Home > Locations > Latin America > Chile

Found this page useful?


Cancer Statistics
Population in 2008: 16.8m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 36,000
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 176.7
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:18.2%
People dying from cancer /yr: 22,100
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2008)
Chile: Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications from Chile

Chile: Cancer Organisations and Resources (5 links)

Latest Research Publications from Chile

Balanda M, Quiero A, Vergara N, et al.
Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in Chile, 2014-2015.
Med Microbiol Immunol. 2016; 205(6):585-594 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide. In Chile, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, causing more than 600 deaths annually. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominant human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in public health services in Chile. Women aged 18-64 years residing in the north and central areas covered by six primary care centers of Santiago, Chile, were invited to participate from March 2014 to August 2015. Cervical swabs were examined both HPV genotyping by PCR and Reverse Line Blot, and cervical cytology by Pap testing. A total of 1738 women were included in this study: 11.1 % were HPV positive, 9.7 % were high-risk types positive, 3.2 % were low-risk types positive, 1.4 % were Pap positive and 0.9 % were positive by both tests. The four most predominant genotypes were 16, 66, 51 and 59, with prevalence of 2.8, 1.4, 1.2 and 1.2 %, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected among 3.8 % participants. Age-specific prevalence of HPV showed a peak in HPV infection at younger ages (≤30 years), declining to a plateau in middle age. Among women with normal cytology, the 9.4 % were HPV positive, while 58.3 % of women with abnormal cytology were HPV positive. These findings show new epidemiological data confirming HPV 16 and 66 as the most predominant genotypes in Chile. These data are important for design successful strategies for prevention of cervical cancer in Chile.

Torrealba JI, Valdés F, Krämer AH, et al.
Management of Carotid Bifurcation Tumors: 30-Year Experience.
Ann Vasc Surg. 2016; 34:200-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The carotid bifurcation can host a variety of tumors requiring complex surgical management. Treatment requires resection and, in some cases, vascular reconstruction that may compromise the cerebral circulation. The most frequent lesion at this location is the carotid body tumor (CBT). CBT are classified according to Shamblin in 3 types depending on the degree of carotid vessels encasement. Our main objective was to report our clinical experience managing carotid bifurcation tumors throughout the last 30 years.
METHODS: Between 1984 and 2014, we treated 30 patients with 32 carotid bifurcation tumors. There were 21 women and 9 men (2.3:1), with a mean age of 45.5 years (18-75). The most frequent presentation was an asymptomatic neck swelling or palpable mass localized at the carotid triangle (86.7%).
RESULTS: Thirty of 32 tumors were resected. Since 1994, computed tomography scan has been the most frequently used diagnostic imaging tool (80%), followed by magnetic resonance imaging. Angiography was used mainly during the first 10 years of the study period. Mean size of the tumor was 44.6 mm (20-73 mm). Nineteen (63%) were classified as Shamblin II and 6 (20%) as Shamblin's III. All specimens were analyzed by a pathologist; 28 tumors (93%) were confirmed as paragangliomas, 2 (7%) were diagnosed as schwannomas. Two patients underwent preoperative embolization of the CBT; 5 patients (17%) required simultaneous carotid revascularization, all of them Shamblin III. Mean hospitalization time was 4.5 days (1-35 days). Transient extracranial nerve deficit was observed in 7 patients (23.3%). Three patients (Shamblin III) required red blood cells transfusion. One patient (Shamblin III) underwent a planned en bloc excision of the vagus nerve. There was no perioperative mortality or procedure-related stroke. No malignancy or tumor recurrence were observed during follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: CBTs can be diagnosed on clinical grounds requiring vascular imaging confirmation. These infrequent lesions are generally benign. Early surgical removal by surgeons with vascular expertise avoids permanent neurologic and or vascular complications.

Echiburú B, Crisosto N, Maliqueo M, et al.
Metabolic profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome across adult life.
Metabolism. 2016; 65(5):776-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and metabolic profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in different stages of reproductive life.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 190 PCOS women (PCOSw) and 99 controls (Cw) aged between 18 and 55years were included. PCOSw and Cw were distributed into 3 stages of reproductive life: early reproductive age (18-34years old), late reproductive age (35-40years old) and perimenopausal period (41-55years old). Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurement of glucose and insulin was performed. Sex steroids and lipid profile were also determined in the fasting sample. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by HOMA-IR and ISI composite, and insulin secretion by HOMA-β and insulinogenic index. Visceral adiposity index (VAI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) were also calculated. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was assessed by the IDF and ATPIII criteria.
RESULTS: At early reproductive age, PCOSw showed higher BMI, WC, and VAI and a higher prevalence of MS compared to Cw (p<0.05). In addition, at late reproductive age PCOSw also showed elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin secretion, LAP and BP. At perimenopausal period, these parameters were not different between Cw and PCOSw. Within the PCOSw group, HOMA-β was lower at late reproductive and perimenopausal periods compared to the early reproductive age. Regarding control women, a deterioration of anthropometric and metabolic parameters was observed in perimenopausal women compared to early and late reproductive women.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that metabolic derangements associated with PCOS are more evident at the early and late reproductive ages. On the other hand, during perimenopause, there is no further deterioration of metabolic parameters. Nevertheless, a disruption in pancreatic β-cell function is evidenced at this stage.

