Mexico
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Mexico: cancer statistics from IARC GlobalCan (2012)

Population in 2012: 116.1m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 148,000
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 131.5
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:13.4%
People dying from cancer /yr: 78,700

Menu: Mexican Cancer Resources

Mexico: Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications from Mexico

Mexico: Cancer Organisations and Resources (6 links)


Latest Research Publications from Mexico

Penaranda E, Molokwu J, Hernandez I, et al.
Attitudes toward self-sampling for cervical cancer screening among primary care attendees living on the US-Mexico border.
South Med J. 2014; 107(7):426-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hispanic women living along the US border with Mexico have one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in the nation, owing in part to lower rates of screening. The barriers to screening in this population include lack of access to care and fear of and embarrassment about the pelvic examination. Screening for oncogenic or high-risk human papillomavirus during cervical cytology has been added to screening recommendations. A novel method for human papillomavirus testing is self-sampling, in which women collect their own cervicovaginal samples. There is lack of information about the acceptability of self-sampling as an alternative to cytology for cervical cancer screening in women living along the US-Mexico border.
METHODS: We conducted five focus groups with women between the ages of 30 and 65 who were primary care patients of clinics along the US-Mexico border. We used constructs from different health behavioral theories as a framework for the interview guide.
RESULTS: A total of 21 women participated in the focus groups, 80% of whom were Hispanic; mean age was 53.4 (standard deviation 7.9). More than one-third (38%) of the participants had not undergone a Papanicolaou test in the last 3 years. Women identified the perceived benefits of self-sampling as ease, convenience, practicability, less embarrassment, and need for child care as compared with a Papanicolaou test. The main barrier to self-sampling was concern about not performing the test correctly.
CONCLUSIONS: In this qualitative study, we found positive attitudes toward self-sampling among women living along the US border with Mexico. Further research is needed to evaluate interventions that address women's low levels of self-efficacy to perform the test and to evaluate the effectiveness of self-sampling in increasing cervical cancer screening rates.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection USA Cervical Cancer
From the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso.


Salinas-Martínez AM, Flores-Cortés LI, Cardona-Chavarría JM, et al.
Prediabetes, diabetes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study.
Arch Med Res. 2014; 45(5):432-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although underlying mechanisms have been described to account for the association between prediabetes and diabetes with breast cancer, reported results have been inconsistent. We undertook this study to determine whether prediabetes and diabetes are risk factors for breast cancer in Mexican women with no family history of breast cancer in the mother, daughters, or sisters.
METHODS: A case-control study was carried out during 2011-2013. "Case" referred to patients with a histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer (incident and primary cases) (n = 240); "controls" were those with a BI-RADS 1 or 2 mammography result (n = 406). Categorization of prediabetes and diabetes was based on self-reporting or fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin blood sampling results. Reproductive and sociodemographic data were collected by interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate unconditional binary logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Prediabetes increased the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.10-3.96) as did diabetes (adjusted OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.55-5.26). A history of diabetes preceding breast cancer by ≥7 years and <7 years were both associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.40-5.60 and 3.00, 95% CI 1.50-5.90, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in Mexico evaluating prediabetes and diabetes as breast cancer risk factors in women with no first-degree relatives with breast cancer. Our findings suggest that women with prediabetes and diabetes should be considered a more vulnerable population for early breast cancer detection.

Related: Breast Cancer
Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud No. 34, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro Médico Nacional del Norte, Monterrey, N.L., México; Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Salud Pública y Nutrición, Monterrey, N.L.,...


Ortiz-Mendoza CM, de-la-Fuente-Vera TA, Pérez-Chávez E
Metabolic syndrome in Mexican women survivors of breast cancer: a pilot study at a general hospital.
Med Arch. 2014; 68(1):19-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: According to developed countries' studies, in breast cancer survivors there is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome; however, in Mexico data is lacking about this issue.
GOAL: To explore if metabolic syndrome occurs in Mexican women survivors of breast cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: At a second-level general hospital, women with breast cancer with a surviving > 2 years were studied. The analysis involved their demographic and anthropometric features, blood pressure measurement, time of surviving, besides fasting blood levels of lipids and glucose.
RESULTS: The sample consisted of 100 women; 42% were obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2). The sample's mean age was 60 years with a mean surviving time of 6.5 years. Their mean glucose level was 122 mg/dL and triglycerides 202 mg/dL. There were 33% with blood pressure > or = 130/85mm Hg or diagnosis of hypertension. Fifty-seven percent had glucose > 99 mg/dL or diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 58% had triglycerides > 149 mg/dL. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 57% of obese women.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that metabolic syndrome occurs in more than 50% of obese Mexican women survivors of breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer


Dorantes-Acosta E, Medina-Sanson A, Jaimes-García Y, López-Martínez B
Clinical features and treatment outcomes of pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia in a Mexican pediatric hospital.
Rev Invest Clin. 2013 Sep-Oct; 65(5):392-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the retinoid acid receptor α (RARA) gene on chromosome 17. APL is a relatively rare blood disease that is highly curable with current treatment strategies; however, patient outcomes are heterogeneous in countries with limited resources. Promyelocytic leukemia accounts for 20-25% of all AML cases in Latin American countries.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a study from July 2007 to July 2012 and applied the IC-APL2006 protocol. This case study reports the results from eleven patients with AML M3 (five males and six females). In all cases, the diagnoses were made by aspirating bone marrow and evaluating the t(15:17) or t(11:17) transcript. In eight cases, the molecular biology-based diagnostics for the PLM-RARa transcript were positive, and they were negative in two cases. One patient was positive for the PLZF-RARa transcript.
RESULTS: The mean WBC at the time of diagnosis was 10.1 x 10(9)/L, and the mean platelet count was 17.1 x 10(9)/L. The mean percentage of abnormal promyelocytes in the bone marrow aspirates was 68%. Of the eleven patients, four presented with disseminated intravascular coagulation. All of the patients began treatment with transretinoic acid (ATRA) (45 mg/m(2)/day), which led to 4 cases of ATRA syndrome. There were 2 relapses, and the patient died in one case. The remaining ten patients were alive after the median follow-up period of 33.6 months (range from 11 to 60 months).
CONCLUSION: The authors report on a series of cases involving pediatric patients with AML M3 seen at a single institution; the patients were stratified and treated with a standard protocol to obtain satisfactory results. Although the number of patients is limited, the health outcomes are relevant. To our knowledge, this is the first series of pediatric APL patients in Mexico who were treated with the IC-APL2006 protocol.

