Mexico
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Mexico: cancer statistics from IARC GlobalCan (2012)

Population in 2012: 116.1m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 148,000
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 131.5
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:13.4%
People dying from cancer /yr: 78,700

Menu: Mexican Cancer Resources

Mexico: Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications from Mexico

Mexico: Cancer Organisations and Resources (6 links)


Latest Research Publications from Mexico

Ramírez-Garzón YT, Ávila O, Medina LA, et al.
Measurement of radiation exposure in relatives of thyroid cancer patients treated with (131)I.
Health Phys. 2014; 107(5):410-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
This work evaluates the radiological risk that patients treated with I for differentiated thyroid cancer could present to relatives and occupationally exposed workers. Recently, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued document K9010241, which recommends that patient discharge from the hospital must be based on the particular status of each patient. This work measures effective dose received by caregivers of patients treated with I at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were carried during a 15-d period by 40 family caregivers after patient release from hospital. Relatives were classified into two groups, ambulatory and hospitalized, according to the release mode of the patient, and three categories according to the individual patient home and transport facilities. Categories A, B, and C were defined going from most to least adequate concerning public exposure risk. Measurements were performed for 20 family caregivers in each group. The effective dose received by all caregivers participating in this study was found to be less than 5 mSv, the recommended limit per event for caregivers suggested by ICRP 103. In addition, 70 and 90% of ambulatory and hospitalized groups, respectively, received doses lower than 1 mSv. Caregivers belonging to category C, with home situations that are not appropriate for immediate release, received the highest average doses; i.e., 2.2 ± 1.3 and 3.1 ± 1.0 mSv for hospitalized and ambulatory patients, respectively. Results of this work have shown that the proper implementation of radiation protection instructions for relatives and patients can reduce significantly the risk that differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated with I can represent for surrounding individuals. The results also stress the relevance of the patient's particular lifestyle and transport conditions as the prevailing factors related to the dose received by the caregiver. Therefore, the patient's status should be the criterion used to decide his/her release modality. This work provides support to recommend the implementation of the "patient specific release criteria" in accordance with ICRP 94, IAEA Safety Report No. 63, and IAE document K9010241 A for patients treated with radiopharmaceuticals.

Related: Thyroid Cancer


López-Carrillo L, Hernández-Ramírez RU, Gandolfi AJ, et al.
Arsenic methylation capacity is associated with breast cancer in northern Mexico.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 280(1):53-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exposure to environmental contaminants, dietary factors and lifestyles may explain worldwide different breast cancer (BC) incidence. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the drinking water is a concern in many regions, such as northern Mexico. Studies in several countries have associated the proportion of urinary monomethylarsenic (%MMA) with increased risks for many As-related diseases, including cancer. To investigate the potential relationships between the risk of BC and the capacity to methylate iAs, a hospital-based case-control study (1016 cases/1028 controls) was performed in northern Mexico. Women were directly interviewed about their reproductive histories. The profile of As metabolites in urine was determined by HPLC-ICP-MS and methylation capacity was assessed by metabolite percentages and indexes. Total urinary As, excluding arsenobetaine (TAs-AsB), ranged from 0.26 to 303.29μg/L. Most women (86%) had TAs-AsB levels below As biological exposure index (35μg/L). Women with higher %MMA and/or primary methylation index (PMI) had an increased BC risk (%MMA ORQ5vs.Q1=2.63; 95%CI 1.89,3.66; p for trend <0.001; PMI ORQ5vs.Q1=1.90; 95%CI 1.39,2.59, p for trend <0.001). In contrast, women with higher proportion of urinary dimethylarsenic (%DMA) and/or secondary methylation index (SMI) had a reduced BC risk (%DMA ORQ5vs.Q1=0.63; 95%CI 0.45,0.87, p for trend 0.006; SMI ORQ5vsQ1=0.42, 95%CI 0.31,0.59, p for trend <0.001). Neither %iAs nor total methylation index was associated to BC risk. Inter-individual variations in iAs metabolism may play a role in BC carcinogenesis. Women with higher capacity to methylate iAs to MMA and/or a lower capacity to further methylate MMA to DMA were at higher BC risk.

Related: Breast Cancer


Penaranda E, Molokwu J, Hernandez I, et al.
Attitudes toward self-sampling for cervical cancer screening among primary care attendees living on the US-Mexico border.
South Med J. 2014; 107(7):426-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hispanic women living along the US border with Mexico have one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in the nation, owing in part to lower rates of screening. The barriers to screening in this population include lack of access to care and fear of and embarrassment about the pelvic examination. Screening for oncogenic or high-risk human papillomavirus during cervical cytology has been added to screening recommendations. A novel method for human papillomavirus testing is self-sampling, in which women collect their own cervicovaginal samples. There is lack of information about the acceptability of self-sampling as an alternative to cytology for cervical cancer screening in women living along the US-Mexico border.
METHODS: We conducted five focus groups with women between the ages of 30 and 65 who were primary care patients of clinics along the US-Mexico border. We used constructs from different health behavioral theories as a framework for the interview guide.
RESULTS: A total of 21 women participated in the focus groups, 80% of whom were Hispanic; mean age was 53.4 (standard deviation 7.9). More than one-third (38%) of the participants had not undergone a Papanicolaou test in the last 3 years. Women identified the perceived benefits of self-sampling as ease, convenience, practicability, less embarrassment, and need for child care as compared with a Papanicolaou test. The main barrier to self-sampling was concern about not performing the test correctly.
CONCLUSIONS: In this qualitative study, we found positive attitudes toward self-sampling among women living along the US border with Mexico. Further research is needed to evaluate interventions that address women's low levels of self-efficacy to perform the test and to evaluate the effectiveness of self-sampling in increasing cervical cancer screening rates.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection USA Cervical Cancer