Torres-Avilés F, Moraga T, Núñez L, Icaza G
Lung cancer mortality trends in Chile and six-year projections using Bayesian dynamic linear models.
Cad Saude Publica. 2015; 31(9):1975-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objectives were to analyze lung cancer mortality trends in Chile from 1990 to 2009, and to project the rates six years forward. Lung cancer mortality data were obtained from the Chilean Ministry of Health. To obtain mortality rates, population projections were used, based on the 2002 National Census. Rates were adjusted using the world standard population as reference. Bayesian dynamic linear models were fitted to estimate trends from 1990 to 2009 and to obtain projections for 2010-2015. During the period under study, there was a 19.9% reduction in the lung cancer mortality rate in men. In women, there was increase of 28.4%. The second-order model showed a better fit for men, and the first-order model a better fit for women. Between 2010 and 2015 the downward trend continued in men, while a trend to stabilization was projected for lung cancer mortality in women in Chile. This analytical approach could be useful implement surveillance systems for chronic non-communicable disease and to evaluate preventive strategies.

Norero E, Bustos M, Herrera ME, et al.
Postoperative adjuvant treatment for gastric cancer improves long-term survival after curative resection and D2 lymphadenectomy. Results from a Latin American Center.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016; 42(1):94-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The benefits of adjuvant treatment in the context of a D2 lymph node dissection are controversial. The aim was to investigate the effects of postoperative adjuvant treatment on the survival of patients with a curative resection for gastric cancer and a D2 lymph node dissection.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study. Patients operated from 1996 to 2013 were selected. We compared long term survival of patients treated with surgery alone and those with surgery plus postoperative adjuvant treatment. A multivariate analysis for survival was applied in every stage.
RESULTS: The study included 580 patients. Two-hundred and four patients received postoperative adjuvant treatment (AD) and 376 patients were treated only with surgery (SU). Patients in the AD group were younger (60 versus 68, p < 0.001), had a lower rate of multiple organ resection (21% versus 39%, p < 0.001) and had less postoperative complications (14% versus 32%, p < 0.001). In the AD group, patients had more advanced disease (stage III; 77% versus 66%, p < 0.001). No difference was found in lymph nodes resected (31 versus 30, p = ns). The median survival with adjuvant treatment was 33 months (39% 5 year survival) and 22 months (31% 5 year survival) for patients without adjuvant treatment (p = 0.003). On multivariate analysis, patients with stage IIIB and IIIC had significantly better overall and disease specific long-term survival with adjuvant treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there is a long-term survival benefit for patients treated with postoperative adjuvant treatment for stages IIIB and IIIC gastric cancer after D2 lymph node dissection.

Murray NP, Reyes E, Orellana N, et al.
Comparison of the Walz Nomogram and Presence of Secondary Circulating Prostate Cells for Predicting Early Biochemical Failure after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(16):7123-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the utility of secondary circulating prostate cells for predicting early biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and compare the results with the Walz nomagram.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single centre, prospective study of men with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy between 2004 and 2014 was conducted, with registration of clinical-pathological details, total serum PSA pre-surgery, Gleason score, extracapsular extension, positive surgical margins, infiltration of lymph nodes, seminal vesicles and pathological stage. Secondary circulating prostate cells were obtained using differential gel centrifugation and assessed using standard immunocytochemistry with anti-PSA. Biochemical failure was defined as a PSA >0.2ng/ml, predictive values werecalculated using the Walz nomagram and CPC detection.
RESULTS: A total of 326 men participated, with a median follow up of 5 years; 64 had biochemical failure within two years. Extracapsular extension, positive surgical margins, pathological stage, Gleason score ≥ 8, infiltration of seminal vesicles and lymph nodes were all associated with higher risk of biochemical failure. The discriminative value for the nomogram and circulating prostate cells was high (AUC >0.80), predictive values were higher for circulating prostate cell detection, with a negative predictive value of 99%, sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 75%.
CONCLUSIONS: The nomagram had good predictive power to identify men with a high risk of biochemical failure within two years. The presence of circulating prostate cells had the same predictive power, with a higher sensitivity and negative predictive value. The presence of secondary circulating prostate cells identifies a group of men with a high risk of early biochemical failure. Those negative for secondary CPCs have a very low risk of early biochemical failure.

López-Alegría F, Poblete OQ, De Lorenzi DS, Oyanedel JC
Clinical management of the first ASCUS report in Chile. Prospective single-cohort study.
Sao Paulo Med J. 2015 Nov-Dec; 133(6):480-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, there is no single strategy for optimal management of patients with ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) cytology reports. The objective of this study was to determine the kind of clinical management conducted among women with a first ASCUS Pap smear report.
DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective single cohort study at a cervical pathology unit in Santiago, Chile.
METHODS: This was an epidemiological, descriptive, observational and quantitative follow-up study on a cohort of women with ASCUS cytological reports.
RESULTS: In the screening phase, 92,001 cervical cytological smears were collected in primary healthcare clinics. In the diagnostic phase, all women with a first ASCUS report were selected (n = 446). These women were asked to undergo the Pap test again and it was found that 301 women had normal results, 62 women had abnormal results and 83 did not repeat the test. In the diagnostic confirmation phase, the 62 women with abnormal results underwent colposcopy and, from these results, 58 of them underwent a biopsy. The results from the biopsies showed that 16 women had negative histological reports, 13 had CIN 1 and 29 had CIN 2+. In the treatment phase, the 42 women with lesions underwent a variety of treatments, according to the type of lesion. In the post-treatment phase, cytological and colposcopic monitoring was instituted.
CONCLUSION: The clinical management consisted of traditional management of screening, diagnosis, diagnostic confirmation, treatment and post-treatment monitoring.