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Departamento de Hemato-Oncología, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez.


Sánchez-Lezama AP, Cavazos-Arroyo J, Albavera-Hernández C
Applying the Fuzzy Delphi Method for determining socio-ecological factors that influence adherence to mammography screening in rural areas of Mexico.
Cad Saude Publica. 2014; 30(2):245-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
In Mexico, regular participation in mammography screening is low, despite higher survival rates. The objective of our research is to highlight healthcare procedures to be optimized and target areas to encourage investment and to raise awareness about the benefits of early diagnosis. Those socio-ecological factors (community, interpersonal and individual) were collected through a review of literature and based on the spatial interaction model of mammography use developed by Mobley et al. The opinion of diverse groups of experts on the importance of those factors was collected by survey. The Fuzzy Delphi Method helped to solve the inherent uncertainty of the survey process. Our findings suggest that population health behaviors, proximity-density to facilities/ physicians and predisposing factors are needed to increase the screening rate. Variations in expert group size could affect the accuracy of the conclusions. However, the application of the enhanced aggregation method provided a group consensus that is less susceptible to misinterpretation and that weighs the opinion of each expert according to their clinical experience in mammography research.

Related: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Screening Cancer Screening and Early Detection
Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla, México, Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla, México.


Lazcano-Ponce E, Lőrincz AT, Torres L, et al.
Specimen self-collection and HPV DNA screening in a pilot study of 100,242 women.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(1):109-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since cervical cancer remains common in Mexico despite an established cytology screening program, the Ministry of Health recently introduced pilot front-line HPV testing into the Mexican cervical cancer screening program (CCSP). Here, we present the key field performance metrics of this population-based study. High-risk HPV DNA (hrHPV) testing was conducted on self-collected vaginal specimens from 100,242 women aged 25-75 years residing in Morelos State. All hrHPV positive women and a random sample of 3.2% (n = 2,864) of hrHPV negative participants were referred for colposcopic examination. The main disease endpoint of interest was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+). We calculated relative risk, positive predictive value and negative predictive value adjusted for screening test verification bias. The overall prevalence of hrHPV was 10.8% (95% CI 10.6-11.0). Women positive for hrHPV had a relative risk of 15.7 for histologically detectable CIN2+. The adjusted positive predictive value of the hrHPV test was 2.4% (95% CI 2.1-2.7); whereas the adjusted negative predictive value was 99.8% (95% CI 99.8-99.9). These findings suggest that large-scale vaginal hrHPV testing in a middle-income country can identify women at greater risk of advanced cervical abnormalities in a programmatically meaningful way but care is warranted to ensure that disease not detectable at colposcopy is kept to a minimum. PASS shows areas that need improvement and sets the stage for wider use of hrHPV screening of self-collected vaginal specimens in Mexico.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection Cervical Cancer
Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública de México. Cuernavaca Morelos, México.
Research funded by:


Peñarrieta-de Córdova I, Barrios FF, Gutierrez-Gomes T, et al.
Self-management in chronic conditions: partners in health scale instrument validation.
Nurs Manag (Harrow). 2014; 20(10):32-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: This article describes a study that aimed to validate the Self-care in Chronic Conditions Partners in Health Scale instrument in the Mexican population. The instrument has been validated in Australia for use as a screening tool by primary healthcare professionals to assess the self-care skills and abilities of people with a chronic illness.
METHODS: Validation was conducted using baseline data for 552 people with diabetes, hypertension and cancer aged 18 or older who were users of healthcare centres in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
RESULTS: Results show high reliability and validity of the instrument and three themes were identified: knowledge, adherence, and dealing with and managing side effects.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest the scale is useful as a generic self-rated clinical tool for assessing self-management in a range of chronic conditions, and provides an outcome measure for comparing populations and change in patient self-management knowledge and behaviour. The authors recommend validating the scale in other Latin-American settings with more research into the effect of gender on self- management.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Facultad de Enfermería, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Mexico.


Comrnejo-Juárez P, Espinosa-Altamirano A, Ibarra-del-Río M, et al.
Cystic echinococcosis: a disease mimicking cancer in a non-endemic country report of two cases.
West Indian Med J. 2013; 62(3):266-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease that involves dogs as definitive host and sheep as intermediate host. Humans become infected incidentally through fecal-oral contact, particularly in the course of playful and close contact with an infected dog. Mexico is considered a region that is virtually free of cystic echinoccocosis. This manuscript describes two cases that were referred to a tertiary-care oncology hospital with a diagnosis of cancer. In one case, the presumptive diagnosis was liver cancer because abdominal ultrasonography revealed a low-density mass in the right hepatic lobe. Drainage was performed and cytologic examination of the fluid showed multiple Echinococcus cyst as well as prostoscolex. The case was resolved with percutaneous drainage and administration of albendazole for two months. In the second case, the patient was referred with a diagnosis of disseminated cervical cancer A cyst was identified in the upper right lung lobe; a diagnostic puncture was performed showing an Echinococcus cyst. This resolved solely with two months of albendazole administration.

Related: Liver Cancer Cervical Cancer
Department of Infectious Diseases, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Secretaria de Salud (Ssa), Mexico City, Mexico.