Salinas-Martínez AM, Flores-Cortés LI, Cardona-Chavarría JM, et al.
Prediabetes, diabetes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study.
Arch Med Res. 2014; 45(5):432-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although underlying mechanisms have been described to account for the association between prediabetes and diabetes with breast cancer, reported results have been inconsistent. We undertook this study to determine whether prediabetes and diabetes are risk factors for breast cancer in Mexican women with no family history of breast cancer in the mother, daughters, or sisters.
METHODS: A case-control study was carried out during 2011-2013. "Case" referred to patients with a histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer (incident and primary cases) (n = 240); "controls" were those with a BI-RADS 1 or 2 mammography result (n = 406). Categorization of prediabetes and diabetes was based on self-reporting or fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin blood sampling results. Reproductive and sociodemographic data were collected by interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate unconditional binary logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Prediabetes increased the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.10-3.96) as did diabetes (adjusted OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.55-5.26). A history of diabetes preceding breast cancer by ≥7 years and <7 years were both associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.40-5.60 and 3.00, 95% CI 1.50-5.90, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in Mexico evaluating prediabetes and diabetes as breast cancer risk factors in women with no first-degree relatives with breast cancer. Our findings suggest that women with prediabetes and diabetes should be considered a more vulnerable population for early breast cancer detection.

Related: Breast Cancer


Cervantes CA, Botero MA
Average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer and the association with the marginalization index in Mexico in 2000 and 2010.
Cad Saude Publica. 2014; 30(5):1093-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to calculate average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer in Mexico in 2000 and 2010. Data on mortality in women aged between 20 and 84 years was obtained from the National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Age-specific mortality rates and average years of life lost, which is an estimate of the number of years that a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely, were estimated for both diseases. Data was disaggregated into five-year age groups and socioeconomic status based on the 2010 marginalization index obtained from the National Population Council. A decrease in average years of life lost due to cervical cancer (37.4%) and an increase in average years of life lost due breast cancer (8.9%) was observed during the period studied. Average years of life lost due to cervical cancer was greater among women living in areas with a high marginalization index, while average years of life lost due to breast cancer was greater in women from areas with a low marginalization index.

Related: Breast Cancer Cervical Cancer


Floriano-Sanchez E, Rodriguez NC, Bandala C, et al.
CYP3A4 expression in breast cancer and its association with risk factors in Mexican women.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(8):3805-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In Mexico, breast cancer (BCa) is the leading type of cancer in women. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is a superfamily of major oxidative enzymes that metabolize carcinogens and many antineoplastic drugs. In addition, these enzymes have influence on tumor development and tumor response to therapy. In this report, we analyzed the protein expression in patients with BCa and in healthy women. Links with some clinic-pathological characteristic were also assessed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on 48 sets of human breast tumors and normal breast tissues enrolled in Hospital Militar de Especialidades de la Mujer y Neonatologia and Hospital Central Militar, respectively, during the time period from 2010 to 2011. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 or Fisher exact tests to estimate associations and the Mann Whitney U test for comparison of group means.
RESULTS: We found a significant CYP3A4 overexpression in BCa stroma and gland regions in comparison with healthy tissue. A significant association between protein expression with smoking, alcoholism and hormonal contraceptives use was also observed. Additionally, we observed estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive association in BCa.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that CYP3A4 expression promotes BCa development and can be used in the prediction of tumor response to different treatments. One therapeutic approach may thus be to block CYP3A4 function.

Related: Breast Cancer


Ortiz-Mendoza CM, de-la-Fuente-Vera TA, Pérez-Chávez E
Metabolic syndrome in Mexican women survivors of breast cancer: a pilot study at a general hospital.
Med Arch. 2014; 68(1):19-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: According to developed countries' studies, in breast cancer survivors there is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome; however, in Mexico data is lacking about this issue.
GOAL: To explore if metabolic syndrome occurs in Mexican women survivors of breast cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: At a second-level general hospital, women with breast cancer with a surviving > 2 years were studied. The analysis involved their demographic and anthropometric features, blood pressure measurement, time of surviving, besides fasting blood levels of lipids and glucose.
RESULTS: The sample consisted of 100 women; 42% were obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2). The sample's mean age was 60 years with a mean surviving time of 6.5 years. Their mean glucose level was 122 mg/dL and triglycerides 202 mg/dL. There were 33% with blood pressure > or = 130/85mm Hg or diagnosis of hypertension. Fifty-seven percent had glucose > 99 mg/dL or diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 58% had triglycerides > 149 mg/dL. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 57% of obese women.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that metabolic syndrome occurs in more than 50% of obese Mexican women survivors of breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer


