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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2008: 45.0m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 58,500
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 150.2
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:15.3%
People dying from cancer /yr: 34,000
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2008)
Colombia: Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications from Colombia

Colombia: Cancer Organisations and Resources (6 links)

Latest Research Publications from Colombia

Bohorquez M, Sahasrabudhe R, Criollo A, et al.
Clinical manifestations of colorectal cancer patients from a large multicenter study in Colombia.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(40):e4883 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health problem, and its incidence is rising in developing countries. However, studies characterizing CRC clinicopathological features in cases from developing countries are still lacking. The goal of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological and demographic features in one of the largest CRC studies in Latin America.The study involved over 1525 CRC cases recruited in a multicenter study in Colombia between 2005 and 2014 as part of ongoing genetic and epidemiological studies. We gathered clinicopathological data such as age at diagnosis, sex, body mass index, tobacco and alcohol consumption, family history of cancer, and tumor features including location, histological type, and stage. Statistical analyses were performed to test the association between age of onset, sex, and clinical manifestations.The average age at CRC diagnosis was 57.4 years, with 26.5% of cases having early-onset CRC (diagnosed by age 50 years). Most cases were women (53.2%; P = 0.009), 49.2% were overweight or obese, 49.1% were regular alcohol drinkers, 52% were smokers/former smokers, and 12.2% reported relatives with cancer. Most tumors in the study were located in the rectum (42.7%), were adenocarcinomas (91.5%), and had advanced stage (T3-T4, 79.8%). Comparisons by sex found that male cases were more likely to be obese (36.5% vs 31.1%; P = 0.001), less likely to have a family history of cancer (9.7% vs 15.3%; P = 0.016), and more likely to have advanced-stage tumors (83.9% vs 76.1%; P = 0.036). Comparisons by age of onset found that early-onset cases were more likely to be women (59.3% vs 51.0%; P = 0.005) and report a family history of cancer (17.4% vs 10.2%; P = 0.001).To our knowledge, our study is the largest report of clinicopathological characterization of Hispanic CRC cases, and we suggest that further studies are needed to understand CRC etiology in diverse Hispanic populations.

Estrada-Florez AP, Bohórquez ME, Sahasrabudhe R, et al.
Clinical features of Hispanic thyroid cancer cases and the role of known genetic variants on disease risk.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(32):e4148 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Thyroid cancer (TC) is the second most common cancer among Hispanic women. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) and candidate studies identified 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs966423, rs2439302, rs965513, rs6983267, rs944289, and rs116909374), associated with increased TC risk in Europeans but their effects on disease risk have not been comprehensively tested in Hispanics. In this study, we aimed to describe the main clinicopathological manifestations and to evaluate the effects of known SNPs on TC risk and on clinicopathological manifestations in a Hispanic population.We analyzed 281 nonmedullary TC cases and 1146 cancer-free controls recruited in a multicenter population-based study in Colombia. SNPs were genotyped by Kompetitive allele specific polymerase chain reaction (KASP) technique. Association between genetic variants and TC risk was assessed by computing odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CIs).Consistent with published data in U.S. Hispanics, our cases had a high prevalence of large tumors (>2 cm, 43%) and a high female/male ratio (5:1). We detected significant associations between TC risk and rs965513A (OR = 1.41), rs944289T (OR = 1.26), rs116909374A (OR = 1.96), rs2439302G (OR = 1.19), and rs6983267G (OR = 1.18). Cases carried more risk alleles than controls (5.16 vs. 4.78, P = 4.8 × 10). Individuals with ≥6 risk alleles had >6-fold increased TC risk (OR = 6.33, P = 4.0 × 10) compared to individuals with ≤2 risk alleles. rs944289T and rs116909374A were strongly associated with follicular histology (ORs = 1.61 and 3.33, respectively); rs2439302G with large tumors (OR = 1.50); and rs965513A with regional disease (OR = 1.92).To our knowledge, this is the first study of known TC risk variants in South American Hispanics and suggests that they increase TC susceptibility in this population and can identify patients at higher risk of severe disease.

de Vries E, Arroyave I, Pardo C
Time trends in educational inequalities in cancer mortality in Colombia, 1998-2012.
BMJ Open. 2016; 6(4):e008985 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in premature cancer mortality in Colombia by educational level in three periods: 1998-2002 with low healthcare insurance coverage, 2003-2007 with rapidly increasing coverage and finally 2008-2012 with almost universal coverage (2008-2012).
SETTING: Colombian population-based, national secondary mortality data.
PARTICIPANTS: We included all (n=188,091) cancer deaths occurring in the age group 20-64 years between 1998 and 2012, excluding only cases with low levels of quality of registration (n=2902, 1.5%).
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: In this descriptive study, we linked mortality data of ages 20-64 years to census data to obtain age-standardised cancer mortality rates by educational level. Using Poisson regression, we modelled premature mortality by educational level estimating rate ratios (RR), relative index of inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequality (SII).
RESULTS: Relative measures showed increased risks of dying among the lower educated compared to the highest educated; this tendency was stronger in women (RRprimary 1.49; RRsecondary 1.22, both p<0.0001) than in men (RRprimary 1.35; RRsecondary 1.11, both p<0.0001). In absolute terms (SII), cancer caused a difference per 100 000 deaths between the highest and lowest educated of 20.5 in males and 28.5 in females. RII was significantly higher among women and the younger age categories. RII decreased between the first and second periods; afterwards (2008-2012), it increased significantly back to their previous levels. Among women, no significant increases or declines in cancer mortality over time were observed in recent periods in the lowest educated group, whereas strong recent declines were observed in those with secondary education or higher.
CONCLUSIONS: Educational inequalities in cancer mortality in Colombia are increasing in absolute and relative terms, and are concentrated in young age categories. This trend was not curbed by increases in healthcare insurance coverage. Policymakers should focus on improving equal access to prevention, early detection, diagnostic and treatment facilities.

