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Latin America and Caribbean

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

Latin America: Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications about Latin America

Latin America: Cancer Organisations and Resources (5 links)

Latest Research Publications about Latin America

Razzaghi H, Quesnel-Crooks S, Sherman R, et al.
Leading Causes of Cancer Mortality - Caribbean Region, 2003-2013.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016; 65(49):1395-1400 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide (1); in 2012, an estimated 65% of all cancer deaths occurred in the less developed regions of the world (2). In the Caribbean region, cancer is the second leading cause of mortality, with an estimated 87,430 cancer-related deaths reported in 2012 (3). The Pan American Health Organization defines the Caribbean region as a group of 27 countries that vary in size, geography, resources, and surveillance systems.* CDC calculated site- and sex-specific proportions of cancer deaths and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for 21 English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries, the United States, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands [USVI]), using the most recent 5 years of mortality data available from each jurisdiction during 2003-2013. The selection of years varied by availability of the data from the countries and territories in 2015. ASMR for all cancers combined ranged from 46.1 to 139.3 per 100,000. Among males, prostate cancers were the leading cause of cancer deaths, followed by lung cancers; the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to prostate cancer ranged from 18.4% in Suriname to 47.4% in Dominica, and the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to lung cancer ranged from 5.6% in Barbados to 24.4% in Bermuda. Among females, breast cancer was the most common cause of cancer deaths, ranging from 14.0% of cancer deaths in Belize to 29.7% in the Cayman Islands, followed by cervical cancer. Several of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the Caribbean can be reduced through primary and secondary preventions, including prevention of exposure to risk factors, screening, early detection, and timely and effective treatment.

Hungria VT, Maiolino A, Martinez G, et al.
Observational study of multiple myeloma in Latin America.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(1):65-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Relatively little is known about the outcomes of multiple myeloma in Latin America, a world region where incorporation of novel agents is generally slow. In the current retrospective-prospective study, we aimed to describe the patterns of care and treatment results in five Latin American countries. Between April 2007 and October 2009, patients who had been diagnosed from January 2005 to December 2007 were registered at 23 institutions from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. We divided patients into two cohorts, according to transplantation eligibility, and analyzed them with regard to first-line treatment and overall survival (OS). We analyzed a total of 852 patients, 46.9 % of whom were female. The median follow-up was 62 months. Among transplantation-ineligible patients (N = 461), the mean age was 67.4 years, approximately one third of patients received a thalidomide-based treatment in the first line, and the median OS was 43.0 months. Transplantation-eligible patients (N = 391) had a mean age of 54.7 years and a median OS of 73.6 months. Autologous transplantation was performed in 58.6 % of the patients for whom this procedure was initially planned and in only 26.9 % of the overall patients. Our long-term results reflect the contemporary literature for patients with multiple myeloma treated with autologous transplantation and thalidomide-based regimens in clinical trials and observational studies. However, further efforts are needed to approve and incorporate novel agents in Latin American countries, as well as to increase access to transplantation, in order to achieve the expected improvements in patient outcomes.

Clement YN, Mahase V, Jagroop A, et al.
Herbal remedies and functional foods used by cancer patients attending specialty oncology clinics in Trinidad.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16(1):399 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major disease worldwide, and many patients use complementary and alternative treatments. The purpose of this study was to identify the herbal remedies and functional foods used as complementary medicine by prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients at speciality care facilities in Trinidad. We also sought to determine how patients rated the efficacy of these modalities compared with conventional treatment.
METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered pilot-tested de novo questionnaire during the period June to August 2012 at two speciality treatment centres on the island. Data was analysed using χ(2) analyses.
RESULTS: Among the 150 patients who reported use of herbal remedies/functional foods, soursop (Annona muricata L.) was the most popular; with 80.7 % using the leaves, bark, fruit and seeds on a regular basis. Other common herbal remedies/functional foods included wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. The most commonly used functional foods were beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.), carrots (Daucus carata L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.) used by 43.3 % of patients; and these were mostly blended as a mixture. Herbal remedies and functional foods were used on a daily basis and patients believed that this modality was equally (32.0 %) or more efficacious (14.7 %) than conventional treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: This survey identified the most common herbal remedies and functional foods used among prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients in Trinidad. Although functional foods rarely pose a problem, herbs may interact with conventional chemotherapy and physicians need to inform patients regarding probable herb-drug interactions.

Candelario NM, Sánchez JE, Sánchez JL, et al.
Extraocular Sebaceous Carcinoma-A Clinicopathologic Reassessment.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(11):809-812 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sebaceous carcinoma is an aggressive adnexal neoplasm with sebaceous differentiation. Few reports have described the histopathologic characteristics of the sebaceous carcinoma occurring extraocularly. Seventy-two cases of extraocular sebaceous carcinoma were identified from the database of a Dermatopathology Laboratory from January 1, 2007 to May 31, 2013. More cases occurred in men (60%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 65.8 years (range 39-99 years). Neoplasms were histopathologically classified as well-differentiated (22%), moderately differentiated (67%), and poorly differentiated (11%). Sixty-seven percent (67%) of cases demonstrated a squamoid growth pattern and thirty-three percent (33%) demonstrated a basaloid growth pattern. A majority of the neoplasms histopathologically classified as well-differentiated (94%) and moderately differentiated (65%) demonstrated a squamoid growth pattern. Ten percent (10%) of cases exhibited cystic histopathologic changes. The histopathological features reported in this study aid in the understanding of extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and its eventual diagnosis and classification.

