In OCUM-2MLN cells, five genes were up-regulated, and five genes were down-regulated. The analysis revealed two functional gene clusters with altered expression: (a) down-regulation of a cluster of squamous cell differentiation marker genes such as small proline-rich proteins [SPRRs (SPRR1A, SPRR1B, and SPRR2A], annexin A1, epithelial membrane protein 1, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2, and mesothelin in OCUM-2MD3 cells; and (b) up-regulation of a cluster of antigen-presenting genes such as MHC class II (DP, DR, and DM) and invariant chain (II) in OCUM-2MLN cells through up-regulation of CIITA (MHC class II transactivator). We then analyzed six gastric cancer cell lines by Northern blot and observed preferential up-regulation of trefoil factor 1, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and galectin 4 and down-regulation of cytidine deaminase in cells prone to peritoneal dissemination. Genes highly correlated with invasion or peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer, such as E-cadherin or integrin beta4, were down-regulated in both of the derivative cell lines analyzed in this study. This is the first demonstration of global gene expression analysis of gastric cancer cells with different metastatic potentials, and these results provide a new insight in the study of human gastric cancer metastasis.
Zucchini C, Strippoli P, Rosati G, et al.Expression analysis and mutational screening of the epithelium-specific ets gene-1 (ESE-1) in patients with squamous anal cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2000; 17(2):265-70 [PubMed
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To investigate whether ESE-1 gene abnormalities are involved in alterations of epithelial cell differentiation in squamous anal cancer ESE-1 expression and structure were screened in six patients by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and automated sequence analysis. The complete cDNA of isoform ESE-1b was always expressed and correctly spliced, with single nucleotide polymorphism being observed in two cases. Presence of ESE-1b point mutations was excluded. Expression of SPRR2A and ENDOA/CK8, two epithelium-specific ESE-1 target genes, were revealed by RT-PCR in all cases. This first report of expression of ESE-1, and of SPRR2A and ENDOA/CK8 (both related to terminal differentiation in different types of epithelia lining) in anal cancer excludes the hypothesis that these genes influenced carcinogenesis in our patients. Despite selecting of patients without clinical evidence of HPV infection, PCR consistently revealed HPV-16 DNA, highlighting the importance of HPV infection in anal cancer.
Lau D, Xue L, Hu R, et al.Expression and regulation of a molecular marker, SPR1, in multistep bronchial carcinogenesis.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000; 22(1):92-6 [PubMed
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A small proline-rich protein, SPR1, is overexpressed in squamous metaplasia of bronchial epithelium. We studied the expression and regulation of SPR1 in a series of human bronchial epithelial cell lines representing a model of multistep bronchial carcinogenesis. These cell lines included a primary culture of tracheobronchial epithelial cells (HTBE), a papilloma virus-transformed tracheobronchial epithelial cell line (HBE1), a cell line selected from HBE1 by a tobacco carcinogen and a phorbol ester (HBE1-C), a simian virus-transformed bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), and a lung carcinoma cell line (H460). Different tumorigenic potentials of these cell lines were indicated by graded levels of telomerase activity. Concomitant with squamous transformation, there was an increase in SPR1 expression in HTBE, HBE1, and HBE1-C that was reversible by vitamin A. With progression of tumorigenicity, there was a marked reduction in SPR1 expression in BEAS-2B and a total loss of expression in H460. In these latter cell lines representing advanced malignant transformation, there was a loss of up- and downregulation, respectively, by the phorbol ester and vitamin A. Transfection study with chimeric constructs of the SPR1 promoter and a reporter gene showed that the dysregulation of SPR1 expression in malignant transformation was a result of perturbation of the basal and enhancer elements of the first 162 nucleotides in the 5'-flanking promoter region of the SPR1 gene. These findings suggest an association of transcriptional dysregulation of the SPR1 gene with multistep bronchial carcinogenesis.
Anisowicz A, Sotiropoulou G, Sager RRe-expression of SPR1 in breast cancer cells by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or UV irradiation is mediated by the AP-1 binding site in the SPR1 promoter.