Ospina-Romero M, Portilla CA, Bravo LE, et al.
Caregivers' Self-Reported Absence of Social Support Networks is Related to Treatment Abandonment in Children With Cancer.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016; 63(5):825-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment abandonment (TxA) is a primary cause of therapy failure in children with cancer in low-/middle-income countries. We explored the absence of social support network (SSN), among other predictive factors, and TxA in children with cancer in Cali, Colombia.
PROCEDURE: In this prospective cohort study, we included children diagnosed with cancer at a public university hospital. A social worker and a psychologist administered semistructured questionnaires to patients' caregivers. We extracted information from the questionnaires about social, economic, and psychological conditions of the patients' families. Outcomes were death, relapse, and TxA. Failure either to start or to continue the planned course of curative treatment for 4 weeks or more was defined as TxA. We identified events with Cali's childhood cancer outcomes surveillance system (VIGICANCER). We adjusted the hazard ratios (HRs) for potential confounders using multivariate Cox regression analyses.
RESULTS: Among 188 patients diagnosed from January 2011 to June 2013, 99 interviews were conducted. Median age was 5 years old (range: 0.3, 14.9), 53% were male, 17% were of Colombian-Indian ethnicity, and 68% lived in rural areas. The 2-year cumulative incidence of TxA was 21% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13, 35) and the annual proportion was 14%. The adjusted HR for the absence of SSN was 4.9 (95% CI: 1.6, 15.3).
CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong association between the absence of SSN and TxA that was independent of other covariates, including surrogate measures of wealth. Our findings highlight the imperative understanding of social ties and support surrounding children's families for planning strategies to prevent TxA.

Romero-Rojas A, Cuervo-Martínez J, Osorio-Arango K, Olaya N
Histological variants and prognostic factors of papillary thyroid carcinoma at the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, 2006-2012.
Biomedica. 2015 Jul-Sep; 35(3):429-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia and the papillary subtype is the most frequent; there are histological and clinical factors associated with a higher risk of recurrence and metastasis.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the histological, prognostic and clinical characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinomas diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out on 619 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma between 2006 and 2012; we analyzed the sociodemographic, histological, prognostic and clinical characteristics.
RESULTS: 87.7% of cases were women. The presence of two or more variants in the same case was considered a particular variant, which we called combined pattern. Combined pattern was then the most frequent (50.9%), followed by the follicular variant (23.4%) including subtypes encapsulated and unencapsulated, and the classic variant (22.1%). Mean tumor size was 20.8 mm. More than half of the cases had capsular invasion, extrathyroidal invasion and lymph node involvement. When compared with the other variants, the combined pattern carcinomas had a higher risk of invasion of the thyroid capsule, extraganglionar invasion and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results are in many aspects similar to those already reported. However, the presence of the combined pattern implied a higher risk for capsular invasion, nodal involvement, extranodal involvement and metastasis in comparison with those which had just one variant. Further studies are necessary to confirm these results.

Sanchez GI, Bravo LE, Hernandez-Suarez G, et al.
Secular trends of HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia 1950-1999.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 40:173-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Aim To estimate relative contribution and time trends of HPV types in cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia over a 50 years' period.
METHODS: Paraffin blocks of 736 cervical cancer histological confirmed cases were retrieved from the pathology laboratory at Hospital Universitario del Valle (Cali, Colombia) and HPV genotyped using SPF10-PCR/DEIA/LiPA25 (version 1) assay. Marginal effect of age and year of diagnosis in secular trends of HPV type prevalence among HPV+ cases were assessed by robust Poisson regression analysis.
RESULTS: 64.7% (95%CI: 59.9-69.2) of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) were attributed to HPV 16 and 18, 78.2% (95%CI: 74-82) to HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 and 84.8% (95%CI: 81-88.1) to HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 while ninety-three percent of adenocarcinomas (ADCs) were attributed to HPV 16, 18 and 45 only. The prevalence of specific HPV types did not change over the 50-year period. A significant downward trend of prevalence ratios of HPV16 (​P=0.017) and α7 but HPV 18 (i.e., HPV 39, 45, 68, 70, ​P=0.024) with increasing age at diagnosis was observed. In contrast, the prevalence ratio to other HPV genotypes of α9 but HPV 16 genotypes (i.e., HPV 31, 33, 35, 52, 58, 67, ​P=0.002) increased with increasing age at diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: No changes were observed in the relative contribution of HPV types in cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia during the 50 years. In this population, an HPV vaccine including the HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 genotypes may have the potential to prevent ∼85% and 93% of SCC and ADC cases respectively.

Yang I, Woltemate S, Piazuelo MB, et al.
Different gastric microbiota compositions in two human populations with high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18594 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inhabitants of Túquerres in the Colombian Andes have a 25-fold higher risk of gastric cancer than inhabitants of the coastal town Tumaco, despite similar H. pylori prevalences. The gastric microbiota was recently shown in animal models to accelerate the development of H. pylori-induced precancerous lesions. 20 individuals from each town, matched for age and sex, were selected, and gastric microbiota analyses were performed by deep sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA. In parallel, analyses of H. pylori status, carriage of the cag pathogenicity island and assignment of H. pylori to phylogeographic groups were performed to test for correlations between H. pylori strain properties and microbiota composition. The gastric microbiota composition was highly variable between individuals, but showed a significant correlation with the town of origin. Multiple OTUs were detected exclusively in either Tumaco or Túquerres. Two operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Leptotrichia wadei and a Veillonella sp., were significantly more abundant in Túquerres, and 16 OTUs, including a Staphylococcus sp. were significantly more abundant in Tumaco. There was no significant correlation of H. pylori phylogeographic population or carriage of the cagPAI with microbiota composition. From these data, testable hypotheses can be generated and examined in suitable animal models and prospective clinical trials.