Ikoma T, Kapoor VK, Behari A, et al.
Lack of an Apparent Association between Mycotoxin Concentrations in Red Chili Peppers and Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer in India : an Ecological Study.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(7):3499-503 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our recent studies conducted in South America have shown that mycotoxin contamination of red chili peppers (RCPs) may be associated with an increased risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Whether this relationship exists in India, a country with a high incidence of GBC and high consumption of RCPs, is unclear. We therefore measured concentrations of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in RCPs from areas of low, medium, and high incidence of GBC in India, and compared these concentrations with GBC incidence in each area. Twentyone RCP samples were collected from nine cities (eight from a lowincidence area, five from a mediumincidence area, and eight from a highincidence area). Concentrations of AFs and OTA were measured using highperformance liquid chromatography. No significant differences in mean concentrations of AFs and OTA were found in the three areas. AFB1 levels in the lowincidence area (10.81 ?g/kg) and highincidence area (12.00 ?g/kg) were more than 2.2 and 2.4 times higher compared with the maximum permitted level of AFB1 in spices (5.0 ?g/kg) set by the Commission of the European Communities, or that (4.4 ?g/kg) obtained in our previous study in Chile. Our results show that the mean concentrations of mycotoxins in RCPs are similar among the three areas in India with different incidences of GBC. Further studies with human subjects are needed to evaluate any association between AFB1 and GBC.

Ronco AL, Stefani ED, Mendoza B, et al.
Mate and Tea Intake, Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Breast Cancer: a Case-Control Study.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(6):2923-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we reported an inverse association between high 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South America) and breast cancer (BC) risk. Stronger inverse associations were found in high strata of tea, vegetable, fruit and energy intakes, and in overweight/obese women, suggesting possible roles for 'mate' mainly from its antioxidant contribution. The present study attempted to thoroughly explore possible associations among 'mate' and tea intake, dietary antioxidants and BC risk. Combining two databases of previous studies, 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls were interviewed with a specific questionnaire featuring socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire (64 items), focusing on 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit). Food-derived nutrients were calculated from available databases. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest 'mate' intake was significantly inversely associated with BC risk for both low and high carotenoids (OR=0.40 vs. 0.41), vitamin C (OR=0.33 vs. 0.50), vitamin E (OR=0.37 vs. 0.45), flavonols (OR=0.38 vs. 0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.48 vs. 0.46) strata. High tea intake showed significant inverse risk associations only with high carotenoids (OR=0.41), vitamin E (OR=0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.43) strata. In conclusion, a strong and inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC was found, independent of dietary antioxidant levels. Also strong inverse associations with tea intake were more evident only at high levels of certain dietary antioxidants.

Tirado-Gómez M, Hughes DC, González-Mercado V, et al.
Physical Activity in Puerto Rican Breast Cancer Survivors.
P R Health Sci J. 2016; 35(2):62-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer survivors do not engage in appropriate levels of physical activity, despite the known benefits of such activity. This study aims to describe physical-activity levels and the barriers to it in a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, as well as detailing their preferences for an intervention.
METHODS: Participants who finished their chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for breast cancer at least 4 months prior to the study were included. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were obtained. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) and questionnaires on exercise self-efficacy, barriers to self-efficacy, modeling, and social support were filled out by study participants. Data on access to exercise equipment and preferences regarding a physical-activity intervention were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlation analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Fifty breast cancer survivors were recruited. Almost all the participants reported that they did not engage in any kind of strenuous physical activity (94%), with more than three fourths (76%) reporting that they did not even participate in any kind of moderate physical activity. The GLTEQ score was associated with barriers to selfefficacy, while the association with exercise self-efficacy approached significance (p = 0.055). Nearly half of the patients (44%) had access to exercise equipment. Preferred methods for the delivery of physical-activity interventions were participating in group settings (72%) and receiving material in the postal mail (44%).
CONCLUSION: The study described herein reports on the low levels of physical activity being practiced by a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, despite the fact that many of them had access to exercise equipment and facilities. Further studies aimed at understanding breast cancer survivors' barriers to physical activity and at developing culturally competent interventions to increase the levels of such activity are warranted.

Al Mansour M, Izzo L, Mazzone G, et al.
Curative gastric resection for the elderly patients suffering from gastric cancer.
G Chir. 2016 Jan-Feb; 37(1):13-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The improvement of the socio-economic conditions and the progress of medicine have extended the life span of the world's population and as a result, the number of patients with malignant neoplasms has increased. Gastric cancer is the third most common cancer (after lung and prostate) and the second leading cause of death caused by cancer (after lung bronchogenic cell carcinoma) in males; while it's the fifth cancer by frequency and the fourth cause of cancer death in females. It presents a peculiar geographical distribution with a lower incidence in Western Europe and North America, and higher incidence in the Far East, South America and Eastern Europe. Its incidence in Italy is 122 cases per 100000 inhabitants in males and 83 cases per 100000 inhabitants in females (in Italy). It occurs more frequently in old age, is quite rare in individuals under the age of 45. The aim of this work is to analyze the clinical and pathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma and the feasibility of curative surgery in patients over 75, identifying the factors affecting mortality, morbidity, survival and quality of life after surgery. These data have been compared with those of younger patients to assess the correct type of surgery.