Jaime-Pérez JC, Brito-Ramirez AS, Pinzon-Uresti MA, et al.
Characteristics and clinical evolution of patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia in northeast Mexico: an eight-year experience at a university hospital.
Acta Haematol. 2014; 132(2):144-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults. We documented the characteristics and results of treatment of patients with AML at a single reference center.
METHODS: Patients diagnosed with AML between June 2003 and July 2011 at a university hospital in northeast Mexico were studied. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were determined, and risk factors were analyzed with respect to their influence on prognosis.
RESULTS: A total of 132 AML patients were included. Median age was 32 years. Complete remission (CR) was achieved by 55% of patients. CR was achieved by 65.1% of patients <60 years (n = 109), compared to 8.7% of those >60 years (n = 23; p < 0.001). In all, 39% of patients >60 years suffered an early death, compared to 14.7% of those <60 years (p < 0.001). OS for patients with AML was 35%, whereas EFS was 32%. On multivariate analysis, patients >60 years had a lower OS and EFS (p < 0.001). A total of 28% of patients received a transplant, and they had high er OS and EFS. Conclusions: Our patients were considerably younger and had remarkably lower survival rates than reported for other populations; those >60 years had a higher early death rate, and fewer of these patients achieved CR.

Related: Cytarabine Doxorubicin Etoposide Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukaemia AML - Molecular Biology Methotrexate Mitoxantrone


Rodríguez-Acosta ED, Esquivel-Pedraza L, Saeb-Lima M, et al.
Borderline tuberculoid leprosy mimicking mycosis fungoides.
Skinmed. 2013 Nov-Dec; 11(6):379-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 65-year-old unemployed man, originally from Michoacán and currently living in Toluca, state of Mexico, presented for medical consultation for disseminated dermatosis in all body segments. The condition was limited to the head and neck, was bilateral and symmetrical, and was characterized by infiltrated and confluent erythematous-edematous plates of diverse diameter covering 90% of the upper and lower extremities (Figure 1). The ailment had 2 years' evolution and a progressive course. The patient was diagnosed in private practice as having atopic dermatitis. After exacerbation of symptoms, he was treated with deflazacort and hydroxychloroquine with no improvement. Results from lesion biopsies revealed sarcoidal granulomas and the patient was therefore referred to the dermatology department at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán for further study and treatment with the presumptive diagnosis of mycosis fungoides vs sarcoidosis.
Department of Dermatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán.


Amadou A, Torres Mejia G, Fagherazzi G, et al.
Anthropometry, silhouette trajectory, and risk of breast cancer in Mexican women.
Am J Prev Med. 2014; 46(3 Suppl 1):S52-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with breast cancer risk in the Caucasian population but the association remains unclear in the Hispanics. Previous studies conducted among Hispanics in the U.S. have shown inconsistent results.
PURPOSE: The association between anthropometry, body shape evolution across lifetime, and the risk of breast cancer was assessed using a multi-center population-based case-control study conducted in Mexico.
METHODS: One thousand incident cases and 1074 matched control women aged 35-69 years were recruited between 2004 and 2007, and analyzed in 2011-2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used.
RESULTS: Height was related to an increased risk of breast cancer in both premenopausal (p trend=0.03) and postmenopausal women (p trend=0.002). In premenopausal women, increase in BMI; waist circumference (WC); hip circumference (HC); and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk (p trends<0.001 for BMI and WC, 0.003 for HC, and 0.016 for WHR). In postmenopausal women, decreased risks were observed for increased WC (p trend=0.004) and HC (p trend=0.009) among women with time since menopause <10 years. Further analysis of body shape evolution throughout life showed strong and significant increase in risk of breast cancer among women with increasing silhouettes size over time compared to women with no or limited increase.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that anthropometric factors may have different associations with breast cancer risk in Hispanic women than in Caucasian women. This study also shows the importance of considering the evolution of body shape throughout life.

Related: Breast Cancer
Nutrition and Metabolism Section/Epidemiology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer.


Nodora JN, Gallo L, Cooper R, et al.
Reproductive and hormonal risk profile according to language acculturation and country of residence in the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014; 23(6):532-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We compared the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent.
METHODS: To compare the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent, taking into account level of education, we analyzed data on 581 Mexican and 620 Mexican American (MA) women with a history of invasive breast cancer from the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study. An eight-item language-based acculturation measure was used to classify MA women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test associations between language acculturation, country of residence, and reproductive and hormonal risk factors.
RESULTS: After adjustment for age and education, compared to women residing in Mexico, English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have an earlier age at menarche (<12 years; odds ratio [OR]=2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-3.34), less likely to have a late age at first birth (≥30 years; OR=0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.97), and less likely to ever breastfeed (OR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.21).
CONCLUSIONS: Differences in reproductive and hormonal risk profile according to language acculturation and country of residence are evident; some of these were explained by education. Results support continued efforts to educate Mexican and MA women on screening and early detection of breast cancer along with promotion of modifiable factors, such as breastfeeding.

Related: Breast Cancer
1 Moores University of California San Diego Cancer Center, University of California , San Diego, La Jolla, California.
Research funded by:


