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Trinidad and Tobago

Cancer Statistics
Population in 2008: 41.6m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 79,300
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 172.6
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:18.0%
People dying from cancer /yr: 47,800
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2008)
Caribbean Cancer Organisations and Resources
Research Publications related to the Caribbean

Caribbean Cancer Organisations and Resources (8 links)

Research Publications related to the Caribbean

Joachim C, Veronique-Baudin J, Ulric-Gervaise S, et al.
Cancer burden in the Caribbean: an overview of the Martinique Cancer Registry profile.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):239 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer indicators are essential information for cancer surveillance and cancer research strategy development. The Martinique Cancer Registry (MCR) is a population-based cancer Registry (PBCR) that has been recording cancer data since its creation in 1981. This article provides cancer incidence and mortality data for all cancers and for major tumor sites.
METHODS: The registry collects all new cancer cases, details of the individual affected, tumor site and follow-up. World-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, by tumor site and sex for solid tumors from the MCR database for the study period 2001-2015.
RESULTS: Over the period 2001-2015, a total of 22,801 new cases were diagnosed; 13,863 in men (60.8%) and 8938 in women (39.2%). In 2011-2015, 1631 new cases were diagnosed per year. Age-standardized (to the world population) incidence rates for all cancers, were 289.8 per 100,000 men and 171.0 per 100,000 women. Breast, colon-rectum and stomach were the most common cancer sites in women. Prostate, colon-rectum and stomach were the main sites in men. Martinique has higher incidence rates of prostate and stomach cancer than mainland France.
CONCLUSIONS: Prostate and stomach cancers have high incidence and rank first among the four major tumor sites. Providing data for the French zone of the Caribbean is essential to contributing to the development of high-priority public health measures for the Caribbean zone.

Haywood A, Duc J, Good P, et al.
Systemic corticosteroids for the management of cancer-related breathlessness (dyspnoea) in adults.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019; 2:CD012704 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dyspnoea is a common symptom in advanced cancer, with a prevalence of up to 70% among patients at end of life. The cause of dyspnoea is often multifactorial, and may cause considerable psychological distress and suffering. Dyspnoea is often undertreated and good symptom control is less frequently achieved in people with dyspnoea than in people with other symptoms of advanced cancer, such as pain and nausea. The exact mechanism of action of corticosteroids in managing dyspnoea is unclear, yet corticosteroids are commonly used in palliative care for a variety of non-specific indications, including pain, nausea, anorexia, fatigue and low mood, despite being associated with a wide range of adverse effects. In view of their widespread use, it is important to seek evidence of the effects of corticosteroids for the management of cancer-related dyspnoea.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids for the management of cancer-related breathlessness (dyspnoea) in adults.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Science Citation Index Web of Science, Latin America and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) and clinical trial registries, from inception to 25 January 2018.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that included adults aged 18 years and above. We included participants with cancer-related dyspnoea when randomised to systemic corticosteroids (at any dose) administered for the relief of cancer-related dyspnoea or any other indication, compared to placebo, standard or alternative treatment.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Five review authors independently assessed trial quality and three extracted data. We used means and standard deviations for each outcome to report the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We assessed the risk of bias and quality of evidence using GRADE. We extracted primary outcomes of sensory-perceptual experience of dyspnoea (intensity of dyspnoea), affective distress (quality of dyspnoea) and symptom impact (burden of dyspnoea or impact on function) and secondary outcomes of serious adverse events, participant satisfaction with treatment and participant withdrawal from trial.
MAIN RESULTS: Two studies met the inclusion criteria, enrolling 157 participants (37 participants in one study and 120 in the other study), of whom 114 were included in the analyses. The studies compared oral dexamethasone to placebo, followed by an open-label phase in one study. One study lasted seven days, and the duration of the other study was 15 days.We were unable to conduct many of our predetermined analyses due to different agents, dosages, comparators and outcome measures, routes of drug delivery, measurement scales and time points. Subgroup analysis according to type of cancer was not possible.Primary outcomesWe included two studies (114 participants) with data at one week in the meta-analysis for change in dyspnoea intensity/dyspnoea relief from baseline. Corticosteroid therapy with dexamethasone resulted in an MD of lower dyspnoea intensity compared to placebo at one week (MD -0.85 lower dyspnoea (scale 0-10; lower score = less breathlessness), 95% CI -1.73 to 0.03; very low-quality evidence), although we were uncertain as to whether corticosteroids had an important effect on dyspnoea as results were imprecise. We downgraded the quality of evidence by three levels from high to very low due to very serious study limitations and imprecision.One study measured affective distress (quality of dyspnoea) and results were similar between groups (29 participants; very low-quality evidence). We downgraded the quality of the evidence three times for imprecision, inconsistency, and serious study limitations.Both studies assessed symptom impact (burden of dyspnoea or impact on function) (113 participants; very low-quality evidence). In one study, it was unclear whether dexamethasone had an effect on dyspnoea as results were imprecise. The second study showed more improvement for physical well-being scores at days eight and 15 in the dexamethasone group compared with the control group, but there was no evidence of a difference for FACIT social/family, emotional or functional scales. We downgraded the quality of the evidence three times for imprecision, inconsistency, and serious study limitations.Secondary outcomesDue to the lack of homogenous outcome measures and inconsistency in reporting, we could not perform quantitative analysis for any secondary outcomes. In both studies, the frequency of adverse events was similar between groups, and corticosteroids were generally well tolerated. The withdrawal rates for the two studies were 15% and 36%. Reasons for withdrawal included lost to follow-up, participant or carer (or both) refusal, and death due to disease progression. We downgraded the quality of evidence for these secondary outcomes by three levels from high to very low due to serious study limitations, inconsistency and imprecision.Neither study examined participant satisfaction with treatment.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are few studies assessing the effects of systemic corticosteroids on cancer-related dyspnoea in adults with cancer. We judged the evidence to be of very low quality that neither supported nor refuted corticosteroid use in this population. Further high-quality studies are needed to determine if corticosteroids are efficacious in this setting.

