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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 41.1m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 115,200
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 216.7
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:21.8%
People dying from cancer /yr: 66,400
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Cancer Organisations & Resources
Latest Research Publications from Argentina

Cancer Organisations & Resources (8 links)

Latest Research Publications from Argentina

Venezuela RF, Monetti MS, Kiguen AX, et al.
Knowledge of the General Community in Cordoba, Argentina, on Human Papilloma Virus Infection and its Prevention.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(5):2689-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Most studies of human papilloma virus (HPV) are aimed at the natural history of the infection and its relation to cancer; however, there are few studies to assess knowledge of the general population. Our aim was analyze the degree of knowledge of Argentinians about HPV infection and its prevention.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a voluntary, anonymous and non-binding survey with 27 multiple-choice items, in twelve private and public establishments, selected to include a broad population in terms of education, age and gender. The survey consisted of three sections: individual characteristics of the volunteer, HPV infection basic knowledge, its prevention and the virus relationship with other cancers.
RESULTS: One thousand two hundred ninety seven volunteers aged 18 to 80 participated. The total number of correct answers was 45.1%. The correct answers for relationship HPV and cervical cancer was 62.1%. Almost 55% did not know about types of HPV that the vaccines for protection. Statistical analysis showed that women, single people, workers, the better educated, those who have had a STDs or HPV and receiving information through medical or educational establishments had greater knowledge of the topic. Only 0.2% of participants answered all questions correctly.
CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge plays an important role in health care and the deficiency found in our population could influence the success of the measures taken in the fight against cervical cancer. In this regard, we believe it would be appropriate, not only to emphasize early diagnosis and vaccine implementation, but also incorporate new communication strategies, facilitating reception of accurate and precise information by all strata of society.

Berg WA, Bandos AI, Mendelson EB, et al.
Ultrasound as the Primary Screening Test for Breast Cancer: Analysis From ACRIN 6666.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; 108(4) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mammography is not widely available in all countries, and breast cancer incidence is increasing. We considered performance characteristics using ultrasound (US) instead of mammography to screen for breast cancer.
METHODS: Two thousand eight hundred nine participants were enrolled at 20 sites in the United States, Canada, and Argentina in American College of Radiology Imaging 6666. Two thousand six hundred sixty-two participants completed three annual screens (7473 examinations) with US and film-screen (n = 4351) or digital (n = 3122) mammography and had biopsy or 12-month follow-up. Cancer detection, recall, and positive predictive values were determined. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: One hundred ten women had 111 breast cancer events: 89 (80.2%) invasive cancers, median size 12 mm. The number of US screens to detect one cancer was 129 (95% bootstrap confidence interval [CI] = 110 to 156), and for mammography 127 (95% CI = 109 to 152). Cancer detection was comparable for each of US and mammography at 58 of 111 (52.3%) vs 59 of 111 (53.2%, P = .90), with US-detected cancers more likely invasive (53/58, 91.4%, median size 12 mm, range = 2-40 mm), vs mammography at 41 of 59 (69.5%, median size 13 mm, range = 1-55 mm, P < .001). Invasive cancers detected by US were more frequently node-negative, 34 of 53 (64.2%) vs 18 of 41 (43.9%) by mammography (P = .003). For 4814 incidence screens (years 2 and 3), US had higher recall and biopsy rates and lower PPV of biopsy (PPV3) than mammography: The recall rate was 10.7% (n = 515) vs 9.4% (n = 453, P = .03), the biopsy rate was 5.5% (n = 266) vs 2.0% (n = 97, P < .001), and PPV3 was 11.7% (31/266) vs 38.1% (37/97, P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: Cancer detection rate with US is comparable with mammography, with a greater proportion of invasive and node-negative cancers among US detections. False positives are more common with US screening.

Piñero F, Marciano S, Anders M, et al.
Identifying patients at higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation in a multicenter cohort study from Argentina.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016; 28(4):421-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The Up-to-7 criteria on the basis of the explanted liver features categorize patients at higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study was to propose a novel pretransplant scoring system to predict recurrence including pre-LT data.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 763 consecutive adult patients who underwent transplantation in four LT centers from Argentina, 124 patients with HCC were included. A scoring system was developed in 87 patients from pre-LT risk factors for recurrence as determined by hazard ratios (HRs) from a multivariate Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS: Overall survival and recurrence rates at 5 years were 63.3 and 13.7%, respectively, during a follow-up period of 3.5±2.2 years. Variables associated with HCC recurrence on multivariate analysis were α-fetoprotein more than 100 ng/ml (HR=5.6, P=0.001) and tumor beyond Up-to-7 imaging criteria (HR=6.3, P=0.001). Bootstrap validation showed that overfitting was negligible. Scoring points were assigned as follows (0-2 points): pre-LT α-fetoprotein more than 100 ng/ml (presence=1 point, absence=0 point), and tumor beyond Up-to-7 imaging criteria (presence=1 point, absence=0 point). AUROC curve indicated a c-statistic of 0.74 (0.58-0.88, P=0.003). Two distinct subgroups of patients were identified with a cut-off more than or equal to 1 point (62% sensitivity and 82% specificity): low risk (0 point) and high risk (1-2 points). The 5-year recurrence rate was 9.4 and 44.5% (P=0.0001) and the 5-year overall survival was 78.1 and 34.8% (P=0.0001) in the low-risk and high-risk groups, respectively.
CONCLUSION: This scoring model may be a useful additional tool for HCC recurrence risk stratification before LT. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate our model.

