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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 116.1m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 148,000
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 131.5
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:13.4%
People dying from cancer /yr: 78,700
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Mexico: Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications from Mexico

Mexico: Cancer Organisations and Resources (6 links)

Latest Research Publications from Mexico

Soto-Quintana O, Zúñiga-González GM, Ramírez-Patiño R, et al.
Association of the GSTM1 null polymorphism with breast cancer in a Mexican population.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):13066-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
The glutathione S transferase (GST) family plays an important role in the processing of carcinogens. Data on the null GSTM1 genotype has revealed associations with cancer, and has been suggested to affect carcinogen metabolism and to contribute to tumor promotion in the mammary gland. We examined the role of the null GSTM1 genotype by comparing the genotypes of 276 healthy Mexican women with those of 558 Mexican women with breast cancer (BC). The genotype frequencies observed in the controls and patients with BC were 38 and 45% for the null GSTM1 genotype, respectively. The obtained odds ratio (OR) was 1.36, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of 1.02-1.8, P = 0.04. The protective association was also evident upon analysis of the distributions of the null GSTM1 genotype in patients with positive chemotherapy response who had high plasma levels of glucose (OR 0.56, 95%CI = 0.33-0.94, P = 0.03). This study suggested that the null GSTM1 genotype is associated with BC susceptibility in the Mexican population analyzed.

Rice MS, Bertrand KA, Lajous M, et al.
Reproductive and lifestyle risk factors and mammographic density in Mexican women.
Ann Epidemiol. 2015; 25(11):868-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Several breast cancer risk factors have been consistently associated with mammographic density (MD); however, data are limited for Hispanic women.
METHODS: We examined data from 1007 premenopausal and 600 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teachers' Cohort. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and MD.
RESULTS: Among premenopausal women, age, current body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18 years, and weight change since age 18 years were inversely associated with percent MD, whereas benign breast disease, alcohol intake, and breastfeeding 12 months or more were associated with higher percent MD. Among postmenopausal women, age, current BMI, BMI at age 18 years, weight change since age 18 years, and speaking or having parents who speak an indigenous language were inversely associated with percent MD, whereas benign breast disease and greater age at natural menopause were positively associated with percent MD. Other breast cancer risk factors, such as age at menarche, parity, and age at first pregnancy, were not significantly associated with density in either premenopausal or postmenopausal women.
CONCLUSIONS: Results from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort are generally consistent with predictors of mammographic density observed in primarily non-Hispanic white populations; however, certain risk factors (e.g., parity) were not significantly associated with MD.

Gutiérrez-Monreal MA, Villela L, Baltazar S, et al.
A PER3 polymorphism is associated with better overall survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Mexican population.
Cancer Biomark. 2015; 15(5):699-705 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common subtype of malignant lymphoma. Presently, one of the most important clinical predictors of survival in DLBCL patients is the International Prognostic Index (IPI). Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24 hour biological rhythms with more than 10 genes making up the molecular clock.
OBJECTIVE: Determine if functional single nucleotide polymorphism in circadian genes may contribute to survival status in patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
METHODS: Sixteen high-risk non-synonymous polymorphisms in circadian genes (CLOCK, CRY2, CSNK1E, CSNK2A1, NPAS2, PER1, PER2, PER3, PPP2CA, and TIM) were genotyped by screening PCR. Results were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by two-direction sequencing. Clinical variables were compared between mutated and non-mutated groups. LogRank survival analysis and Kaplan-Meier method were used to calculate the overall survival.
RESULTS: PER3 rs10462020 variant showed significant difference in overall survival between patients containing mutated genotypes and those with non-mutated genotypes (p = 0.047). LDH levels (p = 0.021) and IPI score (p < 0.001) also showed differences in overall survival. No clinical differences were observed in mutated vs. non-mutated patients.
CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests a role of PER3 rs10462020 in predicting a prognosis in DLBCL overall survival of patients.

Pérez J, Iturbide E, Olivares V, et al.
A Data Preparation Methodology in Data Mining Applied to Mortality Population Databases.
J Med Syst. 2015; 39(11):152 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2016 Related Publications
It is known that the data preparation phase is the most time consuming in the data mining process, using up to 50% or up to 70% of the total project time. Currently, data mining methodologies are of general purpose and one of their limitations is that they do not provide a guide about what particular task to develop in a specific domain. This paper shows a new data preparation methodology oriented to the epidemiological domain in which we have identified two sets of tasks: General Data Preparation and Specific Data Preparation. For both sets, the Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) is adopted as a guideline. The main contribution of our methodology is fourteen specialized tasks concerning such domain. To validate the proposed methodology, we developed a data mining system and the entire process was applied to real mortality databases. The results were encouraging because it was observed that the use of the methodology reduced some of the time consuming tasks and the data mining system showed findings of unknown and potentially useful patterns for the public health services in Mexico.