Dorantes-Acosta E, Medina-Sanson A, Jaimes-García Y, López-Martínez B
Clinical features and treatment outcomes of pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia in a Mexican pediatric hospital.
Rev Invest Clin. 2013 Sep-Oct; 65(5):392-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the retinoid acid receptor α (RARA) gene on chromosome 17. APL is a relatively rare blood disease that is highly curable with current treatment strategies; however, patient outcomes are heterogeneous in countries with limited resources. Promyelocytic leukemia accounts for 20-25% of all AML cases in Latin American countries.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a study from July 2007 to July 2012 and applied the IC-APL2006 protocol. This case study reports the results from eleven patients with AML M3 (five males and six females). In all cases, the diagnoses were made by aspirating bone marrow and evaluating the t(15:17) or t(11:17) transcript. In eight cases, the molecular biology-based diagnostics for the PLM-RARa transcript were positive, and they were negative in two cases. One patient was positive for the PLZF-RARa transcript.
RESULTS: The mean WBC at the time of diagnosis was 10.1 x 10(9)/L, and the mean platelet count was 17.1 x 10(9)/L. The mean percentage of abnormal promyelocytes in the bone marrow aspirates was 68%. Of the eleven patients, four presented with disseminated intravascular coagulation. All of the patients began treatment with transretinoic acid (ATRA) (45 mg/m(2)/day), which led to 4 cases of ATRA syndrome. There were 2 relapses, and the patient died in one case. The remaining ten patients were alive after the median follow-up period of 33.6 months (range from 11 to 60 months).
CONCLUSION: The authors report on a series of cases involving pediatric patients with AML M3 seen at a single institution; the patients were stratified and treated with a standard protocol to obtain satisfactory results. Although the number of patients is limited, the health outcomes are relevant. To our knowledge, this is the first series of pediatric APL patients in Mexico who were treated with the IC-APL2006 protocol.

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Villarreal-Calderon R, Luévano-González A, Aragón-Flores M, et al.
Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and preneoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2014; 18(3):129-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age, 8.3 ± 4.8 years) with chronic gastritis (36 H pylori+, 46 H pylori-) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7 (9%) of 82, and IM, in 5 (6%) of 82 by routine histology, whereas 6 additional children (7%) (3 H pylori+) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without IM. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (P<.0001). Atrophy and follicular pathology were more frequent in H pylori+ biopsies (P<.0001), whereas IM and CDX2 expression showed no significant correlation with H pylori status. Antral biopsies demonstrating atrophy, IM, and/or aberrant CDX2 expression were seen in 21.95% (18/82) of the children, potentially identifying those who would benefit from closer surveillance and preventive dietary strategies. Biomarkers CDX2, EphB4, MMP3, and MIF may be useful in the workup of pediatric gastritis.


Sánchez-Lezama AP, Cavazos-Arroyo J, Albavera-Hernández C
Applying the Fuzzy Delphi Method for determining socio-ecological factors that influence adherence to mammography screening in rural areas of Mexico.
Cad Saude Publica. 2014; 30(2):245-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
In Mexico, regular participation in mammography screening is low, despite higher survival rates. The objective of our research is to highlight healthcare procedures to be optimized and target areas to encourage investment and to raise awareness about the benefits of early diagnosis. Those socio-ecological factors (community, interpersonal and individual) were collected through a review of literature and based on the spatial interaction model of mammography use developed by Mobley et al. The opinion of diverse groups of experts on the importance of those factors was collected by survey. The Fuzzy Delphi Method helped to solve the inherent uncertainty of the survey process. Our findings suggest that population health behaviors, proximity-density to facilities/ physicians and predisposing factors are needed to increase the screening rate. Variations in expert group size could affect the accuracy of the conclusions. However, the application of the enhanced aggregation method provided a group consensus that is less susceptible to misinterpretation and that weighs the opinion of each expert according to their clinical experience in mammography research.

Related: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Screening Cancer Screening and Early Detection


Lazcano-Ponce E, Lőrincz AT, Torres L, et al.
Specimen self-collection and HPV DNA screening in a pilot study of 100,242 women.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(1):109-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since cervical cancer remains common in Mexico despite an established cytology screening program, the Ministry of Health recently introduced pilot front-line HPV testing into the Mexican cervical cancer screening program (CCSP). Here, we present the key field performance metrics of this population-based study. High-risk HPV DNA (hrHPV) testing was conducted on self-collected vaginal specimens from 100,242 women aged 25-75 years residing in Morelos State. All hrHPV positive women and a random sample of 3.2% (n = 2,864) of hrHPV negative participants were referred for colposcopic examination. The main disease endpoint of interest was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+). We calculated relative risk, positive predictive value and negative predictive value adjusted for screening test verification bias. The overall prevalence of hrHPV was 10.8% (95% CI 10.6-11.0). Women positive for hrHPV had a relative risk of 15.7 for histologically detectable CIN2+. The adjusted positive predictive value of the hrHPV test was 2.4% (95% CI 2.1-2.7); whereas the adjusted negative predictive value was 99.8% (95% CI 99.8-99.9). These findings suggest that large-scale vaginal hrHPV testing in a middle-income country can identify women at greater risk of advanced cervical abnormalities in a programmatically meaningful way but care is warranted to ensure that disease not detectable at colposcopy is kept to a minimum. PASS shows areas that need improvement and sets the stage for wider use of hrHPV screening of self-collected vaginal specimens in Mexico.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection Cervical Cancer