Brureau L, Moningo D, Emeville E, et al.
Polymorphisms of Estrogen Metabolism-Related Genes and Prostate Cancer Risk in Two Populations of African Ancestry.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153609 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogens are thought to play a critical role in prostate carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism are risk factors for prostate cancer. However, few studies have been performed on populations of African ancestry, which are known to have a high risk of prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether functional polymorphisms of CYP17, CYP19, CYP1B1, COMT and UGT1A1 affected the risk of prostate cancer in two different populations of African ancestry.
METHODS: In Guadeloupe (French West Indies), we compared 498 prostate cancer patients and 565 control subjects. In Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo), 162 prostate cancer patients were compared with 144 controls. Gene polymorphisms were determined by the SNaPshot technique or short tandem repeat PCR analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
RESULTS: The AA genotype and the A allele of rs4680 (COMT) appeared to be inversely associated with the risk of prostate cancer in adjusted models for both Afro-Caribbean and native African men. For the A allele, a significant inverse association was observed among cases with low-grade Gleason scores and localized clinical stage, in both populations.
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results support the hypothesis that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism may modulate the risk of prostate cancer in populations of African ancestry.

Ferreira PM, Bezerra DP, Silva Jdo N, et al.
Preclinical anticancer effectiveness of a fraction from Casearia sylvestris and its component Casearin X: in vivo and ex vivo methods and microscopy examinations.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 186:270-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) is found in South America and presents antiulcerogenic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive activities.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the in vivo and ex vivo antitumor action of a fraction with casearins (FC) and its main component - Casearin X-isolated from C. sylvestris leaves.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, Sarcoma 180 bearing Swiss mice were treated with FC and Cas X for 7 days. Secondly, BALB/c nude animals received hollow fibers with colon carcinoma (HCT-116) or glioblastoma (SF-295) cells and were treated with FC for 4 days. On 5th day, proliferation was determined by MTT assay.
RESULTS: FC 10 and 25mg/kg/day i.p. and 50mg/kg/day oral and Cas X 25mg/kg/day i.p. and 50mg/kg/day oral revealed tumor growth inhibition rates of 35.8, 86.2, 53.7, 90.0 and 65.5% and such tumors demonstrated rare mitoses and coagulation necrosis areas. Similarly, FC reduced multiplying of HCT-116 and SF-295 cells when evaluated by the Hollow Fiber Assay (2.5 and 5mg/kg/day i.p. and 25 and 50mg/kg/day oral), with cell growth inhibition rates ranging from 33.3 to 67.4% (p<0.05). Flow cytometry experiments revealed that FC reduced membrane integrity and induced DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarization (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: FC and Cas X were efficient antitumor substances against murine and human cancer cells and caused reversible morphological changes in liver, kidneys and spleens, emphasizing clerodane diterpenes as an emerging class of anticancer molecules.

Husain RS, Ramakrishnan V
Global Variation of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Selected Genes Involved in Cervical Malignancies.
Ann Glob Health. 2015 Sep-Oct; 81(5):675-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the cervix is ranked second among the top 5 cancers affecting women globally. Parallel to other cancers, it is also a complex disease involving numerous factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection followed by the activity of oncogenes and environmental factors. The incidence rate of the disease remains high in developing countries due to lack of awareness, followed by mass screening programs, various socioeconomic issues, and low usage of preventive vaccines. Over the past 3 decades, extensive research has taken place in cervical malignancy to elucidate the role of host genes in the pathogenesis of the disease, yet it remains one of the most prevalent diseases. It is imperative that recent genome-wide techniques be used to determine whether carcinogenesis of oncogenes is associated with cervical cancer at the molecular level and to translate that knowledge into developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to discuss HPV predominance with their genotype distribution worldwide, and in India, as well as to discuss the newly identified oncogenes related to cervical cancer in current scenario.
FINDINGS: Using data from various databases and robust technologies, oncogenes associated with cervical malignancies were identified and are explained in concise manner.
CONCLUSION: Due to the advent of recent technologies, new candidate genes are explored and can be used as precise biomarkers for screening and developing drug targets.