Carrillo Mezo R, Lara García J, Arroyo M, Fleury A
Relevance of 3D magnetic resonance imaging sequences in diagnosing basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis.
Acta Trop. 2015; 152:60-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Imagenological diagnosis of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis is usually difficult when classical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences are used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of 3D MRI sequences (Fast Imaging Employing Steady-state Acquisition (FIESTA) and Spoiled Gradient Recalled Echo (SPGR)) with respect to classical sequences (Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and T1) in visualizing Taenia solium cyst in these locations. Forty-seven T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space were diagnosed in eighteen Mexican patients. A pre-treatment MRI was performed on all patients, and all four sequences (FIESTA, FLAIR, T1 SPGR, and T2) were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists. The sensitivity of each sequence to detect the parasite membrane and scolex was evaluated, along with its capacity to detect differences in signal intensity between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cysts. FIESTA sequences allowed the visualization of cyst membrane in 87.2% of the parasites evaluated, FLAIR in 38.3%, SPGR in 23.4%, and T2 in 17.0%. The superiority of FIESTA sequences over the other three imaging methods was statistically significant (P<0.001). Scolices were detected by FIESTA twice as much as the other sequences did, although this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Differences in signal intensity between CSF and parasite cysts were significant in FIESTA (P<0.0001), SPGR (P<0.0001), and FLAIR (P=0.005) sequences. For the first time, the usefulness of 3D MRI sequences to diagnose T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space was demonstrated. The routine use of these sequences could favor an earlier diagnosis and greatly improve the prognosis of patients affected by this severe form of the disease.

González-Herrera L, Gamas-Trujillo PA, Medina-Escobedo G, et al.
The Paraoxonase 1 Gene c.-108C>T SNP in the Promoter Is Associated with Risk for Glioma in Mexican Patients, but Not the p.L55M or p.Q192R Polymorphisms in the Coding Region.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2015; 19(9):494-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate the association of the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms c.-108C>T, p.L55M, and p.Q192R with the risk of glioma in Southeast Mexico. Decreased PON1 activity caused by polymorphisms has been observed in gliomas, thus supporting the theory that PON1 is involved in tumorigenesis in the brain.
METHODS: Sixty-seven glioma patients and 58 control individuals were included. Three PON1 polymorphisms were genotyped by real-time PCR allelic discrimination using TaqMan probes: c.-108C>T in the promoter region, p.Q192R and p.L55M, both of which were in the coding region. Allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies were assessed in cases and controls to test for statistical associations (STATA 10.2 package).
RESULTS: Significant differences were found for the PON1 c.-108C>T polymorphism between the cases and controls. Compared to the controls the cases were more likely to be CT heterozygous (p =  0.002) or TT homozygous (p = 0.036); similarly cases were more likely to possess a T allele (p = 0.032). In contrast, the p.L55M and p.Q192R polymorphisms did not show significant differences between the glioma cases and controls (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The PON1 c.-108C>T polymorphism in the promoter region is associated with genetic risk for glioma. Conversely, p.L55M and p.Q192R polymorphisms in the coding region do not seem to have an influence in this population.

Jaramillo-Rangel G, Ortega-Martínez M, Cerda-Flores RM, Barrera-Saldaña HA
Polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM3 genes and breast cancer risk in northeastern Mexico.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(2):6465-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of phase II metabolizing enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification and the metabolism of various bioactive compounds. Several genes that code for these enzymes are polymorphic in an ethnicity-dependent manner, with particular genotypes previously associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies of polymorphisms in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM3 and to investigate whether an association exists between these genes and breast cancer risk in subjects from northeastern Mexico. Genotypes were determined for 243 women with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 118 control subjects. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed using a DNA microarray. We found an increased breast cancer risk associated with the GSTM1 gene deletion polymorphism (OR = 2.19; 95%CI = 1.50-3.21; P = 0.001). No associations between the GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM3 genotypes and neoplasia risk were observed. In conclusion, we determined the genotype distribution of GST polymorphisms in control subjects and breast cancer patients from northeastern Mexico. The GSTM1 null genotype was associated with breast cancer risk. Our findings may be used to individualize breast cancer screening and therapeutic intervention in our population, which displays ethnic characteristics that differentiate it from other populations in Mexico.

Yunes-Díaz E, Ruiz PA, Lazcano-Ponce E
Assessment of the Validity and Reproducibility of the Pap Smear in Mexico: Necessity of a Paradigm Shift.
Arch Med Res. 2015; 46(4):310-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An assessment was performed of the quality of Pap readings in 19 cytology laboratories (CLs) in Mexico from the Cervical Cancer Screening Program.
METHODS: Nine CLs were affiliated with the Health Ministry (SSA), and ten were affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS). Two sets of 200 cervical cytology specimens were prepared, one set for each institution. Fourteen percent of the specimens were positive and six were inappropriate for diagnosis (3%). All cervical cytology specimens were processed in the cytopathology laboratory at the General Hospital of Mexico, and histopathology was available for each positive case.
RESULTS: Thirty percent of the SSA reading centers had a sensitivity of at least 80%; however, not one of the ten IMSS laboratories evaluated reached this figure. Some reading centers had a sensitivity <65%, meaning that nearly half of the specimens with a cytology consistent with cervical neoplasm were not identified.
DISCUSSION: Given these results, it is a priority to effect a paradigm shift combining various screening tests to improve adherence to standards and enhanced cost-effectiveness of the early detection of cervicouterine cancer (CC) in Mexico.