McKenzie J, Oettel-Flaherty C, Noel D, et al.
Pseudo-ataxia due to Osteoid Osteoma.
Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y). 2019; 9:631 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2020 Related Publications
Background: Ataxia is diagnosed by typical features on examination suggestive of a cerebellar etiology and can invoke extensive diagnostic testing. Osteoid osteomas (OOs) are benign bone tumors of the lower limbs that occasionally present with focal neurological signs.
Case Report: A 3-year-old male presented with apparent progressive gait ataxia and non-specific leg pain. Initial imaging was unremarkable. However, 12 months later, a lesion was identified in the distal right femur, which was found to be an OO. The gait disorder and pain resolved after surgery.
Discussion: This case highlights the challenges of diagnosing a gait disorder in young children.

Lofters AK, McBride ML, Li D, et al.
Disparities in breast cancer diagnosis for immigrant women in Ontario and BC: results from the CanIMPACT study.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In Canada, clinical practice guidelines recommend breast cancer screening, but there are gaps in adherence to recommendations for screening, particularly among certain hard-to-reach populations, that may differ by province. We compared stage of diagnosis, proportion of screen-detected breast cancers, and length of diagnostic interval for immigrant women versus long-term residents of BC and Ontario.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked administrative databases in BC and Ontario. We identified all women residing in either province who were diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer between 2007 and 2011, and determined who was foreign-born using the Immigration Refugee and Citizenship Canada database. We used descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses to describe the sample and study outcomes. We conducted multivariate analyses (modified Poisson regression and quantile regression) to control for potential confounders.
RESULTS: There were 14,198 BC women and 46,952 Ontario women included in the study population, of which 11.8 and 11.7% were foreign-born respectively. In both provinces, immigrants and long-term residents had similar primary care access. In both provinces, immigrant women were significantly less likely to have a screen-detected breast cancer (adjusted relative risk 0.88 [0.79-0.96] in BC, 0.88 [0.84-0.93] in Ontario) and had a significantly longer median diagnostic interval (2 [0.2-3.8] days in BC, 5.5 [4.4-6.6] days in Ontario) than long-term residents. Women from East Asia and the Pacific were less likely to have a screen-detected cancer and had a longer diagnostic interval, but were diagnosed at an earlier stage than long-term residents. In Ontario, women from Latin America and the Caribbean and from South Asia were less likely to have a screen-detected cancer, had a longer median diagnostic interval, and were diagnosed at a later stage than long-term residents. These findings were not explained by access to primary care.
CONCLUSIONS: There are inequalities in breast cancer diagnosis for Canadian immigrant women. We have identified particular immigrant groups (women from Latin America and the Caribbean and from South Asia) that appear to be subject to disparities in the diagnostic process that need to be addressed in order to effectively reduce gaps in care.

Van De Maele K, Smulders C, Ecury-Goossen G, et al.
Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome: recurrent neonatal infections caused by impairment of JAK/STAT 3 pathway.
Clin Dysmorphol. 2019; 28(2):57-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome (OMIM #601559) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal dysplasia, consecutive infections, feeding difficulties and autonomic dysregulation. We present an Afro-Caribbean family with two siblings diagnosed with Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome. The underlying loss-of-function mutation in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor gene is thought to impair proper functioning of the JAK/STAT 3 pathway. As this affects normal functioning of T-helper cells, these patients are prone to infections with uncommon pathogens as illustrated by this case.

Carnot Uria J, Hernández Cruz C, Muñío Perurena J, et al.
Bone Marrow Transplantation in Patients With Acute Leukemia In Cuba: Results From the Last 30 Years and New Opportunities Through International Collaboration.
J Glob Oncol. 2018; 4:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) has been performed in Cuba for over 30 years with limited resources and without international relationships. Researchers from University of Illinois at Chicago and Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital (HAH) in Havana collaborated on retrospectively analyzing 101 consecutive patients with adult acute leukemia who received BMT at HAH from June 1986 to January 2016. Of these, 82 had acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 19 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). BMT eligibility criteria included prior morphologic complete remission, no severe comorbidities, and age between 16 and 60 years. Patients with an HLA-matched donor received an allogeneic BMT, whereas the others received an autologous BMT. All patients received fresh stem cells from marrow (80%) or mobilized peripheral blood (19%). Of 82 patients with AML, 35 received an allogeneic (AML-allo) and 47 an autologous (AML-auto) BMT. Both groups had comparable median age (37 years) and follow-up of survivors. Overall survival (OS) was 34% in AML-allo and 38% in AML-auto. The transplant-related mortality rate was 40% in AML-allo and 17% in AML-auto, whereas the relapse-related mortality rates were 25% and 40%, respectively. Of the 19 patients with ALL, six received an allogeneic transplant. Of these, transplant-related mortality occurred in one patient and three died after disease relapse (OS, 33%). Of 13 patients who received autologous transplants, transplant-related mortality occurred in three and six died after disease relapse (OS, 31%). To our knowledge, this is the first scientific report on BMT performed in patients with acute leukemia in Cuba. The collaboration between University of Illinois at Chicago and HAH will further develop capacity building in research and implementation of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in Cuba.