Anaya-Ruiz M, Vallejo-Ruiz V, Flores-Mendoza L, Perez-Santos M
Female breast cancer incidence and mortality in Mexico, 2000-2010.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(3):1477-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to investigate the recent incidence and mortality trends for breast cancer in Mexican females. Data between 2000 and 2010 from the Department of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health, and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) were analyzed. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated. The absolute incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer increased: 3,726 and 4,615 in 2000 to 8,545 and 4,966 in 2010, respectively. Incidence increased over time in all age groups tested, the 60-64 age group had the highest ASR (57.4 per 100,000 women in 2010), while the 20-44 age group had the lowest ASR (12.3 in 2010). The results show that incidence of breast cancer has increased in Mexico during last one decade, especially among older women, while the downturn observed in mortality mainly reflects improved survival as a result of earlier diagnosis and better cancer treatment.

Related: Breast Cancer


Peñarrieta-de Córdova I, Barrios FF, Gutierrez-Gomes T, et al.
Self-management in chronic conditions: partners in health scale instrument validation.
Nurs Manag (Harrow). 2014; 20(10):32-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: This article describes a study that aimed to validate the Self-care in Chronic Conditions Partners in Health Scale instrument in the Mexican population. The instrument has been validated in Australia for use as a screening tool by primary healthcare professionals to assess the self-care skills and abilities of people with a chronic illness.
METHODS: Validation was conducted using baseline data for 552 people with diabetes, hypertension and cancer aged 18 or older who were users of healthcare centres in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
RESULTS: Results show high reliability and validity of the instrument and three themes were identified: knowledge, adherence, and dealing with and managing side effects.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest the scale is useful as a generic self-rated clinical tool for assessing self-management in a range of chronic conditions, and provides an outcome measure for comparing populations and change in patient self-management knowledge and behaviour. The authors recommend validating the scale in other Latin-American settings with more research into the effect of gender on self- management.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction


Comrnejo-Juárez P, Espinosa-Altamirano A, Ibarra-del-Río M, et al.
Cystic echinococcosis: a disease mimicking cancer in a non-endemic country report of two cases.
West Indian Med J. 2013; 62(3):266-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease that involves dogs as definitive host and sheep as intermediate host. Humans become infected incidentally through fecal-oral contact, particularly in the course of playful and close contact with an infected dog. Mexico is considered a region that is virtually free of cystic echinoccocosis. This manuscript describes two cases that were referred to a tertiary-care oncology hospital with a diagnosis of cancer. In one case, the presumptive diagnosis was liver cancer because abdominal ultrasonography revealed a low-density mass in the right hepatic lobe. Drainage was performed and cytologic examination of the fluid showed multiple Echinococcus cyst as well as prostoscolex. The case was resolved with percutaneous drainage and administration of albendazole for two months. In the second case, the patient was referred with a diagnosis of disseminated cervical cancer A cyst was identified in the upper right lung lobe; a diagnostic puncture was performed showing an Echinococcus cyst. This resolved solely with two months of albendazole administration.

Related: Liver Cancer Cervical Cancer


Jaime-Pérez JC, Brito-Ramirez AS, Pinzon-Uresti MA, et al.
Characteristics and clinical evolution of patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia in northeast Mexico: an eight-year experience at a university hospital.
Acta Haematol. 2014; 132(2):144-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults. We documented the characteristics and results of treatment of patients with AML at a single reference center.
METHODS: Patients diagnosed with AML between June 2003 and July 2011 at a university hospital in northeast Mexico were studied. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were determined, and risk factors were analyzed with respect to their influence on prognosis.
RESULTS: A total of 132 AML patients were included. Median age was 32 years. Complete remission (CR) was achieved by 55% of patients. CR was achieved by 65.1% of patients <60 years (n = 109), compared to 8.7% of those >60 years (n = 23; p < 0.001). In all, 39% of patients >60 years suffered an early death, compared to 14.7% of those <60 years (p < 0.001). OS for patients with AML was 35%, whereas EFS was 32%. On multivariate analysis, patients >60 years had a lower OS and EFS (p < 0.001). A total of 28% of patients received a transplant, and they had high er OS and EFS. Conclusions: Our patients were considerably younger and had remarkably lower survival rates than reported for other populations; those >60 years had a higher early death rate, and fewer of these patients achieved CR.