Okada T, Tanaka K, Kawachi H, et al.
International collaboration between Japan and Chile to improve detection rates in colorectal cancer screening.
Cancer. 2016; 122(1):71-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In Chile, mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) has increased rapidly. To help address this issue, the Prevention Project for Neoplasia of the Colon and Rectum (PRENEC) program was initiated in 2012 with intensive support from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) in Tokyo, Japan, as part of an international collaboration.
METHODS: From June 2012 to July 2014, a total of 10,575 asymptomatic participants were enrolled in PRENEC. Participants with positive immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) results or a family history of CRC underwent colonoscopy. The colonoscopy results from a similar, previous project in Chile (PREVICOLON) were compared with those from PRENEC. Furthermore, the initial colonoscopies of 1562 participants in PRENEC were analyzed according to whether the colonoscopists were from TMDU or Chile.
RESULTS: The complete colonoscopy, adenoma detection, and cancer detection rates were 88.0%, 26.7%, and 1.1%, respectively, in PREVICOLON, while the corresponding values were 94.4%, 41.8%, and 6.0%, respectively, in PRENEC. In PRENEC, 107 cases of CRC were detected, amounting for 1.0% of all participants. Considering initial colonoscopies in PRENEC, the complete colonoscopy, adenoma detection, and cancer detection rates were 97.4%, 45.3%, and 9.3%, respectively, for physicians at TMDU and 93.3%, 41.5%, and 5.1%, respectively for Chilean physicians. The detection rates of intramucosal cancer were 7.3% and 3.7%, respectively, for TMDU and Chilean physicians.
CONCLUSIONS: Quality indicators of colonoscopy substantially improved from PREVICOLON to PRENEC. The assessments made by Chilean physicians alone were improved in PRENEC, but remained better in the TMDU group. Moreover, physicians from TMDU detected more CRCs than Chilean physicians, especially at earlier stages.

Martinez D, Navarro A, Martinez-Trillos A, et al.
NOTCH1, TP53, and MAP2K1 Mutations in Splenic Diffuse Red Pulp Small B-cell Lymphoma Are Associated With Progressive Disease.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2016; 40(2):192-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRPL) is considered an indolent neoplasm and its pathogenesis is not well known. We investigated the molecular characteristics of 19 SDRPL patients, 5 of them with progressive disease. IGHV genes were mutated in 9/13 (69%). Cytogenetic and molecular studies identified complex karyotypes in 2 cases, and IGH rearrangements in 3, with PAX5 and potentially TCL1 as partners in each one of them. Copy number arrays showed aberrations in 69% of the tumors, including recurrent losses of 10q23, 14q31-q32, and 17p13 in 3, and 9p21 in 2 cases. Deletion of 7q31.3-q32.3 was present in only 1 case and no trisomies 3 or 18 were detected. NOTCH1 and MAP2K1 were mutated in 2 cases each, whereas BRAF, TP53, and SF3B1 were mutated each in single cases. No mutations were found in NOTCH2 or MYD88. Four of the 5 patients with aggressive disease had mutations in NOTCH1 (2 cases), TP53 (1 case), and MAP2K1 (1 case). The progression-free survival of patients with mutated genes was significantly shorter than in the unmutated (P=0.011). These findings show that SDRPL share some mutated genes but not chromosomal alterations, with other splenic lymphomas, that may confer a more aggressive behavior.

Ikoma T, Tsuchiya Y, Asai T, et al.
Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(14):5987-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range <5-1,059 μg/kg) and Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range <5-47 μg/kg), which has an intermediate GBC incidence. The OTA contamination in the red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

Steinmaus C, Castriota F, Ferreccio C, et al.
Obesity and excess weight in early adulthood and high risks of arsenic-related cancer in later life.
Environ Res. 2015; 142:594-601 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Elevated body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases. Inflammation or oxidative stress induced by high BMI may explain some of these effects. Millions of people drink arsenic-contaminated water worldwide, and ingested arsenic has also been associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and cancer.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the unique situation of people living in northern Chile exposed to high arsenic concentrations in drinking water and investigate interactions between arsenic and BMI, and associations with lung and bladder cancer risks.
METHODS: Information on self-reported body mass index (BMI) at various life stages, smoking, diet, and lifetime arsenic exposure was collected from 532 cancer cases and 634 population-based controls.
RESULTS: In subjects with BMIs <90th percentile in early adulthood (27.7 and 28.6 kg/m(2) in males and females, respectively), odds ratios (OR) for lung and bladder cancer combined for arsenic concentrations of <100, 100-800 and >800 µg/L were 1.00, 1.64 (95% CI, 1.19-2.27), and 3.12 (2.30-4.22). In subjects with BMIs ≥90th percentile in early adulthood, the corresponding ORs were higher: 1.00, 1.84 (0.75-4.52), and 9.37 (2.88-30.53), respectively (synergy index=4.05, 95% CI, 1.27-12.88). Arsenic-related cancer ORs >20 were seen in those with elevated BMIs in both early adulthood and in later life. Adjustments for smoking, diet, and other factors had little impact.
CONCLUSION: These findings provide novel preliminary evidence supporting the notion that environmentally-related cancer risks may be markedly increased in people with elevated BMIs, especially in those with an elevated BMI in early-life.