Recio-Vega R, Dena-Cazares JA, Ramirez-de la Peña JL, et al.
MRP1 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells in subjects with lung cancer who were chronically exposed to arsenic.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2015; 56(9):759-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alteration of multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1) expression has been associated with certain lung diseases, and this protein may be pivotal in protecting the lungs against endogenous or exogenous toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of MRP1 in bronchoalveolar cells from subjects with and without lung cancer who had been chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. MRP1 expression was assessed in bronchoalveolar cells in a total of 102 participants. MRP1 expression was significantly decreased in those with arsenic urinary levels >50 μg/L when compared with the controls. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure negatively correlates with the expression of MRP1 in BAL cells in patients with lung cancer.

Torres-Mejía G, Smith RA, Carranza-Flores Mde L, et al.
Radiographers supporting radiologists in the interpretation of screening mammography: a viable strategy to meet the shortage in the number of radiologists.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:410 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An alternative approach to the traditional model of radiologists interpreting screening mammography is necessary due to the shortage of radiologists to interpret screening mammograms in many countries.
METHODS: We evaluated the performance of 15 Mexican radiographers, also known as radiologic technologists, in the interpretation of screening mammography after a 6 months training period in a screening setting. Fifteen radiographers received 6 months standardized training with radiologists in the interpretation of screening mammography using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) system. A challenging test set of 110 cases developed by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium was used to evaluate their performance. We estimated sensitivity, specificity, false positive rates, likelihood ratio of a positive test (LR+) and the area under the subject-specific Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for diagnostic accuracy. A mathematical model simulating the consequences in costs and performance of two hypothetical scenarios compared to the status quo in which a radiologist reads all screening mammograms was also performed.
RESULTS: Radiographer's sensitivity was comparable to the sensitivity scores achieved by U.S. radiologists who took the test but their false-positive rate was higher. Median sensitivity was 73.3 % (Interquartile range, IQR: 46.7-86.7 %) and the median false positive rate was 49.5 % (IQR: 34.7-57.9 %). The median LR+ was 1.4 (IQR: 1.3-1.7 %) and the median AUC was 0.6 (IQR: 0.6-0.7). A scenario in which a radiographer reads all mammograms first, and a radiologist reads only those that were difficult for the radiographer, was more cost-effective than a scenario in which either the radiographer or radiologist reads all mammograms.
CONCLUSIONS: Given the comparable sensitivity achieved by Mexican radiographers and U.S. radiologists on a test set, screening mammography interpretation by radiographers appears to be a possible adjunct to radiologists in countries with shortages of radiologists. Further studies are required to assess the effectiveness of different training programs in order to obtain acceptable screening accuracy, as well as the best approaches for the use of non-physician readers to interpret screening mammography.

Jiménez-Hernández E, Jaimes-Reyes EZ, Arellano-Galindo J, et al.
Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia under Treatment with the Protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 00-01.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:576950 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2016 Related Publications
Our aim in this paper is to describe the results of treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Mexican children treated from 2006 to 2010 under the protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) 00-01. The children were younger than 16 years of age and had a diagnosis of ALL de novo. The patients were classified as standard risk if they were 1-9.9 years old and had a leucocyte count <50 × 10(9)/L, precursor B cell immunophenotype, no mediastinal mass, CSF free of blasts, and a good response to prednisone. The rest of the patients were defined as high risk. Of a total of 302 children, 51.7% were at high risk. The global survival rate was 63.9%, and the event-free survival rate was 52.3% after an average follow-up of 3.9 years. The percentages of patients who died were 7% on induction and 14.2% in complete remission; death was associated mainly with infection (21.5%). The relapse rate was 26.2%. The main factor associated with the occurrence of an event was a leucocyte count >100 × 10(9)/L. The poor outcomes were associated with toxic death during induction, complete remission, and relapse. These factors remain the main obstacles to the success of this treatment in our population.

Asencio-López L, Torres-Ojeda AA, Isaac-Otero G, Leal-Leal CA
Treating retinoblastoma in the first year of life in a national tertiary paediatric hospital in Mexico.
Acta Paediatr. 2015; 104(9):e384-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Retinoblastoma is the most common primary ocular malignancy in childhood, but little has been documented on the clinical and biological differences in children diagnosed before one year of age. We observed patients in this age group and followed them for up to 19 years.
METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive, observational study reviewed the medical records of Mexican patients, who were diagnosed with retinoblastoma before one year of age at a national paediatric hospital from 1995 to 2014. The variables analysed were age at diagnosis, weight, presenting signs, the time from first symptoms to diagnosis, family history, laterality, ocular rescue and survival rate.
RESULTS: The 108 patients had a mean age of 7.65 months and 15.7% had a family history of retinoblastoma. The majority (55.5%) had bilateral retinoblastoma, the most common presenting sign was leukocoria (86.1%), and the most common stage of diagnosis was Group V (84.1%). More than half were underweight for their age. The overall survival rate was 92% and the disease-free survival rate was 84%.
CONCLUSION: Retinoblastoma is a malignancy that can be present at birth, especially if it is a bilateral hereditary form of the disease. Leukocoria was the main presenting sign. Early diagnosis dramatically improved the prognosis for ocular rescue.

