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Peru

Cancer Statistics
Population in 2008: 28.8m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 39,300
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 157.1
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:15.5%
People dying from cancer /yr: 24,800
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2008)
Peru: Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications from Peru

Peru: Cancer Organisations and Resources (6 links)


Latest Research Publications from Peru

Luque JS, Opoku S, Ferris DG, Guevara Condorhuaman WS
Social network characteristics and cervical cancer screening among Quechua women in Andean Peru.
BMC Public Health. 2016; 16:181 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peru has high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates compared to other Andean countries. Therefore, partnerships between governmental and international organizations have targeted rural areas of Peru to receive cervical cancer screening via outreach campaigns. Previous studies have found a relationship between a person's social networks and cancer screening behaviors. Screening outreach campaigns conducted by the nonprofit organization CerviCusco created an opportunity for a social network study to examine cervical cancer screening history and social network characteristics in a rural indigenous community that participated in these campaigns in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to explore social network characteristics in this community related to receipt of cervical cancer screening following the campaigns.
METHODS: An egocentric social network questionnaire was used to collect cross-sectional network data on community participants. Each survey participant (ego) was asked to name six other women they knew (alters) and identify the nature of their relationship or tie (family, friend, neighbor, other), residential closeness (within 5 km), length of time known, frequency of communication, topics of conversation, and whether they lent money to the person, provided childcare or helped with transportation. In addition, each participant was asked to report the nature of the relationship between all alters identified (e.g., friend, family, or neighbor). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to explore the relationship between Pap test receipt at the CerviCusco outreach screening campaigns and social network characteristics.
RESULTS: Bivariate results found significant differences in percentage of alter composition for neighbors and family, and for mean number of years known, mean density, and mean degree centrality between women who had received a Pap test (n = 19) compared to those who had not (n = 50) (p's < 0.05). The final logistic regression model was statistically significant (χ2 (2) = 20.911, p < .001). The model included the variables for percentage of family alter composition and mean density, and it explained 37.8% (Nagelkerke R(2)) of the variance in Pap test receipt, correctly classifying 78.3% of cases. Those women with higher percentages of family alter composition and higher mean density in their ego networks were less likely to have received a Pap test at the CerviCusco campaigns.
CONCLUSIONS: According to this exploratory study, female neighbors more than family members may have provided an important source of social support for healthcare related decisions related to receipt of a Pap test. Future studies should collect longitudinal social network data on participants to measure the network effects of screening interventions in rural indigenous communities in Latin American countries experiencing the highest burden of cervical cancer.

Tevaarwerk AJ, Lee JW, Terhaar A, et al.
Working after a metastatic cancer diagnosis: Factors affecting employment in the metastatic setting from ECOG-ACRIN's Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study.
Cancer. 2016; 122(3):438-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Improved survival for individuals with metastatic cancer accentuates the importance of employment for cancer survivors. A better understanding of how metastatic cancer affects employment is a necessary step toward the development of tools for assisting survivors in this important realm.
METHODS: The ECOG-ACRIN Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study was analyzed to investigate what factors were associated with the employment of 680 metastatic cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients stably working with patients no longer working.
RESULTS: There were 668 metastatic working-age participants in the analysis: 236 (35%) worked full- or part-time, whereas 302 (45%) had stopped working because of illness. Overall, 58% reported some change in employment due to illness. A better performance status and non-Hispanic white ethnicity/race were significantly associated with continuing to work despite a metastatic cancer diagnosis in the multivariate analysis. The disease type, time since metastatic diagnosis, number of metastatic sites, location of metastatic disease, and treatment status had no significant impact. Among the potentially modifiable factors, receiving hormonal treatment (if a viable option) and decreasing symptom interference were associated with continuing to work.
CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of the metastatic patients remained employed; increased symptom burden was associated with a change to no longer working. Modifiable factors resulting in work interference should be minimized so that patients with metastatic disease may continue working if this is desired. Improvements in symptom control and strategies developed to help address workplace difficulties have promise for improving this aspect of survivorship.