Marín HM, Torres C, Deluca GD, Mbayed VA
Human papillomavirus detection in Corrientes, Argentina: High prevalence of type 58 and its phylodynamics.
Rev Argent Microbiol. 2015 Oct-Dec; 47(4):302-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has the highest mortality rate due to cervical cancer in Northeastern Argentina. The aim of this work was to detect and characterize HPV in samples from the Province of Corrientes, Argentina. HPV detection and typing was performed using PCR-RFLP on samples with different cervical lesions (n=255). Seventeen viruses typified as HPV-58 were sequenced (E6 and E7 genes) and mutations were analyzed. HPV DNA was detected in 56.1% of the cervical lesions (143/255). Twenty-two different HPV types were detected. The type most frequently found among the total number of samples and HPV-positive samples was HPV-16 (14.5% and 25.9%, respectively), followed by HPV-58 (8.2%/14.7%, respectively), which is also considered a high-risk viral type. Increased severity of the cytological status was associated with greater rates of HPV detection and, especially, with the detection of greater rates of high-risk types. In addition, the evolutionary dynamics of the alpha-9 species group and HPV-58 was studied. All HPV-58 viruses reported in this work belonged to lineage A, sublineage A2. The phylodynamic analysis indicated that diversification of main groups within lineage A might have accompanied or preceded human migrations across the globe. Given that the most prevalent viruses found belonged to high-risk HPV types, some concerns might arise about the extent of cross protection of the vaccines against the types not included in their design.

Ojha RP, Stallings-Smith S, Aviles-Robles MJ, et al.
Incidence and case-fatality of varicella-zoster virus infection among pediatric cancer patients in developing countries.
Eur J Pediatr. 2016; 175(4):581-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Limited evidence is available about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection among pediatric cancer patients in developing countries, which raises questions about the generalizability of VZV vaccine recommendations for pediatric cancer patients (derived from developed countries) to these settings. We assessed the incidence and case-fatality of VZV infection at three institutions in developing countries (Argentina, Mexico, and Nicaragua). Individuals eligible for our study were aged <20 years and actively receiving cancer-directed therapy. We estimated a summary incidence rate (IR) and case-fatality risk with corresponding 95 % confidence limits (CL) of VZV infection across sites using random-effects models. Our study population comprised 511 pediatric cancer patients, of whom 64 % were aged <10 years, 58 % were male, and 58 % were diagnosed with leukemia. We observed a total of 10 infections during 44,401 person-days of follow-up across the 3 sites (IR = 2.3, 95 % CL 1.2, 4.2). The summary case-fatality risk was 10 % (95 % CL 1.4, 47 %) based on one death.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest low incidence and case-fatality of VZV infections among pediatric cancer patients in three developing countries. VZV vaccine recommendations for pediatric cancer patients in developed countries may be generalizable to developing countries.
WHAT IS KNOWN: • Current recommendations, based on evidence from pediatric cancer patients in developed countries, contraindicate varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccination until completion of cancer-directed therapy and recovery of immune function. • The generalizability of these VZV vaccine recommendations to pediatric cancer patients in developing countries is unknown because of limited information about the incidence and case-fatality of VZV in these settings. What is New: • Our results suggest low incidence and case-fatality of VZV infections among pediatric cancer patients in three developing countries. • VZV vaccine recommendations based on evidence from pediatric cancer patients in developed countries may be generalizable to pediatric cancer patients in developing countries.

Hasenahuer MA, Parisi G, Gautier M, et al.
Twenty-One Novel EGFR Kinase Domain variants in Patients with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer.
Ann Hum Genet. 2015; 79(6):385-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatic sequence variants in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain are associated with sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients exhibiting sequence variants in this domain that produce kinase activity enhancement, are more likely to benefit from TKIs than patients with EGFR wild-type disease. Although most NSCLC EGFR-related alleles are concentrated in a few positions, established protocols recommend sequencing EGFR exons 18-21. In this study, 21 novel somatic variants belonging to such exons in adult Argentinean patients affected with NSCLC are reported. Of these, 18 were single amino acid substitutions (SASs), occurring alone or in combination with another genetic alteration (complex cases), one was a short deletion, one was a short deletion-short insertion combination, and one was a duplication. New variants and different combinations of previously reported variants were also found. Moreover, two of the reported SASs occurred in previously unreported positions of the EGFR kinase domain. In order to characterize the new sequence variants, physicochemical, sequence and conformational analyses were also performed. A better understanding of sequence variants in NSCLC may facilitate the most appropriate treatment choice for this complex disease.