Ossa CA, Herazo F, Gil M, et al.
Phyllodes tumor of the breast: a clinic-pathologic study of 77 cases in a Hispanic cohort.
Colomb Med (Cali). 2015; 46(3):104-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Breast Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors present in less than 1% of new cases of breast cancer, usually occurring among middle-aged women (40-50 yrs).
OBJECTIVE: This study shows diagnostic experience, surgical management and follows up of patients with this disease during a period of ten years in a oncology referral center.
METHODS: Retrospectively, breast cancer registries at the institution were reviewed, identifying 77 patients with Phyllodes tumors between 2002 and 2012, who had been operated on at the Instituto de Cancerología - Clínica Las Américas, in Medellín (Colombia). Clinical and histopathological data belonging to these cases was captured and analyzed and descriptive statistics were used.
RESULTS: The follow up median was 22.5 months (IQR: 10.5-60.0), average age was 47.2 yrs (SD: 12.4), mean tumor size was 3.6 cm (SD: 4.6), 88.3% of the patients (68 cases) presented negative margins and none of them received adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the patients with Phyllodes tumors; 33.8% had benign, 31.2% had borderline and 35.0% had malignant tumor. Disease-free survival was 85.8% and overall survival was 94.5%.
DISCUSSION: Reported data in this article is in accordance with what has been reported in worldwide literature. In our cohort even the high mean size of the tumors, the risk of local relapse and metastatic disease is low than previously reported in literature. Trials with longer follow up and molecular trials in Phyllodes tumors are necessary to understand the behavior of these tumors in Hispanics population.

Sahasrabudhe R, Estrada A, Lott P, et al.
The 8q24 rs6983267G variant is associated with increased thyroid cancer risk.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2015; 22(5):841-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The G allele of the rs6983267 single-nucleotide polymorphism, located on chromosome 8q24, has been associated with increased risk of several cancer types. The association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer (TC) has been tested in different populations, mostly of European ancestry, and has led to inconclusive results. While significant associations have been reported in the British and Polish populations, no association has been detected in populations from Spain, Italy and the USA. To further investigate the role of rs6983267G in TC susceptibility, we evaluated rs6983267 genotypes in three populations of different continental ancestry (British Isles, Colombia and Japan), providing a total of 3067 cases and 8575 controls. We detected significant associations between rs6983267G and TC in the British Isles (odds ratio (OR)=1.19, 95% CI: 1.11-1.27, P=4.03×10(-7)), Japan (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.03-1.41, P=0.022) and a borderline significant association of similar effect direction and size in Colombia (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.99-1.44, P=0.069). A meta-analysis of our multi-ethnic study and previously published non-overlapping datasets, which included a total of 5484 cases and 12 594 controls, confirmed the association between rs6983267G and TC (P=1.23×10(-7), OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18). Our results therefore support the notion that rs6983267G is a bona fide TC risk variant that increases the risk of disease by ∼13%.

Del Río-Ospina L, Soto-De León SC, Camargo M, et al.
The DNA load of six high-risk human papillomavirus types and its association with cervical lesions.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Analysing human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load is important in determining the risk of developing cervical cancer (CC); most knowledge to date regarding HPV viral load and cervical lesions has been related to HPV-16. This study evaluated the association between the viral load of the six most prevalent high-risk viral types in Colombia and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) frequency.
METHODS: 114 women without CIN and 59 women having CIN confirmed by colposcopy, all of them positive by conventional PCR for HPV infection in the initial screening, were included in the study. Samples were tested for six high-risk HPV types to determine viral copy number by real-time PCR. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORa) were estimated for evaluating the association between each viral type's DNA load and the risk of cervical lesions occurring.
RESULTS: The highest viral loads were identified for HPV-33 in CIN patients and for HPV-31 in patients without lesions (9.33 HPV copies, 2.95 interquartile range (IQR); 9.41 HPV copies, 2.58 IQR). Lesions were more frequent in HPV-16 patients having a low viral load (3.53 ORa, 1.16-10.74 95%CI) compared to those having high HPV-16 load (2.62 ORa, 1.08-6.35 95%CI). High viral load in HPV-31 patients was associated with lower CIN frequency (0.34 ORa, 0.15-0.78 95%CI).
CONCLUSIONS: An association between HPV DNA load and CIN frequency was seen to be type-specific and may have depended on the duration of infection. This analysis has provided information for understanding the effect of HPV DNA load on cervical lesion development.

Leibach GG, Perrin PB, Nicholls E, et al.
Health related quality of life and mental health in children with SCI/D from Neiva, Colombia.
NeuroRehabilitation. 2015; 36(2):215-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To date, no research has been published on the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and mental health of children with spinal cord injury and disorders (SCI/D) in Latin America, although limited previous research in Western countries has demonstrated the debilitating and chronic nature of these conditions in children. The aim was to examine the connections between HRQOL and mental health in children with SCI/D from Neiva, Colombia.
STUDY DESIGN: Thirty children (8- 17 years) were recruited from the Hospital Universatario Hernando Mocaleano Perdomo in Neiva, Colombia. Participants completed self-report measures administered verbally by trained research staff.
RESULTS: A correlation matrix generally suggested that higher HRQOL was robustly associated with better mental health. A series of multiple regressions found that HRQOL explained 50.5% of the variance in children's depression, 31.5% of the variance in worry, and 41.9% of the variance in social anxiety. Within these regressions, emotional and social functioning were uniquely associated with depression, and emotional functioning was uniquely associated with social anxiety.
CONCLUSION: This is the first published study to examine psychosocial outcomes in children with SCI/D in Latin America, and its findings suggest that future research and interventions for children with SCI/D in Colombia - and possibly in other regions of Latin America - would benefit from emphasizing emotional and social functioning.