Zamudio R, Pereira L, Rocha CD, et al.
Population, Epidemiological, and Functional Genetics of Gastric Cancer Candidate Genes in Peruvians with Predominant Amerindian Ancestry.
Dig Dis Sci. 2016; 61(1):107-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric adenocarcinoma is associated with chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori and with the host inflammatory response triggered by it, with substantial inter-person variation in the immune response profile due to host genetic factors.
AIM: To investigate the diversity of the proinflammatory genes IL8, its receptors and PTGS2 in Amerindians; to test whether candidate SNPs in these genes are associated with gastric cancer in an admixed population with high Amerindian ancestry from Lima, Peru; and to assess whether an IL8RB promoter-derived haplotype affects gene expression.
METHODS: We performed a Sanger-resequencing population survey, a candidate-gene association study (220 cases, 288 controls) and meta-analyses. We also performed an in vitro validation by a reporter gene assay of IL8RB promoter.
RESULTS: The diversity of the promoter of studied genes in Native Americans is similar to Europeans. Although an association between candidate SNPs and gastric cancer was not found in Peruvians, trend in our data is consistent with meta-analyses results that suggest PTGS2-rs689466-A is associated with H. pylori-associated gastric cancer in East Asia. IL8RB promoter-derived haplotype (rs3890158-A/rs4674258-T), common in Peruvians, was up-regulated by TNF-α unlike the ancestral haplotype (rs3890158-G/rs4674258-C). Bioinformatics analysis suggests that this effect stemmed from creation of a binding site for the FOXO3 transcription factor by rs3890158G>A.
CONCLUSIONS: Our updated meta-analysis reinforces the role of PTGS2-rs689466-A in gastric cancer in Asians, although more studies that control for ancestry are necessary to clarify its role in Latin Americans. Finally, we suggest that IL8RB-rs3890158G>A is a cis-regulatory SNP.

Ikoma T, Tsuchiya Y, Asai T, et al.
Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(14):5987-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range <5-1,059 μg/kg) and Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range <5-47 μg/kg), which has an intermediate GBC incidence. The OTA contamination in the red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

Rosen BJ, Walter L, Gilman RH, et al.
Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.
Sex Transm Infect. 2016; 92(2):149-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru.
METHODS: Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age.
RESULTS: The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection.

Parra-Pérez V, Watanabe-Yamamoto J, Nago-Nago A, et al.
Factors related to advanced colorectal neoplasm at the Policlínico Peruano Japonés.
Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 2015 Oct-Dec; 80(4):239-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identifying persons at high risk for advanced colorectal neoplasia can aid in the prevention of colon cancer. Previous studies have shown that some patients can present with proximal advanced neoplasia with no distal findings.
AIMS: To determine the factors related to advanced neoplasia and advanced proximal colorectal neoplasia in a Latin American population.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional, observational, analytic study was conducted. It included patients that underwent colonoscopy at the Policlínico Peruano Japonés within the time frame of January and July 2012. Advanced neoplasia was defined as the presence of lesions ≥ 10mm with a villous component, high-grade dysplasia, or carcinoma. The splenic flexure was the limit between the proximal and distal colon.
RESULTS: A total of 846 patients were included in the study. Advanced neoplasia was detected in 108 patients (12.8%) and advanced proximal neoplasia in 55 patients (6.7%), 42 (76.4%) of whom had no neoplasia in the distal colon. Factors related to advanced neoplasia found in the multivariate analysis were age, at the intervals of 50-59 (p=0.019), 60-69 (p=0.016), and ≥ 70 years (0.002) and male sex (p=0.003). In the evaluation of advanced proximal neoplasia, the multivariate analysis identified the 60-69 year age interval (p=0.039) and advanced distal neoplasia (p=0.028) as factors related to advanced proximal disease. The ROC curve established the age cut-off point at 60 years for initially performing colonoscopy, rather than sigmoidoscopy.
CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex are related to advanced neoplasia, whereas age and advanced distal neoplasia are related to advanced proximal neoplasia.

McDonald K, Shopinski S, Wilkinson A, et al.
Correlación entre síntomas gastrointestinales funcionales y la histopatología de la mucosa gástrica, incluyendo la infección por Helicobacter pylori, en Lima, Perú.
Rev Gastroenterol Peru. 2015 Apr-Jun; 35(2):137-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between functional gastrointestinal disorders and histopathology characteristics, including H. pylori infection, of gastric mucosa, at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital, Lima-Peru, in 2013.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 112 patients were interviewed prospectively between June and July 2013 in the gastroenterology service. Dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and postprandial distress syndrome were characterized using the Rome III Survey.
RESULTS: Pathology results were determined by gastric biopsies obtained by endoscopy. Of the patients interviewed, biopsy results were obtained for 101. 22.8% had atrophy, 24.8% had intestinal metaplasia, 57.4% presented with H pylori.
CONCLUSIONS: Using chi-square analysis, no statistically significant relationship could be identified between clinical presentation and biopsy results.

Ferris DG, Condorhuaman WS, Waller JL, et al.
Polarized Light Colposcopy Compared With Standard Colposcopy.
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015; 19(3):234-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the potential benefits of polarized light colposcopy compared with standard colposcopy examinations in the evaluation of women with abnormal cervical cytology.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polarized and standard colposcopy examinations were performed on 330 subjects. Respective images and biopsy annotations were obtained. Sensitivity and specificity; differences in the severity of cervical neoplasia; agreement of colposcopy impression, biopsy intent, and biopsy site; and differences in the number of biopsies were determined using the ROC, Bowker's test of symmetry, kappa statistic, and paired t test, respectively.
RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for a lesion being seen with nonpolarized light and polarized light colposcopy were 96.8% and 64.5%, and 96.8% and 64.9%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the ROC of the lesion being seen between nonpolarized (80.7) and polarized (80.9) colposcopy. Likewise, there was no statistically significant difference in the ROC of intent to biopsy between nonpolarized (80.2) and polarized colposcopy (78.8). The agreement of cervical histopathology and colposcopy impression for nonpolarized and polarized colposcopy were 0.986 and 0.952, respectively. There was no significant difference between nonpolarized and polarized colposcopy in the mean number of lesions seen or number of sites intended to biopsy.
CONCLUSIONS: Polarized light colposcopy was not useful as an adjunct to conventional colposcopy in this study. Further research needs to be performed to determine the overall utility of polarized light colposcopy in clinical practice.