Fransway AF, Fransway PJ, Belsito DV, Yiannias JA
Paraben Toxicology.
Dermatitis. 2019 Jan/Feb; 30(1):32-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parabens now being formally declared as the American Contact Dermatitis Society (non)allergen of the year, the allergologic concerns regarding parabens raised during the past century are no longer a significant issue. The more recent toxicological concerns regarding parabens are more imposing, stemming from the gravity of the noncutaneous adverse health effects for which they have been scrutinized for the past 20 years. These include endocrine activity, carcinogenesis, infertility, spermatogenesis, adipogenesis, perinatal exposure impact, and nonallergologic cutaneous, psychologic, and ecologic effects. To assert that parabens are safe for use as currently used in the cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industries, all toxicological end points must be addressed. We seek to achieve perspective through this exercise: perspective for the professional assessing systemic risk of parabens by all routes of exposure. The data reviewed in this article strive to provide a balanced perspective for the consumer hopefully to allay concerns regarding the safety of parabens and facilitate an informed decision-making process. Based on currently available scientific information, claims that parabens are involved in the genesis or propagation of these controversial and important health problems are premature. Haste to remove parabens from consumer products could result in their substitution with alternative, less proven, and potentially unsafe alternatives, especially given the compelling data supporting the lack of significant dermal toxicity of this important group of preservatives.

Huang CY, Au KK, Chen SL, et al.
Unfavorable Mortality-To-Incidence Ratio of Lung Cancer Is Associated with Health Care Disparity.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018; 15(12) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2020 Related Publications
The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) is associated with the clinical outcome of cancer treatment. For several cancers, countries with relatively good health care systems have favorable MIRs. However, the association between lung cancer MIR and health care expenditures or rankings has not been evaluated. We used linear regression to analyze the correlation between lung cancer MIRs and the total expenditures on health/gross domestic product (e/GDP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) rankings. We included 57 countries, for which data of adequate quality were available, and we found high rates of incidence and mortality but low MIRs in more developed regions. Among the continents, North America had the highest rates of incidence and mortality, whereas the highest MIRs were in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Globally, favorable MIRs correlated with high e/GDP and good WHO ranking (regression coefficient, -0.014 and 0.001;

Bamidele OO, E McGarvey H, Lagan BM, et al.
"Hard to reach, but not out of reach": Barriers and facilitators to recruiting Black African and Black Caribbean men with prostate cancer and their partners into qualitative research.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2019; 28(2):e12977 [PubMed] Related Publications
Access and recruitment barriers may have contributed to the underrepresentation of Black African/Caribbean men and their partners in current psychosocial research related to prostate cancer survivors. Whilst some studies have explored recruitment barriers and facilitators from participants' perspectives, little is known from researchers' point of view. This paper aimed to address this gap in the literature. Recruitment strategies included the following: cancer support groups, researchers' networks, media advertisement, religious organisations, National Health Service hospitals and snowball sampling. Thirty-six eligible participants (men = 25, partners = 11) were recruited into the study. Recruitment barriers comprised of gate-keeping and advertisement issues and the stigma associated with prostate cancer disclosure. Facilitators which aided recruitment included collaborating with National Health Service hospitals, snowball sampling, flexible data collection, building rapport with participants to gain their trust and researcher's attributes. Findings highlight that "hard to reach" Black African/Caribbean populations may be more accessible if researchers adopt flexible but strategic and culturally sensitive recruitment approaches. Such approaches should consider perceptions of stigma associated with prostate cancer within these communities and the influence gatekeepers can have in controlling access to potential participants. Increased engagement with healthcare professionals and gatekeepers could facilitate better access to Black African/Caribbean populations so that their voices can be heard and their specific needs addressed within the healthcare agenda.

Rodrigues Ferreira A, Farias Azevedo E
Administration of Subcutaneous Monoclonal Antibodies in Patients With Cancer.
Oncol Nurs Forum. 2019; 46(1):E38-E47 [PubMed] Related Publications
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Subcutaneous (SC) formulations for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) must be evaluated for efficacy and safety in comparison with preexisting IV formulations to identify potential benefits and risks.
LITERATURE SEARCH: This is a systematic review of clinical trials. MEDLINE®/PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), and reference lists were searched for relevant studies.
DATA EVALUATION: Data regarding efficacy and safety were registered in a form designed for this review. Risk of bias was assessed using the Jadad scale.
SYNTHESIS: SC administration of alemtuzumab, trastuzumab, and rituximab presented therapeutic efficacy with similar safety profiles compared to their respective IV formulations, except for the higher prevalence of local adverse events following SC administration.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: SC mAbs require slow administration (no less than five minutes), and the injection site should be changed at each cycle. Patient guidelines should include information about expected adverse effects, signs or symptoms of side effects requiring emergency care, and how to reduce potential discomfort caused by the injection.