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Rodríguez-Acosta ED, Esquivel-Pedraza L, Saeb-Lima M, et al.
Borderline tuberculoid leprosy mimicking mycosis fungoides.
Skinmed. 2013 Nov-Dec; 11(6):379-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 65-year-old unemployed man, originally from Michoacán and currently living in Toluca, state of Mexico, presented for medical consultation for disseminated dermatosis in all body segments. The condition was limited to the head and neck, was bilateral and symmetrical, and was characterized by infiltrated and confluent erythematous-edematous plates of diverse diameter covering 90% of the upper and lower extremities (Figure 1). The ailment had 2 years' evolution and a progressive course. The patient was diagnosed in private practice as having atopic dermatitis. After exacerbation of symptoms, he was treated with deflazacort and hydroxychloroquine with no improvement. Results from lesion biopsies revealed sarcoidal granulomas and the patient was therefore referred to the dermatology department at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán for further study and treatment with the presumptive diagnosis of mycosis fungoides vs sarcoidosis.


Amadou A, Torres Mejia G, Fagherazzi G, et al.
Anthropometry, silhouette trajectory, and risk of breast cancer in Mexican women.
Am J Prev Med. 2014; 46(3 Suppl 1):S52-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with breast cancer risk in the Caucasian population but the association remains unclear in the Hispanics. Previous studies conducted among Hispanics in the U.S. have shown inconsistent results.
PURPOSE: The association between anthropometry, body shape evolution across lifetime, and the risk of breast cancer was assessed using a multi-center population-based case-control study conducted in Mexico.
METHODS: One thousand incident cases and 1074 matched control women aged 35-69 years were recruited between 2004 and 2007, and analyzed in 2011-2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used.
RESULTS: Height was related to an increased risk of breast cancer in both premenopausal (p trend=0.03) and postmenopausal women (p trend=0.002). In premenopausal women, increase in BMI; waist circumference (WC); hip circumference (HC); and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk (p trends<0.001 for BMI and WC, 0.003 for HC, and 0.016 for WHR). In postmenopausal women, decreased risks were observed for increased WC (p trend=0.004) and HC (p trend=0.009) among women with time since menopause <10 years. Further analysis of body shape evolution throughout life showed strong and significant increase in risk of breast cancer among women with increasing silhouettes size over time compared to women with no or limited increase.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that anthropometric factors may have different associations with breast cancer risk in Hispanic women than in Caucasian women. This study also shows the importance of considering the evolution of body shape throughout life.

Related: Breast Cancer


Nodora JN, Gallo L, Cooper R, et al.
Reproductive and hormonal risk profile according to language acculturation and country of residence in the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014; 23(6):532-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We compared the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent.
METHODS: To compare the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent, taking into account level of education, we analyzed data on 581 Mexican and 620 Mexican American (MA) women with a history of invasive breast cancer from the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study. An eight-item language-based acculturation measure was used to classify MA women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test associations between language acculturation, country of residence, and reproductive and hormonal risk factors.
RESULTS: After adjustment for age and education, compared to women residing in Mexico, English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have an earlier age at menarche (<12 years; odds ratio [OR]=2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-3.34), less likely to have a late age at first birth (≥30 years; OR=0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.97), and less likely to ever breastfeed (OR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.21).
CONCLUSIONS: Differences in reproductive and hormonal risk profile according to language acculturation and country of residence are evident; some of these were explained by education. Results support continued efforts to educate Mexican and MA women on screening and early detection of breast cancer along with promotion of modifiable factors, such as breastfeeding.

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Choquet H, Nelson J, Pawlikowska L, et al.
Association of cardiovascular risk factors with disease severity in cerebral cavernous malformation type 1 subjects with the common Hispanic mutation.
Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014; 37(1):57-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are enlarged vascular lesions affecting 0.1-0.5% of the population worldwide and causing hemorrhagic strokes, seizures, and neurological deficits. Familial CCM type 1 (CCM1) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the Krev Interaction Trapped 1 (KRIT1/CCM1) gene, and is characterized by multiple brain lesions whose number and size increase with age. The number of lesions varies widely for unknown reasons, even among carriers of similar ages with the same mutation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cardiovascular (CV) risk factors influence potential markers of familial CCM1 disease severity, such as lesion count and history of intracerebral hemorrhage.
METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from 185 Hispanic subjects, enrolled in the Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium study between June 2010 and March 2013. All subjects were carriers of the founder Q455X 'Common Hispanic Mutation' (CHM) in the KRIT1 gene, and had a clinical diagnosis of CCM or had an affected first- or second-degree relative with CCM. We performed a cross-sectional study, collecting detailed clinical information of CCM1-CHM subjects and cerebral susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to assess lesion count. Linear or logistic regression analysis of log-lesion count or history of intracerebral hemorrhage and CV risk factors (age, gender, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking status) and related quantitative traits (body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, blood pressure, lipids levels and pack-years of cigarette smoking) was performed accommodating familial clustering.
RESULTS: CCM1-CHM subjects were mainly female (63.8%) and symptomatic at presentation (63.2%). Lesion count was highly variable (mean ± SD: 57.7 ± 110.6; range: 0-713); 90% of CCM1-CHM subjects had multiple lesions at enrollment. Age (p < 0.001) was positively correlated with lesion count and male gender (p = 0.035) was associated with a greater number of lesions. Obesity (p = 0.001) and higher body mass index (p = 0.002) were associated with fewer lesions. No association with hypertension was detected, however, systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002) was associated with fewer lesions. No significant association with lesion count was observed for diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking status or for related quantitative traits. History of intracerebral hemorrhage was not significantly associated with any CV risk factors, however, we found borderline associations of hemorrhage with obesity (p = 0.062), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.083) and pack-years of cigarette smoking (p = 0.055). After correction for multiple testing, age and obesity remained significantly associated with lesion count in CCM1-CHM subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that several CV risk factors explain some of the variability in lesion count in Hispanic CCM1-CHM subjects. Although age, gender, obesity, body mass index and systolic blood pressure may influence familial CCM1 disease severity, further longitudinal studies in larger sample sizes are essential to confirm these findings.