Ferris DG, Shapiro J, Fowler C, et al.
The Impact of Accessible Cervical Cancer Screening in Peru-The Día del Mercado Project.
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015; 19(3):229-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the potential impact of accessible secondary cervical cancer prevention efforts in indigenous Peruvian women living in the rural Andes Mountain region of Peru.
METHODS: Peruvian women presenting for a Pap test or visiting a local marketplace, clinic, or public facility were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed their response to the rural Pap screening program. We identified the following: 1) barriers to care, 2) patient knowledge of cervical cancer and Pap tests, and 3) perceptions of and reactions to the market clinic model. Chi-square or Fisher exact tests, t tests and 1-way ANOVA were used to examine differences between locations.
RESULTS: Of 4,560 women enrolled, those examined in tents indicated it was easier to get a Pap test (98.7%, P = 0.001) compared with women seen in buildings (96.8%) or CerviCusco (98.0%), and they felt it was more important to have a Pap test close to their home more often (99.3%) than those seen at CerviCusco (97.8%) or buildings (98.8%). Women examined in tents felt the market was a good place to have a Pap test more often (67.0%, P < 0.001) than women who went to buildings (46.0%) or CerviCusco (29.2%).
CONCLUSIONS: Many poor indigenous women living in isolated regions are unable to travel to distant health-care facilities. Using a novel mobile clinic model, the "Dia del Mercado Project" successfully reduced barriers to cervical cancer screening by using local marketplaces.

Ferris DG, Condorhuaman WS, Waller J, Lilienthal A
Impact of a Video Intervention for Rural Peruvian Women With Cervical Neoplasia Before Loop Excisional Procedures.
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015; 19(3):224-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Indigenous Peruvian women have very high rates of cervical cancer. This study assessed the impact of an educational video on impoverished rural Peruvian women seeking loop excision surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women completed baseline, postvideo and postsurgery questionnaires that assessed knowledge and attitudes about the procedure. Differences between groups were examined using repeated measures analysis of variance.
RESULTS: Women who watched the video were significantly more calm (2.6, 2.6, and 2.3, respectively; P = 0.04), relaxed (2.5, 2.5, and 2.1, respectively; P = 0.02), and content (3.4, 3.4, and 2.4, respectively, P < 0.01) at postvideo and postsurgery assessments compared with mean results at the baseline assessment. The same women were also significantly more tense (2.5, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively; P = 0.01), upset (1.6, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively; P = 0.01), and worried (3.0, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively; P = 0.01) at baseline compared with postvideo and postsurgery results. Approximately 93% of women believed that other women scheduled to have loop excision surgery should also watch the video.
CONCLUSIONS: Dissemination of culturally sensitive video information minimizes adverse emotional responses associated with loop excision procedures before surgery. Such an intervention quickly improves the psychological well-being of women eventually subjected to surgical management of cervical neoplasia.