Choquet H, Nelson J, Pawlikowska L, et al.
Association of cardiovascular risk factors with disease severity in cerebral cavernous malformation type 1 subjects with the common Hispanic mutation.
Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014; 37(1):57-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are enlarged vascular lesions affecting 0.1-0.5% of the population worldwide and causing hemorrhagic strokes, seizures, and neurological deficits. Familial CCM type 1 (CCM1) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the Krev Interaction Trapped 1 (KRIT1/CCM1) gene, and is characterized by multiple brain lesions whose number and size increase with age. The number of lesions varies widely for unknown reasons, even among carriers of similar ages with the same mutation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cardiovascular (CV) risk factors influence potential markers of familial CCM1 disease severity, such as lesion count and history of intracerebral hemorrhage.
METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from 185 Hispanic subjects, enrolled in the Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium study between June 2010 and March 2013. All subjects were carriers of the founder Q455X 'Common Hispanic Mutation' (CHM) in the KRIT1 gene, and had a clinical diagnosis of CCM or had an affected first- or second-degree relative with CCM. We performed a cross-sectional study, collecting detailed clinical information of CCM1-CHM subjects and cerebral susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to assess lesion count. Linear or logistic regression analysis of log-lesion count or history of intracerebral hemorrhage and CV risk factors (age, gender, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking status) and related quantitative traits (body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, blood pressure, lipids levels and pack-years of cigarette smoking) was performed accommodating familial clustering.
RESULTS: CCM1-CHM subjects were mainly female (63.8%) and symptomatic at presentation (63.2%). Lesion count was highly variable (mean ± SD: 57.7 ± 110.6; range: 0-713); 90% of CCM1-CHM subjects had multiple lesions at enrollment. Age (p < 0.001) was positively correlated with lesion count and male gender (p = 0.035) was associated with a greater number of lesions. Obesity (p = 0.001) and higher body mass index (p = 0.002) were associated with fewer lesions. No association with hypertension was detected, however, systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002) was associated with fewer lesions. No significant association with lesion count was observed for diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking status or for related quantitative traits. History of intracerebral hemorrhage was not significantly associated with any CV risk factors, however, we found borderline associations of hemorrhage with obesity (p = 0.062), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.083) and pack-years of cigarette smoking (p = 0.055). After correction for multiple testing, age and obesity remained significantly associated with lesion count in CCM1-CHM subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that several CV risk factors explain some of the variability in lesion count in Hispanic CCM1-CHM subjects. Although age, gender, obesity, body mass index and systolic blood pressure may influence familial CCM1 disease severity, further longitudinal studies in larger sample sizes are essential to confirm these findings.
Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, Calif., USA.
Research funded by:
  • NINDS NIH HHS


Fernández-Torres J, Flores-Jiménez D, Arroyo-Pérez A, et al.
HLA-B*40 allele plays a role in the development of acute leukemia in Mexican population: a case-control study.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:705862 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Among oncohematological diseases, acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are characterized by the uncontrolled production and accumulation of blasts that can lead to death. Although the physiopathology of these diseases is multifactorial, a genetic factor seems to be at play. Several studies worldwide have shown association of ALL and AML with several alleles of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).
OBJECTIVE: To determine gene frequencies of HLA-B alleles in Mexicans (individuals with Native American genetic background admixed with European descent) with ALL and AML.
METHODS: We compared the HLA-B alleles in 213 patients with ALL and 85 patients with AML to those present in 731 umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples as a control group; this was done by means of the PCR-SSP technique.
RESULTS: We found an increased frequency of the HLA-B*40 allele in ALL patients as compared to the control group (14.5% versus 9.84%, P = 0.003, OR = 1.67); this was particularly evident in a subgroup of young (less than 18 years old) ALL patients (P = 0.002, OR = 1.76); likewise, a decreased frequency of HLA-B*40 allele in AML patients was observed as compared to the control group (4.70% versus 9.84%, P = 0.02, OR = 0.42).
CONCLUSIONS: These results might suggest opposing effects of the HLA-B*40 in the genetic susceptibility to develop ALL or AML and offer the possibility to study further the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation within the bone marrow lineage.

Related: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukaemia AML - Molecular Biology Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) Childhood Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) ALL - Molecular Biology
Laboratorio de Sinovio Análisis Molecular, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Secretaría de Salud (SSA), Calzada México-Xochimilco Número 289, Tlalpan, 14389 México, DF, Mexico ; Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autó...


Pérez-Morales R, Méndez-Ramírez I, Moreno-Macias H, et al.
Genetic susceptibility to lung cancer based on candidate genes in a sample from the Mexican Mestizo population: a case-control study.
Lung. 2014; 192(1):167-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of mortality caused by neoplasias worldwide. Although cigarette smoking is the primary cause, not all smokers develop LC. Polymorphic variations in genes associated with carcinogen metabolism, DNA repair, and cell-cycle dysregulation may alter an individual risk of developing LC. A polygenic cancer model was proposed, which considers genetic susceptibility to cancer is a global mechanism and suggests that it might be defined by the contributions of low-risk alleles in several candidate genes. This study focused on the analysis of 15 polymorphisms in 12 low-penetrance genes in a case-control study of a sample of Mexican Mestizo population.
METHODS: A case-control study was performed with a total of 572 unrelated individuals, including 190 cases with a primary LC diagnosis and 382 healthy controls. The polymorphic status of the individuals was determined by TaqMan probe and RFLP techniques. The association between LC and genotype score (GS) was assessed by logistic regression.
RESULTS: The results suggests a protective effect of the genotypes Arg/Lys of AhR rs2066853 (odds ratio [OR] 0.55, p = 0.03), Ile/Val of CYP1A1 rs1048943 (OR 0.49, p = 0.009), Tyr/His of EPHX1 rs1051740 (OR 0.53, p = 0.03), and A/A of CCND1 rs603965 (OR 0.44, p = 0.02). Analyses using the GS suggest that average cases have a larger number of risk alleles than controls (Student's t test -4.85, p = 0.001; OR 1.25, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest significant differences between the GS for the cases and controls, which support the hypothesis underlying the additive and polygenic models for lung cancer risk depending on the polymorphisms in low-penetrance genes.

Related: Lung Cancer Polymorphisms
Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxicología Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70228, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F., Mexico.