Ortiz-Ortiz J, Alarcón-Romero Ldel C, Jiménez-López MA, et al.
Association of human papillomavirus 16 E6 variants with cervical carcinoma and precursor lesions in women from Southern Mexico.
Virol J. 2015; 12:29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: HPV 16 is the cause of cervical carcinoma, but only a small fraction of women with HPV infection progress to this pathology. Besides persistent infection and HPV integration, several studies have suggested that HPV intratype variants may contribute to the development of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nucleotide variability and phylogenetically classify HPV 16 E6 variants circulating over a period of 16 years in women from Southern Mexico, and to analyze its association with precursor lesions and cervical carcinoma.
METHODS: This study was conducted in 330 cervical DNA samples with HPV 16 from women who were residents of the State of Guerrero, located in Southern Mexico. According of cytological and/or histological diagnosis, samples were divided into the following four groups: no intraepithelial lesion (n = 97), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (n = 123), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (n = 19) and cervical carcinoma (n = 91). HPV 16 E6 gene was amplified, sequenced and aligned with reference sequence (HPV 16R) and a phylogenetic tree was constructed to identify and classify HPV 16 variants. Chi squared was used and data analysis and statistics were done with SPSS Statistics and STATA softwares.
RESULTS: Twenty seven HPV 16 E6 variants were detected in women from Southern Mexico, 82.12% belonged to the EUR, 17.58% to AA1 and 0.3% to Afr2a sublineages. The most common was E-G350 (40%), followed by E-prototype (13.03%), E-C188/G350 (11.82%), AA-a (10.61%), AA-c (6.07%) and E-A176/G350 (5.15%). Eight new E6 variants were found and 2 of them lead to amino acid change: E-C183/G350 (I27T) and E-C306/G350 (K68T). The HPV 16 variant that showed the greatest risk of leading to the development of CC was AA-a (OR = 69.01, CI = 7.57-628.96), followed by E-A176/G350 (OR = 39.82, CI = 4.11-386.04), AA-c (OR = 21.16, CI 2.59-172.56), E-G350 (OR = 13.25, CI = 2.02-87.12) and E-C188/G350 (OR = 10.48, CI = 1.39-78.92).
CONCLUSIONS: The variants more frequently found in women with cervical carcinoma are E-G350, AA-a, AA-c, E-C188/G350 and E-A176/G350. All of them are associated with the development of cervical carcinoma, however, AA-a showed the highest association. This study reinforces the proposal that HPV 16 AA-a is an oncogenic risk for cervical carcinoma progression in Mexico.

Torres-Jasso JH, Marín ME, Santiago-Luna E, et al.
EGFR gene polymorphisms -216G>T and -191C>A are risk markers for gastric cancer in Mexican population.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(1):1802-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein with tyrosine-kinase activity that plays an important role in multiple cellular functions. EGFR overexpression has been observed in several types of tumors and it is significantly associated with disease stage, survival, prognosis, and progression of cancer. The polymorphisms -216G>T, -191C>A, and (CA)n first intervening sequence (IVS1) have been related to EGFR overexpression and have been studied in several types of cancer, but not in gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to determine the association of these 3 polymorphisms and GC. Genomic DNA from 68 GC patients and 102 healthy blood donors were analyzed. Polymorphisms were identified by DNA-sequencing (-216G>T and -191C>A) and GeneScan (CA)n IVS1. The results showed that the distribution of the -216G>T and -191C>A genotypes differed between groups (P < 0.05). The odds ratio for the -216TT genotype was 4.59 (95% confidence interval = 1.55-13.54, P < 0.05) and 10.71 (95% confidence interval = 2.31-49.59, P < 0.05) for the -191AA genotype, both in a recessive model. The genotype and allele distributions of the (CA)n IVS1 repeat was similar in both groups. In conclusion, the -216TT and -191AA genotypes and GA haplotype of the EGFR gene were found to be associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer in a Mexican population.

Jiménez-Hernández E, Dueñas-González MT, Arellano-Galindo J, et al.
Survival of Mexican children with acute myeloid leukaemia who received early intensification chemotherapy and an autologous transplant.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:940278 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment.
PROCEDURE: This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 2005-2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 1999-2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy.
RESULTS: Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P = 0.041). Overall survival for Group A (18, 90%) was higher than that for Group B (60%). Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy.