Donenberg T, George S, Ali J, et al.
A clinically structured and partnered approach to genetic testing in Trinidadian women with breast cancer and their families.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(2):469-477 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer death in Caribbean women. Across the Caribbean islands, the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer among unselected breast cancer patients ranges from 5 to 25%. Moreover, the prevalence of BC among younger women and the high mortality in the Caribbean region are notable. This BC burden presents an opportunity for cancer prevention and control that begins with genetic testing among high-risk women. Measured response to positive genetic test results includes the number of preventive procedures and cascade testing in family members. We previously reported data on an active approach to promote cascade testing in the Bahamas and report on preventive procedures showing moderate uptake. Here, we describe a clinically structured and community-partnered approach to the dissemination and follow-up of genetic test results including family counseling for the promotion of risk mitigation strategies and cascade testing in our Trinidadian cohort of patients tested positive for BC predisposition genes.
METHODS: As a part of our initial study of BC genetic testing in Trinidad and Tobago, all participants received pre-test counseling including three-generation pedigree and genetic testing for BRCA1/2, PALB2, and RAD51C. The study was approved by the University of Miami IRB and the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health, Trinidad and Tobago. We prospectively evaluated a clinically structured approach to genetic counseling and follow-up of BC mutation carriers in Trinidad and Tobago in 2015. The intervention consisted of (1) engaging twenty-nine BC patients with a deleterious gene mutation (probands), and (2) invitation of their at-risk relatives to attend to a family counseling session. The session included information on the meaning of their results, risk of inheritance, risk of cancer, risk-reduction options, offering of cascade testing to family members, and follow-up of proband decision-making over two years.
RESULTS: Twenty-four of twenty-nine mutation carriers (82.8%) consented to enroll in the study. At initial pedigree review, we identified 125 at-risk relatives (ARR). Seventy-seven ARR (62%) attended the family counseling sessions; of these, 76 ARR (99%) consented to be tested for their family gene mutation. Genetic sequencing revealed that of the 76 tested, 35 (46%) ARR were carriers of their family mutation. The ARR received their results and were urged to take preventative measures at post-test counseling. At 2-year follow-up, 6 of 21 probands with intact breasts elected to pursue preventive mastectomy (28.5%) and 4 of 20 women with intact ovaries underwent RRSO (20%).
CONCLUSIONS: In Trinidad and Tobago, a clinically structured and partnered approach to our testing program led to a significant rate of proband response by completing the intervention counseling session, executing risk-reducing procedures as well as informing and motivating at-risk relatives, thereby demonstrating the utility and efficacy of this BC control program.

Ragin C, Banydeen R, Zhang C, et al.
Breast Cancer Research in the Caribbean: Analysis of Reports From 1975 to 2017.
J Glob Oncol. 2018; 4:1-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is among the leading causes of death resulting from cancer in Caribbean women. Studies examining exogenous and genetically predetermined endogenous risk factors are critical to define breast cancer susceptibility in Caribbean women. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the existing scientific literature in the last 42 years (1975 to 2017) to describe the body of research generated for the population of this region and determine future research directions.
METHODS: We selected published research articles using a combination of definite keyword searches in PubMed. Only articles presenting the Caribbean population as the focus of their research objectives were included in this analysis.
RESULTS: Studies on breast cancer in the Caribbean are limited. A majority of publications on Caribbean populations were descriptive, focusing on cancer trends and clinicopathologic factors. High incidence and mortality rates for breast cancer are reported for the region, and there seem to be some differences between countries in the frequency of cases according to age at presentation. A limited number of epidemiologic, behavioral, and genetic and molecular studies were conducted in more recent years.
CONCLUSION: A regional strategy for cancer registration is needed for the Caribbean to address possible underestimates of breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, behavioral, molecular, genetic, and epidemiologic investigations of breast cancer are critical to address the concerns related to currently described high incidence and mortality rates in the Caribbean.

Gonçalves JCN, Macedo ACL, Madeira K, et al.
Accuracy of Anal Cytology for Diagnostic of Precursor Lesions of Anal Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Dis Colon Rectum. 2019; 62(1):112-120 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anal canal carcinoma is relevant because it commonly occurs in high-risk groups, and its incidence has been increasing.
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the accuracy of anal cytology in the screening of precursor lesions of anal cancer, compared with histopathologic examination as the reference, in all subjects and in men who have sex with men, HIV-infected men and women, and men who have sex with men and HIV-infected subgroups.
DATA SOURCES: The data included studies identified in the MEDLINE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, Cochrane Library, and Embase electronic databases, as well as in the grey literature. The search terms included anal cancer, anal dysplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, screening, and anal cytology.
STUDY SELECTION: After excluding studies with no histopathological data and those with duplicate and missing data, 34 primary studies were included.
INTERVENTION: Cytology of anal smears was studied.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic OR, and area under the curve were measured.
RESULTS: A total of 5093 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity of anal cytology was 85.0% (95% CI, 82.0%-87.0%) and pooled specificity was 43.2% (95% CI, 41.4%-45.1%) for the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse versus anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and normal when measuring all subjects. The accuracy of anal cytology was higher in the men who have sex with men and HIV-infected and men who have sex with men only subgroups.
LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its specificity.
CONCLUSIONS: The study results support the hypothesis that cytology is a good test for the screening of anal cancer.

Joachim C, Veronique-Baudin J, Ulric-Gervaise S, et al.
Pattern of care of prostate cancer patients across the Martinique: results of a population-based study in the Caribbean.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1130 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The French West-Indies rank first for both prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. Analyzing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures among patients with prostate cancer, using data from a population-based cancer registry, is essential for cancer surveillance and research strategies.
METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study was based on data from the Martinique Cancer Registry. Records of 452 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2013 were retrieved from the registry. Data extracted were: socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, circumstances of diagnosis, PSA level at diagnosis, Gleason score and risk of disease progression. Stage at diagnosis and patterns of care among prostate cancer patients were analyzed.
RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 67 ± 8 years; 103 (28.5%) were symptomatic at diagnosis. Digital rectal exam was performed in 406 (93.8%). Clinical stage was available in 385 (85.2%); tumours were localized in 322/385 (83.6%). Overall, 17.9% were at low risk, 36.4% at intermediate and 31.9% at high risk; 13.8% were regional/metastatic cancers. Median PSA level at diagnosis was 8.16 ng/mL (range 1.4-5000 ng/mL). A total of 373 patients (82.5%) received at least one treatment, while 79 (17.5%) had active surveillance or watchful waiting. Among patients treated with more than one therapeutic strategy, the most frequent combination was external radiotherapy with androgen deprivation (n = 102, 22.6%).
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides detailed data regarding the quality of diagnosis and management of patients with prostate cancer in Martinique. Providing data on prostate cancer is essential for the development of high-priority public health measures for the Caribbean.