Piña AR, Jimenez LS, Mariano FV, et al.
Human papillomavirus in tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas from Guatemala and Brazil.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016; 121(4):412-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: A subgroup of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Nevertheless, the prevalence of HPV seems to be variable in different regions and ethnic groups. There are no reports of HPV in tonsillar carcinomas in Guatemala, and data from Brazil are scarce. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare HPV presence in samples of tonsillar SCC from these countries.
STUDY DESIGN: This study describes the histologic features, expression of p16 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and HPV by in situ hybridization (ISH) in 13 Guatemalan and 13 Brazilian patients.
RESULTS: All cases of tonsillar SCC from Guatemala were positive for p16, 92% expressed HPV by ISH, and 75% corresponded to the high-risk genotype 16/18. From the Brazilian patients, only four expressed p16, and all were negative for HPV.
CONCLUSIONS: Cases from Guatemala, which were mostly nonkeratinizing SCC and originated from the crypt/reticular epithelium of the tonsil, had high-risk integrated HPV, whereas in Brazilian cases, which were mostly keratinizing SCC that originated from the surface epithelium, there was no association with HPV.

Cruz A, Castillo Z, Pérez J, Abeledo A
A Woman-centered Educational Program for Primary Prevention of Lung Cancer in a Cuban Municipality, 2012--2013.
MEDICC Rev. 2015; 17(4):44-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer educational programs seek the involvement of different groups in efforts to promote healthier habits and lifestyles. Women are primary agents for targeting prevention actions because of their ability to foster healthy lifestyles within their families. The purpose of this study was to develop a woman-centered educational program to strengthen knowledge and promote responsible behavior aimed at primary prevention of lung cancer. Based on identified learning needs in 133 female participants concerning lung cancer self care, healthy habits and communication skills about self care, a ten-workshop series was designed and validated by specialists and users. Before intervention, 82% of participants were highly aware of smoking-related harm, but only 26% were highly aware of healthy environmental management practices at home and 14% were knowledgeable about self care. Differences in both awareness and practice of health-promoting behaviors were observed by the end of the training: those highly aware of smoking-related harm rose to 86.5%, and those highly aware of environmental management and self care increased to 66.2% and 83.5%, respectively. The proportions reporting acceptable levels of environmental management and self-care practices increased to 86.5% (from 0%) and 91% (from 3.8%), respectively. One year later, a positive impact on families was confirmed, predominantly on children. We conclude that such a woman-centered educational program can increase awareness and promote healthy behaviors aimed at lung cancer prevention. Women's ability to communicate and share lessons learned within their families should be considered in designing community health education programs. KEYWORDS Lung cancer, health education, disease prevention, primary prevention, health promotion, Cuba.

Suárez E, González L, Pérez-Mitchell C, et al.
Pathway Analysis using Gene-expression Profiles of HPV-positive and HPV-negative Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients in a Hispanic Population: Methodological Procedures.
P R Health Sci J. 2016; 35(1):3-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer in Puerto Rican men is higher than it is in the men of any other ethnic/racial group in the United States of America (US). The information regarding the effect of the human papilloma virus (HPV) in the gene-expression profile among patients with this cancer is limited in Hispanic community. We aim to describe the methodology for future studies to identify the molecular networks for determining overrepresented signaling and metabolic canonical pathways, based on the differential gene-expression profiles of HPV+ and HPV- samples from patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Puerto Rico.
METHODS: We analyzed the RNA expression of 5 tissue samples from subjects diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 2 HPV+ and 3 HPV-, using Affymetrix GeneChips. The relative difference between the average gene expressions of the HPV+ and HPV- samples was assessed, based on the fold change (log2-scale).
RESULTS: Our analysis revealed 10 up regulated molecules (Mup1, LRP1, P14KA, ALYREF, and BHMT) and 5 down regulated ones (PSME4, KEAP1, ELK3, FAM186B, and PRELID1), at a cutoff of 1.5-fold change. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed the following biological functions to be affected in the HPV+ samples: cancer, hematological disease, and RNA post-transcriptional modification. QRT-PCR analysis confirmed only the differential regulation of ALYREF, KEAP1, and FAM186B genes.
CONCLUSION: The relevant methodological procedures described are sufficient to detect the most significant biological functions and pathways according to the HPV status in patients with oropharyngeal cancer in Puerto Rico.

Setiawan VW, Wei PC, Hernandez BY, et al.
Disparity in liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality by nativity in Hispanics: The Multiethnic Cohort.
Cancer. 2016; 122(9):1444-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease (CLD) are major causes of morbidity and mortality among Hispanics. Disparities in the incidence of HCC and in CLD deaths by nativity in Hispanics have been reported. Whether individual-level risk factors could explain these disparities was assessed in a prospective study of 36,864 Hispanics (18,485 US-born and 18,379 foreign-born) in the Multiethnic Cohort.
METHODS: Risk factors were assessed with a baseline questionnaire and Medicare claim files. During a 19.6-year follow-up, 189 incident cases of HCC and 298 CLD deaths were identified.
RESULTS: The HCC incidence rate was almost twice as high for US-born Hispanic men versus foreign-born Hispanic men (44.7 vs 23.1), but the rates were comparable for women (14.5 vs 13.4). The CLD mortality rate was about twice as high for US-born Hispanics versus foreign-born Hispanics (66.3 vs 35.1 for men and 42.2 vs 19.7 for women). Heavy alcohol consumption was associated with HCC and CLD in foreign-born individuals, whereas the current smoking status, hepatitis B/C viral infection, and diabetes were associated with both HCC and CLD. After adjustments for these risk factors, the hazard rate ratios for HCC and CLD death were 1.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.51) and 1.85 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.73), respectively, for US-born Hispanics versus foreign-born Hispanics.
CONCLUSIONS: US-born Hispanics, particularly males, are at greater risk for HCC and death from CLD than foreign-born Hispanics. Overall known differences in risk factors do not account for these disparities. Future studies are warranted to identify factors that contribute to the elevated risk of HCC development and CLD death in US-born Hispanics. Cancer 2016;122:1444-1452. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