Mol Med. 1999; 5(8):526-41 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Invasive tumor cells are characterized by multiple phenotypic changes as a result of the large number of cDNAs being differentially expressed in tumor cells compared to normal progenitors. Expression genetics focuses on changes at the RNA level with the aim of identifying functionally important genes whose aberrant expression in cancer cells is regulated at the level of transcription. These genes were named class II genes and are distinguished from class I genes, which are characterized by genomic mutations, deletions, or other alterations. Reversal of the tumor cell phenotype accompanying normalization of the expression of such genes may be exploited therapeutically if gene expression can be specifically modulated by drugs or other treatments. Considering that genes are coordinately regulated in complex networks, it is likely that the expression of multiple genes can be simultaneously modulated in tumor cells by drugs acting on the signal transduction pathway that regulates their expression. The SPR1 gene is associated with differentiation and its expression is down-regulated or inactivated in malignant cells. Analysis of the SPR1 promoter showed that down-regulation of SPR1 expression in breast tumor cells occurs at the level of transcription. SPR1 presents an example of class II genes, since its expression was up-regulated in tumor cells by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SPR1 gene was identified by differential display on the basis of its reduced or absent expression in human breast tumor cell lines compared to normal mammary epithelial cell strains. Differential expression was confirmed by Northern blot analysis employing multiple normal and tumor cell lines. The promoter region -619 to +15 of the SPR1 gene was sequenced and analyzed by CAT assays, deletion analysis, and mutagenesis. Up-regulation of SPR1 expression by PMA and UV irradiation was monitored by Northern analysis and analyzed by CAT assays.
RESULTS: The mechanism of down-regulation of SPR1 expression in breast tumor cells was investigated. It was found that the -619 to +15 upstream promoter region is sufficient for SPR1 expression in normal breast cells, but it is transcriptionally silent in most breast tumor cell lines. By deletion analysis and mutagenesis, two upstream cis-acting promoter elements were identified. Our data indicate that the AP-1 element located between -139 and -133 acts as a major enhancer of SPR1 transcription only in normal mammary epithelial cells but not in corresponding tumor cells, whereas the sequences flanking the AP-1 site do not affect its promoter enhancing activity. In addition, a transcriptional repressor was identified that binds unknown factor(s) and is active in both normal and tumor breast cells. Inhibitor function was mapped to a 35-bp element located from -178 to -139 upstream of the human SPR1 mRNA start site. The expression of SPR1 could be induced in the 21MT-2 metastatic breast tumor cell line by PMA treatment or by short UV irradiation via a transcriptional mechanism. AP-1 is the cis element mediating the transcriptional activation of SPR1 by PMA, which induces the expression of AP-1 factors in 21MT-2 cells. Mutation of the AP-1 site abolishes the induction of SPR1 expression by PMA.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that loss of SPR1 expression in breast tumor cells results from impaired transactivation through the AP-1 site in the SPR1 promoter, as well as from the presence of a negative regulatory element active in both normal and tumor cells. Furthermore, our results provide a basis for therapeutic manipulation of down-regulated genes, such as SPR1, in human cancers.
Tesfaigzi J, Carlson DMExpression, regulation, and function of the SPR family of proteins. A review.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 1999; 30(2):243-65 [PubMed
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The small, proline-rich (SPR) genes consist of three subclasses closely linked on human chromosome 1, a region referred to as the epidermal differentiation complex. SPR genes consist of two exons, with the second exon containing the entire open reading frame. SPRs are expressed in all squamous tissues of the skin, scalp, footpad, vaginal epithelia, and most of the epithelial lining of the digestive tract, including the lip, tongue, esophagus, and forestomach. Although SPR1 is absent in normal mucociliary epithelium of the respiratory tract, epithelia that undergo squamous differentiation in response to vitamin-A deficiency or to injury owing to exposure to environmental toxicants express SPR1. High levels of SPR1 are detected in various diseases and cancers of the skin or respiratory epithelia and in nonkeratinizing papillary adenocarcinomas. SPR expression can be regulated by transcriptional factors, by posttranscriptional factors, or by factors that affect SPR1 mRNA translation or protein turnover. Furthermore, regulation can be affected by the state of cell proliferation. The presence of SPR1 in most of these epithelia, and the absence of SPR3 in normal skin, suggest that these subclasses have distinct functions. Various approaches to the study of the cross-linked envelope (CE) components in identifying SPR1 and SPR2 and in suggesting that SPRs are one of the precursor proteins of the CE. However, expression of SPR1 in nonsquamous tissues and cell lines indicates a function not associated with squamous differentiation. Several studies have demonstrated that SPR1 antibodies react with nuclear proteins and that SPR1 is expressed in cells before entering the G0 phase of the cell cycle. Future studies should clarify the role of SPRs by modifying their contents in CE, and should identify SPR-associated proteins to clarify the cell growth-related role of SPR1.