Deknuydt M, Dumont A, Bruyneel A, et al.
Recurrent maternal virilization during pregnancy in patients with PCOS: two clinical cases.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018; 16(1):107 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Maternal virilization during pregnancy is a rare phenomenon. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), luteoma and luteinic cysts are the most frequent and benign etiologies. This article presents two cases of recurrent maternal virilization during pregnancy.
CLINICAL CASES: Our reported cases were young women with Afro-Caribbean and Nigerian origins. Data were collected by history-taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigations, transabdominal ultrasonographic examination and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Both patients were diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. During each of their pregnancies they both developed an explosive hirsutism, a deepening in the voice, a clitoromegaly. Gestational diabetes occurred during pregnancies. There was no fetal virilization, despite raising androgen levels, more than tenfold to normal. Improvement of hirsutism and normalization of androgens were described in postpartum.
CONCLUSION: Only few cases of maternal virilization during pregnancy were reported in literature and even fewer concern recurrent and bilateral ovarian etiology. Hyperplasia of ovarian theca cells seems to be the most likely explanation, which would suggest that PCOS belongs to a spectrum of abnormal reactivity of the ovary to human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation along with luteoma and luteinic cyst of pregnancy.  Insulin resistance could worsen hyperandrogenism but is not enough to explain virilization. Treatment should focus on protecting the fetus of possible virilization as well as its mother, but also on preserving the subsequent fertility in both.

Mancera-Páez O, Román GC, Pardo-Turriago R, et al.
Concurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis and encephalitis post-Zika: A case report and review of the pathogenic role of multiple arboviral immunity.
J Neurol Sci. 2018; 395:47-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
We review post-infectious and post-vaccination neurological syndromes involving peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) and report an illustrative case of simultaneous occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), confirmed by nerve conduction velocities, plus MRI-demonstrated transverse myelitis (TM) and acute encephalitis [acute disseminated encephalomyelitis] (ADEM+GBS) affecting a 24-year-old woman from Cúcuta, Colombia, who developed acute Zika virus (ZIKV) infection confirmed by serum reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and convalescent ZIKV IgG antibodies. With intensive care treatment, respiratory support, steroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), patient survived with residual flaccid paraparesis. She had preexisting immunity against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) acquired before the arrival of ZIKV in Colombia. From reports in the Caribbean, Central and South America we review 19 cases of ZIKV-associated TM, encephalitis and ADEM occurring after a mean latent period of 10.5 days (range 1-96) post-infection. Although GBS and ADEM are usually considered post-infectious and associated with development of antibodies against peripheral nerve and CNS epitopes, we postulate that our case of ADEM+GBS is para-infectious, induced by acute ZIKV neurotropism boosted by active immunity against other arboviruses. Animal models of ZIKV demonstrated strong viral neurotropism enhanced by passive immunity with antibodies against arboviruses such as West Nile virus, CHIKV, or DENV. These considerations are relevant to prevent potential ZIKV vaccine-induced reactions involving central and peripheral nervous system.

Kugasia IAR, Kumar A, Khatri A, et al.
Primary effusion lymphoma of the pleural space: Report of a rare complication of cardiac transplant with review of the literature.
Transpl Infect Dis. 2019; 21(1):e13005 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising in body cavities and presenting with effusions. It has been described predominantly in patients with impaired immunity from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and is associated with the Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Seldom has PEL been diagnosed in persons negative for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and in such cases it has occurred primarily in the setting of posttransplant immunosuppression. We report an instructive case of a Caribbean-American HIV-negative orthotopic heart transplant recipient with a history of HHV-8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma who developed HHV-8 viremia and PEL of the pleural space early in the posttransplant course. This case highlights the importance of considering PEL in the differential diagnosis of a new pleural effusion in a transplant recipient at risk for HHV-8-associated disease.

Tonon L, Fromont G, Boyault S, et al.
Mutational Profile of Aggressive, Localised Prostate Cancer from African Caribbean Men Versus European Ancestry Men.
Eur Urol. 2019; 75(1):11-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Causes of high mortality of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry living in the French West Indies are still debated, between suspicions of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. We report an integrated genomic study of 25 tumour tissues from radical prostatectomy of aggressive (defined by International Society of Urological Pathology ≥3) prostate cancer patients (10 African Caribbean and 15 French Caucasian) using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, whole-genome sequencing, and RNA sequencing. The results show that African Caribbean tumours are characterised by a more frequent deletion at 1q41-43 encompassing the DNA repair gene PARP1, and a higher proportion of intrachromosomal rearrangements including duplications associated with CDK12 truncating mutations. Transcriptome analyses show an overexpression of genes related to androgen receptor activity in African Caribbean tumours, and of PVT1, a long non-coding RNA located at 8q24 that confirms the strong involvement of this region in prostate tumours from men of African ancestry. Patient summary: Mortality of prostate cancer is higher in African Caribbean men than in French Caucasian men. Specificities of the former could be explained by genomic events linked with key genes such as DNA damage pathway genes PARP1, CDK12, and the oncogenic long non-coding RNA gene PVT1 at the 8q24 prostate cancer susceptibility locus.