Cremer ML, Maza M, Alfaro KM, et al.
Introducing a High-Risk HPV DNA Test Into a Public Sector Screening Program in El Salvador.
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2016; 20(2):145-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In a primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening program, we compared the 6-month follow-up among colposcopy and noncolposcopy-based management strategies for screen-positive women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women aged 30 to 49 years were screened with HPV DNA tests using both self-collection and provider collection of samples. Women testing positive received either (1) colposcopy management (CM) consisting of colposcopy and management per local guidelines or (2) screen-and-treat (ST) management using visual inspection with acetic acid to determine cryotherapy eligibility, with eligible women undergoing immediate cryotherapy. One thousand women were recruited in each cohort. Of these, 368 (18.4%) of 2000 women were recruited using a more intensive outreach strategy. Demographics, HPV positivity, and treatment compliance were compared across recruitment and management strategies.
RESULTS: More women in the ST cohort received treatment within 6 months compared with those in the CM cohort (117/119 [98.3%] vs 64/93 [68.8%]; p < .001). Women recruited through more intensive outreach were more likely to be HPV positive, lived in urban areas, were more educated, and had higher numbers of lifetime sexual partners and fewer children.
CONCLUSIONS: Women in the CM arm were less likely to complete care than women in the ST arm. Targeted outreach to underscreened women successfully identified women with higher prevalence of HPV and possibly higher disease burden.

Chan A, Delaloge S, Holmes FA, et al.
Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2016; 17(3):367-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neratinib, an irreversible tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of HER1, HER2, and HER4, has clinical activity in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 12 months of neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer.
METHODS: We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 495 centres in Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and North and South America. Eligible women (aged ≥18 years, or ≥20 years in Japan) had stage 1-3 HER2-positive breast cancer and had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab therapy up to 2 years before randomisation. Inclusion criteria were amended on Feb 25, 2010, to include patients with stage 2-3 HER2-positive breast cancer who had completed trastuzumab therapy up to 1 year previously. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral neratinib 240 mg per day or matching placebo. The randomisation sequence was generated with permuted blocks stratified by hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive [oestrogen or progesterone receptor-positive or both] vs hormone receptor-negative [oestrogen and progesterone receptor-negative]), nodal status (0, 1-3, or ≥4), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system. Patients, investigators, and trial sponsors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was invasive disease-free survival, as defined in the original protocol, at 2 years after randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709.
FINDINGS: Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, we randomly assigned 2840 women to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). Median follow-up time was 24 months (IQR 20-25) in the neratinib group and 24 months (22-25) in the placebo group. At 2 year follow-up, 70 invasive disease-free survival events had occurred in patients in the neratinib group versus 109 events in those in the placebo group (stratified hazard ratio 0·67, 95% CI 0·50-0·91; p=0·0091). The 2-year invasive disease-free survival rate was 93·9% (95% CI 92·4-95·2) in the neratinib group and 91·6% (90·0-93·0) in the placebo group. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in patients in the neratinib group were diarrhoea (grade 3, n=561 [40%] and grade 4, n=1 [<1%] vs grade 3, n=23 [2%] in the placebo group), vomiting (grade 3, n=47 [3%] vs n=5 [<1%]), and nausea (grade 3, n=26 [2%] vs n=2 [<1%]). QT prolongation occurred in 49 (3%) patients given neratinib and 93 (7%) patients given placebo, and decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction (≥grade 2) in 19 (1%) and 15 (1%) patients, respectively. We recorded serious adverse events in 103 (7%) patients in the neratinib group and 85 (6%) patients in the placebo group. Seven (<1%) deaths (four patients in the neratinib group and three patients in the placebo group) unrelated to disease progression occurred after study drug discontinuation. The causes of death in the neratinib group were unknown (n=2), a second primary brain tumour (n=1), and acute myeloid leukaemia (n=1), and in the placebo group were a brain haemorrhage (n=1), myocardial infarction (n=1), and gastric cancer (n=1). None of the deaths were attributed to study treatment in either group.
INTERPRETATION: Neratinib for 12 months significantly improved 2-year invasive disease-free survival when given after chemotherapy and trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy to women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Longer follow-up is needed to ensure that the improvement in breast cancer outcome is maintained.
FUNDING: Wyeth, Pfizer, Puma Biotechnology.