Gómez Flores-Ramos L, Escoto-De Dios A, Puebla-Pérez AM, et al.
Association of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308G>A polymorphism with breast cancer in Mexican women.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(4):5680-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function. Polymorphisms of TNF-α have been associated with cancer. We examined the role of the -308G>A polymorphism in this gene by comparing the genotypes of 294 healthy Mexican women with those of 465 Mexican women with breast cancer. The observed genotype frequencies for controls and breast cancer patients were 1 and 14% for AA, 13 and 21% for GA, and 86 and 65% for GG, respectively. We found that the odds ratio (OR) for AA genotype was 2.4, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of 5.9-101.1 (P = 0.0001). The association was also evident when comparing the distribution of the AA-GA genotype in patients in the following categories: 1) premenopause and obesity I (OR = 3.5, 95%CI = 1.3-9.3, P = 0.008), 2) Her-2 neu and tumor stage I-II (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.31-4.8, P = 0.004), 3) premenopause and tumor stage III-IV (OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.0-2.9, P = 0.034), 4) chemotherapy non-response and abnormal hematocrit (OR = 2.4, 95%CI = 1.2-4.8, P = 0.015), 5) body mass index and Her-2 neu and III-IV tumor stage (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 1.2- 6.6, P = 0.016), and 6) nodule metastasis and K-I67 (OR = 4.0, 95%CI = 1.01-15.7, P = 0.038). We concluded that the genotypes AA-GA of the -308G>A polymorphism in TNF-α significantly contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in the analyzed sample from the Mexican population.

Related: Breast Cancer TNF
Laboratorio de Genética Molecular, División de Medicina Molecular, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.


Van Kriekinge G, Castellsagué X, Cibula D, Demarteau N
Estimation of the potential overall impact of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer cases and deaths.
Vaccine. 2014; 32(6):733-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers potential for primary prevention of HPV-related pre-cancers and cancers as demonstrated in clinical trials. Mathematical models have estimated the potential real-life impact of vaccination on the burden of cervical cancer (CC). However, these are restricted to evaluations in a limited number of countries.
METHODS: Potential decline in CC cases and deaths with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine of young girls naïve to HPV, was estimated at steady-state (vaccine coverage: 0-100%) based on clinical trial and country-specific incidence data. Data on vaccine efficacy were taken from the end of study PATRICIA trial of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine. The numbers of cases and deaths due to HPV-16/18 were estimated and compared with those due to any HPV type to estimate the additional cases prevented. This difference estimates CC cases and deaths avoided due to protection against non-vaccine HPV types. Cost-offsets due to reductions in CC treatment were estimated for five countries (Brazil, Canada, Italy, Malaysia and South African Republic) using country-specific unit cost data. Additionally, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 (CIN2/3)-related burden (cases and treatment costs) prevented by vaccination were estimated for two countries (Italy and Malaysia).
RESULTS: HPV vaccination could prevent a substantial number of CC cases and deaths in countries worldwide, with associated cost-offsets due to reduced CC treatment. Cross-protection increased the estimated potential number of CC cases and deaths prevented by 34 and 18% in Africa and Oceania, respectively. Moreover, vaccination could result in a substantial reduction in the number of CIN2/3 lesions and associated costs.
CONCLUSION: HPV vaccination could reduce the burden of CC and precancerous lesions in countries worldwide, part of disease burden reduction being related to protection against non HPV-16/18 related types.

Related: Canada Thailand Cervical Cancer Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Vaccination, and Cervical Cancer
Health Economics, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Avenue Fleming, 20, Wavre, 1300, Belgium. Electronic address:


Perez-Santos JL, Anaya-Ruiz M
Mexican breast cancer research output, 2003-2012.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(10):5921-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objetive of this study was to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess current research trends with regard to breast cancer in Mexico. Articles were analyzed by scientific output and research performances of individuals, institutes, and collaborative countries with Mexico. Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database from 2003 to 2012; this was searched using different terms related to breast cancer, including "breast cancer", "mammary ductal carcinoma" and "breast tumour". Data were then extracted from each file, transferred to Excel charts and visualised as diagrams. A total of 256 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were the National Autonomous University of Mexico (22.3%), the National Institute of Cancerology (21.9%), and Social Security Mexican Institute (20.3%); clinical observation studies were the dominant investigation type (64%), and the main types of research were metabolics (24.2%) and pathology (21.5%). This article demonstrates the usefulness of bibliometrics to address key evaluation questions and to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop breast cancer control strategies in Mexico.

Related: Breast Cancer
Vice-rectory of Research and Postgraduate Studies, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico E-mail :


Ramírez-Patiño R, Figuera LE, Puebla-Pérez AM, et al.
Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with breast cancer in Mexican women.
J Korean Med Sci. 2013; 28(11):1587-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene plays an important role in several biological functions. Polymorphisms of the eNOS gene have been associated with cancer. It has been suggested that the VNTR 4 a/b polymorphism may affect the expression of eNOS and contributes to tumor promotion in the mammary gland. We examined the role of the eNOS4 a/b polymorphism by comparing the genotypes of 281 healthy Mexican women with the genotypes of 429 Mexican women with breast cancer (BC). The observed genotype frequencies for control and BC patients were 0.6% and 0.7% for a/a (polymorphic); 87% and 77% for a/a (wild type); and 12% and 22% for a/b respectively. We found that the odds ratio (OR) was 1.9, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of 1.29-2.95, P = 0.001 for genotypes a/a-a/b, b/c. The association was also evident when comparing the distribution of the a/a-a/b genotypes in patients with high levels of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14-3.28; P = 0.015); undergoing menopause with high levels of SGOT (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.84); and with high levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.56-8.22). The genotypes a/a-a/b are associated with BC susceptibility in the analyzed samples from the Mexican population.

Related: Breast Cancer
Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Molecular Medicine Division, Western Biomedical Research Center (CIBO), Western National Medical Center (CMNO), Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS), Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. ; PhD Program in Human Genetics, Health Sciences University Center (CUCS), Universit...