Fernández-Torres J, Flores-Jiménez D, Arroyo-Pérez A, et al.
HLA-B*40 allele plays a role in the development of acute leukemia in Mexican population: a case-control study.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:705862 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Among oncohematological diseases, acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are characterized by the uncontrolled production and accumulation of blasts that can lead to death. Although the physiopathology of these diseases is multifactorial, a genetic factor seems to be at play. Several studies worldwide have shown association of ALL and AML with several alleles of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).
OBJECTIVE: To determine gene frequencies of HLA-B alleles in Mexicans (individuals with Native American genetic background admixed with European descent) with ALL and AML.
METHODS: We compared the HLA-B alleles in 213 patients with ALL and 85 patients with AML to those present in 731 umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples as a control group; this was done by means of the PCR-SSP technique.
RESULTS: We found an increased frequency of the HLA-B*40 allele in ALL patients as compared to the control group (14.5% versus 9.84%, P = 0.003, OR = 1.67); this was particularly evident in a subgroup of young (less than 18 years old) ALL patients (P = 0.002, OR = 1.76); likewise, a decreased frequency of HLA-B*40 allele in AML patients was observed as compared to the control group (4.70% versus 9.84%, P = 0.02, OR = 0.42).
CONCLUSIONS: These results might suggest opposing effects of the HLA-B*40 in the genetic susceptibility to develop ALL or AML and offer the possibility to study further the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation within the bone marrow lineage.

Related: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukaemia AML - Molecular Biology Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) Childhood Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) ALL - Molecular Biology


Pérez-Morales R, Méndez-Ramírez I, Moreno-Macias H, et al.
Genetic susceptibility to lung cancer based on candidate genes in a sample from the Mexican Mestizo population: a case-control study.
Lung. 2014; 192(1):167-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of mortality caused by neoplasias worldwide. Although cigarette smoking is the primary cause, not all smokers develop LC. Polymorphic variations in genes associated with carcinogen metabolism, DNA repair, and cell-cycle dysregulation may alter an individual risk of developing LC. A polygenic cancer model was proposed, which considers genetic susceptibility to cancer is a global mechanism and suggests that it might be defined by the contributions of low-risk alleles in several candidate genes. This study focused on the analysis of 15 polymorphisms in 12 low-penetrance genes in a case-control study of a sample of Mexican Mestizo population.
METHODS: A case-control study was performed with a total of 572 unrelated individuals, including 190 cases with a primary LC diagnosis and 382 healthy controls. The polymorphic status of the individuals was determined by TaqMan probe and RFLP techniques. The association between LC and genotype score (GS) was assessed by logistic regression.
RESULTS: The results suggests a protective effect of the genotypes Arg/Lys of AhR rs2066853 (odds ratio [OR] 0.55, p = 0.03), Ile/Val of CYP1A1 rs1048943 (OR 0.49, p = 0.009), Tyr/His of EPHX1 rs1051740 (OR 0.53, p = 0.03), and A/A of CCND1 rs603965 (OR 0.44, p = 0.02). Analyses using the GS suggest that average cases have a larger number of risk alleles than controls (Student's t test -4.85, p = 0.001; OR 1.25, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest significant differences between the GS for the cases and controls, which support the hypothesis underlying the additive and polygenic models for lung cancer risk depending on the polymorphisms in low-penetrance genes.

Related: Lung Cancer Polymorphisms


Figueroa-Muñoz Ledo AA, Márquez-Serrano M, Idrovo AJ, Allen-Leigh B
Individual and community effectiveness of a cervical cancer screening program for semi-urban Mexican women.
J Community Health. 2014; 39(3):423-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The effectiveness at the individual and community level of an educational intervention to increase cervical cancer screening self-efficacy among semi-urban Mexican women was evaluated and changes in reported community barriers were measured after the intervention was implemented. The educational intervention was evaluated with a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design and a control group, based on the Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction and AMIGAS project materials. For the intervention group, increased self-efficacy increased requests to obtain a Pap (p < 0.05). Barriers to obtaining a Pap were embarrassment and lack of time at the individual level, and lack of time, test conditions and fear of social rejection in the community's cultural domain. At both the individual and community levels, having more information about the test and knowing it would be performed by a woman were primary facilitators. Few women used medically precise information when referring to the Pap and cervical uterine cancer. Although the level of self-efficacy of the participants increased, barriers in the health system affect the women's perceived ability to get a Pap. Better care for users is needed to increase consistent use of the test. The study shows the importance of using culturally adapted, multilevel, comprehensive interventions to achieve successful results in target populations.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection Cervical Cancer