Carraz M, Lavergne C, Jullian V, et al.
Antiproliferative activity and phenotypic modification induced by selected Peruvian medicinal plants on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2015; 166:185-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The high incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Peru and the wide use of medicinal plants in this country led us to study the activity against HCC cells in vitro of somes species used locally against liver and digestive disorders.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnopharmacological survey: Medicinal plant species with a strong convergence of use for liver and digestive diseases were collected fresh in the wild or on markets, in two places of Peru: Chiclayo (Lambayeque department, Chiclayo province) and Huaraz (Ancash department, Huaraz province). Altogether 51 species were collected and 61 ethanol extracts were prepared to be tested. Biological assessment: All extracts were first assessed against the HCC cell line Hep3B according a 3-step multi-parametric phenotypic assay. It included 1) the evaluation of phenotypic changes on cells by light microscopy, 2) the measurement of the antiproliferative activity and 3) the analysis of the cytoskeleton and mitosis by immunofluorescence. Best extracts were further assessed against other HCC cell lines HepG2, PLC/PRF/5 and SNU-182 and their toxicity measured in vitro on primary human hepatocytes.
RESULTS: Ethnopharmacological survey: Some of the species collected had a high reputation spreading over the surveyed locations for treating liver problems, i.e. Baccharis genistelloides, Bejaria aestuans, Centaurium pulchellum, Desmodium molliculum, Dipsacus fullonum, Equisetum bogotense, Gentianella spp., Krameria lapacea, Otholobium spp., Schkuhria pinnata, Taraxacum officinale. Hep3B evaluation: Fourteen extracts from 13 species (Achyrocline alata, Ambrosia arborescens, Baccharis latifolia, Hypericum laricifolium, Krameria lappacea, Niphidium crassifolium, Ophryosporus chilca, Orthrosanthus chimboracensis, Otholobium pubescens, Passiflora ligularis, Perezia coerulescens, Perezia multiflora and Schkuhria pinnata) showed a significant antiproliferative activity against Hep3B cells (IC50≤ 50µg/mL). This was associated with a lack of toxicity on primary human hepatocytes in vitro. Immunofluorescence experiments on Hep3B cells showed that crude extracts of Schkuhria pinnata and Orthrosanthus chimboracensis could block Hep3B cells in mitosis with an original phenotype. Crude extracts of Perezia coerulescens, Perezia multiflora, Achyrocline alata, Ophryosporus chilca, Otholobium pubescens and Hypericum laricifolium could modify the overall microtubule cytoskeletal dynamics of Hep3B cells in interphase by an original mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: Our method allowed us to select 9 extracts which displayed antiproliferative activities associated with original cellular phenotypes on Hep3B cells, regarding known microtubule-targeting drugs. Both chemical and cellular studies are ongoing in order to elucidate natural compounds and cellular mechanisms responsible of the activities described.

Buleje J, Acosta Ó, Guevara-Fujita M, et al.
Mutational profile of KIT and PDGFRA genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Peruvian samples.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2015; 107(2):72-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms usually caused by somatic mutations in the genes KIT (c-kit) or PDGFRA. Mutation characterization has become an important exam for GIST patients because it is useful in predicting the response to the inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK).
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of KIT and PDGFRA mutations in 25 GIST samples collected over two years at two national reference hospitals in Peru. There were 21 samples collected from the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN, national cancer center) and 4 samples collected from Hospital A. Loayza.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this retrospective study, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes in 20 FFPE (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) and 5 frozen GIST samples.
RESULTS: We report 21 mutations, including deletions, duplications, and missense, no mutations in 2 samples, and 2 samples with no useful DNA for further analysis. Eighty-six percent of these mutations were located in exon 11 of KIT, and 14 % were located in exon 18 of PDGFRA.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified mutations in 21 out of 25 GIST samples from 2 referential national hospitals in Peru, and the mutation proportion follows a global tendency observed from previous studies (i.e., the majority of samples presented KIT mutations followed by a minor percentage of PDGFRA mutations). This study presents the first mutation data of the KIT and PDGFRA genes from Peruvian individuals with GIST.

Almonte M, Ferreccio C, Luciani S, et al.
Visual inspection after acetic acid (VIA) is highly heterogeneous in primary cervical screening in Amazonian Peru.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(1):e0115355 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Conventional cytology (Pap) and visual inspection after the application of acetic acid (VIA) are currently used in primary screening in Peru. Studies suggest that the quality of VIA is highly variable. Over 36 000 women were screened with Pap and VIA in the TATI (Tamizaje y Tratamiento Inmediato de Lesiones Cervico-uterinas) project conducted in Amazonian Peru. Within a nested study to compare several screening techniques (C-TATI), a total of 5435 women were additionally screened with liquid-based cytology (LBC) and high-risk human papillomavirus testing (HR-HPV). We investigate the variation of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV in C-TATI and of VIA in the full TATI intervention.
METHODS: At the screening visit, midwives collected three cervical samples for Pap, LBC and HC2 before performing VIA. The dispersion factor "D" (D = Pearson chi-square value/degrees-of-freedom) was used to measure the variability of tests results. Within C-TATI, the variability of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV was also graphically assessed with box- and scatter plots by midwife and month of screening. Funnel plots and smoothed scatter plots were used to correlate the variation of VIA by the number of examinations performed by each midwife over the full TATI intervention.
RESULTS: Consistently over TATI, VIA results were highly variable, independently of the examiner, the time when the test was performed and the number of tests the examiner performed (D>6, p-values<0.001). In C-TATI, VIA results varied the most while those of HR-HPV varied the least (Ds>25, p-values<0.001 for VIA, Ds<1.6, p-values>0.05 for HR-HPV). No evidence for correlation between the number of VIAs done per midwife and the variability of VIA results was observed.
CONCLUSION: The lack of over-dispersion for HR-HPV detection suggests that the variable VIA results do not reflect true variation in underlying disease, but a lack of consistency in human judgement.