Alías-Melgar A, Neave-Sánchez E, Suárez-Cuenca JA, Morales-Covarrubias J
Association of urine oncofetal fibronectin levels with urology's most common disorders.
Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2013; 43(4):420-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Urine oncofetal fibronectin (OnfFN) has proven useful in the assessment of malignant diseases such as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. This study aimed to explore whether OnfFN may identify benign and common urinary diseases.
METHODS: The urine OnfFN concentrations from patients who had bladder TCC (8 patients), benign urinary diseases (10 benign prostatic enlargement [BPE] patients, 10 urolithiasis patients), or controls (10 healthy individuals) were determined by ELISA and compared.
RESULTS: The urine OnfFN concentration was significantly higher in patients with bladder TCC and lithiasis (mean ± SE 0.43 ± 0.18 and 0.45 ± 0.23 ug/mL) than in patients with BPE and in healthy individuals (0.15 ± 0.06 and 0.10 ± 0.02 ug/mL, p<0.05). The urine OnfFN level (cutoff value 0.038 μg/mL), was able to identify 75% of patients with bladder TCC, 60% of patients with BPE and 80% of patients with urolithiasis, achieving a sensitivity of 0.75 for the recognition of either cancer or a urinary disorder. The OnfFN level had a high sensitivity (0.9) for the identification of urolithiasis.
CONCLUSION: The urine OnfFN level proved helpful in the identification of bladder TCC patients. However, it had a better performance for the identification of urolithiasis, highlighting the potential usefulness of OnfFN as a biomarker for urothelial inflammation and repair.

Related: Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology
MD; Departamento de Urología, Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre", I.S.S.S.T.E. Avenida Félix Cuevas, número 540, Colonia Del Valle, Delegación Benito Juárez, México, D.F., México. Código Postal 03229; phone: 00(+5255)55583132; fax: 00(+5255)5135134...


Martinez-Fierro ML, Garza-Veloz I, Rojas-Martinez A, et al.
Positive association between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -2578 C/A variant and prostate cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2013; 13(4):235-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene is an important angiogenesis regulator related to cancer development and progression. We evaluated the association between -2578 C/A (rs699947) VEGF polymorphism and PCa in Mexican subjects, to contribute to knowledge of VEGF role in genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer (PCa).
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between -2578 C/A VEGF variant and PCa in Mexican population.
METHODS: A total of 249 men (77 PCa cases and 172 controls) from the Northwestern region of Mexico were screened for the -2578 C/A VEGF variant. The polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction analysis.
RESULTS: Genotype frequencies for C/C, C/A, and A/A, were 0.48, 0.49, 0.03 for cases and 0.41, 0.45, 0.14 for controls respectively. Genotype A/A of -2578 VEGF variant reduces the risk of PCa in an 84% among studied population (Odds Ratio 0.16; 95% CI: 0.04-0.71, P=0.007). C/C carriers showed an increased PCa risk of 6.1 times among the study population.
CONCLUSIONS: Inheritance of -2578 A/A genotype of VEGF gene may modify PCa susceptibility risk in Mexican population.

Related: Prostate Cancer VEGFA
Laboratorio de Medicina Molecular, Unidad Académica de Medicina Humana y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, México.


Howell CM, Davis MS, Callanan DL
Stepping outside the box: an adolescent with a new-onset seizure.
Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013; 29(9):1011-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
First-time seizures are frightening to children and their families, but the practice parameter recommends minimal evaluation in the emergency department (ED) for the child who presents in a neurologically normal state. We report a 12-year-old girl with seizure whose evaluation in the ED included a computed tomographic scan, largely because of parental anxiety. Computed tomography demonstrated a cerebral cavernous hemangioma or cavernoma. Because of the high recurrence risk of seizures with cavernomas, she was discharged from the ED with a prescription for an antiepileptic drug.
From the *Joint Army and Air Force Emergency Medicine Physician Assistant Doctoral Program, San Antonio Military Medical Center; and †Children's Hospital of San Antonio, San Antonio, TX.


Elliott PF, Belinson SE, Ottolenghi E, et al.
Community health workers, social support and cervical cancer screening among high-risk groups in rural Mexico.
J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2013; 24(4):1448-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Rural Mexico has a low screening prevalence and high burden of cervical cancer. One strategy to increase screening coverage utilizes community health workers (CHWs) to recruit high-risk women and address barriers.
METHODS: We conducted a systematic cross-sectional survey of 196 women residing in Chiapas, Mexico who were recruited by either CHWs or traditional means for screening. This analysis compares 110 rural women's risk factors, attitudes and knowledge of cervical cancer and socioeconomic factors stratified by type of recruitment.
RESULTS: Women who were informed of screening by CHWs were more likely to be of high risk sub-groups and report higher scores of social support but were also more likely to endorse difficulty with access and fatalistic attitudes about cancer.
DISCUSSION: Utilizing CWHs results in increased screening among high-risk women and increased social support for screening among rural women, addressing a significant barrier, but may have limited effects on other barriers.

Related: Cervical Cancer Cervical Cancer Screening


Marván ML, Ehrenzweig Y, Catillo-López RL
Knowledge about cervical cancer prevention and psychosocial barriers to screening among Mexican women.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2013; 34(4):163-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objectives of this study were to evaluate: Mexican women's knowledge about cervical cancer prevention; psychosocial barriers to screening; and the relation of both to cervical cancer screening behavior. Three hundred and eighty-four rural and urban women who had achieved a basic or higher educational level were surveyed. Almost 80% of the women had a Pap test but rural women were less likely to have done so. Although most women had received their most recent Pap within the last three years, only 29% had had their first Pap in accordance with the official Mexican norm. Participants showed inadequate knowledge about the risk factors for cervical cancer, especially women with only a basic educational level, irrespective of residence in an urban or rural area. Factors associated with non-screening were poor knowledge about Pap testing and about the risk factors for cervical cancer, as well as the following barriers: believing that Pap testing is too embarrassing; believing that men do not want them to have a Pap test; and believing that the test is painful. In light of these socio-cultural influences, our findings could be helpful in designing effective programs to increase Pap screening.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection Cervical Cancer Cervical Cancer Screening
Institute of Psychological Research, Universidad Veracruzana , Xalapa , México.