Murray NP, Reyes E, Fuentealba C, et al.
Comparison of the Formula of PSA, Age, Prostate Volume and Race Versus PSA Density and the Detection of Primary Malignant Circulating Prostate Cells in Predicting a Positive Initial Prostate Biopsy in Chilean Men with Suspicion of Prostate Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(13):5365-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Combining risk factors for prostate cancer into a predictive tool may improve the detection of prostate cancer while decreasing the number of benign biopsies. We compare one such tool, age multiplied by prostate volume divided by total serum PSA (PSA-AV) with PSA density and detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in a Chilean prostate cancer screening program. The objectives were not only to determine the predictive values of each, but to determine the number of clinically significant cancers that would have been detected or missed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted of all men undergoing 12 core ultrasound guided prostate biopsy for suspicion of cancer attending the Hospital DIPRECA and Hospital de Carabineros de Chile. Total serum PSA was registered, prostate volumecalculated at the moment of biopsy, and an 8 ml blood simple taken immediately before the biopsy procedure. Mononuclear cells were obtained from the blood simple using differential gel centrifugation and CPCs identified using immunocytchemistry with anti- PSA and anti-P504S. Biopsy results were classed as positive or negative for cancer and if positive the Gleason score, number of positive cores and percent infiltration recorded.
RESULTS: A total of 664 men participated, of whom 234 (35.2%) had cancer detected. They were older, had higher mean PSA, PSA density and lower PSA-AV. Detection of CPCs had high predictive score, sensitivity, sensibility and positive and negative predictive values, PSA-AV was not significantly different from PSA density in this population. The use of CPC detection avoided more biopsies and missed fewer significant cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: In this screening population the use of CPC detection predicted the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer better than the other parameters. The high negative predictive value would allow men CPC negative to avoid biopsy but remain in follow up. The formula PSA-AV did not add to the predictive performance using PSA density.

Murray NP, Albarran V, Perez G, et al.
Secondary Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) but not Primary CTCs are Associated with the Clinico-Pathological Parameters in Chilean Patients With Colo-Rectal Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(11):4745-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) using anti-CEA pre and post surgery in Chilean patients with colo-rectal cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The presence of CTCs was evaluated in 80 colorectal cancer patients pre and post surgery using standard immunocytochemistry and the results were compared with findings for standard clinico-pathological parameters.
RESULTS: In patients pre- surgery CEA (+) CTCs were frequently found, with no relation to tumor size or nodal status. After surgery, the presence of CTCs was associated with such clinico-pathological parameters. The frequency of CTC detection in node positive patients did not change after surgery. In patients with metastasis there was also no change in the frequency of CTC detection, and clusters of 3 or more CTCs were evident.
CONCLUSIONS: Secondary CTCs are associated with clinico-pathological parameters only after surgical removal of the primary tumor, and might be important in identifying patients at high risk of relapse. Primary CTCs detected before surgical removal are frequently found, are not associated with the clinico-pathological parameters and might have a role in cancer screening. These findings suggest the need for studies with a larger population of patients.

Reyes M, Rojas-Alcayaga G, Pennacchiotti G, et al.
Human papillomavirus infection in oral squamous cell carcinomas from Chilean patients.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2015; 99(1):95-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causal agent of cervical, anogenital and a subset of oropharyngeal carcinomas. In addition, the role of HPV in oral carcinogenesis has been suggested, although the findings are inconclusive. In this study, using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping by specific PCR and DNA sequencing, we analyzed the HPV presence in 80 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) from Chilean subjects. In addition, we determined the expression of p16, p53, pRb and Ki-67 using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The CDKN2A (p16) promoter methylation was evaluated using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). HPV sequences were found in 9/80 (11%) OSCCs. Non-statistically significant association with p53, pRb, Ki-67 and p16 levels were found (p=0.77; 0.29; 0.83; 0.21, respectively). HPV-16 and 18 were the most prevalent HPV genotypes in 8/9 (89%) OSCCs. In addition, CDKN2A (p16) was methylated in 39% of OSCCs. No association with HPV presence (p=0.917) was found. These results suggest that HPV positive OSCCs are entities that do not resemble the molecular alterations of HPV-associated tumors in a Chilean population. More studies are warranted to determine the role of HPV in OSCCs.

Araya J, Martinez R, Niklander S, et al.
Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015; 20(5):e532-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records.
RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%).
CONCLUSIONS: Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series.

Jimenez de la Jara J, Bastias G, Ferreccio C, et al.
A snapshot of cancer in Chile: analytical frameworks for developing a cancer policy.
Biol Res. 2015; 48:10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The South American country Chile now boasts a life expectancy of over 80 years. As a consequence, Chile now faces the increasing social and economic burden of cancer and must implement political policy to deliver equitable cancer care. Hindering the development of a national cancer policy is the lack of comprehensive analysis of cancer infrastructure and economic impact.
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate existing cancer policy, the extent of national investigation and the socio-economic impact of cancer to deliver guidelines for the framing of an equitable national cancer policy.
METHODS: Burden, research and care-policy systems were assessed by triangulating objective system metrics--epidemiological, economic, etc.--with political and policy analysis. Analysis of the literature and governmental databases was performed. The oncology community was interviewed and surveyed.
RESULTS: Chile utilizes 1% of its gross domestic product on cancer care and treatment. We estimate that the economic impact as measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years to be US$ 3.5 billion. Persistent inequalities still occur in cancer distribution and treatment. A high quality cancer research community is expanding, however, insufficient funding is directed towards disproportionally prevalent stomach, lung and gallbladder cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Chile has a rapidly ageing population wherein 40% smoke, 67% are overweight and 18% abuse alcohol, and thus the corresponding burden of cancer will have a negative impact on an affordable health care system. We conclude that the Chilean government must develop a national cancer strategy, which the authors outline herein and believe is essential to permit equitable cancer care for the country.