Cazap E
Breast Cancer in Latin America: A Map of the Disease in the Region.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2018; 38:451-456 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the next few decades, breast cancer will become a leading global public health problem as it increases disproportionately in low- and middle-income countries. Disparities are clear when comparisons are made with rates in Europe and the United States, but they also exist between the countries of the region or even within the same country in Latin America. Large cities or urban areas have better access and resource availability than small towns or remote zones. This article presents the status of the disease across 12 years with data obtained through three studies performed in 2006, 2010, and 2013 and based on surveys, reviews of literature, patient organizations, and public databases. The first study provided a general picture of breast cancer control in the region (Latin America); the second compared expert perceptions with medical care standards; and the third was a review of literature and public databases together with surveys of breast cancer experts and patient organizations. We conclude that breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and kills more women than any other cancer; we also suggest that aging is the principal risk factor, which will drive the incidence to epidemic levels as a result of demographic transition in Latin America. The economic burden also is large and can be clearly observed: in countries that today allocate insufficient resources, women go undiagnosed or uncared for or receive treatment with suboptimal therapies, all of which results in high morbidity and the associated societal costs. The vast inequities in access to health care in countries translates into unequal results in outcomes. National cancer control plans are the fundamental building block to an organized governance, financing, and delivery of health care for breast cancer.

Rodeiro I, Hernández I, Herrera JA, et al.
Assessment of the cytotoxic potential of an aqueous-ethanolic extract from Thalassia testudinum angiosperm marine grown in the Caribbean Sea.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 70(11):1553-1560 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Reported antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties for one aqueous-ethanolic extract from Thalassia testudinum which grows in the Caribbean Sea compelled us to explore about extract cytotoxic effects.
METHODS: Cell viability was assayed on tumour (HepG2, PC12, Caco-2 and 4T1) and non-tumour (VERO, 3T3, CHO, MCDK and BHK2) cell lines. The extract effects upon primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes and human lymphocytes were assayed.
KEY FINDINGS: The extract exhibited cytotoxicity against cancer cells compared to normal cells, and the IC
CONCLUSIONS: Thalassia testudinum extract is more cytotoxic and produced more DNA damage on human hepatoma cells than to other non-tumour cells. A possible mechanism is suggested for extract-induced cytotoxicity based on oxidative stress, nuclear damage and hypercalcaemia in HepG2 cells. T. testudinum may be a source for antitumour agents.

Bamidele O, Lagan BM, McGarvey H, et al.
"…It might not have occurred to my husband that this woman, his wife who is taking care of him has some emotional needs as well…": the unheard voices of partners of Black African and Black Caribbean men with prostate cancer.
Support Care Cancer. 2019; 27(3):1089-1097 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that partners of men with prostate cancer (CaP) experience greater psychosocial distress compared with men themselves. However, the experiences of partners of high-risk (1 in 4) Black African (BA) and Black Caribbean (BC) men with CaP remain poorly understood as existing research has predominantly focused on Caucasian populations. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring partners' experience and support needs as influenced both by the specific impacts of CaP, treatment side effects and socio-cultural context.
METHODS: Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, eight face-to-face, two Skype and one telephone interviews were conducted with eligible partners (n = 11). The interviews were analysed using constant comparison following key stages of open, focused and theoretical coding.
RESULTS: Three broad categories emerged which described participants' experiences: 'partner in the passenger seat', 'care-giving on an isolating journey', and 'coping as a partner'. Findings showed that BA and BC cultural marital context influenced how partners experienced and traversed the CaP journey. Peripheral involvement in decision-making, communication restrictions, limited access to support and lack of recognition for their experiences and needs further contributed to partners' psychological and emotional distress.
CONCLUSIONS: Cultural beliefs, behaviours and values should be taken into account when developing psychosocial support for partners and their men with CaP. Specifically providing information focused on partners and including them in the CaP care pathway could help ensure that partners' needs are recognised and improve marital communications. This could potentially help partners and their men to identify acceptable ways of supporting each other throughout the CaP experience.

Shah UA, Chung EY, Giricz O, et al.
North American ATLL has a distinct mutational and transcriptional profile and responds to epigenetic therapies.
Blood. 2018; 132(14):1507-1518 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/10/2019 Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare T cell neoplasm that is endemic in Japanese, Caribbean, and Latin American populations. Most North American ATLL patients are of Caribbean descent and are characterized by high rates of chemo-refractory disease and worse prognosis compared with Japanese ATLL. To determine genomic differences between these 2 cohorts, we performed targeted exon sequencing on 30 North American ATLL patients and compared the results with the Japanese ATLL cases. Although the frequency of TP53 mutations was comparable, the mutation frequency in epigenetic and histone modifying genes (57%) was significantly higher, whereas the mutation frequency in JAK/STAT and T-cell receptor/NF-κB pathway genes was significantly lower. The most common type of epigenetic mutation is that affecting EP300 (20%). As a category, epigenetic mutations were associated with adverse prognosis. Dissimilarities with the Japanese cases were also revealed by RNA sequencing analysis of 9 primary patient samples. ATLL samples with a mutated EP300 gene have decreased total and acetyl p53 protein and a transcriptional signature reminiscent of p53-mutated cancers. Most importantly, decitabine has highly selective single-agent activity in the EP300-mutated ATLL samples, suggesting that decitabine treatment induces a synthetic lethal phenotype in EP300-mutated ATLL cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that North American ATLL has a distinct genomic landscape that is characterized by frequent epigenetic mutations that are targetable preclinically with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors.

