Gene Summary

Gene:SRY; sex determining region Y
Aliases: TDF, TDY, SRXX1, SRXY1
Summary:This intronless gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA-binding proteins. This protein is the testis-determining factor (TDF), which initiates male sex determination. Mutations in this gene give rise to XY females with gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome); translocation of part of the Y chromosome containing this gene to the X chromosome causes XX male syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:sex-determining region Y protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Loss of SRY in prostate cancer

Latest Publications

Lau YF, Zhang J
Expression analysis of thirty one Y chromosome genes in human prostate cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2000; 27(4):308-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rapid advances in positional cloning studies have identified most of the genes on the human Y chromosome, thereby providing resources for studying the expression of its genes in prostate cancer. Using a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure, we had examined the expression of the Y chromosome genes in a panel of prostate samples diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), low and/or high grade carcinoma, and the prostatic cell line, LNCaP, stimulated by androgen treatment. Results from this expression analysis of 31 of the 33 genes, isolated so far from the Y chromosome, revealed three types of expression patterns: i) specific expression in other tissues (e.g., AMELY, BPY1, BPY2, CDY, and RBM); ii) ubiquitous expression among prostate and control testis samples, similar to those of house-keeping genes (e.g., ANT3, XE7,ASMTL, IL3RA, SYBL1, TRAMP, MIC2, DBY, RPS4Y, and SMCY); iii) differential expression in prostate and testis samples. The last group includes X-Y homologous (e.g., ZFY, PRKY, DFFRY, TB4Y, EIF1AY, and UTY) and Y-specific genes (e.g., SRY, TSPY, PRY, and XKRY). Androgen stimulation of the LNCaP cells resulted in up-regulation of PGPL, CSFR2A, IL3RA, TSPY, and IL9R and down regulation of SRY, ZFY, and DFFRY. The heterogeneous and differential expression patterns of the Y chromosome genes raise the possibility that some of these genes are either involved in or are affected by the oncogenic processes of the prostate. The up- and down-regulation of several Y chromosome genes by androgen suggest that they may play a role(s) in the hormonally stimulated proliferation of the responsive LNCaP cells.

Perinchery G, Sasaki M, Angan A, et al.
Deletion of Y-chromosome specific genes in human prostate cancer.
J Urol. 2000; 163(4):1339-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The present study is based on the hypothesis that deletion of Y-chromosome-specific genes is associated with prostate cancer. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the deletion of six Y-chromosome-specific genes in prostate cancer samples.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty human prostate cancer specimens were processed for microdissection of pure epithelial cells. DNA was extracted from these cells and amplified using PCR and analyzed for loss of six different Y-chromosome-specific genes (SRY, ZFY, BPY1, SMCY, RBM1 and BPY2). We used D8S262 primer (chromosome 8p23) for internal control to assess the quality and loading of DNA for each sample.
RESULTS: Deletion was observed in most of the prostate cancer specimens with at least one Y-chromosome-specific gene. The loss of SRY gene (Yp11.32) was shown in 38% of cases whereas the other genes show 18% loss in ZFY (Yp11.31), 14% in BPY1 (Yq11.2), 52% in SMCY (Yq11.22), 32% in RBM1 (Yq11.23) and 42% in BPY2 (Yq12.1). The loss of most genes analyzed is seen more frequent in advanced stages and grades of prostate cancer.
CONCLUSION: There was a significant loss of Y-chromosome-specific genes in prostate cancer. The loss of SRY and BPY2 genes was more frequent in higher stages and grades of prostate cancer. This is the first report to demonstrate that the loss of Y-chromosome-specific genes is associated with prostate cancer, suggesting their role in pathogenesis of this disease.

Latest Publications: SRY (cancer-related)