Secchi DG, Aballay LR, Galíndez MF, et al.
Nutr Hosp. 2015; 32(3):1214-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: the identification of risk group of oral cancer allows reducing the typical morbidity and mortality rates of this pathology.
OBJETIVE: it was analyzed the role of red meat, macronutrients and micronutrients on Oral Squamous Cell carcinoma (OSCC) in a case-control study carried out in Cordoba, Argentina.
METHODS: case-control study 3:1, both genders, aged 24-80 years. Dietary information was collected using a quali-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The logistic regression was applied for assessing the association among case/control status and daily red meat/macronutrient/ micronutrients/energy intake.
RESULTS: micronutrients and minerals in the diet that showed high significant median values of common consumption in cases relative to controls were iron, phosphorus, vitamins B1, B5, B6, E and K and selenium. The association measurement estimated by logistic regression was showed that a significant association between red meat, fat, daily energy, phosphorous, vitamin B5, vitamin E, and selenium intake and OSCC presence.
CONCLUSIONS: a high intake of fats, phosphorus, vitamin B5, vitamin E, and selenium intake and red meat appears to be related to the presence OSCC in Cordoba, Argentina. In relation to red meat consumption and risk of OSCC, the future research should center of attention on reducing the complexity of diet and disease relationships and reducing variability in intake data by standardizing of criteria in order to implement simple strategies in public health for recognizing risk groups of OSCC.

Gadan MA, González SJ, Batalla M, et al.
Application of BNCT to the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer recurrences: Research and developments in Argentina.
Appl Radiat Isot. 2015; 104:155-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the frame of the Argentine BNCT Project a new research line has been started to study the application of BNCT to the treatment of locoregional recurrences of HER2+ breast cancer subtype. Based on former studies, the strategy considers the use of immunoliposomes as boron carriers nanovehicles to target HER2 overexpressing cells. The essential concerns of the current stage of this proposal are the development of carriers that can improve the efficiency of delivery of boron compounds and the dosimetric assessment of treatment feasibility. For this purpose, an specific pool of clinical cases that can benefit from this application was determined. In this work, we present the proposal and the advances related to the different stages of current research.

Farías RO, Garabalino MA, Ferraris S, et al.
Toward a clinical application of ex situ boron neutron capture therapy for lung tumors at the RA-3 reactor in Argentina.
Med Phys. 2015; 42(7):4161-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Many types of lung tumors have a very poor prognosis due to their spread in the whole organ volume. The fact that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) would allow for selective targeting of all the nodules regardless of their position, prompted a preclinical feasibility study of ex situ BNCT at the thermal neutron facility of RA-3 reactor in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. (l)-4p-dihydroxy-borylphenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) biodistribution studies in an adult sheep model and computational dosimetry for a human explanted lung were performed to evaluate the feasibility and the therapeutic potential of ex situ BNCT.
METHODS: Two kinds of boron biodistribution studies were carried out in the healthy sheep: a set of pharmacokinetic studies without lung excision, and a set that consisted of evaluation of boron concentration in the explanted and perfused lung. In order to assess the feasibility of the clinical application of ex situ BNCT at RA-3, a case of multiple lung metastases was analyzed. A detailed computational representation of the geometry of the lung was built based on a real collapsed human lung. Dosimetric calculations and dose limiting considerations were based on the experimental results from the adult sheep, and on the most suitable information published in the literature. In addition, a workable treatment plan was considered to assess the clinical application in a realistic scenario.
RESULTS: Concentration-time profiles for the normal sheep showed that the boron kinetics in blood, lung, and skin would adequately represent the boron behavior and absolute uptake expected in human tissues. Results strongly suggest that the distribution of the boron compound is spatially homogeneous in the lung. A constant lung-to-blood ratio of 1.3 ± 0.1 was observed from 80 min after the end of BPA-F infusion. The fact that this ratio remains constant during time would allow the blood boron concentration to be used as a surrogate and indirect quantification of the estimated value in the explanted healthy lung. The proposed preclinical animal model allowed for the study of the explanted lung. As expected, the boron concentration values fell as a result of the application of the preservation protocol required to preserve the lung function. The distribution of the boron concentration retention factor was obtained for healthy lung, with a mean value of 0.46 ± 0.14 consistent with that reported for metastatic colon carcinoma model in rat perfused lung. Considering the human lung model and suitable tumor control probability for lung cancer, a promising average fraction of controlled lesions higher than 85% was obtained even for a low tumor-to-normal boron concentration ratio of 2.
CONCLUSIONS: This work reports for the first time data supporting the validity of the ovine model as an adequate human surrogate in terms of boron kinetics and uptake in clinically relevant tissues. Collectively, the results and analysis presented would strongly suggest that ex situ whole lung BNCT irradiation is a feasible and highly promising technique that could greatly contribute to the treatment of metastatic lung disease in those patients without extrapulmonary spread, increasing not only the expected overall survival but also the resulting quality of life.