Murray NP, Reyes E, Fuentealba C, et al.
Head-to-head comparison of the Montreal nomogram with the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells to predict prostate cancer at initial biopsy in Chilean men with suspicion of prostate cancer.
Urol Oncol. 2015; 33(5):203.e19-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The limitations of total serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level values remain problematic. Nomograms may improve the predictive value of a positive prostate biopsy (PB) finding. We compare in a prospective study of Chilean men suspicious of having prostate cancer (PC), owing to an elevated total serum PSA or abnormal digital rectal examination finding or both, the use of the online Montreal nomogram for the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (mCPCs) to predict a positive PB finding.
METHODS AND PATIENTS: Consecutive men suspicious of PC underwent 12-core transrectal ultrasound PB; their age, total serum PSA levels and percent free PSA values, and Montreal nomogram scores were registered. Immediately before the PB, an 8-ml blood sample was taken to detect primary mCPCs. Mononuclear cells were obtained by differential gel centrifugation and identified using double immunomarcations with anti-PSA and anti-P504S. Biopsies were classified according to presence of cancer/no cancer. The test results for the detection of mCPC were stated as negative/positive, and the total number of cells/8 ml of blood was registered. Areas under the curve for total serum PSA level, percent free PSA value, Montreal score, and detection of mCPCs were calculated and compared. Diagnostic yields, the number of possible biopsies that could be avoided, and the number of clinically significant cancers that would be missed were calculated.
RESULTS: Overall, 607 men underwent biopsy, where 197 (32.5%) had cancer. These men were significantly older, had higher total serum PSA level and Montreal score, and lower percent free PSA value. The values for area under the curve were 0.56 for total PSA level, 0.78 for percent free PSA, 0.78 for Montreal score, and 0.84 for mCPC detection; mCPC detection had a significantly superior prediction value (P = 0.018). Using cutoff values of percent free PSA < 10%, Montreal score > 50%, and ≥ 1 mCPC detected, mCPC detection had a higher diagnostic yield. Of the 197 cancers, 41 complied with the criteria for active surveillance; percent free PSA and the Montreal score missed a higher number of significant cancers when compared with mCPC detection.
CONCLUSIONS: Primary mCPC detection outperformed the use of percent free PSA and the Montreal nomogram in predicting clinically significant PC at initial PB.

Acevedo F, Camus M, Sanchez C
Breast cancer at extreme ages--a comparative analysis in Chile.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(4):1455-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Young onset breast cancer (BC) has a worse outcome as compared to in the elderly. However, some studies have shown that BC in the elderly, despite indolent features, does also cause increase in mortality. In an attempt to compare clinic-pathological characteristics, BC subtypes and survival in patients with BC presenting at extremes of age, we performed a retrospective study.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were either ≤40 or ≥70 years old. Subtypes were defined using immunohistochemistry and histological grade. Chi-Square test was used for evaluation of categorical variables, and Kaplan-meier and log-rank for disease-specific survival (DSS) and disease free survival (DFS) .
RESULTS: We analyzed 256 patients ≤40 and 366 patients ≥70. Younger patients presented with more aggressive disease, with less luminal A but more luminal B and triple negative (TN) subtype. With a median follow-up of 57.5 months, DFS at 5 years in younger patients was 72.3% vs 84.6% in the elderly (p=0.007). Luminal A and B disease presented with worse DFS in younger patients. The opposite was seen in the TN subgroup. Although we found no significant differences in DSS, older patients with TN tumors died of BC more frequently. This group also received less chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Young patients present with more aggressive disease, this translating into worse DFS. However, elderly patients with TN disease represent a particular subpopulation with worse DFS and DSS, suggesting that chemotherapy should not be withheld only because of age.

Adonis MI, Díaz J, Miranda VR, et al.
Biomarkers for screening of lung cancer and pre-neoplastic lesions in a high risk Chilean population.
Biol Res. 2014; 47:62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The mortality of lung cancer (LC), increases each year in the world, in spite of any advances, in development of new drugs to advance stages of LC. The high incidence of LC has been associated with smoking habit, genetic diversity and environmental pollution. Antofagasta region has been reported to have the highest LC mortality rate in Chile and its inhabitants were exposed to arsenic in their drinking water in concentrations as high as 870 μg/L. Non-invasive techniques such as biomarkers (Automatic Quantitative Cytometry: AQC and DR70) and Auto Fluorescence Bronchoscopy (AFB) might be potentially useful as a supplementary diagnostic approach and early detection. Early detection is one of the most important factors to intervene and prevent cancer progression in LC. This is a work of an ongoing prospective bimodality cancer surveillance study in high risk LC volunteers. Enrolment was done in subjects from Antofagasta and Metropolitan regions. In addition, we enrolled subjects who were suspected of having lung cancer. AQC, DR70 and AFB were used as tools in the detection of pre-neoplastic (PNL) and neoplastic lesions (NL).
RESULTS: Half of the samples, classified as suspicious by AFB, were confirmed as metaplasia or dysplasia by histopathology. For LC, DR70 showed a higher sensitivity (95.8%) and specificity (91.9%) than AQC. However, for PNL AQC showed a higher sensitivity (91.9%) than DR70 (27.3%), although both with low PPV values. As a pre screener, both biomarkers might be employed as complementary tools to detect LC, especially as serially combined tests, with a sensitivity of 60% and a PPV of 65.2%. Additionally, the use of parallel combined tests might support the detection of PNL (sensitivity 91.2%; PPV 49.1%).
CONCLUSION: This work adds information on cellular and molecular biomarkers to complement imaging techniques for early detection of LC in Latin America that might contribute to formulate policies concerning screening of LC. Supported by INNOVA-CORFO, Chile.