Kurnaz E, Çetinkaya S, Savaş-Erdeve Ş, Aycan Z
Detection of the SRY gene in patients with Turner Syndrome.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod. 2019; 48(4):265-267 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: If turner syndrome (TS) patients have a Y-containing cell line, they have an increased risk for gonadal tumors. TS patients are therefore screened for Y-chromosome and Y-specific sequences, such as SRY, DYZ1, DYZ3, DYS132, ZFY, TSPY, etc. In addition, since the dysgenetic gonad may include the stroma and granulosa/sertoli cells, which produce androgens, virilization can seen in girls with Y-chromosomal material. Prophylactic gonadectomy may therefore be required for optimal management in such patients. Our aim is to discuss our observations in the follow-up of TS patients.
METHODS: SRY was investigated in 71 out of 85 TS cases (aged 3 months-27 years) between 2005 and 2017. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used until 2014, after which SRY analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. SRY analysis was performed a second time using PCR in 25 cases previously investigated with FISH.
RESULTS: We identified no positive cases. No pathological findings in terms of virilization, clitoromegaly, or posterior labial adhesions were also determined in our TS cases. Further studies were not required since no pathological findings also were detected at ultrasonography.
CONCLUSION: If Y-chromosome material has not been detected by conventional cytogenetic methods in TS patients with masculine features, further techniques should be applied to prevent the risk of invasive tumors, such as multiple sequences beside the Y centromere. This approach will prevent overtreatment.

Fathi AT, Hobbs G, Dey BR, Chen YB
Lenalidomide combined with mismatched microtransplantation for acute myeloid leukemia.
Am J Hematol. 2018; 93(10):E331-E333 [PubMed] Related Publications

Andonova S, Robeva R, Sirakov M, et al.
A Novel SRY Gene Mutation p.F109L in a 46,XY Female with Complete Gonadal Dysgenesis.
Sex Dev. 2015; 9(6):333-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD) is a disorder of sexual development that can result from different mutations in genes associated with sex determination. Patients are phenotypically females, and the disease is often diagnosed in late adolescence because of delayed puberty. Here, we present the clinical and molecular data of a 46,XY female CGD patient with gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma and incidentally found inherited thrombophilia. The clinical significance of the described de novo SRY gene mutation c.325T>C (p.F109L) is discussed. This case report supports the critical role of the HGM domain in the SRY gene and the need of a multidisciplinary approach for CGD patients.

Nemescu D, Ursu RG, Nemescu ER, Negura L
Heterogeneous Distribution of Fetal Microchimerism in Local Breast Cancer Environment.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0147675 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fetal cells enter maternal circulation during pregnancy and persist in the woman's body for decades, achieving a form of physiological microchimerism. These cells were also evidenced in tumors. We investigated the frequency and concentration of fetal microchimerism in the local breast cancer environment. From 19 patients with confirmed breast neoplasia, after breast surgical resection, we collected three fresh specimens from the tumor core, breast tissue at tumor periphery, and adjacent normal breast tissue. The presence of male DNA was analyzed with a quantitative PCR assay for the sex determining region gene (SRY) gene. In the group of women who had given birth to at least one son, we detected fetal microchimerism in 100% of samples from tumors and their periphery and in 64% (9 of 14) of those from normal breast tissue. The tissues from the tumor and its periphery carry a significantly increased number of SRY copies compared to its neighboring common breast tissue (p = 0.005). The median of the normalized SRY-signal was about 77 (range, 3.2-21467) and 14-fold (range, 1.3-2690) greater in the tumor and respectively in the periphery than in the normal breast tissue. In addition, the relative expression of the SRY gene had a median 5.5 times larger in the tumor than in its periphery (range, 1.1-389.4). We found a heterogeneous distribution of fetal microchimerism in breast cancer environment. In women with sons, breast neoplasia harbors male cells at significantly higher levels than in peripheral and normal breast tissue.

Çatlı G, Alparslan C, Can PŞ, et al.
An Unusual Presentation of 46,XY Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis: Spontaneous Breast Development and Menstruation.
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2015; 7(2):159-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is characterized by normal female genitalia at birth. It usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and amenorrhea. Rarely, patients can present with spontaneous breast development and/or menstruation. A fifteen-year-old girl presented to our clinic with the complaint of primary amenorrhea. On physical examination, her external genitals were completely female. Breast development and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner stage V. Hormonal evaluation revealed a hypergonadotropic state despite a normal estrogen level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Pelvic ultrasonography showed small gonads and a normal sized uterus for age. SRY gene expression was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Direct sequencing on genomic DNA did not reveal a mutation in the SRY, SF1 and WT1 genes. After the diagnosis of Swyer syndrome was made, the patient started to have spontaneous menstrual cycles and therefore failed to attend her follow-up visits. After nine months, the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy. Frozen examination of multiple biopsies from gonad tissues revealed gonadoblastoma. With this report, we emphasize the importance of performing karyotype analysis, which is diagnostic for Swyer syndrome, in all cases with primary or secondary amenorrhea even in the presence of normal breast development. We also suggest that normal pubertal development in patients with Swyer syndrome may be associated with the presence of a hormonally active tumor.