de Vries E, Uribe C, Pardo C, et al.
Gastric cancer survival and affiliation to health insurance in a middle-income setting.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(1):91-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether health insurance affiliation and socioeconomic deprivation is associated with overall cause survival from gastric cancer in a middle-income country.
METHODS: All patients resident in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area (Colombia) diagnosed with gastric cancer between 2003 and 2009 (n=1039), identified in the population-based cancer registry, were followed for vital status until 31/12/2013. Kaplan-Meier models provided crude survival estimates by health insurance regime (HIR) and social stratum (SS). Multivariate Cox-proportional hazard models adjusting HIR and SS for sex, age and tumor grade, were performed.
RESULTS: Overall 1 and 5 year survival proportions were 32.4% and 11.0%, respectively, varying from 49.3% and 15.8% for patients affiliated to the most generous HIR to 12.9% and 5.3% for unaffiliated patients, and from 41.4% and 20.7% for patients in the highest SS, versus 27.1% and 7.4% for the lowest SS. The multivariate analyses showed type of HIR as well as SS to remain independently associated with survival, with an 11% improvement in survival for each increase in SS subgroup (HR 0.89 (95% CI 0.83; 0.96), and with worse survival in the subsidized (least generous) HIR and unaffiliated patients compared to the contributory HIR (HR subsidized 1.20 (95% CI 1.00; 1.43) and HR not affiliated 2.03 (95% CI 1.48; 2.78)). Of the non-affiliated patients, 60% had died at the time of diagnosis, versus 4-14% of affiliated patients (p<0.0005).
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the 'universal' health insurance system, large socioeconomic differences in gastric cancer survival exist in Colombia. Both social stratum and access to effective diagnostic and curative care strongly influence survival.

Combariza JF, Lombana M, Torres AM, et al.
General features and epidemiology of lymphoma in Colombia. A multicentric study.
Ann Hematol. 2015; 94(6):975-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
The relative frequency of the non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes varies around the world. The objective of this study was to describe the general features of patients with lymphoma in Colombia. A total of 819 patients with a new diagnosis of lymphoma were included. Nighty-nine (12 %) of them had Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 720 (88 %) had NHL. Most cases had advanced stage disease at presentation (63.6 %). Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most frequent diagnosis; it was seen in 40 % of patients with NHL and in 35 % of patients in the whole series. Overall survival rates at 3 years were 77 % for HL and follicular lymphoma, 54 % for DLBCL, and 45 % for T cell lymphomas. In conclusion, the distribution of specific NHL subtypes is similar to what has been reported previously in other tropical countries.

Arrieta O, Cardona AF, Martín C, et al.
Updated Frequency of EGFR and KRAS Mutations in NonSmall-Cell Lung Cancer in Latin America: The Latin-American Consortium for the Investigation of Lung Cancer (CLICaP).
J Thorac Oncol. 2015; 10(5):838-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Previously, we reported the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Latin America. The EGFR mutation frequency was found between Asian (40%) and Caucasian (15%) populations. Here, we report the updated distribution of NSCLC mutations.
METHODS: A total of 5738 samples from NSCLC patients from Argentina (1713), Mexico (1417), Colombia (1939), Peru (393), Panama (174), and Costa Rica (102) were genotyped for EGFR and KRAS.
RESULTS: The median patient age was 62.2 ± 12.3 years; 53.5% were women, 46.7% had a history of smoking, and 95.2% had adenocarcinoma histology. The frequency of EGFR mutations was 26.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.9-27.1; Argentina, 14.4% [12.8-15.6]; México, 34.3% [31.9-36.7]; Colombia, 24.7% [22.8-26.6]; Peru, 51.1% [46.2-55.9]; Panamá, 27.3 [20.7-33.9]; and Costa Rica, 31.4% [22.4-40.4]). The frequency of KRAS mutations was 14.0% (9.1-18.9). In patients with adenocarcinoma, EGFR mutations were independently associated with gender (30.7% females vs. 18.4% males; p < 0.001), nonsmoker status (27.4% vs. 17.1%, p < 0.001), ethnicity (mestizo/indigenous, 35.3% vs. Caucasian, 13.7%, p < 0.001), and the absence of KRAS mutation (38.1% vs. 4.7%; p < 0.001). The overall response rate to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors was 60.6% (95% CI, 52-69), with a median progression-free survival and overall survival of 15.9 (95% CI, 12.420.6) and 32 months (95% CI, 26.5-37.6), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our findings support the genetic heterogeneity of NSCLC in Latin America, confirming that the frequency of EGFR mutations is intermediate between that observed in the Asian and Caucasian populations.

Bravo LE, García LS, Carrascal E, Rubiano J
Burden of breast cancer in Cali, Colombia: 1962-2012.
Salud Publica Mex. 2014 Sep-Oct; 56(5):448-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe the behavior of breast cancer (BC)during the 1962-2012 period from information provided by the Cali Cancer Registry and the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The incidence trend (1962-2007) and mortality trend (1984-2012) for breast cancer was studied and relative survival (RS)(1995-2004) was estimated. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates to the world population (ASIR(w)/ASMR(w)) were expressed per 100000 persons-year. Their temporal trend was examined with the annual percent of change (APC), and the Cox model was used to analyze the variables that influenced the survival of women with breast cancer.
RESULTS: The risk of breast cancer significantly increased in Cali through the 1962-2007 period, with an APC =1.7(95%CI:1.4-2.0). The ASIR(w) of BC increased from 27.1 in 1962 to 48.0 in 2007 and currently there are more than 500 cases reported annually. The mortality for BC has remained stable since 1984; in the 2009-2012 period, the ASMR(w) was 14.2. The 5-year RS was 69% (95%CI:66-71) from 2000-2004 and 62% (95%CI:59-65) from 1995-1999. The risk of death (HR) from BC was greater in persons from lower socioeconomic strata (SES) than from higher SES, HR=1.9(95%CI:1.3-2.9) and in those older than 70 years vs. <50, HR=1.6(95%CI:1.1-2.2).
CONCLUSION: Mortality remained stable while incidence increased and survival improved, which may be associated with better detection and advances in treatment.