Arrieta O, Cardona AF, Martín C, et al.
Updated Frequency of EGFR and KRAS Mutations in NonSmall-Cell Lung Cancer in Latin America: The Latin-American Consortium for the Investigation of Lung Cancer (CLICaP).
J Thorac Oncol. 2015; 10(5):838-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Previously, we reported the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Latin America. The EGFR mutation frequency was found between Asian (40%) and Caucasian (15%) populations. Here, we report the updated distribution of NSCLC mutations.
METHODS: A total of 5738 samples from NSCLC patients from Argentina (1713), Mexico (1417), Colombia (1939), Peru (393), Panama (174), and Costa Rica (102) were genotyped for EGFR and KRAS.
RESULTS: The median patient age was 62.2 ± 12.3 years; 53.5% were women, 46.7% had a history of smoking, and 95.2% had adenocarcinoma histology. The frequency of EGFR mutations was 26.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.9-27.1; Argentina, 14.4% [12.8-15.6]; México, 34.3% [31.9-36.7]; Colombia, 24.7% [22.8-26.6]; Peru, 51.1% [46.2-55.9]; Panamá, 27.3 [20.7-33.9]; and Costa Rica, 31.4% [22.4-40.4]). The frequency of KRAS mutations was 14.0% (9.1-18.9). In patients with adenocarcinoma, EGFR mutations were independently associated with gender (30.7% females vs. 18.4% males; p < 0.001), nonsmoker status (27.4% vs. 17.1%, p < 0.001), ethnicity (mestizo/indigenous, 35.3% vs. Caucasian, 13.7%, p < 0.001), and the absence of KRAS mutation (38.1% vs. 4.7%; p < 0.001). The overall response rate to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors was 60.6% (95% CI, 52-69), with a median progression-free survival and overall survival of 15.9 (95% CI, 12.420.6) and 32 months (95% CI, 26.5-37.6), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our findings support the genetic heterogeneity of NSCLC in Latin America, confirming that the frequency of EGFR mutations is intermediate between that observed in the Asian and Caucasian populations.

Marchio A, Bertani S, Rojas Rojas T, et al.
A peculiar mutation spectrum emerging from young peruvian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e114912 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma usually afflicts individuals in their later years following longstanding liver disease. In Peru, hepatocellular carcinoma exists in a unique clinical presentation, which affects patients around age 25 with a normal, healthy liver. In order to deepen our understanding of the molecular processes ongoing in Peruvian liver tumors, mutation spectrum analysis was carried out on hepatocellular carcinomas from 80 Peruvian patients. Sequencing analysis focused on nine genes typically altered during liver carcinogenesis, i.e. ARID2, AXIN1, BRAF, CTNNB1, NFE2L2, H/K/N-RAS, and TP53. We also assessed the transcription level of factors involved in the control of the alpha-fetoprotein expression and the Hippo signaling pathway that controls contact inhibition in metazoans. The mutation spectrum of Peruvian patients was unique with a major class of alterations represented by Insertions/Deletions. There were no changes at hepatocellular carcinoma-associated mutation hotspots in more than half of the specimens analyzed. Furthermore, our findings support the theory of a consistent collapse in the Hippo axis, as well as an expression of the stemness factor NANOG in high alpha-fetoprotein-expressing hepatocellular carcinomas. These results confirm the specificity of Peruvian hepatocellular carcinoma at the molecular genetic level. The present study emphasizes the necessity to widen cancer research to include historically neglected patients from South America, and more broadly the Global South, where cancer genetics and tumor presentation are divergent from canonical neoplasms.

Castaneda CA, Lopez-Ilasaca M, Pinto JA, et al.
PIK3CA mutations in Peruvian patients with HER2-amplified and triple negative non-metastatic breast cancers.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2014; 7(4):142-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in a Peruvian cohort with HER2-amplified and triple negative breast cancers (TNBC).
METHODS: We analyzed two cohorts of 134 primary non-metastatic breast cancer patients from Peru. Cohorts consisted of 51 hormone receptors (+)/HER2-amplified breast tumor patients surgically resected as first treatment included in the ALTTO trial (ALTTO cohort) and 81 TNBC patients with residual disease after neoadjuvant treatment (neoadjuvant cohort). Genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor samples. Samples from the ALTTO and neoadjuvant cohorts were taken at biopsies and from residual tumors, respectively. PIK3CA mutations were detected by sequencing DNA fragments obtained by PCR amplification of exons and their flanking introns. All of the detected PIK3CA mutations were confirmed in a second independent run of sample testing.
RESULTS: PIK3CA mutations were present in 21/134 cases (15.7%). Mutations in exon 9 and 20 were present in 10/134 (7.5%) and 11/134 (8.2%), respectively. No cases had mutations in both exons. Mutations in exon 9 consisted of E545A (seven cases), E545K (two cases) and E545Q (one case); while in exon 20, mutations consisted of H1047R (10 cases) and H1047L (one case). Compared to TNBC patients, HER2-amplified patients were more likely to have PIK3CA mutated (23% vs 9.6%; P=0.034). There were no associations between mutational status of PIK3CA with estrogen receptor status (P=0.731), progesterone receptor status (P=0.921), age (P=0.646), nodal status (P=0.240) or histological grade (P=1.00). No significant associations were found between PIK3CA mutational status and clinicopathological features.
CONCLUSIONS: We found a similar frequency of PIK3CA mutations to that reported in other series. Although we did not include HR+/HER2 patients, those with HER2-amplified tumors were more likely to present PIK3CA mutations compared to patients with triple negative tumors.