Bianco B, Oliveira KC, Guedes AD, et al.
OCT4 gonadal gene expression related to the presence of Y-chromosome sequences in Turner syndrome.
Fertil Steril. 2010; 94(6):2347-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
To show that in the dysgenetic gonads of 104 Turner syndrome patients no significant difference was found regarding the expression of the genes DAX1, FOG2, GATA4, OCT4, SF1, SRY, TSPY, WT1, and STRA8 compared with controls, except for genes OCT4, SRY, and TSPY in both gonads of a patient whose chromosomal constitution was 45,X/45,X,add(15)(p11). The expression analysis of genes OCT4, SRY, and TSPY in the dysgenetic gonads of Turner syndrome patients may allow introducing modifications in the microenvironment that could contributed to a malignant transformation process.

Bianco B, Lipay M, Guedes A, et al.
SRY gene increases the risk of developing gonadoblastoma and/or nontumoral gonadal lesions in Turner syndrome.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2009; 28(2):197-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence of Y-chromosome material in patients with dysgenetic gonads increases the risk of gonadal tumors and/or nontumoral androgen-producing lesions. The patients' prognosis can vary, depending on their karyotype. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Y-chromosome mosaicism in Turner syndrome patients and its association with the development of gonadal tumors and/or nontumoral androgen-producing lesions. Eighty-seven Turner syndrome patients were studied. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and genes SRY and TSPY and DYZ3 repeat of the Y chromosome were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. To the Y-positive patients, prophylactic gonadectomy was offered. The data disclosed hidden Y-chromosome mosaicism in 16 (18.5%) of the patients. SRY sequence was detected in all of the 16 patients, and 4 (4.6%) of them presented DYZ3 repeat region and TSPY gene. Eleven of the patients with Y-positive sequences agreed to undergo the prophylactic surgery. In 2 cases, bilateral gonadoblastoma was found and, in another case, the histopathologic study of the gonads revealed hilus cell hyperplasia. In a further case, there were hilus cell hyperplasia and a stromal luteoma. In conclusion, a systematic search for hidden Y-chromosome mosaicism, especially SRY, in Turner syndrome patients is justified by the possibility of preventing gonadal lesions.

Simon RA, Laughlin TS, Nuccie B, et al.
A 46 XY phenotypic female adolescent with bilateral gonadal tumors consisting of five different components.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008; 27(3):407-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
46 XY gonadal dysgenesis patients often develop gonadal tumors, including gonadoblastoma and other types of germ cell tumors. We report a case of a 16-year-old female adolescent with primary amenorrhea and a right adnexal mass. Subsequent study revealed that she is a 46 XY phenotypic female adolescent with complete gonadal dysgenesis and with no alterations of the sex-determining region Y gene. Microscopic examination of the gonads revealed bilateral gonadoblastoma mixed with dysgerminoma and mature teratoma. The tumor in the right gonad was also mixed with yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma with rhabdomyoblastic components, mimicking adult rhabdomyoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. No metastasis in the regional lymph nodes was identified and the patient is disease free 15 months postsurgery. The complexity of the tumorigenesis in this case indicates that the gonadal cells in gonadal dysgenesis are extremely unstable and highly tumorigenic. This tumorigenesis is not necessarily associated with sex-determining region Y gene alterations; therefore, it reinforces the recommendation of gonadectomy for gonadal dysgenesis patients, regardless of the sex-determining region Y gene status.

Zhang W, Glöckner SC, Guo M, et al.
Epigenetic inactivation of the canonical Wnt antagonist SRY-box containing gene 17 in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(8):2764-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SRY-box containing gene 17 (Sox17) is a member of the high mobility group (HMG) transcription factor superfamily, which plays critical roles in the regulation of development and stem/precursor cell function, at least partly through repression of Wnt pathway activity. Modulators controlling aberrant Wnt signaling activation are frequently disrupted in human cancers through complementary effects of epigenetic and genetic changes. Our recent global analysis of CpG island hypermethylation and gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines revealed that SOX17 gene silencing is associated with DNA hypermethylation of a CpG island in the promoter region. Here, we report that CpG island methylation-dependent silencing of SOX17 occurs in 100% of CRC cell lines, 86% of colorectal adenomas, 100% of stage I and II CRC, 89% of stage III CRC, 89% of primary esophageal cancer, and 50% of non-small cell lung cancer. Overexpression of SOX17 in HCT116 CRC cells inhibits colony growth and beta-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent transcription. Structure-based deletion analysis further shows the presence of a Wnt signaling repression domain in the SOX17 HMG box. Together, our studies suggest that SOX17 is a negative modulator of canonical Wnt signaling, and that SOX17 silencing due to promoter hypermethylation is an early event during tumorigenesis and may contribute to aberrant activation of Wnt signaling in CRC.