Deffis-Court M, Alvarado-Ibarra M, Ruiz-Argüelles GJ, et al.
Diagnosing and treating mixed phenotype acute leukemia: a multicenter 10-year experience in México.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(4):595-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) in adults represents nearly 2 to 5 % of all acute leukemia cases. There are two large studies throughout the world and only case reports and small series have been reported in Latin America. This study retrospectively analyses the clinical characteristics and survival of 27 patients with MPAL evaluated in three medical institutions of Mexico. All cases meet World Health Organization 2008 criteria; 70.3 % of patients had B lymphoid/myeloid lineage MPAL. Induction chemotherapy protocols included 7 + 3 hyper-CVAD, high-density schedules, and pediatric-like regimens such as New York II and total XI. Complete remission was achieved in 23/27 patients (85.2 %). Only one patient died due to chemotherapy-induced aplasia during remission induction (5.2 %). In 68 % of cases, we were able to administer maintenance therapy as a regimen in lymphoblastic leukemia. At the time of analysis, 70.4 % of the patients in the entire cohort had died mainly as result of disease progression (73.6 %). Disease-free survival was 13 months (95 % CI, 9.6-16.3 months) and overall survival was 14.8 months (95 % CI 13.4-16.27). Survival rates are low and standardized therapy for the management of this type of leukemia is still lacking. This is the largest series reported in Mexico and to the best of our knowledge in Latin America.
Clínica de Leucemia del Departamento de Hematología-Oncología, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga 15 Sección XVI, Del Tlalpan, CP 14000, Mexico City, Federal District, Mexico.


Alvarado-Cabrero I, Hernández-Toriz N, Paner GP
Clinicopathologic analysis of choriocarcinoma as a pure or predominant component of germ cell tumor of the testis.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(1):111-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although well recognized in the literature, the contemporary clinicopathologic data regarding choriocarcinoma (CC) as a pure or the predominant component of a testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) are limited. Herein, we present a series of pure CC and predominant CC in mixed GCT of the testis obtained from a single oncology institution. A comprehensive histologic review of 1010 orchiectomies from 1999 to 2011 yielded 6 (0.6%) pure CC and 9 (0.9%) mixed GCT cases with a predominant CC component. Patients' ages ranged from 20 to 39 years (median 29 y). All patients had markedly elevated serum β-hCG levels (median 199,000 IU/mL) at presentation. All tumors were unilateral and involved the right (9/15) and left (6/15) testis. The mean tumor size was 6.5 cm (range, 1.5 to 8 cm). Histology was similar for pure CCs and the CC component of mixed GCTs. CC commonly showed expansile hemorrhagic nodular cysts surrounded by variable layers of neoplastic trophoblastic cells (mononucleated trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts). The syncytiotrophoblasts usually covered columns of mononucleated trophoblasts and occasionally formed plexiform aggregates and pseudovillous protrusions. Immunohistochemical stains suggested a mixture of cytotrophoblasts (p63+, HPL_) and intermediate trophoblasts (p63-, HPL weak +/-) in the columns of mononucleated cells. In the 9 mixed GCTs, CC comprised 50% to 95% (7/9 were ≥80% CC) of the tumor; 7 were combined with 1, and 2 were combined with 2 other GCT components. The non-CC components included teratoma (5/9), seminoma (2/9), yolk sac tumor (2/9), and embryonal carcinoma (2/9). Lymphovascular invasion, spermatic cord invasion, and tunica vaginalis invasion were present in 15/15, 5/15, and 1/12 cases, respectively. In mixed GCTs, these locally aggressive features were attributed to the CC component, except in 1 tumor in which it was also exhibited by the embryonal carcinoma component. Lymphovascular invasion was multifocal to widespread in 73% of tumors. The stages of the 15 tumors were: pT2 (10), pT3 (5); NX (1), N1 (4), N2 (5), N3 (5); and M1a (2) and M1b (13). Distant organ metastasis mostly involved the lungs (11) and liver (10). Follow-up information was available in 14 patients, all of whom received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. All 6 pure CC patients were dead of disease (range, 6 to 14 mo, median 9.5 mo). Follow-up of 8 patients with predominant CC (range, 10 to 72 mo, median 27 mo) showed that 5 died of the disease, and 1 was alive with disease and 2 were alive with no evidence of disease at 60 and 72 months of follow-up, respectively; these latter 2 patients were the only ones with M1a disease on presentation. This series confirms the proclivity for high-stage presentation including presence of distant metastasis, hematogenous spread, and poor outcome of testicular CC. Mixed GCT with a predominant CC component has similar tendency for high-stage presentation, marked elevation of serum β-hCG levels, and aggressive behavior compared with pure CC. This study also showed that distant metastasis by CC when only involving the lungs (M1a) may not be uniformly fatal with chemotherapy. The mononucleated trophoblastic columns in testicular CC appear to be a mixture of cytotrophoblasts and intermediate trophoblasts, similar to that described in gestational CC.

Related: Testicular Cancer
Departments of *Pathology †Urology, Mexican Oncology Hospital, IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico ‡Departments of Pathology and Surgery, Section of Urology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.


Arredondo-Garza T, Majluf-Cruz A, Vela-Ojeda J, et al.
Peri-infusional adverse reactions to rituximab in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Arch Med Res. 2013; 44(7):549-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rituximab is effective in the treatment of B-cell lymphoid malignances and some autoimmune diseases. Most patients receiving the first infusion of rituximab experience symptoms that decrease with subsequent infusions. It is assumed that the first dose of rituximab should be infused slowly during a 6-h period and during 4-h periods subsequently. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of adverse reactions to rituximab in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
METHODS: This was an intensive pharmacovigilance prospective, observational, open labeled, multicenter cohort study conducted in 12 hospitals. Adults requiring treatment with rituximab (375 mg/m(2) body surface area) alone or with chemotherapy were included. Adverse reactions were graded according to the National Cancer Institute scale, whereas causality was established using the Naranjo algorithm. Infusions were classified as fast (0-90 min) and slow (>91 min). Fast infusions were used to analyze the associated adverse reactions.
RESULTS: We included 550 adult patients. Total infusion episodes were 1,749 and 52 adverse reactions were reported in 22 patients (4%). Thirty-one of 52 adverse reactions occurred during the first infusion. The risk of adverse reactions was lower with the fast infusions (10/52 adverse reactions [19.23%]). All adverse effects were mild. Twenty-three adverse effects were possibly related to rituximab.
CONCLUSIONS: Rituximab can be infused at a fast rate without an increase in adverse reactions. Peri-infusional adverse reactions are similar to those described for other populations but the incidence rate is lower. Rituximab has a favorable safety profile in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Related: Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma Rituximab (Mabthera)
Departamento de Farmacología, CINVESTAV, IPN, Mexico City, Mexico.