Quevedo EG, Aguilar GM, Aguilar LA, et al.
Polymorphisms rs12998 and rs5780218 in KiSS1 suppressor metastasis gene in Mexican patients with breast cancer.
Dis Markers. 2015; 2015:365845 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2016 Related Publications
AIMS: KiSS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene associated with inhibition of cellular chemotaxis and invasion attenuating the metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer cell lines. Along the KiSS-1 gene at least 294 SNPs have been described; however the association of these polymorphisms as genetic markers for metastasis in breast cancer studies has not been investigated. Here we describe two simple PCR-RFLPs protocols to identify the rs5780218 (9DelT) and the rs12998 (E20K) KiSS1 polymorphisms and the allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic frequencies in Mexican general population (GP) and patients with benign breast disease (BBD) or breast cancer (BC).
RESULTS: The rs5780218 polymorphism was individually associated with breast cancer (P = 0.0332) and the rs12998 polymorphism shows statistically significant differences when GP versus case (BC and BBD) groups were compared (P < 0.0001). The H1 Haplotype (G/-) occurred more frequently in BC group (0.4256) whereas H2 haplotype (G/T) was the most prevalent in BBD group (0.4674).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that the rs5780218 polymorphism individually confers susceptibility for development of breast cancer in Mexican population and a possible role as a genetic marker in breast cancer metastasis for H1 haplotype (Wt/variant) in KiSS1 gene must be analyzed in other populations.

Rendón-Macías ME, Valencia-Ramón EA, Fajardo-Gutiérrez A, Rivera-Flores E
Childhood lymphoma incidence patterns by ICCC-3 subtype in Mexico City metropolitan area population insured by Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 1996-2010.
Cancer Causes Control. 2015; 26(6):849-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We reviewed the childhood lymphomas epidemiological data for the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA).
METHODS: Data analysis from children (0-14 years old) diagnosed with lymphoma during the period 1996-2010 was performed at the Mexican Childhood Cancer Registry. Histological subtype was determined according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer 3 (ICCC-3). Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated per 1,000,000 children/year by age, gender, and ICCC-3 subtype; trends, by average annual percent change (AAPC).
RESULTS: A total of 328 lymphoma cases included in the study had an incidence rate of 11.8, showing a decreasing trend [AAPC: -3.5; CI 95% (-5.9, -1.0)], primarily due to non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) mixed cellularity subtype. NHL had the major incidence (5.8), with the precursor cell subtype being the most frequent (38.3%). Nodular sclerosis was the most frequent HL subtype. The incidence of Burkitt lymphoma was low (1.3). During the study period, there was an important reduction in the not-otherwise-specified subtype of NHL, which translated into a relative increase in the IIb3 subtype [AAPC: 7.3 (1.2, 13.8)]. Low incidences of NHL and of HL and NHL were found for < 1-year-olds and for 10- to 14-year-olds, respectively. Incidence rates for children in the MCMA, particularly the < 1 and 10-14 age groups, were lower than those for developed countries. The overall male/female ratio was 2.3.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a trend toward a reduced incidence, for some lymphoma subtypes, in particular for NOS lymphomas, which may be the result of improvement in diagnostic techniques.

Bargalló-Rocha JE, Lara-Medina F, Pérez-Sánchez V, et al.
Cost-effectiveness of the 21-gene breast cancer assay in Mexico.
Adv Ther. 2015; 32(3):239-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The 21-gene breast cancer assay (Oncotype DX(®); Genomic Health, Inc.) is a validated diagnostic test that predicts the likelihood of adjuvant chemotherapy benefit and 10-year risk of distant recurrence in patients with hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth receptor 2-negative, early-stage breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using the assay to inform adjuvant chemotherapy decisions in Mexico.
METHODS: A Markov model was developed to make long-term projections of distant recurrence, survival, and direct costs in scenarios using conventional diagnostic procedures or the 21-gene assay to inform adjuvant chemotherapy recommendations. Transition probabilities and risk adjustment were taken from published landmark trials. Costs [2011 Mexican Pesos (MXN)] were estimated from an Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social perspective. Costs and clinical benefits were discounted at 5% annually.
RESULTS: Following assay testing, approximately 66% of patients previously receiving chemotherapy were recommended to receive hormone therapy only after consideration of assay results. Furthermore, approximately 10% of those previously allocated hormone therapy alone had their recommendation changed to add chemotherapy. This optimized therapy allocation led to improved mean life expectancy by 0.068 years per patient and increased direct costs by MXN 1707 [2011 United States Dollars (USD) 129] per patient versus usual care. This is equated to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of MXN 25,244 (USD 1914) per life-year gained.
CONCLUSION: In early-stage breast cancer patients in Mexico, guiding decision making on adjuvant therapy using the 21-gene assay was projected to improve life expectancy in comparison with the current standard of care, with an ICER of MXN 25,244 (USD 1914) per life-year gained, which is within the range generally considered cost-effective.