Patrucco MS, Aramendi MV
Prognostic impact of second primary tumors in head and neck cancer.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016; 273(7):1871-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of Second Primary Tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract varies from 5 to 30 %. Most of them are located either in the same anatomical region or in the lungs, and are related to a poor overall survival. Our objective is to assess the incidence of Second Primary Tumors, factors related to its outcome, frequent associations, and impact on overall survival. 27 patients with Second Primary Tumors were reviewed out of 307 with head and neck cancer, between 2002 and 2011. Patients had a minimum follow-up period of 3 years, or until their death after the last treatment. Sex: 85.2 % were male; male:female ratio of 23:4. The mean age of appearance for the primary tumor was 66.8 years. Only 1 patient had a synchronous Second Primary Tumor, while 26 had metachronous Second Primary Tumors. Second neoplasms were grouped into synchronous and metachronous for statistical analysis. The following parameters were considered: age at diagnosis of the first tumor, gender, smoking and persistence of the habit, primary tumor's location in the larynx, association between two squamous cell carcinomas (index and second primary tumor), and radiotherapy for the primary tumor. The incidence of Second Primary Tumors was 8.79 %. Overall survival of metachronous tumors was 95 months (7.9 years). The primary tumor's location that prevailed when developing a Second Primary Tumor was the larynx. Regarding the histology, the most common association was head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (9 patients). The Second Primary Tumor was the cause of death in 51.9 % of the patients and its most frequent location was the lungs. 19 patients underwent radiotherapy. Second Primary Tumors are common in the head and neck. The authors would like to enforce the importance of an extended follow-up, since second neoplasms worsen considerably the patient's prognosis. Patients who keep on smoking after treatment decrease even more their overall survival.

Moreno F, Florencia M, Dussel V, et al.
Childhood cancer in Argentina: Survival 2000-2007.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(4):505-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Information on the epidemiology of childhood cancer in Latin America is limited. The Argentinean Oncopaediatric Registry (ROHA) is a population-based registry active since 2000. This paper describes the 3-year survival experience of children diagnosed with cancer in Argentina during 2000-2007 by major morphological subgroup, age, sex, and geographical region of residence.
METHODS: Newly diagnosed paediatric cancer cases are registered in ROHA (estimated coverage is 93% of the country's cases). Three-year overall survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Univariate Cox models were used to compare subgroup survival.
RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2007, a total of 10,181 new cancer diagnoses in children aged 0-14 years were reported to the registry. Three-year overall survival (95%CI) for all cancers was 61.7% (60.7; 62.7). Specific survival for the most frequent morphological types was: leukaemias 63.3% (61.6; 64.9), lymphomas and related neoplasms 75.3% (72.7; 77.7), brain neoplasms 46.3% (43.9; 48.7), soft-tissue sarcomas 52.3% (48.0; 56.5), neuroblastomas 49.6% (44.6; 54.3), renal tumours 76.7% (72.2; 80.6), and malignant bone tumours 47.2% (42.3; 51.9). Overall survival was associated with age but not sex and varied by geographical region. Compared to other regions, patients who resided in the capital city had a significantly higher survival: 69.6% (65.8; 73.0) versus 63.5% (59.4; 67.4) in Patagonia, 63.2% (61.9; 64.5) in the central region, 58.0% (54.2; 61.7) in Cuyo, 55.6% (52.5; 58.6) in the north-east, and 55.4% (52.4; 58.2) in the north-west (all P values <0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: Of children diagnosed with cancer in Argentina, 62% survived at least 3 years after diagnosis. Even though this figure is lower than that reported for more developed countries, survival patterns by diagnosis, age and sex were quite similar. Survival was lower in the two northern regions, which are areas with higher poverty levels.

Vázquez FJ, Bilbao MS, Saimovici J, Vaccaro C
Improving adherence rate of extended prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic disease after abdominal and pelvic oncologic surgery: a pilot educational study.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2015; 21(8):750-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) is higher among patients with cancer. For those undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer, it is suggested to extend thromboprophylaxis during 4 weeks with low-molecular-weight heparin over limited-duration of 7 days. There is no published local data from our country about compliance with recommended guidelines of extended prophylaxis (EP) in patients with cancer undergoing surgical procedures. Our aim was to evaluate the adherence rate to extended pharmacological thromboprophylaxis after abdominal-pelvic surgery for cancer, before and after an educational intervention program (EIP) geared toward surgeons.
METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study before and after an EIP aimed for surgeons. All consecutive patients older than 65 years who underwent surgery for abdominal-pelvic neoplasm, at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Argentina, between September 2013 and May 2014, were evaluated for inclusion.
RESULTS: A total of 120 patients were included, 60 before and 60 after the EIP aimed for surgeons. None of the initial 60 patients received EP, while 13 (21.6%) of 60 patients received prophylaxis for 28 days (all with colon or rectal cancer) after the intervention. There were no bleeding or death during 90 days of follow-up, and there were 7 of 120 VTE events, none in the group receiving extended thromboprophylaxis.
CONCLUSION: The EIP for the surgical team significantly improved their adherence but only in the colon-rectal surgeries. The adherence to the recommended guidelines is still low. Reasons could be the subjective perception of elevated bleeding risk and the variable grade of recommendation in different guidelines.

Arrossi S, Thouyaret L, Laudi R, et al.
Implementation of HPV-testing for cervical cancer screening in programmatic contexts: The Jujuy demonstration project in Argentina.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(7):1709-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this article is to present results of programmatic introduction of HPV testing with cytologic triage among women 30 years and older in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, including description of the planning phase and results of program performance during the first year. We describe the project implementation process, and calculate key performance indicators using SITAM, the national screening information system. We also compare disease detection rates of HPV testing in 2012 with cytology as performed during the previous year. HPV testing with cytology triage was introduced through a consensus-building process. Key activities included establishment of algorithms and guidelines, creating the HPV laboratory, training of health professionals, information campaigns for women and designing the referral network. By the end of 2012, 100% (n = 270) of public health care centers were offering HPV testing and 22,834 women had been HPV tested, 98.5% (n = 22,515) were 30+. HPV positivity among women over 30 was 12.7%, 807 women were HPV+ and had abnormal cytology, and 281 CIN2+ were identified. CIN2+ detection rates was 1.25 in 2012 and 0.62 in 2011 when the program was cytology based (p = 0.0002). This project showed that effective introduction of HPV testing in programmatic contexts of low-middle income settings is feasible and detects more disease than cytology.