Roa I, de Aretxabala X
Gallbladder cancer in Chile: what have we learned?
Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2015; 31(3):269-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) should be considered an orphan disease in oncology and represent a unique carcinogenetic model. This review will analyse some of the current aspects of GBC.
RECENT FINDINGS: Chile has the highest incidence and mortality of GBC in the world. Most patients are diagnosed in advanced stages with few treatment options. During the last two decades, little progress has been made in early diagnosis and treatment. At the molecular level, recent access to next-generation sequencing and other techniques for detecting the mutations of multiple genes have made advances in this area.
SUMMARY: The use of therapies targeted according to the detection of specific molecular alterations is in the early stages of evaluation and could represent a significant advance in the treatment of a large number of patients from developing countries.

Murray NP, Reyes E, Orellana N, et al.
Prostate cancer screening in the fit Chilean elderly: a head to head comparison of total serum PSA versus age adjusted PSA versus primary circulating prostate cells to detect prostate cancer at initial biopsy.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(2):601-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is predominately a disease of older men, with a median age of diagnosis of 68 years and 71% of cancer deaths occurring in those over 75 years of age. While prostate cancer screening is not recommended for men>70 years, fit elderly men with controlled comorbidities may have a relatively long life expectancy. We compare the use of age related PSA with the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells mCPCs to detect clinically significant PC in this population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All men undergoing PC screening with a PSA>4.0 ng/ml underwent TRUS 12 core prostate biopsy (PB). Age, PSA, PB results defined as cancer/no-cancer, Gleason, number of positive cores and percentage infiltration were registered. Men had an 8 ml blood sample taken for mCPC detection; mononuclear cells were obtained using differential gel centrifugation and mCPCs were identified using immunocytochemistry with anti-PSA and anti-P504S. A mCPC was defined as a cell expressing PSA and P504S; a positive test as at least one mCPC detected/sample. Diagnostic yields for subgroups were calculated and the number of avoided PBs registered. Esptein criteria were used to define small grade tumours.
RESULTS: A total of 610 men underwent PB, 398 of whom were aged <70 yrs. Men over 70 yrs had: a higher median PSA, 6.24 ng/ml versus 5.59 ng/ml (p=0.04); and a higher frequency of cancer detected 90/212 (43%) versus 134/398 (34%) (p=0.032). Some 34/134 cancers in men<70 yrs versus 22/90 (24%) of men>70 yrs complied with criteria for active surveillance. CPC detection: 154/398 (39%) men<70 yrs were CPC (+), specificity for cancer 86%, sensitivity 88%, 14/16 with a false (-) result had a small low grade PC. In men>70 years, 88/212 (42%) were CPC (+); specificity 92%, sensitivity 87%, 10/12 with a false (-) had small low grade tumours. False (+) results were more common in younger men 36/154 versus 10/88 (p<0.02). With a PSA cutoff of 6.5 ng/ml, in men<70 yrs, 108 PB would be avoided, missing 56 cancers of which 48 were clinically significant. Using CPC detection, 124 biopsies would be avoided, missing only 2 clinically significant cancers. In men>70 yrs using a PSA>6.5 ng/ml would have resulted in 108 PB with 34 PC detected, of which 14(41%) were small low grade tumours.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of CPC detection in the fit elderly significantly decreases the number of PBs without missing clinically significant cancers, indicating superiority to the use of age-related PSA.

Ossandón D, Zanolli M, Pérez V, et al.
Using cost-effective intra-arterial chemotherapy to treat retinoblastoma in Chile.
J AAPOS. 2014; 18(6):617-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) has proved to be an effective treatment for retinoblastoma, but can be very expensive in developing countries. We report 2 patients from Chile in whom IAC resulted in globe salvation. Both patients had their medical care provided by the public health system and had failed standard therapy.

Gomez JA, Lepetic A, Demarteau N
Health economic analysis of human papillomavirus vaccines in women of Chile: perspective of the health care payer using a Markov model.
BMC Public Health. 2014; 14:1222 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In Chile, significant reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality have been observed due to implementation of a well-organized screening program. However, it has been suggested that the inclusion of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young adolescent women may be the best prospect to further reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This cost-effectiveness study comparing two available HPV vaccines in Chile was performed to support decision making on the implementation of universal HPV vaccination.
METHODS: The present analysis used an existing static Markov model to assess the effect of screening and vaccination. This analysis includes the epidemiology of low-risk HPV types allowing for the comparison between the two vaccines (HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine), latest cross-protection data on HPV vaccines, treatment costs for cervical cancer, vaccine costs and 6% discounting per the health economic guideline for Chile.
RESULTS: Projected incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERs) for the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was 116 United States (US) dollars per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained or 147 US dollars per life-years (LY) saved, while the projected ICUR/ICER for the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was 541 US dollars per QALY gained or 726 US dollars per LY saved. Introduction of any HPV vaccine to the present cervical cancer prevention program of Chile is estimated to be highly cost-effective (below 1X gross domestic product [GDP] per capita, 14278 US dollars). In Chile, the addition of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine to the existing screening program dominated the addition of HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis results show that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine is expected to be dominant and cost-saving in 69.3% and 77.6% of the replicates respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the addition of any HPV vaccine to the current cervical screening program of Chile will be advantageous. However, this cost-effectiveness model shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine dominated the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. Beyond the context of Chile, the data from this modelling exercise may support healthcare policy and decision-making pertaining to introduction of HPV vaccination in similar resource settings in the region.