Muñoz N, Bravo LE
Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.
Salud Publica Mex. 2014 Sep-Oct; 56(5):431-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, mortality, time trends and prognostic factors for cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia, and to review the molecular epidemiological evidence showing that HPV is the major and necessary cause of cervical cancer and the implications of this discovery for primary and secondary prevention.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Incidence rates of cervical cancer during a 45-year period (1962-2007) were estimated based on the population-based cancer registry of Cali and the mortality statistics from the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali. Prognostic factors were estimated based on relative survival. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence linking HPV to cervical cancer was focused on the studies carried out in Cali and in other countries.
RESULTS: Incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) declined from 120.4 per 100 000 in 1962-1966 to 25.7 in 2003-2007 while those of adenocarcinoma increased from 4.2 to 5.8. Mortality rates for cervical cancer declined from 18.5 in 1984-1988 to 7.0 per 100 000 in 2009-2011. Survival was lower in women over 65 years of age and in clinical stages 3-4. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence showed that certain types of HPV are the central and necessary cause of cervical cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: A decline in the incidence and mortality of SCC and an increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma during a 45-year period was documented in Cali, Colombia.

Suarez M I, Uribe D, Jaramillo CM, et al.
Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinomas cases from Colombia.
Ann Hepatol. 2015 Jan-Feb; 14(1):64-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer diagnosed worldwide. Deregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has been associated with the development of HCC in a substantial number of cases in Europe and far less in Asia. Nothing is known about this pathway in HCC cases from South America. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of mutations in beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) and the subcellular localization of beta-catenin in HCC cases from Colombia.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We determine by direct sequencing the frequency of mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 gene and by immunohistochemistry the subcellular localization of beta-catenin in 54 samples of HCC obtained from three pathology units in Bogota and Medellin cities.
RESULTS: Only three HCC cases (5.6%) were found mutated at residues (G34E, S45P, P44S, T41I) important for phosphorylation and ubiquitination of beta-catenin protein. Strikingly, nuclear or cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-catenin, hallmark of Wnt pathway activation, was found in 42.6% HCC cases (23/54). Interestingly, beta-catenin accumulation was significantly more frequent in young patients and hepatitis B virus-related HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Although, CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations are not frequent in HCC from Colombian patients, our findings indicate that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in 42.6% of HCC samples. Furthermore, Wnt signaling was demonstrated in HCC cases associated of HBV infection, one of the most important HCC risk factors in Colombia.

de Vries E, Arroyave I, Pardo C, et al.
Trends in inequalities in premature cancer mortality by educational level in Colombia, 1998-2007.
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015; 69(5):408-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of studies on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in developing countries. We examined trends in inequalities in cancer mortality by educational attainment in Colombia during a period of epidemiological transition and rapid expansion of health insurance coverage.
METHODS: Population mortality data (1998-2007) were linked to census data to obtain age-standardised cancer mortality rates by educational attainment at ages 25-64 years for stomach, cervical, prostate, lung, colorectal, breast and other cancers. We used Poisson regression to model mortality by educational attainment and estimated the contribution of specific cancers to the slope index of inequality in cancer mortality.
RESULTS: We observed large educational inequalities in cancer mortality, particularly for cancer of the cervix (rate ratio (RR) primary vs tertiary groups=5.75, contributing 51% of cancer inequalities), stomach (RR=2.56 for males, contributing 49% of total cancer inequalities and RR=1.98 for females, contributing 14% to total cancer inequalities) and lung (RR=1.64 for males contributing 17% of total cancer inequalities and 1.32 for females contributing 5% to total cancer inequalities). Total cancer mortality rates declined faster among those with higher education, with the exception of mortality from cervical cancer, which declined more rapidly in the lower educational groups.
CONCLUSIONS: There are large socioeconomic inequalities in preventable cancer mortality in Colombia, which underscore the need for intensifying prevention efforts. Reduction of cervical cancer can be achieved through reducing human papilloma virus infection, early detection and improved access to treatment of preneoplastic lesions. Reinforcing antitobacco measures may be particularly important to curb inequalities in cancer mortality.

Pasetto R, Terracini B, Marsili D, Comba P
Occupational burden of asbestos-related cancer in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico.
Ann Glob Health. 2014 Jul-Aug; 80(4):263-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An estimate at the national level of the occupational cancer burden brought about by the industrial use of asbestos requires detailed routine information on such uses as well as on vital statistics of good quality. A causal association with asbestos exposure has been established for mesothelioma and cancers of the lung, larynx, and ovary.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide estimates of the occupational burden of asbestos-related cancer for the Latin American countries that are or have been the highest asbestos consumers in the region: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico.
METHODS: The burden of multifactorial cancers has been estimated through the approach suggested for the World Health Organization using the population attributable fraction. The following data were used: Proportion of workforce employed in each economic sector. Proportion of workers exposed to asbestos in each sector. Occupational turnover. Levels of exposure. Proportion of the population in the workforce. Relative risk for each considered disease for 1 or more levels of exposure. Data on the proportion of workers exposed to asbestos in each sector are not available for Latin American countries; therefore, data from the European CAREX database (carcinogen exposure database) were used.
FINDINGS: Using mortality data of the World Health Organization Health Statistics database for the year 2009 and applying the estimated values for population attributable fractions, the number of estimated deaths in 5 years for mesothelioma and for lung, larynx, and ovary cancers attributable to occupational asbestos exposures, were respectively 735, 233, 29, and 14 for Argentina; 340, 611, 68, and 43 for Brazil; 255, 97, 14, and 9 for Colombia, and 1075, 219, 18, and 22 for Mexico.
CONCLUSIONS: The limitations in compiling the estimates highlight the need for improvement in the quality of asbestos-related environmental and health data. Nevertheless, the figures are already usable to promote a ban on asbestos use.