Vrinten C, Wardle J, Marlow LA
Cancer fear and fatalism among ethnic minority women in the United Kingdom.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(5):597-604 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer fear and fatalism are believed to be higher in ethnic minorities and may contribute to lower engagement with cancer prevention and early detection. We explored the levels of cancer fear and fatalism in six ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and examined the contribution of acculturation and general fatalism.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 720 White British, Caribbean, African, Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi women (120 of each) was conducted. Three items assessed cancer fear and two cancer fatalism. Acculturation was assessed using (self-reported) migration status, ability to speak English, and understanding of health leaflets; general fatalism with a standard measure.
RESULTS: Relative to White British women, African and Indian women were more fearful of cancer, Bangladeshi women less fearful, and Pakistani and Caribbean women were similar to White British women. Cancer fatalism was higher in all the ethnic minority groups compared with White British women. Less acculturated women were less likely to worry (ORs 0.21-0.45, all P<0.05) or feel particularly afraid (ORs 0.11-0.31, all P<0.05) but more likely to feel uncomfortable about cancer (ORs 1.97-3.03, all P<0.05). Lower acculturation (ORs 4.30-17.27, P<0.05) and general fatalism (OR 2.29, P<0.05) were associated with the belief that cancer is predetermined.
CONCLUSIONS: In general, cancer fear and fatalism are more prevalent among ethnic minority than White British women and even more so in less acculturated ethnic minorities. This may affect their participation in cancer prevention and early detection.

Henning JD, Bunker CH, Patrick AL, Jenkins FJ
Human herpesvirus 8 establishes a latent infection in prostates of Tobago men resulting in increased macrophage infiltration.
Prostate. 2016; 76(8):735-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Caribbean island of Tobago, which is 97% African ancestry, has one of the highest rates of prostate cancer in the world. We have previously reported that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection is significantly associated with prostate cancer in Tobago. In this study, we extend those results testing the hypothesis that HHV-8 seropositive Tobagonian men have a chronic HHV-8 infection in their prostates that is associated with increased inflammation.
METHODS: Prostate sections were screened by immunohistochemistry for the expression of HHV-8 proteins K8.1 and LANA-1 and for presence of B cells (CD20) and macrophages (CD68).
RESULTS: HHV-8 antigen expression representing lytic and latent infections was seen in 73.9% of prostates from HHV-8 seropositive subjects. Latent infections were seen predominantly in glandular epithelia whereas lytic gene expression was seen mainly in macrophages in prostate stroma. Macrophage infiltrates were significantly increased in sections expressing HHV-8 proteins.
CONCLUSION: HHV-8 establishes a chronic latent infection in the prostate, which is associated with an increased macrophage infiltrate.

Castellsagué X, Alemany L, Quer M, et al.
HPV Involvement in Head and Neck Cancers: Comprehensive Assessment of Biomarkers in 3680 Patients.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; 108(6):djv403 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We conducted a large international study to estimate fractions of head and neck cancers (HNCs) attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV-AFs) using six HPV-related biomarkers of viral detection, transcription, and cellular transformation.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissues of the oral cavity (OC), pharynx, and larynx were collected from pathology archives in 29 countries. All samples were subject to histopathological evaluation, DNA quality control, and HPV-DNA detection. Samples containing HPV-DNA were further subject to HPV E6*I mRNA detection and to p16(INK4a), pRb, p53, and Cyclin D1 immunohistochemistry. Final estimates of HPV-AFs were based on HPV-DNA, HPV E6*I mRNA, and/or p16(INK4a) results.
RESULTS: A total of 3680 samples yielded valid results: 1374 pharyngeal, 1264 OC, and 1042 laryngeal cancers. HPV-AF estimates based on positivity for HPV-DNA, and for either HPV E6*I mRNA or p16(INK4a), were 22.4%, 4.4%, and 3.5% for cancers of the oropharynx, OC, and larynx, respectively, and 18.5%, 3.0%, and 1.5% when requiring simultaneous positivity for all three markers. HPV16 was largely the most common type. Estimates of HPV-AF in the oropharynx were highest in South America, Central and Eastern Europe, and Northern Europe, and lowest in Southern Europe. Women showed higher HPV-AFs than men for cancers of the oropharynx in Europe and for the larynx in Central-South America.
CONCLUSIONS: HPV contribution to HNCs is substantial but highly heterogeneous by cancer site, region, and sex. This study, the largest exploring HPV attribution in HNCs, confirms the important role of HPVs in oropharyngeal cancer and drastically downplays the previously reported involvement of HPVs in the other HNCs.

Yang CF, Sun Z, Speicher PJ, et al.
Use and Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Lobectomy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the National Cancer Data Base.
Ann Thorac Surg. 2016; 101(3):1037-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have raised concerns that video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy may compromise nodal evaluation. The advantages or limitations of robotic lobectomy have not been thoroughly evaluated.
METHODS: Perioperative outcomes and survival of patients who underwent open versus minimally-invasive surgery (MIS [VATS and robotic]) lobectomy and VATS versus robotic lobectomy for clinical T1-2, N0 non-small cell lung cancer from 2010 to 2012 in the National Cancer Data Base were evaluated using propensity score matching.
RESULTS: Of 30,040 lobectomies, 7,824 were VATS and 2,025 were robotic. After propensity score matching, when compared with the open approach (n = 9,390), MIS (n = 9,390) was found to have increased 30-day readmission rates (5% versus 4%, p < 0.01), shorter median hospital length of stay (5 versus 6 days, p < 0.01), and improved 2-year survival (87% versus 86%, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in nodal upstaging and 30-day mortality between the two groups. After propensity score matching, when compared with the robotic group (n = 1,938), VATS (n = 1,938) was not significantly different from robotics with regard to nodal upstaging, 30-day mortality, and 2-year survival.
CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based analysis, MIS (VATS and robotic) lobectomy was used in the minority of patients for stage I non-small cell lung cancer. MIS lobectomy was associated with shorter length of hospital stay and was not associated with increased perioperative mortality, compromised nodal evaluation, or reduced short-term survival when compared with the open approach. These results suggest the need for broader implementation of MIS techniques.