DeMuth JP, Weaver DA, Crawford EL, et al.Loss of spr1 expression measurable by quantitative RT-PCR in human bronchogenic carcinoma cell lines.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1998; 19(1):25-9 [PubMed
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Expression of the small, proline-rich protein (spr1) squamous differentiation marker was measured in five cultured normal and 12 malignant human bronchial epithelial cell (BEC) populations by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Whereas spr1 expression was quantifiable and inducible in all five cultured normal cell populations, in all 12 carcinoma cell lines evaluated it was neither quantifiable nor inducible. Primers spanning the entire spr1 coding sequence amplified full-length PCR product from genomic DNA; therefore, large deletions in the coding region were not responsible for the loss of expression measurable by RT-PCR. This is the first molecular genetic marker reported that distinguishes all normal from all carcinoma cell populations evaluated. Because the spr1 protein is a component of the crosslinked envelope that forms during the squamous differentiation process, we hypothesize that the apparent loss of spr1 gene expression disrupts mechanisms for terminal squamous differentiation in the bronchial epithelium, thereby contributing to malignant transformation.
Jetten AM, Harvat BLEpidermal differentiation and squamous metaplasia: from stem cell to cell death.
J Dermatol. 1997; 24(11):711-25 [PubMed
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Epidermal differentiation is a multi-step process defined by a cascade of interrelated changes in the expression of growth-regulatory and differentiation-specific genes (Fig. 1). Irreversible growth arrest is an early event in epidermal differentiation which occurs when cells transit from the basal to the innermost suprabasal layer of the skin and begin to express squamous-specific genes. In culture, interferon gamma, phorbol esters, confluence and growth in suspension are effective signals to induce irreversible growth arrest and differentiation. The induction of differentiation-specific genes occurs either concomitantly with or following growth arrest and is believed to be linked to the molecular events that control irreversible growth arrest. Such a link has been demonstrated in other cell systems undergoing terminal differentiation, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis. Genes encoding proteins involved in the formation of the cross-linked envelope are one set of squamous-specific genes which are induced in the suprabasal layers and include transglutaminase I and III, involucrin, loricrin and cornifins/small proline-rich proteins. Squamous-specific genes exhibit not only different patterns of tissue-specific expression but are also induced at different stages during differentiation, suggesting that transcription of individual genes is regulated by distinct mechanisms. The latter is supported by the identification of different sets of regulatory elements controlling the transcription of these genes. The importance of understanding both the mechanisms that regulate growth arrest and the differentiation program is emphasized by the association found between specific skin diseases and genetic alterations in growth-regulatory genes as well as differentiation markers. In addition, studies into those mechanisms will provide insight into the control of squamous metaplasia and the development of squamous cell carcinomas.
Copper MP, Klaassen I, Brakenhoff RH, et al.All-trans retinoic acid induced gene expression and growth inhibition in head and neck cancer cell lines.
Oral Oncol. 1997; 33(4):270-4 [PubMed
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Retinoids are natural and synthetic analogues of vitamin A and have proven activity in various types of cancer. As for head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC), retinoids are especially active in leukoplakia and in preventing second primary cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the growth inhibiting activity of all-trans retinoic acid (all-trans RA) in a panel of six head and neck squamous cell cancer cell lines and to correlate this response to the mRNA expression of factors related to differentiation and receptor mediated signal transduction. Three lines showed minimal, two moderate and one strong growth inhibition after 72 h exposure to all-trans RA. Three lines with a dissimilar response were selected for further studies, the measurement of mRNA expression by northern blotting. It was found that neither the expression nor the induction of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-alpha and -gamma and retinoic X receptor-alpha mRNA war related to sensitivity. The mRNA expression of RAR-beta was too low to be measured in the three cell lines. The most sensitive cell line was, however, the only one that expressed mRNA of squamous differentiation markers. These data suggest a relationship between the retinoid sensitivity profile and the degree of cellular differentiation.