Abugattas J, Llacuachaqui M, Allende YS, et al.
Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from Peru.
Clin Genet. 2015; 88(4):371-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among breast cancer patients in Peru has not yet been explored. We enrolled 266 women with breast cancer from a National cancer hospital in Lima, Peru, unselected for age or family history. DNA was screened with a panel of 114 recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations (HISPANEL). Among the 266 cases, 13 deleterious mutations were identified (11 in BRCA1 and 2 in BRCA2), representing 5% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 44 years. BRCA1 185delAG represented 7 of 11 mutations in BRCA1. Other mutations detected in BRCA1 included: two 2080delA, one 943ins10, and one 3878delTA. The BRCA2 3036del4 mutation was seen in two patients. Given the relatively low cost of the HISPANEL test, one should consider offering this test to all Peruvian women with breast or ovarian cancer.

Zelle SG, Vidaurre T, Abugattas JE, et al.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in Peru.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82575 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant for the Peruvian context.
METHODS: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) according to WHO-CHOICE guidelines, from a healthcare perspective. Different screening, early detection, palliative, and treatment interventions were evaluated using mathematical modeling. Effectiveness estimates were based on observational studies, modeling, and on information from Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN). Resource utilizations and unit costs were based on estimates from INEN and observational studies. Cost-effectiveness estimates are in 2012 United States dollars (US$) per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted.
RESULTS: The current breast cancer program in Peru ($8,426 per DALY averted) could be improved through implementing triennial or biennial screening strategies. These strategies seem the most cost-effective in Peru, particularly when mobile mammography is applied (from $4,125 per DALY averted), or when both CBE screening and mammography screening are combined (from $4,239 per DALY averted). Triennially, these interventions costs between $63 million and $72 million per year. Late stage treatment, trastuzumab therapy and annual screening strategies are the least cost-effective.
CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that breast cancer control in Peru should be oriented towards early detection through combining fixed and mobile mammography screening (age 45-69) triennially. However, a phased introduction of triennial CBE screening (age 40-69) with upfront FNA in non-urban settings, and both CBE (age 40-49) and fixed mammography screening (age 50-69) in urban settings, seems a more feasible option and is also cost-effective. The implementation of this intervention is only meaningful if awareness raising, diagnostic, referral, treatment and basic palliative services are simultaneously improved, and if financial and organizational barriers to these services are reduced.

Paul P, Winkler JL, Bartolini RM, et al.
Screen-and-treat approach to cervical cancer prevention using visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy: experiences, perceptions, and beliefs from demonstration projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam.
Oncologist. 2013; 18 Suppl:6-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success.

Abuelo CE, Levinson KL, Salmeron J, et al.
The Peru Cervical Cancer Screening Study (PERCAPS): the design and implementation of a mother/daughter screen, treat, and vaccinate program in the Peruvian jungle.
J Community Health. 2014; 39(3):409-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peru struggles to prevent cervical cancer (CC). In the jungle, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers although technology exists to detect CC precursors. This study used community based participatory research (CBPR) methods to overcome barriers. The objective was to evaluate the utility of CBPR techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for CC prevention in the Peruvian jungle. The CC prevention program used self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) for screening, cryotherapy for treatment and the HPV vaccine Gardasil for vaccination. Community health leaders (HL) from around Iquitos participated in a two half day educational course. The HLs then decided how to implement interventions in their villages or urban sectors. The success of the program was measured by: (1) ability of the HLs to determine an implementation plan, (2) proper use of research forms, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) participants' satisfaction. HLs successfully registered 320 women at soup kitchens, schools, and health posts. Screening, treatment, and vaccination were successfully carried out using forms for registration, consent, and results with minimum error. In the screen/treat intervention 100% of participants gave an HPV sample and 99.7% reported high satisfaction; 81% of HPV + women were treated, and 57% returned for 6-month followup. Vaccine intervention: 98% of girls received the 1st vaccine, 88% of those received the 2nd, and 65% the 3rd. CBPR techniques successfully helped implement a screen/treat and vaccinate CC prevention program around Iquitos, Peru. These techniques may be appropriate for large-scale preventive health-care interventions.

Paul P, Winkler JL, Bartolini RM, et al.
Screen-and-treat approach to cervical cancer prevention using visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy: experiences, perceptions, and beliefs from demonstration projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam.
Oncologist. 2013; 18(12):1278-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success.