Luna L, Aranda C, Santos AL, et al.
Probable prostate cancer in a pre-Incaic individual from Pukara de la Cueva, northwestern Argentina.
Anthropol Anz. 2015; 72(2):201-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate carcinoma is a common malignant neoplasia that mostly metastasizes to bone in males. Nonetheless, the number of paleopathological cases reported is very small. Most of them were identified in Europe, and only two came from South American individuals. The purpose of this paper is to document the lesions identified in a pre-Columbian (around 1400 AD) individual that corresponds to a middle adult male from Pukara de la Cueva, Jujuy province, in the Northwest region of Argentina. The skeleton was found disarticulated but it is nearly complete and well preserved. The general character of the lesions observed is predominantly proliferative in nature, but osteolytic and mixed patterns were also detected in both axial and appendicular skeleton. Macroscopically, this overall pattern and the distribution of the lesions are compatible with a secondary cancer. Radiological examination showed multiple dense and irregular areas in several bones. The lesions visible by external inspection and by radiographs are in concordance with changes which are documented to occur in the course of prostatic carcinoma. The exuberance and dissemination of the lesions all over the skeleton led infer individual cachexy implying that he would have been assisted by his family and/or social group during the chronic process. Different carcinogenic risk factors associated to this kind of disease are discussed. This analysis adds new evidence of pre-Columbian carcinoma in South American native populations, as knowledge from clinical cases is considered to delineate a differential diagnosis.

Weich N, Nuñez MC, Galimberti G, et al.
Polymorphic variants of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genes in childhood acute leukemias: A preliminary study in Argentina.
Hematology. 2015; 20(9):511-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite recent major advances in leukemia research, the etiopathogenesis of childhood leukemias remains far elusive. Individual predisposing factors, including polymorphisms in detoxification enzymes, have been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis and heterogeneity of the disease. Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) that alter enzyme activity could be an additional factor that increases the risk of acute leukemia, but data are lacking in Argentina. We assessed the association of GST polymorphisms and the susceptibility to childhood leukemia in Argentina by conducting an exploratory case-control study and correlated patients' genotype to clinical and biological features.
METHODS: Deletion polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and the single nucleotide polymorphism in GSTP1 c.313A>G (rs1695; p.105Ile>Val) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 36 patients and 133 healthy individuals.
RESULTS: GSTM1-null genotype was associated with a lower risk of developing acute leukemia (P = 0.013; OR: 0.31; CI: 0.12-0.80), while GSTP1-GG variants displayed an increased risk (P = 0.01; OR: 3.9; CI: 1.85-8.2). However, no differences were found for GSTT1 gene. Conclusion These preliminary results, to be validated in a larger population from Argentina, suggest that the development of pediatric leukemia may be differentially influenced by polymorphic variants in GST genes.

Blanc E, Ponce C, Brodschi D, et al.
Association between worse metabolic control and increased thyroid volume and nodular disease in elderly adults with metabolic syndrome.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2015; 13(5):221-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome has been associated with nodular goiter. Our aim was to evaluate which metabolic parameters in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome are associated with thyroid enlargement or increased prevalence of thyroid nodules.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 77 patients >65 years of age with metabolic syndrome were included. We evaluated the presence of thyroid nodules and thyroid volume by ultrasonography and several biochemical, metabolic and anthropometric parameters. Only patients with thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) levels between 0.3 and 6 mU/L were included. We further divided subjects into two groups-type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-T2DM and established comparisons between them.
RESULTS: Among all parameters analyzed we found a significant correlation between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and volume (r=0.261, P=0.027) or number of nodules (r=0.266, P=0.023). Neither sex, age, body mass index (BMI), metformin, nor levothyroxine use were associated with thyroid volume or nodularity. Within the whole cohort, those patients with T2DM had larger thyroid volumes compared to non-T2DM [median (confidence interval, CI) 6.976 (5.220-10.789) vs. 5.034 (3.796-6.034) mL, P<0.008). Furthermore, a larger proportion of T2DM patients presented thyroid volumes >5.8 mL [69 vs. 23%, P<0.001; odds ratio=7.25 (CI 2.04-25.56)].
CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients with metabolic syndrome, worse metabolic control, represented by higher HbA1c levels, was found associated to increased prevalence of thyroid nodules and larger thyroid volume. Moreover, within the whole metabolic syndrome group, patients with T2DM had the largest thyroid volumes.