Lohman FP, Gibbs S, Fischer DF, et al.Involvement of c-JUN in the regulation of terminal differentiation genes in normal and malignant keratinocytes.
Oncogene. 1997; 14(13):1623-7 [PubMed
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In stratifying cultures of human keratinocytes, expression of the proto-oncoprotein c-JUN and the small proline rich 2 (SPRR2) protein, a precursor of the cornified cell envelope, are inversely related. Whereas c-JUN is typically found in basal proliferating cells, SPRR2 is restricted to suprabasal differentiating layers. Malignant keratinocytes (derived from squamous cell carcinoma, SCC) have reduced sprr2 expression, consistent with their low potential to differentiate, and express c-jun at higher levels than normal keratinocytes. A direct relation between c-jun and sprr2 expression was shown in several ways: transient ectopic expression of c-jun inhibits sprr2a promoter activity in normal differentiating cells, whereas in malignant keratinocytes a dominant negative c-jun mutant restored at least partially both the low promoter activity and the expression of endogenous sprr2. These effects are mediated via a 134 bp promoter fragment which does not include the sprr2a AP-1 binding site. Interestingly, in an SCC cell line, constitutively expressing the dominant c-jun mutant, expression of the terminal differentiation marker involucrin is also strongly increased, suggesting that c-JUN is a general modulator of keratinocyte terminal differentiation rather than only affecting the expression of sprr2.
Lohman FP, Medema JK, Gibbs S, et al.Expression of the SPRR cornification genes is differentially affected by carcinogenic transformation.
Exp Cell Res. 1997; 231(1):141-8 [PubMed
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The small proline rich protein (SPRR) genes constitute a family of conserved genes which are part of the human epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) on chromosome 1q21 and code for precursor proteins of the cornified cell envelope. The expression of these genes is strictly linked to keratinocyte terminal differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Here we show that cultured cell lines derived from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) show significantly lower levels of SPRR expression than normal human keratinocytes. However, the residual SPRR expression in SCC lines appears to be both gene and cell line specific. Expression of SPRR2 appears to correlate well with the residual ability of these cells to differentiate. However, the kinetics of SPRR2 expression, following treatment with calcium, an inducer of keratinocyte differentiation, are typical for each cell line and differ substantially from the ones found in normal cells. In most cell lines a rapid transient expression of SPRR2 contrasts with a slow induction leading to a high sustained level of expression in normal cells. This pattern of expression is typical for SPRR2 and not observed for the other SPRR genes or involucrin. Our analysis indicates that the expression of various keratinocyte terminal differentiation markers, even when involved in the same biological process (cornification), can be differentially affected by carcinogenic transformation.
Abraham JM, Wang S, Suzuki H, et al.Esophagin cDNA cloning and characterization: a tissue-specific member of the small proline-rich protein family that is not expressed in esophageal tumors.
Cell Growth Differ. 1996; 7(7):855-60 [PubMed
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Cancer may be understood as the net effect of differences in gene expression between normal and transformed cells. In a novel direct approach applying this principle, complete genes expressed at altered mRNA levels in malignant versus normal esophageal epithelium were identified and isolated from cDNA libraries. One clone was expressed in normal esophageal mucosae but absent in esophageal carcinomas. By in situ hybridization, Northern blotting, and immunohistochemistry, expression of this gene was restricted to normal esophageal mucosa; it is designated esophagin. Esophagin expression was greatest in the superficial, most mature layers of esophageal squamous mucosa and was restricted to this organ, being undetectable in other squamous epithelia. A genomic clone localized esophagin to chromosomal region 1q21-q22. The expressed protein contains multiple direct repeats of an 8-amino acid motif rich in proline, with significant homology to the cornifin, pig 20K, monkey MT5, and human small proline-rich genes spri and spril. Esophagin constitutes the newest and largest member of this small proline-rich gene family and is associated with differentiation and the benign phenotype of the human esophageal epithelial cell.