Gutierrez-Rubio SA, Quintero-Ramos A, Durán-Cárdenas A, et al.
1236 C/T and 3435 C/T polymorphisms of the ABCB1 gene in Mexican breast cancer patients.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(1):1250-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MDR1, which is encoded by the ABCB1 gene, is involved in multidrug resistance (hydrophobic), as well as the elimination of xenotoxic agents. The association between ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in different populations has been described previously; however, the results have been inconclusive. In this study, we examined the association between polymorphisms 3435 C/T and 1236 C/T in the ABCB1 gene and breast cancer development in Mexican women according to their menopausal status and molecular classification. Molecular subtypes as well as allele and genotype frequencies were analyzed. A total of 248 women with initial breast cancer diagnosis and 180 ethnically matched, healthy, unrelated individuals were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to detect polymorphisms 3435 C/T and 1236 C/T in the ABCB1 gene. Premenopausal T allele carriers of the 3435 C/T polymorphism showed a 2-fold increased risk of breast cancer with respect to the reference and postmenopausal groups, as well as triple-negative expression regarding the luminal A/B molecular subrogated subtypes. In contrast, the CT genotype of the 1236 polymorphism was a protective factor against breast cancer. We conclude that the T allele carrier of the 3435 C/T polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene in combination with an estrogen receptor-negative status may be an important risk factor for breast cancer development in premenopausal women.

Ramírez-Ramírez R, Gutiérrez-Angulo M, Magaña MT, et al.
Effect of ZNF217 gene polymorphisms on colorectal cancer development in a Mexican population.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(1):362-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ZNF217 gene, a potential oncogene amplified and overexpressed in several cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC), acts as a transcription factor that activates or represses target genes. The polymorphisms rs16998248 (T>A) and rs35720349 (C>T) in coronary artery disease have been associated with reduced expression of ZNF217. In this study, we analyzed the 2 polymorphisms in Mexican patients with CRC. Genotyping of rs16998248 and rs35720349 sites was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 203 Mexican Mestizos, 101 CRC patients, and 102 healthy blood donors. Although no statistical differences regarding genotype and allele frequencies of ZNF217 polymorphisms were observed (P > 0.05), linkage disequilibrium was significant in CRC patients (r(2) = 0.39, P < 0.0001), as a result of reduced AC haplotype frequency. Thus, the AC haplotype may protect against CRC.

Doubova SV, Aguirre-Hernandez R, Infante-Castañeda C, et al.
Needs of caregivers of cancer patients: validation of the Mexican version of the Support Person Unmet Needs Survey (SPUNS-SFM).
Support Care Cancer. 2015; 23(10):2925-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to validate the Mexican version of the Support Person Unmet Needs Survey (SPUNS-SFM).
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey that included 826 primary caregivers of cancer patients was conducted from June to December 2013 at the Oncology Hospital of the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Mexico City. The validation procedure comprised (1) content validity through a group of experts; (2) construct validity through an exploratory factor analysis based on the polychoric correlation matrix; (3) internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha; (4) convergent validity between SPUNS-SFM and quality of life, anxiety-and-depression scales by calculating Spearman's rank correlation coefficient;( 5) discriminative validity through the Wilcoxon rank-sum test; and (6) test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient.
RESULTS: SPUNS-SFM has 23 items with six factors accounting for 65 % of the total variance. The domains were concerns about the future, access and continuity of healthcare, information, work and finance, and personal and emotional needs. Cronbach's alpha values ranged from 0.70 to 0.88 among factors. SPUNS-SFM had moderate convergent validity compared with quality of life and depression-and-anxiety scales and good discriminative validity, revealing high needs for younger caregivers and more emotional needs for caregivers of patients with advanced cancer stages. Intraclass correlation coefficient between SPUNS-SFM measurements was 0.78.
CONCLUSION: SPUNS-SFM is a valid and reliable tool to identify needs of caregivers of cancer patients.

Villarreal-Garza C, Weitzel JN, Llacuachaqui M, et al.
The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among young Mexican women with triple-negative breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 150(2):389-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2016 Related Publications
Various guidelines recommend that women with triple-negative breast cancer should be tested for BRCA1 mutations, but the prevalence of mutations may vary with ethnic group and with geographic region, and the optimal cutoff age for testing has not been established. We estimated the frequencies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among 190 women with triple-negative breast cancer, unselected for family history, diagnosed at age 50 or less at a single hospital in Mexico City. Patients were screened for 115 recurrent BRCA mutations, which have been reported previously in women of Hispanic origin, including a common large rearrangement Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del). A BRCA mutation was detected in 44 of 190 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (23 %). Forty-three mutations were found in BRCA1 and one mutation was found in BRCA2. Seven different mutations accounted for 39 patients (89 % of the total mutations). The Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del) was found 18 times and accounted for 41 % of all mutations detected. There is a high prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young triple-negative breast cancer patients in Mexico. Women with triple-negative breast cancer in Mexico should be screened for mutations in BRCA1.