Murray NP, Reyes E, Fuentealba C, et al.
Extended use of P504S positive primary circulating prostate cell detection to determine the need for initial prostate biopsy in a prostate cancer screening program in Chile.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(21):9335-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency of primary circulating prostate cells (CPC) detection according to age and serum PSA levels in a cohort of men undergoing screening for prostate cancer and to determine the diagnostic yield in those men complying with the criteria for prostate biopsy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to analyze all men evaluated in a hospital prostate cancer screening program. Primary CPCs were obtained by differential gel centrifugation and detected using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-PSA, positive samples undergoing a second process with anti-P504S. A malignant primary CPC was defined as PSA+ P504S+, and a test positive if 1 cell/4ml was detected. The frequency of primary CPC detection was compared with age and serum PSA levels. Men with a PSA >4.0ng/ml and/or abnormal rectal examination underwent 12 core prostate biopsy, and the results were registered as cancer/no-cancer and compared with the presence/absence of primary CPCs to calculate the diagnostic yield.
RESULTS: A total of 1,117 men participated; there was an association of primary CPC detection with increasing age and increasing serum PSA. Some 559 men underwent initial prostate biopsy of whom 207/559 (37.0%) were positive for primary CPCs and 183/559 (32.0%) had prostate cancer detected. The diagnostic yield of primary CPCs had a sensitivity of 88.5%, a specificity of 88.0%, and positive and negative predictive values of 78.3% and 94.9%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of primary CPCs for testing is recommended, since its high negative predictive value could be used to avoid prostate biopsy in men with an elevated PSA and/or abnormal DRE. Men positive for primary CPCs should undergo prostate biopsy. It is a test that could be implemented in the routine immunocytochemical laboratory.

Marti-Soler H, Gonseth S, Gubelmann C, et al.
Seasonal variation of overall and cardiovascular mortality: a study in 19 countries from different geographic locations.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113500 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality has been shown to follow a seasonal pattern. Several studies suggested several possible determinants of this pattern, including misclassification of causes of deaths. We aimed at assessing seasonality in overall, CVD, cancer and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality using data from 19 countries from different latitudes.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Monthly mortality data were compiled from 19 countries, amounting to over 54 million deaths. We calculated ratios of the observed to the expected numbers of deaths in the absence of a seasonal pattern. Seasonal variation (peak to nadir difference) for overall and cause-specific (CVD, cancer or non-CVD/non-cancer) mortality was analyzed using the cosinor function model. Mortality from overall, CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer showed a consistent seasonal pattern. In both hemispheres, the number of deaths was higher than expected in winter. In countries close to the Equator the seasonal pattern was considerably lower for mortality from any cause. For CVD mortality, the peak to nadir differences ranged from 0.185 to 0.466 in the Northern Hemisphere, from 0.087 to 0.108 near the Equator, and from 0.219 to 0.409 in the Southern Hemisphere. For cancer mortality, the seasonal variation was nonexistent in most countries.
CONCLUSIONS: In countries with seasonal variation, mortality from overall, CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer show a seasonal pattern with mortality being higher in winter than in summer. Conversely, cancer mortality shows no substantial seasonality.

Steinmaus C, Ferreccio C, Yuan Y, et al.
Elevated lung cancer in younger adults and low concentrations of arsenic in water.
Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 180(11):1082-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L in drinking water are a known cause of cancer, but the risks associated with lower concentrations are less well understood. The unusual geology and good information on past exposure found in northern Chile are key advantages for investigating the potential long-term effects of arsenic. We performed a case-control study of lung cancer from 2007 to 2010 in areas of northern Chile that had a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Previously, we reported evidence of elevated cancer risks at arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L. In the present study, we restricted analyses to the 92 cases and 288 population-based controls who were exposed to concentrations less than 100 µg/L. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking behavior, these exposures from 40 or more years ago resulted in odds ratios for lung cancer of 1.00, 1.43 (90% confidence interval: 0.82, 2.52), and 2.01 (90% confidence interval: 1.14, 3.52) for increasing tertiles of arsenic exposure, respectively (P for trend = 0.02). Mean arsenic water concentrations in these tertiles were 6.5, 23.0, and 58.6 µg/L. For subjects younger than 65 years of age, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.00, 1.62 (90% confidence interval: 0.67, 3.90), and 3.41 (90% confidence interval: 1.51, 7.70). Adjustments for occupation, fruit and vegetable intake, and socioeconomic status had little impact on the results. These findings provide new evidence that arsenic water concentrations less than 100 µg/L are associated with higher risks of lung cancer.