Lopera EA, Baena A, Florez V, et al.
Unexpected inverse correlation between Native American ancestry and Asian American variants of HPV16 in admixed Colombian cervical cancer cases.
Infect Genet Evol. 2014; 28:339-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: European (E) variants of HPV 16 are evenly distributed among world regions, meanwhile Non-European variants such as European-Asian (EAs), Asian American (AA) and African (Af) are mostly confined to Eastern Asia, The Americas and African regions respectively. Several studies have shown that genetic variation of HPV 16 is associated with the risk of cervical cancer, which also seems to be dependent on the population. This relationship between ethnicity and variants have led to the suggestion that there is co-evolution of variants with humankind. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the individual ancestry proportion and infection with HPV 16 variants in cervical cancer.
METHODS: We examined the association between ancestry and HPV 16 variants in samples of 82 cervical cancer cases from different regions of Colombia. Individual ancestry proportions (European, African and Native American) were estimated by genotyping 106 ancestry informative markers. Variants were identified by PCR amplification of the E6 gene, followed by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) with variants specific probes.
RESULTS: Overall European (E) and Asian American (AA) variants frequency was 66.5% and 33.5% respectively. Similar distribution was observed in cases with higher proportions of European or African ancestry. A higher Native American ancestry was significantly associated with higher frequency of E variants (median ancestry>23.6%, Age and place of birth adjusted OR: 3.55, 95% CI: 1.26-10.03, p=0.01). Even further, an inverse geographic correlation between Native American ancestry and frequency of infections with AA variants was observed (ρ=-0.825, p=0.008). Regions with higher proportion of Native American ancestry had a lower frequency of AA variants of HPV 16.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests replacement of AA variants by E variants of human papillomavirus 16 in cervical cancer cases with high Native American ancestry.

Bermedo-Carrasco S, Feng CX, Peña-Sánchez JN, Lepnurm R
Predictors of having heard about human papillomavirus vaccination: Critical aspects for cervical cancer prevention among Colombian women.
Gac Sanit. 2015 Mar-Apr; 29(2):112-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the probability of having heard about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination differs by socio-demographic characteristics among Colombian women; and whether the effect of predictors of having heard about HPV vaccination varies by educational levels and rural/urban area of residence.
METHODS: Data of 53,521 women aged 13-49 years were drawn from the 2010 Colombian National Demographic and Health Survey. Women were asked about aspects of their health and their socio-demographic characteristics. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with having heard about HPV vaccination. Educational level and rural/urban area of residence of the women were tested as modifier effects of predictors.
RESULTS: 26.8% of the women had heard about HPV vaccination. The odds of having heard about HPV vaccination were lower among women: in low wealth quintiles, without health insurance, with subsidized health insurance, and those who had children (p<0.001). Although women in older age groups and with better education had higher probabilities of having heard about HPV vaccination, differences in these probabilities by age group were more evident among educated women compared to non-educated ones. Probability gaps between non-educated and highly educated women were wider in the Eastern region. Living in rural areas decreased the probability of having heard about HPV vaccination, although narrower rural/urban gaps were observed in the Atlantic and Amazon-Orinoquía regions.
CONCLUSIONS: Almost three quarters of the Colombian women had not heard about HPV vaccination, with variations by socio-demographic characteristics. Women in disadvantaged groups were less likely to have heard about HPV vaccination.

Pardo C, Bravo LE, Uribe C, et al.
Comprehensive assessment of population-based cancer registries: an experience in Colombia.
J Registry Manag. 2014; 41(3):128-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the global context, the establishment of population-based cancer registries, particularly in less developed regions, has become of strategic importance. The factors influencing the operation and sustainability of registries can be determinants for their success, despite the existence of uniform quality indicators in the cancer incidence information. Our objective was to determine the current state of the structure, organization and operation of populationbased cancer registries in Colombia, obtain information on their degree of development and identify specific problems that affect their operation and sustainability.
METHODS: We developed a descriptive study in 5 population-based cancer registries (Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Cali, Manizales, and Pasto). The analysis included 7 broad categories: general characteristics, operational procedures, scientific production, completeness, validity, comparability and continuing education. To establish the validity of the information we used the available incidence databases.
RESULTS: All registries were based in a university (3 public, 2 private). The 5 registries covered 11.8 percent of the Colombian population. Four registries published their results on cancer incidence. Financing came from different sources and costs varied significantly. Cancer incidence rates ranged from 94.1 to 189.2 per 100,000. The coverage of information sources ranged from 60 to 90 percent. Validity indicators were within acceptable limits while comparability parameters showed variations between registries. All registries participated in regular workshops and congresses.
CONCLUSIONS: Operation of cancer registries in a model with universities and with several financial sources seems to provide sustainability; follow-up, training and assistance are critical to motivation and quality, costs vary significantly and determinants of costs of registry activities need to be further assessed.

Bravo LE, García LS, Collazos PA
Cancer survival in Cali, Colombia: A population-based study, 1995-2004.
Colomb Med (Cali). 2014 Jul-Sep; 45(3):110-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on population-based cancer survival data in Latin America.
OBJECTIVE: To obtain estimates of survival for some cancers recognized as a public health priority in Colombia using data from the Cancer Registry of Cali for 1995-2004.
METHODS: ALL CANCER CASES FOR RESIDENTS OF CALI WERE INCLUDED FOR THE FOLLOWING SITES: breast (3,984), cervix uteri (2,469), prostate (3,999), stomach (3,442) and lung (2,170). Five-year relative survival estimates were calculated using the approach described by Estève.
RESULTS: Five-year relative survival was 79% in patients with prostate cancer and 68% and 60% in women with breast or cervix uteri cancer, respectively. The cure fraction was close to zero in subjects with lung cancer and less than 10% in those with stomach cancer. The probability of dying from breast or prostate cancer in people in the lower socio-economic strata (SES) was 1.8 and 2.6 times, respectively, when compared to upper SES, p <0.001. Excess mortality associated with cancer was independent of age in prostate or breast cancer. After adjusting for age, sex and SES, the risk of dying from breast, cervix uteri, prostate and lung cancer during the 2000-2004 period decreased 19%, 13%, 48% and 16%, respectively, when compared with the period of 1995-1999. There was no change in the prognosis for patients with stomach cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Survival for some kinds of cancer improved through the 1995-2004 period, however health care programs for cancer patients in Cali are inequitable. People from lower SES are the most vulnerable and the least likely to survive.