Tejada-Tayabas LM, Salcedo LA, Espino JM
Medical therapeutic itineraries of women with breast cancer diagnosis affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico.
Cad Saude Publica. 2015; 31(1):60-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to describe the medical itineraries followed by breast cancer women affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico. We used an ethnographic approach based on oral histories of 12 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the year prior to the first meeting. Two face-to-face sessions per participant lasting 60 minutes each were conducted followed by a telephone interview. Content and diachronic analyses were used. Three main itineraries were identified: (1) diagnostic process, (2) final diagnosis to treatment, and (3) cancer control and relapse. Findings suggested that infrastructure and human resources to adequately screen and timely diagnose breast cancer were scant and insufficiently trained, respectively. Deferral of medical assessment was related with lack of information about breast cancer consequences, with women being afraid of a positive result, and with economic constraints. The current screening program needs to be redesigned to prevent diagnostic delays, as these seem to explain the high frequency of advanced stages reported at the time of diagnosis.

Aguilar-Lemarroy A, Vallejo-Ruiz V, Cortés-Gutiérrez EI, et al.
Human papillomavirus infections in Mexican women with normal cytology, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer: type-specific prevalence and HPV coinfections.
J Med Virol. 2015; 87(5):871-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) provides the basis for designing HPV prevention programs. The prevalence rates of type-specific HPV and coinfections in samples of Mexican women were investigated in 822 women aged 18-87 years. HPV detection was performed using a Linear Array™ genotyping test. HPV infection was found in 12.4% of controls, 46.3% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, and 100% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or cervical cancer. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all diagnosis groups. The HPV types most frequently found in cervical cancers were 16, 18, 45, 52, 58, and 39; HPV types 16, 62, 51, 84, 18, 53, and CP6108 were the most prevalent in control women. Considering HPV-positive samples only, coinfections occurred most often in controls (63%) and were less frequent in those with cervical cancer (26%). The most frequent viral types in coinfections with HPV 16 in control women were HPV 62, 51, and 84; in women with cervical cancers, HPV 18, 39, and 70 were most common. In conclusion, in addition to HPV types 16 and 18, types 45, 39, 58, 52, and 71 were found in cervical cancers in Mexican women (78%); among them, only 65% were attributable to HPV types 16 and 18. Therefore, it is necessary to consider these viral types in the design of new vaccines, and to determine whether certain HPV types coinfecting with HPV 16 in precursor lesions determine tumor progression or regression.

Gopar-Nieto R, Aguilar-Madrid G, Sotelo-Martínez L, et al.
Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Accuracy of CT Against Immunohistochemical Test Among the Mexican Population.
Arch Med Res. 2015; 46(2):107-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos. The incidence is expected to increase as the use of asbestos is not prohibited in many countries, such as in Mexico. We undertook this study to determine sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios of computed tomography (CT) in a sample from Mexican population with suspected MPM and other pleuropulmonary diseases.
METHODS: CT films of 38 patients suspected of having MPM were analyzed. A single observer was blinded to MPM diagnoses. The frequencies of ten CT findings were identified. A cut-off point of ≥5 CT findings was established to determine high MPM probability. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratio of the CT against biopsy using immunohistochemical testing (IHC) for MPM were calculated.
RESULTS: Of the 38 patients, 31 had MPM and seven had lung adenocarcinoma. The five key findings were mediastinal pleural thickening 96.7% (n = 30), nodular pleural thickening 93.3% (n = 29), pleural mass 83.9% (n = 26), diminished lung 70.9% (n = 22) and contracted hemithorax 70.9% (n = 22). Sensitivity 96.8% (83.2-99.4), specificity 85.7% (42.2-97.6), positive likelihood ratio 6.7 (1.1-41.6), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.04 (0.01-0.2) were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity and specificity in this study was greater than previously reported, 96.8% and 85.7 vs. 93.2 and 65.6%, respectively. CT is an easily accessible and useful tool that should be incorporated into the medical education of general physicians to improve MPM diagnosis of suspected cases.

Villarreal-Garza C, Soto-Perez-de-Celis E, Sifuentes E, et al.
Outcomes of Hispanic women with lymph-node positive, HER2 positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab in Mexico.
Breast. 2015; 24(3):218-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Evidence regarding the outcomes of Hispanic women with breast cancer is lacking. We analyzed women with HER2+ disease treated with trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Mexico.
METHODS: 244 patients were included. Outcomes were compared between patients who achieved pathologic complete response (pCR) (n = 119), or less than pCR (n = 125). Patients with noninvasive (ypT0/is, ypN0) residual disease were also analyzed.
RESULTS: 119 (48.8%) patients achieved pCR. pCR was the only factor associated with improved 3 year survival (98.1% vs 92.3%: P = 0.02). Survival was better in patients with ypT0/is, ypN0 response than in those with residual invasive disease (p < 0.01). 3 year survival was 98.1% for patients with pCR and 92.6% for patients with ypTis, ypN0 response (p = 0.64).
CONCLUSIONS: Response rates to trastuzumab based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Hispanics mimic that of other ethnic groups. This underlines the fact that access to treatment, rather than ethnicity, is the main prognostic factor in this population.