Gibson TN, Beeput S, Gaspard J, et al.
Baseline characteristics and outcomes of children with cancer in the English-speaking Caribbean: A multinational retrospective cohort.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018; 65(12):e27298 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: English-speaking Caribbean (ESC) childhood cancer outcomes are unknown.
PROCEDURE: Through the SickKids-Caribbean Initiative (SCI), we established a multicenter childhood cancer database across seven centers in six ESC countries. Data managers entered patient demographics, disease, treatment, and outcome data. Data collection commenced in 2013, with retrospective collection to 2011 and subsequent prospective collection.
RESULTS: A total of 367 children were diagnosed between 2011 and 2015 with a median age of 5.7 years (interquartile range 2.9-10.6 years). One hundred thirty (35.4%) patients were diagnosed with leukemia, 30 (8.2%) with lymphoma, and 149 (40.6%) with solid tumors. A relative paucity of children with brain tumors was seen (N = 58, 15.8%). Two-year event-free survival (EFS) for the cohort was 48.5% ± 3.2%; 2-year overall survival (OS) was 55.1% ± 3.1%. Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Wilms tumor (WT) experienced better 2-year EFS (62.1% ± 6.4% and 66.7% ± 10.1%), while dismal outcomes were seen in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 22.7 ± 9.6%), rhabdomyosarcoma (21.0% ± 17.0%), and medulloblastoma (21.4% ± 17.8%). Of 108 deaths with known cause, 58 (53.7%) were attributed to disease and 50 (46.3%) to treatment complications. Death within 60 days of diagnosis was relatively common in acute leukemia [13/98 (13.3%) ALL, 8/26 (30.8%) AML]. Despite this, traditional prognosticators adversely impacted outcome in ALL, including higher age, higher white blood cell count, and T-cell lineage.
CONCLUSIONS: ESC childhood cancer outcomes are significantly inferior to high-income country outcomes. Based on these data, interventions for improving supportive care and modifying treatment protocols are under way. Continued data collection will allow evaluation of interventions and ensure maximal outcome improvements.

Endeshaw M, Clarke T, Senkomago V, Saraiya M
Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women by Birthplace and Percent of Lifetime Living in the United States.
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2018; 22(4):280-287 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to provide national estimates of Pap test receipt, by birthplace, and percent of lifetime in the United States (US).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pooled nationally representative data (2005, 2008, 2013, 2015) from the National Health Interview Survey were used to examine differences in Pap test receipt among adult US women by birthplace and percent of lifetime in the US. Descriptive estimates were age-adjusted. Regression models were adjusted for selected sociodemographic and healthcare access and utilization factors and presented as predicted margins.
RESULTS: Foreign-born women 18 years and older were more than twice as likely to have never received a Pap test compared with US-born women (18.6% vs 6.8%). Regression models showed that foreign-born women from Mexico (9.8%), South America (12.6%), Caribbean (14.6%), Southeast Asia (13.7%), Central Asia (20.4%), South Asia (22.9%), Middle East (25.0%), Africa (27.8%), Europe (16.4%), and Former Soviet Union (28.2%) were more likely to be unscreened compared with US-born women (7.6%). Foreign-born women who spent less than 25% of their life in the US had higher prevalence of never having a Pap test (20%) compared with foreign-born who spent more than 25% of their life in the US (12.7%).
CONCLUSIONS: Using national survey, we found that where a woman is born and the percent of her lifetime spent residing in the US do impact whether she gets screened at least once in her lifetime.
IMPACT: These findings may inform cervical cancer screening efforts targeting foreign-born women.

Vargas Moranth R, Navarro Lechuga E
Cancer incidence and mortality in Barranquilla, Colombia. 2008-2012.
Colomb Med (Cali). 2018; 49(1):55-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Objective: To describe cancer incidence and mortality during the 2008-2012 period in the District of Barranquilla.
Methods: Cancer incident cases were collected, analyzed and processed by the Barranquilla Population Cancer Registry during the study period. Population structure was obtained from the
Results: 8,182 cases of cancer were identified, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (62.8% in women). 83.0% of the tumors had histological verification and only 5.2% were DCO. The adjusted incidence rate for all tumors was 116.5 per 100,000 in men and 155.4 per 100,000 in women. The most frequent locations were prostate and trachea-bronchi-lung in men, while in women, breast and cervix occupied the first places. Breast and prostate had the highest mortality rates in women and men, respectively.
Conclusion: Specific behavior of cancer incidence and mortality in Barranquilla has important increases for the main types of tumors (breast and prostate) when compared to the country and other population registries. To provide data is key to showing a representative behavior of the Colombian Caribbean.

Warner WA, Lee TY, Badal K, et al.
Cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends in Trinidad and Tobago.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):712 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the Caribbean, including the islands of Trinidad and Tobago (TT). The population of TT consists of over 1.3 million people with diverse ancestral and sociocultural backgrounds, both of which may influence cancer incidence and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine incidence and mortality patterns and trends in TT.
METHODS: Cancer surveillance data on 29,512 incident cancer cases reported to the Dr. Elizabeth Quamina Cancer Registry (population-based cancer registry of TT) between 1995 and 2009 were analyzed. Age-standardized rates, overall and by sex, ancestry, and geography, were reported.
RESULTS: The highest incidence and mortality rates were observed for cancers related to reproductive organs in women, namely, breast, cervical, and uterine cancers, and prostate, lung and colorectal cancers among men. Average incidence rates were highest in areas covered by the Tobago Regional Health Authority (TRHA) (188 per 100,000), while average mortality rates were highest in areas covered by the North West Regional Health Authority (108 per 100,000). Nationals of African ancestry exhibited the highest rates of cancer incidence (243 per 100,000) and mortality (156 per 100,000) compared to their counterparts who were of East Indian (incidence, 125 per 100,000; mortality, 66 per 100,000) or mixed ancestry (incidence, 119 per 100,000; mortality, 66 per 100,000).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need for national investment to improve the understanding of the epidemiology of cancer in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ultimately guide much needed cancer prevention and control initiatives in the near future.