Luciani S, Cabanes A, Prieto-Lara E, Gawryszewski V
Cervical and female breast cancers in the Americas: current situation and opportunities for action.
Bull World Health Organ. 2013; 91(9):640-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To understand better the current regional situation and public health response to cervical cancer and female breast cancer in the Americas.
METHODS: Data on cervical cancer and female breast cancers in 33 countries, for the period from 2000 to the last year with available data, were extracted from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Regional Mortality Database and analysed. Changes in mortality rates over the study period - in all countries except those with small populations and large fluctuations in time-series mortality data - were calculated using Poisson regression models. Information from the PAHO Country Capacity Survey on noncommunicable diseases was also analysed.
FINDINGS: The Bahamas, Trinidad and Tobago and Uruguay showed relatively high rates of death from breast cancer, whereas the three highest rates of death from cervical cancer were observed in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Paraguay. Several countries - particularly Paraguay and Venezuela - have high rates of death from both types of cancer. Although mortality from cervical cancer has generally been decreasing in the Americas, decreases in mortality from breast cancer have only been observed in a few countries in the Region of the Americas. All but one of the 25 countries in the Americas included in the PAHO Country Capacity Survey reported having public health services for the screening and treatment of breast and cervical cancers.
CONCLUSION: Most countries in the Americas have the public health capacity needed to screen for - and treat - breast and cervical cancers and, therefore, the potential to reduce the burden posed by these cancers.

Related: Breast Cancer Cervical Cancer
Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, United States of America .


Alcazar-González GA, Calderón-Garcidueñas AL, Garza-Rodríguez ML, et al.
Comparative study of polymorphism frequencies of the CYP2D6, CYP3A5, CYP2C8 and IL-10 genes in Mexican and Spanish women with breast cancer.
Pharmacogenomics. 2013; 14(13):1583-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Pharmacogenetic studies in breast cancer (BC) may predict the efficacy of tamoxifen and the toxicity of paclitaxel and capecitabine. We determined the frequency of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene associated with activation of tamoxifen, and those of the genes CYP2C8, CYP3A5 and DPYD associated with toxicity of paclitaxel and capecitabine. We also included a IL-10 gene polymorphism associated with advanced tumor stage at diagnosis.
PATIENTS & METHODS: Genomic DNAs from 241 BC patients from northeast Mexico were genotyped using DNA microarray technology.
RESULTS: For tamoxifen processing, CYP2D6 genotyping predicted that 90.8% of patients were normal metabolizers, 4.2% ultrarapid, 2.1% intermediate and 2.9% poor metabolizers. For paclitaxel and the CYP2C8 gene, 75.3% were normal, 23.4% intermediate and 1.3% poor metabolizers. Regarding the DPYD gene, only one patient was a poor metabolizer. For the IL-10 gene, 47.1% were poor metabolizers.
CONCLUSION: These results contribute valuable information towards personalizing BC chemotherapy in Mexican women.

Related: Breast Cancer CYP2D6 Fluorouracil IL10 Paclitaxel Polymorphisms Capecitabine
Vitagenesis S.A. de C.V., Boulevard Puerta del Sol 1005, Colinas de San Jerónimo, Monterrey. N.L. C.P. 64630, Mexico.


Herrera-Goepfert R, Vela-Chávez T, Carrillo-García A, et al.
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences in metaplastic breast carcinomas of Mexican women.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:445 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metaplastic carcinoma, an uncommon subtype of breast cancer, is part of the spectrum of basal-like, triple receptor-negative breast carcinomas. The present study examined 20 surgical specimens of metaplastic breast carcinomas, for the presence of high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV), which is suspected to be a potential carcinogenic agent for breast carcinoma.
METHODS: Mastectomy specimens from patients harboring metaplastic breast carcinoma, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), and who attended the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City, were retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology accumulated during a 16-year period (1995-2008). Demographic and clinical information was obtained from patients' medical records. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors and HPV type-specific amplification was performed by means of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative Real-time (RT) PCR was conducted in HPV positive cases. Statistically, the association of continuous or categorical variables with HPV status was tested by the Student t, the Chi square, or Fisher's exact tests, as appropriate.
RESULTS: High-risk HPV DNA was detected in eight (40%) of 20 metaplastic breast carcinomas: seven (87.5%) HPV-16 and one (12.5%) HPV-18. Mean age of patients with HPV-positive cases was 49 years (range 24-72 years), the same as for HPV-negative cases (range, 30-73 years). There were not striking differences between HPV + and HPV- metaplastic carcinomas regarding clinical findings. Nearly all cases were negative for estrogen, progesterone and Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), but positive for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
CONCLUSIONS: High-risk HPV has been strongly associated with conventional breast carcinomas, although the subtle mechanism of neoplastic transformation is poorly understood. In Mexican patients, the prevalence of HPV infection among metaplastic breast carcinomas is higher than in non-metaplastic ones, as so the HPV viral loads; notwithstanding, HPV viral loads show wide variation and remain even lower than cervical and other non-cervical carcinomas, making it difficult to assume that HPV could play a key role in breast carcinogenesis. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the meaning of the presence of high-risk HPVDNA in breast carcinomas.

Related: Breast Cancer
Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología México, México, Mexico.


This page last updated: 6th November 2014
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