Chicaíza-Becerra L, García-Molina M, Gamboa O, Castañeda-Orjuela C
ErbB2+ metastatic breast cancer treatment after progression on trastuzumab: a cost-effectiveness analysis for a developing country.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 2014 Mar-Apr; 16(2):270-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer (BC) and metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are significant causes of deaths amongst women worldwide, including developing countries. The cost of treatment in the latter is even more of an issue than in higher income countries. ErbB2 overexpression is a marker of poor prognosis and the goal for targeted therapy. This study was aimed at evaluating the cost-effectiveness in Colombia of ErbB2+ MBC treatment after progression on trastuzumab.
METHODS: A decision analytic model was constructed for evaluating such treatment in a hypothetical cohort of ErbB2+MBC patients who progressed after a first scheme involving trastuzumab. The alternatives compared were lapatinib+capecitabine (L+C), and trastuzumab+a chemotherapy agent (capecitabine, vinorelbine or a taxane). Markov models were used for calculating progression-free time and the associated costs. Effectiveness estimators for such therapy were identified from primary studies; all direct medical costs based on national fees-guidelines were included. Sensitivity was analyzed and acceptability curves estimated. A 3 % discount rate and third-payer perspective were used within a 5-year horizon.
RESULTS: L+C dominated its comparators. Its cost-effectiveness ratio was COP $49,725,045 per progression-free year. The factors most influencing the results were the alternatives' hazard ratios and the cost of trastuzumab.
CONCLUSION: Lapatinib was cost-effective compared to its alternatives for treating MBC after progression on trastuzumab using a Colombian decision analytic model.

Arias F, Herrera-Almario G, Pozo ME, et al.
Safety and quality outcomes in peritoneal surface malignancy patients: developing a national center for excellence in Colombia.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2015; 22(5):1733-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS + HIPEC) is being used more frequently for the treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies. There are a paucity of data regarding safety and quality outcomes in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate safety events and quality measures in a group of patients who underwent CRS + HIPEC.
METHODS: All patients who underwent CRS + HIPEC procedures between December 2007 and March 2014 were included. All safety-related events and quality outcomes were reviewed. Major events were defined as occurrences in which there was harm to patient or healthcare personnel. Minor events were defined as quality or safety events in which there was potential for damage.
RESULTS: A total of 72 patients were included. The mean Peritoneal Cancer Index for the study group was 20.5. One hundred percent compliance for informed consent, patient identification and surgical site marking, and antibiotic and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis guidelines was identified. The incidence of major safety events was 37.5 %. Minor events occurred in 47.2 % of patients. There was a 2.78 % 30-day mortality in the study group.
CONCLUSIONS: One in three patients undergoing CRS + HIPEC procedures experienced a major safety or quality event before, during, or after surgery. Adequate surgical care alone is not sufficient to prevent these occurrences. Active surveillance of safety events and quality leads to early detection and development of improvement plans. New CRS + HIPEC centers need to adhere to strict safety and quality guidelines to ensure excellent patient outcomes.

Alarcón AM, Barrera-Ortiz L, Carreño SP, et al.
Development of a functional model of nursing care in cancer.
Invest Educ Enferm. 2014; 32(2):206-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To propose and validate a functional model that permits addressing, guiding, and qualifying nursing care in the Colombian National Cancer Institute.
METHODOLOGY: Within the framework of the teaching-service work and as response to the priorities established by the National Cancer Institute, the need to have a model was determined to better understand the nursing work in the institution. For this purpose a study was conducted in three phases: 1) Analysis of the context, 2) Elaboration and analysis of the narratives of care, and 3) Development of the Functional Model of Nursing Care from the narratives.
RESULTS: Based on the analysis of the context, we selected the theory of "Nursing as Caring" by Boykin and Schoenhofer and, as of such; a guide was developed and applied for the construction and analysis of the narratives of care. Lastly, through an analysis of the content of the narratives of care 143 nominal codes emerged along with eight central categories or concepts. The way these concepts are related in the content of the text gave way to the assumptions of the National Cancer Institute's model of nursing care whose dynamic was defined and diagramed for communication. Validation of the Model of Nursing Care ratified the positions expressed by the participants.
CONCLUSION: Development of a sequential dynamics of contextual analysis, space and expression of a reflexive nursing practice and analysis of the contents of some narratives of nursing care product of such, permitted proposing and validating the National Cancer Institute's Model of Nursing Care that addresses, transmits, guides, and qualifies professional performance in the institution.

Chaturvedi R, de Sablet T, Asim M, et al.
Increased Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer risk in the Andean region of Colombia is mediated by spermine oxidase.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(26):3429-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastric cancer, the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. More than half of the world's population is infected, making universal eradication impractical. Clinical trials suggest that antibiotic treatment only reduces gastric cancer risk in patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), and is ineffective once preneoplastic lesions of multifocal atrophic gastritis (MAG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) have occurred. Therefore, additional strategies for risk stratification and chemoprevention of gastric cancer are needed. We have implicated polyamines, generated by the rate-limiting enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), in gastric carcinogenesis. During H. pylori infection, the enzyme spermine oxidase (SMOX) is induced, which generates hydrogen peroxide from the catabolism of the polyamine spermine. Herein, we assessed the role of SMOX in the increased gastric cancer risk in Colombia associated with the Andean mountain region when compared with the low-risk region on the Pacific coast. When cocultured with gastric epithelial cells, clinical strains of H. pylori from the high-risk region induced more SMOX expression and oxidative DNA damage, and less apoptosis than low-risk strains. These findings were not attributable to differences in the cytotoxin-associated gene A oncoprotein. Gastric tissues from subjects from the high-risk region exhibited greater levels of SMOX and oxidative DNA damage by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, and this occurred in NAG, MAG and IM. In Mongolian gerbils, a prototype colonizing strain from the high-risk region induced more SMOX, DNA damage, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma than a colonizing strain from the low-risk region. Treatment of gerbils with either α-difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ODC, or MDL 72527 (N(1),N(4)-Di(buta-2,3-dien-1-yl)butane-1,4-diamine dihydrochloride), an inhibitor of SMOX, reduced gastric dysplasia and carcinoma, as well as apoptosis-resistant cells with DNA damage. These data indicate that aberrant activation of polyamine-driven oxidative stress is a marker of gastric cancer risk and a target for chemoprevention.