Stewart CJ, Baker E, Beaton C, et al.
Detection of Y-chromosome in gonadal tumours using fluorescence in situ hybridization: diagnostic value in intersex conditions including older patients with clinically unsuspected androgen insensitivity syndrome.
Histopathology. 2008; 52(2):175-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To evaluate fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for SRY, the testis-determining gene on the Y-chromosome, in gonadal specimens from patients with intersex disorders including two older individuals presenting with Sertoli cell adenomas and clinically unsuspected androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS).
METHODS AND RESULTS: FISH, using probes for SRY and the X-centromere, was performed on two Sertoli cell adenomas presenting as ovarian masses in phenotypic females aged 62 and 73 years with previously undiagnosed AIS. Gonadal biopsies and tumours from eight additional patients with known intersex disorders and XY phenotype were also studied. Signal for SRY was demonstrated in at least one specimen from all patients, and from 16/18 (89%) specimens overall. The specificity of FISH was determined by analysis of 10 sporadic ovarian tumours including six dysgerminomas and four Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours: all cases expressed a female XX chromosomal signal.
CONCLUSIONS: The demonstration of SRY using FISH is useful in the assessment of gonadal specimens from patients with intersex disorders, particularly in older individuals where the diagnosis may be unsuspected clinically. However, it may be necessary to examine multiple specimens in some cases to confirm the presence of Y-chromosomal material.

Modi D, Bhartiya D
Y chromosome mosaicism and occurrence of gonadoblastoma in cases of Turner syndrome and amenorrhoea.
Reprod Biomed Online. 2007; 15(5):547-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, 73 cases with a clinical diagnosis of Turner syndrome, or with primary or secondary amenorrhoea without frank Turner phenotype, were evaluated for presence of low level Y chromosome mosaicism using molecular methods. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization for centromere and q arm of the Y chromosome and nested polymerase chain reaction for the sex determining region on Y (SRY) gene were performed in peripheral blood, buccal cells and gonadal biopsies. The overall frequency of Y chromosome mosaicism was found to be 18% (13/73 cases). Four cases (16%) of Turner syndrome had Y chromosome mosaicism, seven cases (28%) with primary amenorrhoea and two cases (9%) with secondary amenorrhoea had Y chromosome mosaicism. Histologically detectable gonadoblastoma was observed in one of seven cases (14%) that had Y chromosome mosaicism. This frequency is lower than that reported previously, underscoring the need for large prospective investigations to determine the frequency of Y chromosome mosaicism and occurrence of gonadoblastoma in cases of Turner syndrome and other forms of amenorrhoea.

Zieliñska D, Zajaczek S, Rzepka-Górska I
Tumors of dysgenetic gonads in Swyer syndrome.
J Pediatr Surg. 2007; 42(10):1721-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The female with Swyer syndrome requires close follow-up because of the high risk of neoplastic transformation in the dysgenetic gonads. The aim of this work was to present our experience with tumors in patients with Swyer syndrome.
METHODS: We studied 8 females with Swyer syndrome. At the time of diagnosis, they were 13 to 18 years old. We performed an ultrasound examination of dysgenetic gonads, hormonal (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and testosterone) and genetic (SRY, karyotype) tests, and histologic analysis of gonads (bilateral gonadectomy was performed in all patients).
RESULTS: Gonadal tumors were found in 6 patients (3 cases of gonadoblastoma, 1 dysgerminoma, and 2 gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma). Hormonal activity of gonadoblastoma was noted in 3 patients, with 1 tumor producing androgens.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that patents with gonadal dysgenesis and 46,XY karyotype should be referred for bilateral gonadectomy because of the high risk of neoplastic transformation. Estrogen-producing gonadoblastoma may mask gonadal dysgenesis and delay the diagnosis of this pathology.