Penedo FJ, Yanez B, Castañeda SF, et al.
Self-Reported Cancer Prevalence among Hispanics in the US: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146268 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer has surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death among Hispanics in the U.S., yet data on cancer prevalence and risk factors in Hispanics in regard to ancestry remain scarce. This study sought to describe (a) the prevalence of cancer among Hispanics from four major U.S. metropolitan areas, (b) cancer prevalence across Hispanic ancestry, and (c) identify correlates of self-reported cancer prevalence. Participants were 16,415 individuals from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), who self-identified as Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central or South American. All data were collected at a single time point during the HCHS/SOL baseline clinic visit. The overall self-reported prevalence rate of cancer for the population was 4%. The rates varied by Hispanic ancestry group, with individuals of Cuban and Puerto Rican ancestry reporting the highest cancer prevalence. For the entire population, older age (OR = 1.47, p < .001, 95% CI, 1.26-1.71) and having health insurance (OR = 1.93, p < .001, 95% CI, 1.42-2.62) were all significantly associated with greater prevalence, whereas male sex was associated with lower prevalence (OR = 0.56, p < .01, 95% CI, .40-.79). Associations between study covariates and cancer prevalence also varied by Hispanic ancestry. Findings underscore the importance of sociodemographic factors and health insurance in relation to cancer prevalence for Hispanics and highlight variations in cancer prevalence across Hispanic ancestry groups. Characterizing differences in cancer prevalence rates and their correlates is critical to the development and implementation of effective prevention strategies across distinct Hispanic ancestry groups.

Coronado Interis E, Anakwenze CP, Aung M, Jolly PE
Increasing Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening in Jamaica: Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Educational Intervention.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015; 13(1):ijerph13010053 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite declines in cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates remain high in Jamaica due to low levels of screening. Effective interventions are needed to decrease barriers to preventive behaviors and increase adoption of behaviors and services to improve prospects of survival. We enrolled 225 women attending health facilities in an intervention consisting of a pre-test, educational presentation and post-test. The questionnaires assessed attitudes, knowledge, risk factors, and symptoms of cervical cancer among women. Changes in knowledge and intention to screen were assessed using paired t-tests and tests for correlated proportions. Participants were followed approximately six months post-intervention to determine cervical cancer screening rates. We found statistically significant increases from pre-test to post-test in the percentage of questions correctly answered and in participants' intention to screen for cervical cancer. The greatest improvements were observed in responses to questions on knowledge, symptoms and prevention, with some items increasing up to 62% from pre-test to post-test. Of the 123 women reached for follow-up, 50 (40.7%) screened for cervical cancer. This theory-based education intervention significantly increased knowledge of and intention to screen for cervical cancer, and may be replicated in similar settings to promote awareness and increase screening rates.

Translational cancer research comes of age in Latin America.
Sci Transl Med. 2015; 7(319):319fs50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The U.S.-Latin America Cancer Research Network strives to expand translational research capabilities and forge new collaborations.

Jeronimo J, Holme F, Slavkovsky R, Camel C
Implementation of HPV testing in Latin America.
J Clin Virol. 2016; 76 Suppl 1:S69-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is one of the leading killers among women in Latin America, a region where most countries have not been successful in implementing population-level cytology-based screening programs. This disease is caused by persistent infection with oncogenic HPV; in recent years, more HPV tests have become available and prices have dropped significantly, making it possible for countries to adopt these technologies. Pilot programs that took place in Nicaragua, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high level of efficacy in detecting precancerous cervical lesions and good feasibility and acceptance of self-sampling. El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua are beginning to institutionalize HPV testing at the population level. The experience from the different countries has created rich information about the barriers and requirements for implementing HPV screening at large scale in these resource-constrained countries. There are several challenges for implementation, including a need to update screening guidelines, strengthen treatment capacity, and develop a comprehensive quality assurance plan for the HPV testing. At the same time, there are several opportunities in Latin America that make the process more feasible and faster than in other regions of the world: most Latin American countries already have screening programs funded by their national governments, several countries in the region are already implementing HPV testing, and there is a regional pooled procurement mechanism that could facilitate the purchase of HPV tests at an accessible price. We envision that most countries in the region will include HPV testing in their national program within the next three to five years.