Corso C, Gomez X, Sanabria A, et al.
Total thyroidectomy versus hemithyroidectomy for patients with follicular neoplasm. A cost-utility analysis.
Int J Surg. 2014; 12(8):837-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid nodules are a common condition. Overall, 20% of the nodules assessed with FNAB correspond to the follicular pattern. A partial thyroidectomy is the minimal procedure that should be performed to determine the nature of these nodules. Some authors have suggested performing a total thyroidectomy based on the elimination of reoperation and ultrasound follow-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the most cost-useful surgical strategy in a patient with an undetermined nodule, assessing complications, reoperation, recurrence and costs.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cost-utility study was designed to compare hemithyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy. The outcomes were complications (definitive RLN palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, reoperation for cancer, and recurrence of the disease), direct costs and utility. We used the payer perspective at 5 years. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was completed.
RESULTS: In a deterministic analysis, the cost, utility and cost-utility ratio was COP $12.981.801, 44.5 and COP $291.310 for total thyroidectomy and COP $14.309.889, 42.0 and $340.044 for partial thyroidectomy, respectively. The incremental cost-utility ratio was -$535.302 favoring total thyroidectomy. Partial thyroidectomy was more cost-effective when the risks of RLN injury and definitive hypoparathyroidism were greater than 8% and 9% in total thyroidectomy, respectively. In total, 46.8% of the simulations for partial thyroidectomy were located in the quadrant of more costly and less effective.
CONCLUSION: Under a common range of complications, and considering the patient's preference and costs, total thyroidectomy should be selected as the most cost-effective treatment for patients with thyroid nodules and follicular patterns.

Romero M, Chávez D, De Los Ríos M, Alvis-Guzmán N
Cost-effectiveness of nilotinib, dasatinib and imatinib as first-line treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia in Colombia, 2012.
Biomedica. 2014 Jan-Mar; 34(1):48-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: New tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments for chronic myeloid leukemia based on nilotinib, dasatinib and imatinib have improved patient quality of life and have turned chronic myeloid leukemia from a fatal disease into a chronic disease.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nilotinib, 600 mg, and dasatinib, 100 mg, each compared to imatinib, 400 mg, as first-line therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia in Colombia from a third-party payer's perspective.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using a Markov model to evaluate a hypothetical cohort of one hundred 55 year-old patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase, and the time horizon for the baseline case was established as being until the end of life. Progression-free life-years saved were considered the primary outcome. Transition probabilities for major molecular response, disease progression to accelerated phase or blast crisis, and chronic myeloid leukemia related deaths were analyzed in the model for each arm. A 3% discount rate was applied to all costs and patient outcomes. Model robustness was evaluated using both univariate and multivariate Montecarlo sensitivity analysis.
RESULTS: Nilotinib was higher in expected progression-free life-years saved (15.21 vs. 12.64 for imatinib), followed by dasatinib (14.91 vs. 14.54 for imatinib). Imatinib had lower total lifetime costs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 33,120.36 in the nilotinib arm and US$ 514,939.08 in the dasatinib arm per progression-free life-years (PF-LYs) saved, each compared to imatinib. When analyzing nilotinib versus dasatinib indirectly, nilotinib was found to be dominant due to higher efficacy (2.25 PF-LYs) and lower costs (US$ 44,674) in the baseline case. The average estimated cost to manage disease progression per year was US$ 101,978.78, considered to be the threshold.
CONCLUSION: In Colombia, using PF-LYs as the efficacy outcome, nilotinib is highly cost-effective when compared to imatinib and dominant vs. dasatinib in first-line therapy for CML in chronic phase.

Restrepo-Gonzalez JA, Garcia-Perdomo HA, Varela R
Diagnostic accuracy of preoperative urinary smear test in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma in a high-volume center.
Arch Esp Urol. 2014; 67(3):243-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To determine diagnostic accuracy of urinary cytology (smear test) in patients with preoperative diagnosis of urothelial bladder carcinoma.
METHODS: Clinical records of the patients with urotelial bladder carcinoma at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (Bogotá D.C.,Colombia) from January 2006 to November 2010 were reviewed. Demographic data, pathological reports of preoperative cytology and definitive surgery, tumor classification and time between sample taking for cytology and final pathology were extracted. Descriptive statistics and graphs for continuous and categorical variables were performed.
RESULTS: We included 52 patients, 20 underwent cystectomy and 32 transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURB). 41 were male. Mean age was 66.6 ± 10.7 years. 151 smears were obtained before surgery, with a median of 3 smears performed per patient at 2.5 ± 1.8 months before definitive surgery. 107 were negative, 14 low grade positive and 30 high grade positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 30.7%, 90.9%, 97.7%, 9.34%, 3.37 and 0.76 respectively. When the high-grade cytology was compared with the high-grade definitive report some characteristics increased (Sensitivity 47.4%, Specificity: 97.8%, Positive Likelihood Ratio: 21.8) and also when compared with muscle invasion (Sensitivity: 73.9, Positive Likelihood Ratio: 7.27 ).
CONCLUSION: Preoperative cytology has sensitivity and specificity similar to those described in other clinical settings. Also noteworthy is that one high-grade preoperative cytology has a high positive likelihood ratio for high-grade tumor and invasive tumor (≥T2).

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