Candelaria M, Labardini-Mendez J, Ramírez-Ibarguen AF, et al.
Impact of a federal program on response rate & survival, in a cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Analysis in a single national reference institution in México.
Rev Invest Clin. 2014 Sep-Oct; 66(5):399-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
The actual standard of care of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) includes rituximab in combination with chemotherapy, with response rates up to 76%. However, this treatment may not be accessible to many patients, particularly in developing countries, where most of the treatment must be paid from the pocket of patients or their families. In México, since 2011 a federal program has fully covered this treatment of patients with DLBCL. At the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan) in Mexico City, 214 new cases with this disease were treated without cost with the standard of care in 20 months. The mean age at diagnosis was 56.7 ± 15.9 (22-91). This series of cases was compared with a retrospective analysis of cases with DLBCL attended at the INCan between 2006-2009. A total of 264 cases were retrospectively analyzed. No differences were found in demographic and clinical characteristics at time of diagnosis. However a clear positive impact was found in the group that received full treatment thanks to this new social coverage by this new social security program. The follow-up and completion of treatment was 99 %. In contrast; from 264 in the retrospective group (79%) were treated, but only 29 (10.9%) were able to receive an optimal treatment, including rituximab. These differences in treatments had a clearly impact on the response rate: 66.8 vs. 50.7% global response (full treatment vs. retrospective group, respectively). These results demonstrate the importance of social programs that may accessible standard treatment options in countries with limited resources.

Bekker-Méndez VC, Miranda-Peralta E, Núñez-Enríquez JC, et al.
Prevalence of gene rearrangements in Mexican children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population study-report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukemia.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:210560 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2016 Related Publications
Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010-2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children.

Macías-Gómez NM, Peralta-Leal V, Meza-Espinoza JP, et al.
Polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene and breast cancer risk in the Mexican population.
Fam Cancer. 2015; 14(3):349-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate the association of XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms with susceptibility to breast cancer (BC) in a Mexican population. We analysed DNA samples from 345 BC patients and 352 control subjects by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequency of the 399Gln allele was 23% in controls and 29% in patients [OR 1.38 (1.08-1.76); p = 0.01]; genotypes in controls were 60, 36, and 4% for Arg/Arg, Arg/Gln, and Gln/Gln, respectively, while in patients they were 53, 36, and 11% [OR 2.71 (1.44-5.10); p = 0.0015 for the Gln/Gln genotype]. Regarding the Arg194Trp polymorphism, the frequency of Trp allele was 15% in controls and 16% in patients [OR 1.09 (0.82-1.46); p = 0.54]; the genotype frequencies in controls were 74, 23, and 3% for Arg/Arg, Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp, respectively, while in patients these were 73, 23, and 4% [OR 1.41 (0.64-3.14); p = 0.39 for the Trp/Trp genotype]. Allele frequencies were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p = 0.20 for Arg194Trp and p = 0.54 for Arg399Gln). Our results indicate that the 399Gln polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of BC. Additionally, we found that some covariates increase the risk of BC in Mexican women; namely, antecedent of abortions [OR 3.69 (2.17-6.27); p < 0.001], not breastfeeding [OR 2.46 (1.45-4.18); p = 0.001], family history of BC [OR 15.9 (5.09-50.23); p < 0.001], other type of family cancer [OR 31.5 (12.5-79.3); p < 0.001], alcoholism [OR 17.7 (5.2-60.42); p < 0.001], type 2 diabetes mellitus [OR 2.28 (1.26-4.10); p = 0.007], and contraceptive use [OR 2.28 (1.26-4.10); p < 0.001].

Doubova SV, Aguirre-Hernandez R, Gutiérrez-de la Barrera M, et al.
Supportive care needs of Mexican adult cancer patients: validation of the Mexican version of the Short-Form Supportive Care Needs Questionnaire (SCNS-SFM).
Support Care Cancer. 2015; 23(9):2711-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to validate the Mexican version of the Short-Form Supportive Care Needs survey (SCNS-SFM).
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to December 2013 at the Oncology Hospital of the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Mexico City. The study included 825 subsequent cancer patients >20 years of age with all forms of solid cancer. Patients had prior surgical removal of histologically confirmed cancer and attended outpatient consultations. Validation of SCNS-SFM included the following: (1) content validity through a group of experts; (2) construct validity through an exploratory factor analysis based on the polychoric correlation matrix; (3) internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha; (4) convergent validity between SCNS-SFM and quality of life, anxiety, and depression scales by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient; (5) discriminative validity through analysis of MANOVAs; and (6) test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient calculations.
RESULTS: SCNS-SFM has 33 items with five factors accounting for 59 % of total variance. Cronbach's alpha values ranged from 0.78 to 0.90 among factors. SCNS-SFM has good convergent validity compared with quality of life and depression and anxiety scales and good discriminative validity, revealing great information, psychological support, and physical daily living needs for women, patients <60 years, and high physical daily living needs for those with <1 year since cancer diagnosis, with advanced disease stages and current chemo- or radiotherapy. Intraclass correlation coefficient between SCNS-SFM measurements was 0.9.
CONCLUSION: SCNS-SFM has acceptable psychometric properties and is suitable to evaluate supportive care needs of cancer patients.

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