Rosenblatt E, Fidarova E, Zubizarreta EH, et al.
Radiotherapy utilization in developing countries: An IAEA study.
Radiother Oncol. 2018; 128(3):400-405 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The planning of national radiotherapy (RT) services requires a thorough knowledge of the country's cancer epidemiology profile, the radiotherapy utilization (RTU) rates and a future projection of these data. Previous studies have established RTU rates in high-income countries.
METHODS: Optimal RTU (oRTU) rates were determined for nine middle-income countries, following the epidemiological evidence-based method. The actual RTU (aRTU) rates were calculated dividing the total number of new notifiable cancer patients treated with radiotherapy in 2012 by the total number of cancer patients diagnosed in the same year in each country. An analysis of the characteristics of patients and treatments in a series of 300 consecutive radiotherapy patients shed light on the particular patient and treatments profile in the participating countries.
RESULTS: The median oRTU rate for the group of nine countries was 52% (47-56%). The median aRTU rate for the nine countries was 28% (9-46%). These results show that the real proportion of cancer patients receiving RT is lower than the optimal RTU with a rate difference between 10-42.7%. The median percent-unmet need was 47% (18-82.3%).
CONCLUSIONS: The optimal RTU rate in middle-income countries did not differ significantly from that previously found in high-income countries. The actual RTU rates were consistently lower than the optimal, in particular in countries with limited resources and a large population.

Brureau L, Emeville E, Multigner L, Blanchet P
Predictors of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in an Afro-Caribbean population in Guadeloupe (French West Indies).
Prog Urol. 2018; 28(8-9):442-449 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Few studies have investigated predictive risk factors of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) in other than Caucasian and Asian populations. We aimed to identify pre- and post-operative predictors of BCR after RP in an Afro-Caribbean population in Guadeloupe (French West Indies).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 964 patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer between April 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 in the University Hospital of Guadeloupe. The hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for single variable associations with BCR were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression. Multiple variable analyses for association with BCR were performed, including all variables that reached statistical significance (P value<0.05) in univariate analysis. A backward selection model was then applied with a P value ≥0.1 for retention in the final model. Sensitivity analysis was performed and restricted to patients with known values for all variables (complete case analysis).
RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the BCR rate was 26.7%. In multivariable analysis, predictors of BCR before surgery were diabetes mellitus type 2 (DT2) (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.02-1.85; P=0.038), pre-operative PSA>7.5ng/ml (1.49, 1.15-1.92; P=0.002), clinical stage T2 (1.55, 1.21-1.98; P=0.0006), Gleason score>7 or 4+3 (2.12, 1.54-2.91; P<0.0001), and percentage of length of biopsy positive scores (1.66, 1.24-2.20; P=0.0006). Predictors of BCR after surgery were DT2 (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.01-1.85; P=0.045), pre-operative PSA>7.5ng/ml (1.37, 1.06-1.79; P=0.018), pathological Gleason score>7 or 4+3 (2.36, 1.74-3.19; P<0.0001), pathological stage pT3b (1.68, 1.15-2.45; P=0.007), positive surgical margins (1.72, 1.32-2.45; P=0.0001), and perioperative blood loss>2000ml (3.74, 1.37-10.2; P=0.01). The results were virtually the same by sensitivity analysis (complete cases), except for DT2, which was associated with BCR with borderline statistical significance in the pre-operative model and not retained in the post-operative model.
CONCLUSIONS: Afro-Caribbean populations in French West Indies share the same major clinical and pathological risk factors of BCR after RP identified in other ethnic groups. Perioperative blood loss appears to be an additional and independent predictive factor of BCR.

Hubbeling HG, Rosenberg SM, González-Robledo MC, et al.
Psychosocial needs of young breast cancer survivors in Mexico City, Mexico.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(5):e0197931 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Young breast cancer survivors in Mexico face distinct psychosocial challenges that have not been characterized. This study aims to describe the psychosocial needs of young breast cancer survivors in Mexico at 5 or more years of survivorship, identifying areas of focus for early interventions.
METHODS: Breast cancer patients diagnosed at age 40 or prior with 5 or more years since diagnosis were invited to participate in one-on-one 30-60 minute semi-structured audio-recorded interviews at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Mexico City. Transcripts were coded using thematic analysis with NVivo software.
RESULTS: 25 women participated. Five major phenomena emerged from analysis: (1) minimization of fertility concerns; (2) persistence of body image disturbance over time; (3) barriers to employment during survivorship; (4) impact on family relationships and social networks; & (5) unmet psychological care and informational needs.
CONCLUSIONS: Early interventions with a focus on fertility loss education, access to reconstructive surgery and body image support, guidance during return-to-work, assistance with childcare, integration of psychological care and the fulfillment of informational needs could ameliorate long-term psychological and social distress for young breast cancer survivors in Mexico.

Smith-Guzmán NE, Toretsky JA, Tsai J, Cooke RG
A probable primary malignant bone tumor in a pre-Columbian human humerus from Cerro Brujo, Bocas del Toro, Panamá.
Int J Paleopathol. 2018; 21:138-146 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present a rare case of primary bone cancer principally affecting the right humerus of a skeleton from the pre-Columbian site of Cerro Brujo (1265-1380 CE) in Bocas del Toro, on the Caribbean coast of Panamá, excavated in the early 1970s. The humerus contains a dense, calcified sclerotic mass with associated lytic lesions localized around the midshaft of the diaphysis. Evidence of systemic inflammation and anemia, likely caused by the cancer, are visible in the form of severe porotic hyperostosis of the cranial vault and bilateral periosteal reactions in the tibiae. Differential diagnosis and future probes of the tumor are discussed. A tooth from the individual yielded a radiocarbon date 150 years later than those of the domestic occupation at the site. Given that it was the only formal burial recovered from the site, and as the individual had such a visible, painful, and rare pathology, this likely constitutes a ritual burial.

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