Heine-Suñer D, Torres-Juan L, Gómez C, et al.
Gene symbol: SRY.
Hum Genet. 2007; 120(6):909 [PubMed] Related Publications

Mazzanti L, Cicognani A, Baldazzi L, et al.
Gonadoblastoma in Turner syndrome and Y-chromosome-derived material.
Am J Med Genet A. 2005; 135(2):150-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The identification of Y-chromosome material is important in females with Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS) due to the risk of developing gonadoblastoma or other gonadal tumors. There is controversy regarding the frequency of the Y-chromosome-derived material and the occurrence of gonadoblastoma in these patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate a large number of patients with UTS, followed before and during the pubertal age for the prevalence of Y-chromosome derived material, the occurrence of gonadoblastoma, and the incidence of possible neoplastic degeneration. An unselected series of 171 patients with UTS (1-34 years old), diagnosed cytogenetically, was studied for Y-chromosome markers (SRY and Y-centromeric DYZ3 repeats). The follow-up was of 2-22 years; 101 of these patients were followed during pubertal age. Y-chromosome material was found in 14 patients (8%): 12 of these were gonadectomized (2.8-25.9 years). A gonadoblastoma was detected in four patients under 16 years of age: in two, Y-material was detected only at molecular analysis (at conventional cytogenetic analysis, one was included in the 45,X group and one in the X + mar group) and one had also an immature teratoma and an endodermal sinus carcinoma. The prevalence of gonadoblastoma in our series of gonadectomized UTS patients with Y-positive material was of 33.3% (4/12). Our data suggest that the age of appearance and the possibility of malignant degeneration of gonadoblastoma can occur early in life. These patients, in particular those with 45,X or a marker chromosome may benefit from molecular screening to detect the presence of Y-chromosome material; PCR is a rapid and inexpensive technique. At the moment, laparoscopy and preventive gonadectomy performed as soon as possible remain the procedures of choice for patients with UTS, when Y-chromosome has been identified, as we are still unable to predict a future malignant evolution of gonadoblastoma.

Cioni R, Bussani C, Scarselli B, et al.
Detection of fetal DNA in the peritoneal cavity during pregnancy.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003; 107(2):210-1 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is increasing evidence that fetal cells are commonly shed toward the cervix and in maternal circulation during pregnancy. In this study, a sample of peritoneal fluid was retrieved from a primigravida at 12 weeks' gestation undergoing urgent intervention for the torsion of an adnexal mass; the sample was then analysed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers for X- and Y-chromosome specific sequences, and Y-derived sequences were identified. The course of pregnancy was then uneventful until term, when the patient delivered a male fetus, thus, supporting the hypothesis of a fetal origin for the Y-derived sequences detected in the peritoneal fluid. Further studies are required in order to confirm these findings and precisely define the origin of these sequences; however, this report seems to provide further evidence of the spreading of fetal cells during gestation and addresses relevant issues as to the possibility of collecting these cells by culdocentesis and intraperitoneal lavage for prenatal diagnosis.

Wang LJ, Chou P, Gonzalez-Ryan L, et al.
Evaluation of mixed hematopoietic chimerism in pediatric patients with leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation by quantitative PCR analysis of variable number of tandem repeat and testis determination gene.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002; 29(1):51-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to monitor the clinical outcome of pediatric patients with leukemia following allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation, tests of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) and sex determination by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. PCR results combined with the blast counts from 21 leukemia patients were analyzed. Complete chimerism (100% donor cells) was found in 15 cases with remission, and incomplete chimerism in six cases with relapse. In the majority of cases, complete chimerism was always associated with no detectable blasts, while blasts were often detected in association with incomplete chimerism. There is significant correlation (P<0.0001) between the percentage of donor DNA and blast percentage in these patients. Early detection of incomplete chimerism may therefore predict a poor prognosis. In one patient (case 15), a differing percentage of donor DNA was observed between samples of bone marrow and peripheral blood collected on the same day. This may be due to the fact that allogeneic stem cells proliferate at different rates depending on their environment (bone marrow or peripheral blood). In addition, 100% donor cells found in the peripheral blood may not reflect the number of cells in the bone marrow. In case 17, asynchronous engraftment of donor cells was present between the white and red blood cell lineages, indicating that the degree of chimerism may not be the same in all cell lineages. At the time of this report, the significance of this observation is unknown and needs further investigation.

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