de Santibañes M, Dietrich A, Busnelli VC, et al.
Associated liver and multivisceral resections: should we extend the frontiers of resectability?
Updates Surg. 2015; 67(1):11-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Combined liver and multivisceral resections (CLMVRs) are rare procedures that demand extensive surgical skills. Few reports have discussed the benefit of these complex procedures and their indications are poorly defined. The aim of the present study is to present short- and long-term results of CLMVRs in primary and metastatic malignancies, including a risk analysis for perioperative morbidity and mortality. A review of our prospective surgical database between November 2007 and August 2013 identified 21 patients who had undergone CLMVRs. Preoperative radiologic evaluation and laboratory data, intraoperative results, hospital outcomes, and long-term follow-up were analyzed. CLMVRs were performed due to metastatic disease from different sites in 17 patients, and due to direct local invasion of the liver in the remaining 4 cases. Major hepatectomy was performed in 7 cases. Morbidity was 57% and 90-day postoperative mortality was 9%. Gender and resection of more than 4 organs were found as statistically significant risk factors to develop major complications. Five of 7 patients with 4 or more organs resected presented major complications including mortality (p = 0.026). The overall 1- and 3-year survival rates were 57 and 24%, respectively. Patients undergoing CLMVRs experience acceptable postoperative morbidity and mortality rates. Surgery should be performed only in carefully selected patients, considering their preoperative comorbidities, and in high-volume centers.

Arrieta O, Cardona AF, Martín C, et al.
Updated Frequency of EGFR and KRAS Mutations in NonSmall-Cell Lung Cancer in Latin America: The Latin-American Consortium for the Investigation of Lung Cancer (CLICaP).
J Thorac Oncol. 2015; 10(5):838-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Previously, we reported the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Latin America. The EGFR mutation frequency was found between Asian (40%) and Caucasian (15%) populations. Here, we report the updated distribution of NSCLC mutations.
METHODS: A total of 5738 samples from NSCLC patients from Argentina (1713), Mexico (1417), Colombia (1939), Peru (393), Panama (174), and Costa Rica (102) were genotyped for EGFR and KRAS.
RESULTS: The median patient age was 62.2 ± 12.3 years; 53.5% were women, 46.7% had a history of smoking, and 95.2% had adenocarcinoma histology. The frequency of EGFR mutations was 26.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.9-27.1; Argentina, 14.4% [12.8-15.6]; México, 34.3% [31.9-36.7]; Colombia, 24.7% [22.8-26.6]; Peru, 51.1% [46.2-55.9]; Panamá, 27.3 [20.7-33.9]; and Costa Rica, 31.4% [22.4-40.4]). The frequency of KRAS mutations was 14.0% (9.1-18.9). In patients with adenocarcinoma, EGFR mutations were independently associated with gender (30.7% females vs. 18.4% males; p < 0.001), nonsmoker status (27.4% vs. 17.1%, p < 0.001), ethnicity (mestizo/indigenous, 35.3% vs. Caucasian, 13.7%, p < 0.001), and the absence of KRAS mutation (38.1% vs. 4.7%; p < 0.001). The overall response rate to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors was 60.6% (95% CI, 52-69), with a median progression-free survival and overall survival of 15.9 (95% CI, 12.420.6) and 32 months (95% CI, 26.5-37.6), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our findings support the genetic heterogeneity of NSCLC in Latin America, confirming that the frequency of EGFR mutations is intermediate between that observed in the Asian and Caucasian populations.

Arrossi S, Thouyaret L, Herrero R, et al.
Effect of self-collection of HPV DNA offered by community health workers at home visits on uptake of screening for cervical cancer (the EMA study): a population-based cluster-randomised trial.
Lancet Glob Health. 2015; 3(2):e85-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Control of cervical cancer in developing countries has been hampered by a failure to achieve high screening uptake. HPV DNA self-collection could increase screening coverage, but implementation of this technology is difficult in countries of middle and low income. We investigated whether offering HPV DNA self-collection during routine home visits by community health workers could increase cervical screening.
METHODS: We did a population-based cluster-randomised trial in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, between July 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2012. Community health workers were eligible for the study if they scored highly on a performance score, and women aged 30 years or older were eligible for enrolment by the community health worker. 200 community health workers were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either the intervention group (offered women the chance to self-collect a sample for cervical screening during a home visit) or the control group (advised women to attend a health clinic for cervical screening). The primary outcome was screening uptake, measured as the proportion of women having any HPV screening test within 6 months of the community health worker visit. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02095561.
FINDINGS: 100 community health workers were randomly allocated to the intervention group and 100 were assigned to the control group; nine did not take part. 191 participating community health workers (94 in the intervention group and 97 in the control group) initially contacted 7650 women; of 3632 women contacted by community health workers in the intervention group, 3049 agreed to participate; of 4018 women contacted by community health workers in the control group, 2964 agreed to participate. 2618 (86%) of 3049 women in the intervention group had any HPV test within 6 months of the community health worker visit, compared with 599 (20%) of 2964 in the control group (risk ratio 4·02, 95% CI 3·44-4·71).
INTERPRETATION: Offering self-collection of samples for HPV testing by community health workers during home visits resulted in a four-fold increase in screening uptake, showing that this strategy is effective to improve cervical screening coverage. This intervention reduces women's barriers to screening and results in a substantial and rapid increase in coverage. Our findings suggest that HPV testing could be extended throughout Argentina and in other countries to increase cervical screening coverage.
FUNDING: Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (Argentina).