Bertani S, Pineau P, Loli S, et al.
An atypical age-specific pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma in Peru: a threat for Andean populations.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e67756 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In South America, the highest incidence of primary liver cancer is observed in Peru. However, national estimations on hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and mortality are approximated using aggregated data from surrounding countries. Thus, there is a lack of tangible information from Peru that impairs an accurate description of the local incidence, presentation, and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study attempts to fill this gap and assesses the clinical epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in this country.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analysing the medical charts of 1,541 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma admitted between 1997 and 2010 at the Peruvian national institute for cancer. The medical records including liver function, serologic status, and tumor pathology and stage were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed in order to characterize tumor presentation according to demographic features, risk factors, and regional origin.
RESULTS: Surprisingly, the age distribution of the patient population displayed bimodality corresponding to two distinct age-based subpopulations. While an older group was in keeping with the age range observed for hepatocellular carcinoma around the world, a younger population displayed an abnormally juvenile mean age of 25.5 years old. In addition, each subpopulation displayed age-specific pathophysiological and clinical characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS: The analysis suggests two different age-specific natural histories of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Peruvian patient population. This otherwise unusual tumor process that is ongoing in younger patients leads to the hypothesis that there may be a Peru-endemic risk factor driving hepatocarcinogenesis in the local population.

Vallejos C
National plan for prevention, early detection, and cancer control in Peru.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2013; [PubMed] Related Publications
Peru currently is executing an ambitious plan for cancer control: its first nationwide program of cancer prevention and cancer control, and the first such program launched in Latin America. The adequate strategies were identified from previous experience developing smaller initiatives and from knowledge of our epidemiology and priorities. The geographic landscape and sociocultural differences, in which inequalities play a significant role in access to quality education and specialized cancer care, are the main challenges to elaborate strategies to diminish our burden of advanced disease. Challenges were not only identified for the poorest people, but for other sectors of the population. With a growing Peruvian economy in a globalized market context, emerging sectors are being exposed to new risk factors for cancer and educational strategies were implemented. The development of the National Plan for Cancer Control was launched involving not only technical efforts by a multidisciplinary team, but also political concertation.

Walter L, Vidaurre T, Gilman RH, et al.
Trends in head and neck cancers in Peru between 1987 and 2008: Experience from a large public cancer hospital in Lima.
Head Neck. 2014; 36(5):729-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the trends in head and neck cancer in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in incidence of human papillomavirus-related (HPV-R) and HPV-unrelated (HPV-U) head and neck cancer in Lima, Peru, from 1987 to 2008.
METHODS: Registry data from a single public cancer hospital were used to estimate age and sex-specific incidence rates. Annualized percent change was estimated using Poisson regression.
RESULTS: The rate of total head and neck cancers, HPV-U, and HPV-R was 11.9, 10.9, and 0.8, respectively, per 100,000 person-years. Significant increases in HPV-U head and neck cancer were observed in men aged 30 to 44 (2.5%/year) and women 15 to 29 (4.2%/year), 30 to 44 (3.4%/year), and 60 to 74 (2.0%/year). Significant increases in HPV-R head and neck cancer were observed only among men aged 45 to 59 (9.6%/year).
CONCLUSION: Although increased exposure to tobacco, occupational carcinogens, and changing sexual behaviors could be influencing these trends, additional analyses to assess generalizability of these findings to other regions of Peru are needed.

Levinson KL, Abuelo C, Salmeron J, et al.
The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): the technology to make screening accessible.
Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 129(2):318-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study utilized a combination of HPV self-sampling, iFTA elute specimen cards, and long distance transport for centralized processing of specimens to determine the feasibility of large-scale screening in remote and transient populations.
METHODS: This study was performed in two locations in Peru (Manchay and Iquitos). The "Just For Me" cervico-vaginal brush and iFTA elute cards were used for the collection and transport of specimens. Samples were shipped via FedEx to China and tested for 14 types of high-risk HPV using PCR based MALDI-TOF. HPV positive women were treated with cryotherapy after VIA triage, and followed-up with colposcopy, biopsy, ECC, and repeat HPV testing at 6 months.
RESULTS: Six hundred and forty three women registered, and 632 returned a sample over a 10 day period. Within 2 weeks, specimens were shipped, samples tested, and results received by study staff. Sixty-eight women (10.8%) tested positive, and these results were delivered over 4 days. Fifty-nine HPV positive women (87%) returned for evaluation and treatment, and 2 had large lesions not suitable for cryotherapy. At 6 months, 42 women (74%) returned for follow-up, and 3 had CIN 2 (all positive samples from the endocervical canal). Ninety eight percent of participants reported that they would participate in this type of program again.
CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing HPV self-sampling, solid media specimen cards for long distance transport, and centralized high throughput processing, we achieved rapid delivery of results, high satisfaction levels, and low loss to follow-up for cervical cancer screening in remote and transient populations.