Gómez Flores-Ramos L, Escoto-De Dios A, Puebla-Pérez AM, et al.
Association of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308G>A polymorphism with breast cancer in Mexican women.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(4):5680-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function. Polymorphisms of TNF-α have been associated with cancer. We examined the role of the -308G>A polymorphism in this gene by comparing the genotypes of 294 healthy Mexican women with those of 465 Mexican women with breast cancer. The observed genotype frequencies for controls and breast cancer patients were 1 and 14% for AA, 13 and 21% for GA, and 86 and 65% for GG, respectively. We found that the odds ratio (OR) for AA genotype was 2.4, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of 5.9-101.1 (P = 0.0001). The association was also evident when comparing the distribution of the AA-GA genotype in patients in the following categories: 1) premenopause and obesity I (OR = 3.5, 95%CI = 1.3-9.3, P = 0.008), 2) Her-2 neu and tumor stage I-II (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.31-4.8, P = 0.004), 3) premenopause and tumor stage III-IV (OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.0-2.9, P = 0.034), 4) chemotherapy non-response and abnormal hematocrit (OR = 2.4, 95%CI = 1.2-4.8, P = 0.015), 5) body mass index and Her-2 neu and III-IV tumor stage (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 1.2- 6.6, P = 0.016), and 6) nodule metastasis and K-I67 (OR = 4.0, 95%CI = 1.01-15.7, P = 0.038). We concluded that the genotypes AA-GA of the -308G>A polymorphism in TNF-α significantly contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in the analyzed sample from the Mexican population.

Related: Breast Cancer TNF


Van Kriekinge G, Castellsagué X, Cibula D, Demarteau N
Estimation of the potential overall impact of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer cases and deaths.
Vaccine. 2014; 32(6):733-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers potential for primary prevention of HPV-related pre-cancers and cancers as demonstrated in clinical trials. Mathematical models have estimated the potential real-life impact of vaccination on the burden of cervical cancer (CC). However, these are restricted to evaluations in a limited number of countries.
METHODS: Potential decline in CC cases and deaths with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine of young girls naïve to HPV, was estimated at steady-state (vaccine coverage: 0-100%) based on clinical trial and country-specific incidence data. Data on vaccine efficacy were taken from the end of study PATRICIA trial of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine. The numbers of cases and deaths due to HPV-16/18 were estimated and compared with those due to any HPV type to estimate the additional cases prevented. This difference estimates CC cases and deaths avoided due to protection against non-vaccine HPV types. Cost-offsets due to reductions in CC treatment were estimated for five countries (Brazil, Canada, Italy, Malaysia and South African Republic) using country-specific unit cost data. Additionally, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 (CIN2/3)-related burden (cases and treatment costs) prevented by vaccination were estimated for two countries (Italy and Malaysia).
RESULTS: HPV vaccination could prevent a substantial number of CC cases and deaths in countries worldwide, with associated cost-offsets due to reduced CC treatment. Cross-protection increased the estimated potential number of CC cases and deaths prevented by 34 and 18% in Africa and Oceania, respectively. Moreover, vaccination could result in a substantial reduction in the number of CIN2/3 lesions and associated costs.
CONCLUSION: HPV vaccination could reduce the burden of CC and precancerous lesions in countries worldwide, part of disease burden reduction being related to protection against non HPV-16/18 related types.

Related: Canada Thailand Cervical Cancer Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Vaccination, and Cervical Cancer


Perez-Santos JL, Anaya-Ruiz M
Mexican breast cancer research output, 2003-2012.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(10):5921-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objetive of this study was to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess current research trends with regard to breast cancer in Mexico. Articles were analyzed by scientific output and research performances of individuals, institutes, and collaborative countries with Mexico. Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database from 2003 to 2012; this was searched using different terms related to breast cancer, including "breast cancer", "mammary ductal carcinoma" and "breast tumour". Data were then extracted from each file, transferred to Excel charts and visualised as diagrams. A total of 256 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were the National Autonomous University of Mexico (22.3%), the National Institute of Cancerology (21.9%), and Social Security Mexican Institute (20.3%); clinical observation studies were the dominant investigation type (64%), and the main types of research were metabolics (24.2%) and pathology (21.5%). This article demonstrates the usefulness of bibliometrics to address key evaluation questions and to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop breast cancer control strategies in Mexico.

Related: Breast Cancer


Ramírez-Patiño R, Figuera LE, Puebla-Pérez AM, et al.
Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with breast cancer in Mexican women.
J Korean Med Sci. 2013; 28(11):1587-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene plays an important role in several biological functions. Polymorphisms of the eNOS gene have been associated with cancer. It has been suggested that the VNTR 4 a/b polymorphism may affect the expression of eNOS and contributes to tumor promotion in the mammary gland. We examined the role of the eNOS4 a/b polymorphism by comparing the genotypes of 281 healthy Mexican women with the genotypes of 429 Mexican women with breast cancer (BC). The observed genotype frequencies for control and BC patients were 0.6% and 0.7% for a/a (polymorphic); 87% and 77% for a/a (wild type); and 12% and 22% for a/b respectively. We found that the odds ratio (OR) was 1.9, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of 1.29-2.95, P = 0.001 for genotypes a/a-a/b, b/c. The association was also evident when comparing the distribution of the a/a-a/b genotypes in patients with high levels of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14-3.28; P = 0.015); undergoing menopause with high levels of SGOT (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.84); and with high levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.56-8.22). The genotypes a/a-a/b are associated with BC susceptibility in the analyzed samples from the Mexican population.