Rivera C, González-Arriagada WA, Loyola-Brambilla M, et al.
Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Chilean population.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):5968-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC and OPSCC) exist an association between clinical and histopathological parameters with cell proliferation, basal lamina, connective tissue degradation and surrounding stroma markers. We evaluated these associations in Chilean patients. A convenience sample of 37 cases of OCSCC (n=16) and OPSCC (n=21) was analyzed clinically (TNM, clinical stage) and histologically (WHO grade of differentiation, pattern of tumor invasion). We assessed the expression of p53, Ki67, HOXA1, HOXB7, type IV collagen (ColIV) and carcinoma-associated fibroblast (α-SMA-positive cells). Additionally we conducted a univariate/bivariate analysis to assess the relationship of these variables with survival rates. Males were mostly affected (56.2% OCSCC, 76.2% OPSCC). Patients were mainly diagnosed at III/IV clinical stages (68.8% OCSCC, 90.5% OPSCC) with a predominantly infiltrative pattern invasion (62.9% OCSCC, 57.1% OPSCC). Significant association between regional lymph nodes (N) and clinical stage with OCSCC-HOXB7 expression (Chi-Square test P < 0.05) was observed. In OPSCC a statistically significant association exists between p53, Ki67 with gender (Chi-Square test P < 0.05). In OCSCC and OPSCC was statistically significant association between ki67 with HOXA1, HOXB7, and between these last two antigens (Pearson's Correlation test P < 0.05). Furthermore OPSCC-p53 showed significant correlation when it was compared with α-SMA (Kendall's Tau-c test P < 0.05). Only OCSCC-pattern invasion and OPSCC-primary tumor (T) pattern resulted associated with survival at the end of the follow up period (Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio, P < 0.05). Clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features are similar to seen in other countries. Cancer proliferation markers were associated strongly from each other. Our sample highlights prognostic value of T and pattern of invasion, but the conclusions may be limited and should be considered with caution (small sample). Many cases were diagnosed in the advanced stages of the disease, which suggests that the diagnosis of OCSCC and OPSCC is made late.

Zemelman VB, Valenzuela CY, Sazunic I, Araya I
Malignant melanoma in Chile: different site distribution between private and state patients.
Biol Res. 2014; 47:34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The body site location of primary Malignant Melanoma (MM) has been correlated with prognosis and survival. Ethnic, genetics, sun exposure factors are related to the anatomical distribution of MM. Low and high socioeconomic strata in Chile differ in ethnic, genetic and cultural conditions. The purpose of this study was to analyze the anatomical MM distribution in the Chilean population in both strata searching for differences due to their ethno-genetic-cultural differences. Records of 1148 MM, 575 cases from state hospitals (Low Socioeconomic Strata, LSS) and 573 cases from private clinics (High Socioeconomic Strata, HSS) were analyzed by body site.
RESULTS: Females from LSS showed a higher number of MM in soles, cheeks, and around the eye area. Females from the HSS showed a higher number of MM in dorsal feet and dorsal hands. Males from LSS showed a higher number of MM in soles, around the eye area, and cheeks. However, males from HSS showed a higher number of MM in the trunk, and in the arms. Acral MM was significantly higher in LSS than in the HSS in both sexes. The Chilean population from the HSS and LSS showed differences in the distribution of MM by site. Furthermore, gender differences in the proportion of MM analyzed by anatomical site are observed in both strata.
CONCLUSIONS: Results show evidence that differential genetics factors, sun exposure, or other environmental or cultural factors of both strata may account for these differences.

Escobar K, Rojas P, Ernst D, et al.
Admission of hematopoietic cell transplantation patients to the intensive care unit at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Hospital.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015; 21(1):176-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can have complications that require management in the intensive care unit (ICU). We conducted a retrospective study of patients undergoing HCT between 2007 and 2011 with admission to the ICU. We analyzed 97 patients, with an average age of 37 (range, 15 to 68). The main indications for HCT were hematologic malignancies (84%, n = 82). Ninety percent (n = 87) received myeloablative conditioning. Thirty-one percent were admitted (autologous transplant recipients 15%, allogeneic transplant recipients 34%, and umbilical cord blood [UCB] transplant recipients 48%) with an average length of stay of 19 days (range, 1 to 73 days). The average time between transplantation and transfer was 15 days. The main causes of admission were acute respiratory failure (63%) and septic shock (20%). ICU mortality was 20% for autologous transplantations and 64% for allogeneic transplantations (adult donor and UCB combined). On average, patients died 108 days after the transplantation (range, 4 to 320 days). One-year overall survival, comparing patients entering the ICU with those never admitted, was 16% versus 82% (P < .0001) for allogeneic transplantations (adult donor and UCB combined) and 80% versus 89% (P = not significant) for autologous transplantations. Acute graft-versus-host disease was significantly associated with death in ICU after UCB HCT. ICU support is satisfactory in about one half of patients admitted, characterized by a short and medium term prognosis not as unfavorable as has been previously reported.

Kagohara LT, Schussel JL, Subbannayya T, et al.
Global and gene-specific DNA methylation pattern discriminates cholecystitis from gallbladder cancer patients in Chile.
Future Oncol. 2015; 11(2):233-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of global and gene-specific DNA methylation changes as potential biomarkers for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in a cohort from Chile.
MATERIAL & METHODS: DNA methylation was analyzed through an ELISA-based technique and quantitative methylation-specific PCR.
RESULTS: Global DNA Methylation Index (p = 0.02) and promoter methylation of SSBP2 (p = 0.01) and ESR1 (p = 0.05) were significantly different in GBC when compared with cholecystitis. Receiver curve operator analysis revealed promoter methylation of APC, CDKN2A, ESR1, PGP9.5 and SSBP2, together with the Global DNA Methylation Index, had 71% sensitivity, 95% specificity, a 0.97 area under the curve and a positive predictive value of 90%.
CONCLUSION: Global and gene-specific DNA methylation may be useful biomarkers for GBC clinical assessment.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

[Home]    Page last updated: 07 March, 2017     © CancerIndex, Established 1996