Chemes HE, Venara M, Del Rey G, et al.
Is a CIS phenotype apparent in children with Disorders of Sex Development? Milder testicular dysgenesis is associated with a higher risk of malignancy.
Andrology. 2015; 3(1):59-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
All malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) of adult men are preceded by an in situ stage (CIS) of protracted evolution. The adult CIS is well characterized, but there is debate on the phenotype of infantile CIS, its distinction from delayed maturation of germ cells and prognostic potential. A large series of 43 patients with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) and dysgenetic testes (90% ranging from neonates to 12 years, mean age 4.7 years), was studied by quantifying dysgenetic features, degree of germ cell abnormalities/atypia (GCA), expression of OCT 3/4 (a pluripotency-undifferentiation marker), germ cell ploidy and evolution to CIS and invasive TGCT. Findings were compared with those of normal testes. The type of gonads present defined three groups of patients: bilateral testes (BT-DSD, n = 21), one testis and one streak gonad (CT-DSD, C for combined, n = 13), and ovarian-testicular combinations (OT-DSD, n = 9). There were 5 boys with infantile CIS, bilateral in 3 (total of 8 infantile CIS) and two patients with adult CIS, bilateral in one (total of 3 adult CIS). Two patients had bilateral seminomas one at 12-17 and the other at 23 years. Histological dysgenesis was significantly higher in CT-DSD (p < 0.05), that had only 1 CIS. The highest frequency of GCA was in BT-DSD (p < 0.05), which coincided with a total of 11CIS + Seminomas. In all patients, aneuploidy was significantly higher (63%) than diploidy (p < 0.02), and GCA were more frequent in aneuploid than in diploid samples (p < 0.02). All CIS and TGCT were OCT 3/4 positive. Finally, there was a significant association between the triad Aneuploidy + GCA + OCT 3/4 positivity and the incidence of CIS (Fisher Exact test p < 0.002, relative risk 7.0). The degree of testicular dysgenesis (derived from abnormal organization of Sertoli cells in fetal testicular cords) is inversely related to the incidence of CIS. Our data demonstrate that the combined use of OCT 3/4 expression, quantification of germ cell abnormalities-atypia and ploidy in dysgenetic testes can satisfactorily identify infantile CIS with high risk of malignant evolution and set it aside from delayed germ cell maturation with lower or nil neoplastic potential.

Garibotti G, Moreno F, Dussel V, Orellana L
Disparities in pediatric leukemia early survival in Argentina: a population-based study.
Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2014; 36(4):248-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify disparities-using recursive partitioning (RP)-in early survival for children with leukemias treated in Argentina, and to depict the main characteristics of the most vulnerable groups.
METHODS: This secondary data analysis evaluated 12-month survival (12-ms) in 3 987 children diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 with lymphoid leukemia (LL) and myeloid leukemia (ML) and registered in Argentina's population-based oncopediatric registry. Prognostic groups based on age at diagnosis, gender, socioeconomic index of the province of residence, and migration to a different province to receive health care were identified using the RP method.
RESULTS: Overall 12-ms for LL and ML cases was 83.7% and 59.9% respectively. RP detected major gaps in 12-ms. Among 1-10-year-old LL patients from poorer provinces, 12-ms for those who did and did not migrate was 87.0% and 78.2% respectively. Survival of ML patients < 2 years old from provinces with a low/medium socioeconomic index was 38.9% compared to 62.1% for those in the same age group from richer provinces. For 2-14-year-old ML patients living in poor provinces, patient migration was associated with a 30% increase in 12-ms.
CONCLUSIONS: Major disparities in leukemia survival among Argentine children were found. Patient migration and socioeconomic index of residence province were associated with survival. The RP method was instrumental in identifying and characterizing vulnerable groups.

Piñero F, Marciano S, Anders M, et al.
Screening for liver cancer during transplant waiting list: a multicenter study from South America.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015; 27(3):355-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Surveillance during liver transplantation (LT) waiting list has scarcely been reported in South America. We aimed to describe hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance during the LT waiting list in the daily practice.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective analysis in cirrhotic patients was carried out. All patients underwent an ultrasound (US) every 6 months and the last pre-LT US was compared with explanted liver findings. A false-negative case was considered when incidentally found HCC (iHCC) was detected, whereas a false-positive case was considered when HCC diagnosed before LT (cHCC) was not confirmed in the explanted liver. US performance was assessed after excluding cHCC patients referred to transplant evaluation.
RESULTS: Of 643 patients, 129 had HCC, of whom 92 had cHCC (71.3%) and 37 had iHCC (28.7%). Five patients (5.4%) had nonconfirmed cHCC (n=3 regenerative nodules, n=1 biliary hamartoma, and n=1 cholangiocarcinoma). Patients with iHCC had a higher MELD score (23±10 vs. 15±10; P<0.0001), and were more frequently Child-Pugh C (62.2 vs. 36.6%; P=0.006) compared with patients with cHCC. The number of US performed during waiting list was 1.7±1.6 (median 1.0). During transplant waiting list, the sensitivity and specificity of US were 33 and 99%, with positive and negative predictive values of 0.89 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the strongest variable related to iHCC finding was pre-LT Child-Pugh C status (OR 3.5; P=0.004).
CONCLUSION: Screening for liver cancer remains an important issue during transplant waiting list. However, the US screening method should be reviewed particularly for Child-Pugh C patients.