Related: Breast Cancer


Alías-Melgar A, Neave-Sánchez E, Suárez-Cuenca JA, Morales-Covarrubias J
Association of urine oncofetal fibronectin levels with urology's most common disorders.
Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2013; 43(4):420-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Urine oncofetal fibronectin (OnfFN) has proven useful in the assessment of malignant diseases such as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. This study aimed to explore whether OnfFN may identify benign and common urinary diseases.
METHODS: The urine OnfFN concentrations from patients who had bladder TCC (8 patients), benign urinary diseases (10 benign prostatic enlargement [BPE] patients, 10 urolithiasis patients), or controls (10 healthy individuals) were determined by ELISA and compared.
RESULTS: The urine OnfFN concentration was significantly higher in patients with bladder TCC and lithiasis (mean ± SE 0.43 ± 0.18 and 0.45 ± 0.23 ug/mL) than in patients with BPE and in healthy individuals (0.15 ± 0.06 and 0.10 ± 0.02 ug/mL, p<0.05). The urine OnfFN level (cutoff value 0.038 μg/mL), was able to identify 75% of patients with bladder TCC, 60% of patients with BPE and 80% of patients with urolithiasis, achieving a sensitivity of 0.75 for the recognition of either cancer or a urinary disorder. The OnfFN level had a high sensitivity (0.9) for the identification of urolithiasis.
CONCLUSION: The urine OnfFN level proved helpful in the identification of bladder TCC patients. However, it had a better performance for the identification of urolithiasis, highlighting the potential usefulness of OnfFN as a biomarker for urothelial inflammation and repair.

Related: Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology


Martinez-Fierro ML, Garza-Veloz I, Rojas-Martinez A, et al.
Positive association between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -2578 C/A variant and prostate cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2013; 13(4):235-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene is an important angiogenesis regulator related to cancer development and progression. We evaluated the association between -2578 C/A (rs699947) VEGF polymorphism and PCa in Mexican subjects, to contribute to knowledge of VEGF role in genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer (PCa).
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between -2578 C/A VEGF variant and PCa in Mexican population.
METHODS: A total of 249 men (77 PCa cases and 172 controls) from the Northwestern region of Mexico were screened for the -2578 C/A VEGF variant. The polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction analysis.
RESULTS: Genotype frequencies for C/C, C/A, and A/A, were 0.48, 0.49, 0.03 for cases and 0.41, 0.45, 0.14 for controls respectively. Genotype A/A of -2578 VEGF variant reduces the risk of PCa in an 84% among studied population (Odds Ratio 0.16; 95% CI: 0.04-0.71, P=0.007). C/C carriers showed an increased PCa risk of 6.1 times among the study population.
CONCLUSIONS: Inheritance of -2578 A/A genotype of VEGF gene may modify PCa susceptibility risk in Mexican population.

Related: Prostate Cancer VEGFA


Howell CM, Davis MS, Callanan DL
Stepping outside the box: an adolescent with a new-onset seizure.
Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013; 29(9):1011-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
First-time seizures are frightening to children and their families, but the practice parameter recommends minimal evaluation in the emergency department (ED) for the child who presents in a neurologically normal state. We report a 12-year-old girl with seizure whose evaluation in the ED included a computed tomographic scan, largely because of parental anxiety. Computed tomography demonstrated a cerebral cavernous hemangioma or cavernoma. Because of the high recurrence risk of seizures with cavernomas, she was discharged from the ED with a prescription for an antiepileptic drug.


Elliott PF, Belinson SE, Ottolenghi E, et al.
Community health workers, social support and cervical cancer screening among high-risk groups in rural Mexico.
J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2013; 24(4):1448-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Rural Mexico has a low screening prevalence and high burden of cervical cancer. One strategy to increase screening coverage utilizes community health workers (CHWs) to recruit high-risk women and address barriers.
METHODS: We conducted a systematic cross-sectional survey of 196 women residing in Chiapas, Mexico who were recruited by either CHWs or traditional means for screening. This analysis compares 110 rural women's risk factors, attitudes and knowledge of cervical cancer and socioeconomic factors stratified by type of recruitment.
RESULTS: Women who were informed of screening by CHWs were more likely to be of high risk sub-groups and report higher scores of social support but were also more likely to endorse difficulty with access and fatalistic attitudes about cancer.
DISCUSSION: Utilizing CWHs results in increased screening among high-risk women and increased social support for screening among rural women, addressing a significant barrier, but may have limited effects on other barriers.

Related: Cervical Cancer Cervical Cancer Screening


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