Casellas-Cabrera N, Díaz-Algorri Y, Carlo-Chévere VJ, et al.
Risk of thyroid cancer among Caribbean Hispanic patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.
Fam Cancer. 2016; 15(2):267-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited form of colorectal cancer characterized by hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. FAP is also associated with thyroid cancer (TC), but the lifetime risk is still unclear. This study reports the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TC in Hispanic FAP patients. TC incidence rates in patients with FAP between the periods of January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2013 were compared with the general population through direct database linkage from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry (PRCCR) and the Puerto Rico Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry (PURIFICAR). The study population consisted of 51 Hispanic patients with FAP and 3239 with TC from the general population. The SIR was calculated using the Indirect Method, defined as observed TC incidence among patients with FAP in PURIFICAR's cohort (2006-2013) divided by the expected TC incidence based on the PR population rates (2006-2010). SIR values were estimated by sex (male, female, and overall). This study received IRB approval (protocol #A2210207). In Hispanic patients with FAP, the SIR (95% CI) for TC was 251.73 (51.91-735.65), with higher risk for females 461.18 (55.85-1665.94) than males 131.91 (3.34-734.95). Hispanic FAP patients are at a high risk for TC compared to the general population. Our incidence rates are higher than previous studies, suggesting that this community may be at a higher risk for TC than previously assumed. Implementation of clinical surveillance guidelines and regular ultrasound neck screening in Hispanic FAP patients is recommended.

Smaletz O
Current management and future directions in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma-a latin american perspective: 10 years in review.
Int Braz J Urol. 2015 Sep-Oct; 41(5):835-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The worldwide incidence of kidney cancer is estimated at 337,860 new cases per year in the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2012 update, with an estimated 143,369 deaths annually. Over the past 10 years, there have been significant advances in the treatment of advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma, including the development of targeted therapies. Currently recommended first-line treatments include sunitinib, temsirolimus, bevacizumab plus interferon, and pazopanib, or high-dose interleukin-2 or sorafenib for selected patients. Recommended second-line treatments include all of the above agents, as well as everolimus and axitinib. Unfortunately, combination therapies have generally resulted in increased toxicity and little improvement in efficacy. Recent studies focused on identification of predictive biomarkers for responses to specific targeted therapies and have not been successful to date. Despite recent advances in targeted treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, important questions regarding biomarkers of efficacy, and optimal combination and sequencing of agents remain to be answered. This paper reviews literature concerned with first-and second-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and will discuss key issues in Latin America.

Banydeen R, Rose AM, Martin D, et al.
Advancing Cancer Control Through Research and Cancer Registry Collaborations in the Caribbean.
Cancer Control. 2015; 22(4):520-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Few national registries exist in the Caribbean, resulting in limited cancer statistics being available for the region. Therefore, estimates are frequently based on the extrapolation of mortality data submitted to the World Health Organization. Thus, regional cancer surveillance and research need promoting, and their synergy must be strengthened. However, differences between countries outweigh similarities, hampering registration and availability of data.
METHODS: The African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) is a broad-based resource for education, training, and research on all aspects of cancer in populations of African descent. The AC3 focuses on capacity building in cancer registration in the Caribbean through special topics, training sessions, and biannual meetings. We review the results from selected AC3 workshops, including an inventory of established cancer registries in the Caribbean region, current cancer surveillance statistics, and a review of data quality. We then describe the potential for cancer research surveillance activities and the role of policymakers.
RESULTS: Twelve of 30 Caribbean nations have cancer registries. Four of these nations provide high-quality incidence data, thus covering 14.4% of the population; therefore, regional estimates are challenging. Existing research and registry collaborations must pave the way and are facilitated by organizations like the AC3.
CONCLUSIONS: Improved coverage for cancer registrations could help advance health policy through targeted research. Capacity building, resource optimization, collaboration, and communication between cancer surveillance and research teams are key to obtaining robust and complete data in the Caribbean.

Zimmermann-Paiz MA, García de la Riva JC
Conjunctival tumors in children: histopathologic diagnosis in 165 cases.
Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2015 Nov-Dec; 78(6):337-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Conjunctival tissue tumors have a varied presentation, and few series studies on pediatric patients have been published. The objective of this paper is to report the histopathologic diagnoses (spanning over 1988-2013) of conjunctival tumors in children younger than 14 years.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, and observational study by reviewing the database of all children in whom a conjunctival tumor was surgically removed at Hospital de Ojos y Oídos "Dr. Rodolfo Robles V.," Benemérito Comité Pro Ciegos y Sordos de Guatemala. The data pertaining to gender, age, and histopathologic diagnosis of all cases was collected. The same ocular pathologist made all diagnoses.
RESULTS: One hundred sixty-five cases were found, with a mean age of 7.88 years, being 91 (55.15%) male subjects. Melanocytic lesions were the most common tumors found (30.91% of cases), with only one case (0.60%) being malignant.
CONCLUSIONS: Melanocytic lesions were the most common tumors found, and of all the cases, only one was malignant; this was in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum. These findings are consistent with those reported in other studies regarding the frequencies of the histopathology of conjunctival tumors in the pediatric population.

Bychkovsky BL, Ferreyra ME, Strasser-Weippl K, et al.
Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.
Cancer. 2016; 122(4):502-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources.

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