Goldie SJ, Levin C, Mosqueira-Lovón NR, et al.
Health and economic impact of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 vaccination of preadolescent girls and cervical cancer screening of adult women in Peru.
Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2012; 32(6):426-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the benefits, cost-effectiveness (i.e., value for money), and required financial costs (e.g., affordability) of adding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to Peru's cervical cancer screening program.
METHODS: Evidence (e.g., coverage, delivery costs) from an HPV vaccination demonstration project conducted in Peru was combined with epidemiological data in an empirically calibrated mathematical model to assess screening (HPV DNA testing three to five times per lifetime) and HPV vaccination under different cost, coverage, and efficacy assumptions. Model outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer reduction, cancer cases averted, lives saved, average life expectancy gains, short-term financial costs, and discounted long-term economic costs.
RESULTS: Status quo low levels of screening (e.g., cytologic screening at 10.0% coverage) reduced lifetime risk of cervical cancer by 11.9%, compared to not screening. Adding vaccination of preadolescent girls at a coverage achieved in the demonstration program (82.0%) produced an additional 46.1% reduction, and would cost less than US$ 500 per year of life saved (YLS) at ~US$ 7/dose or ~US$ 1 300 at ~US$ 20/dose. One year of vaccination was estimated to cost ~US$ 5 million at ~US$ 5/dose or ~US$ 16 million at ~US$ 20/dose, including programmatic costs. Enhanced screening in adult women combined with preadolescent vaccination had incremental cost-effectiveness ratios lower than Peru's 2005 per capita gross domestic product (GDP; US$ 2 852, in 2009 US$), and would be considered cost-effective.
CONCLUSIONS: Preadolescent HPV vaccination, followed by enhanced HPV DNA screening in adult women, could prevent two out of three cervical cancer deaths. Several strategies would be considered "good value" for resources invested, provided vaccine prices are low. While financial costs imply substantial immediate investments, the high-value payoff should motivate creative mechanisms for financing and scale-up of delivery programs.

Paz-Soldán VA, Bayer AM, Nussbaum L, Cabrera L
Structural barriers to screening for and treatment of cervical cancer in Peru.
Reprod Health Matters. 2012; 20(40):49-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Through in-depth interviews with 30 key informants from 19 institutions in the health care system in four regions of Peru, this study identifies multiple barriers to obtaining cervical cancer screening, follow-up, and treatment. Some facilities outside Lima do not have the capacity to take Pap smear samples; others cannot do so on a continuing basis. Variation in procedures used by facilities and between regions, differences in women's ability to pay, as well as varying levels of training of laboratory personnel, all affect the quality and timing of service delivery and outcomes. In some settings, perverse incentives to accrue overtime payments increase the lag time between sample collection and reporting back of results. Some patients with abnormal results are lost to follow-up; others find needed treatment to be out of their financial or geographic reach. To increase coverage for cervical cancer screening and follow-up, interventions are needed at all levels, including an institutional overhaul to ensure that referral mechanisms are appropriate and that treatment is accessible and affordable. Training for midwives and gynaecologists is needed in good sample collection and fixing, and quality control of samples. Training of additional cytotechnologists, especially in the provinces, and incentives for processing Pap smears in an appropriate, timely manner is also required.

Asai T, Tsuchiya Y, Okano K, et al.
Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(10):5167-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

Levinson KL, Abuelo C, Chyung E, et al.
The Peru cervical cancer prevention study (PERCAPS): community-based participatory research in Manchay, Peru.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013; 23(1):141-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Although technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community-based participatory research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of community-based participatory research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling and cryotherapy were used for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was used for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by (1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, (2) the successful use of research forms provided, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) satisfaction of the participants.
RESULTS: (1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; (2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were used correctly with minimal error; (3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV-positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the first vaccine, 97% of those received the second vaccine, and 93% the third; (4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction.
CONCLUSIONS: Community-based participatory research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen/treat and vaccinate cervical cancer prevention program in Manchay, Peru. These techniques may help overcome barriers to large-scale preventive health-care interventions.

Bartolini RM, Winkler JL, Penny ME, LaMontagne DS
Parental acceptance of HPV vaccine in Peru: a decision framework.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e48017 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru's Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5(th) grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance.
RESULTS: We found a nonlinear HPV decision-making process that evolved over time. Initially, the vaccine's newness, the requirement of written consent, and provision of information were important. If information was sufficient and provided by credible sources, many parents accepted the vaccine. Later, after obtaining additional information from teachers, health personnel, and other trusted sources, more parents accepted vaccination. An understanding of the issues surrounding the vaccine developed, parents overcome fears and rumors, and engaged in family negotiations-including hearing the girl's voice in the decision-making process. The concept of prevention (cancer as danger, future health, and trust in vaccines) combined with pragmatic factors (no cost, available at school) and the credibility of the offer (information in the media, recommendation of respected authority figure) were central to motivations that led parents to decide to vaccinate their daughters. A lack of confidence in the health system was the primary inhibitor of vaccine acceptance.
CONCLUSIONS: Health personnel and teachers are credible sources of information and can provide important support to HPV vaccination campaigns.

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