Ferrari B, Taliercio V, Restrepo P, et al.
Nevus comedonicus: a case series.
Pediatr Dermatol. 2015 Mar-Apr; 32(2):216-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Twelve previously unreported cases of nevus comedonicus are presented. Characteristic closely grouped dilated follicular openings with horny plugs that mimic comedones led to the diagnosis. One patient had nevus comedonicus syndrome and there were cases with atypical locations and unusual complications of this condition. We also highlight clinical associations and therapeutic options.

Zelaya G, López Marti JM, Marino R, et al.
Gonadoblastoma in patients with Ullrich-Turner syndrome.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2015 Mar-Apr; 18(2):117-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS) is a common chromosomal abnormality caused by partial or complete X chromosome monosomy. One half of the patients have a 45,X karyotype, whereas the remaining patients display other X chromosome anomalies. In 6% to 11% of UTS, a normal or partly deleted Y chromosome has been found. A 10% to 30% risk of developing gonadoblastoma was found in the latter patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Y chromosome-derived material, the occurrence of gonadoblastoma, and the incidence of possible neoplasms in patients with UTS. Of 217 patients studied with UTS and chromosome analysis of peripheral-blood lymphocytes, Y chromosome material was found in 20 patients. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing was performed to characterize the structurally abnormal Y chromosome in 13 cases. Molecular analysis of the SRY gene could only be performed in 20 patients with 45,X karyotype. Two patients had the SRY genomes. Of the 20 patients with Y chromosome-derived material, 17 underwent gonadectomy. The incidence of gonadoblastoma development in our series was 35.5%. Furthermore, 1 patient also showed a pure dysgerminoma, and another showed a mixed dysgerminoma and embryonal carcinoma. We emphasize the importance of complete processing of the gonadectomy specimen, including step sections, molecular studies, and FISH, in addition to the classic cytogenetic searching for Y chromosome sequences, in patients who present with a nonmosaic 45,X karyotype. Finally, we propose to routinely collect a sample for storage in the tumor bank for future studies.

Vazquez FJ, Posadas-Martínez ML, de Quirós FG, Giunta DH
Prognosis of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism in Buenos Aires: a prospective cohort study.
BMC Pulm Med. 2014; 14:200 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in whom PE has been ruled out (RPE) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate survival and diagnosis of new cancer in suspected PE patients at follow up.
METHODS: A prospective cohort study nested in a prospective Institutional Registry of Venous Thromboembolic Disease was performed between 2006 and 2011. This study was designed to evaluate all consecutive, incident cases of suspected PE in adults. The study was performed at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, a tertiary level hospital, in hospitalized patients and outpatients. Suspected PE cases were collected using a computerized system that alerts whenever a physician requests pulmonary angiography, angiotomography, or ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. PE was defined by pre-specified criteria and RPE was defined when diagnostic tests were negative for PE.
RESULTS: We included 1736 cases of suspected PE. The prevalence of PE was 29% (n = 504). There was no difference in the overall survival at 30 days and follow-up between PE and RPE patients. The presence of provoked or unprovoked venous thromboembolic disease in these patients did not affect survival. The main causes of death were PE in the confirmed PE group (60%), and neoplasm (42%) and sepsis (37%) in the RPE group. Survival at 90 days was 63% for PE (95% CI 58-67%) and 67% for RPE patients (95% CT 64-69%). At follow-up, there was no difference in diagnosis of new cancer between PE and RPE patients (2% vs 2%, p = 0.82), even when taking into account the unprovoked group.
CONCLUSIONS: Even when the main cause of death in PE patients is PE itself, the overall mortality is similar between PE and RPE patients. The reason for this finding could be because of the more frequent and severe comorbidities in RPE than in PE patients.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: HomeClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01372514.

Pasetto R, Terracini B, Marsili D, Comba P
Occupational burden of asbestos-related cancer in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico.
Ann Glob Health. 2014 Jul-Aug; 80(4):263-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An estimate at the national level of the occupational cancer burden brought about by the industrial use of asbestos requires detailed routine information on such uses as well as on vital statistics of good quality. A causal association with asbestos exposure has been established for mesothelioma and cancers of the lung, larynx, and ovary.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide estimates of the occupational burden of asbestos-related cancer for the Latin American countries that are or have been the highest asbestos consumers in the region: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico.
METHODS: The burden of multifactorial cancers has been estimated through the approach suggested for the World Health Organization using the population attributable fraction. The following data were used: Proportion of workforce employed in each economic sector. Proportion of workers exposed to asbestos in each sector. Occupational turnover. Levels of exposure. Proportion of the population in the workforce. Relative risk for each considered disease for 1 or more levels of exposure. Data on the proportion of workers exposed to asbestos in each sector are not available for Latin American countries; therefore, data from the European CAREX database (carcinogen exposure database) were used.
FINDINGS: Using mortality data of the World Health Organization Health Statistics database for the year 2009 and applying the estimated values for population attributable fractions, the number of estimated deaths in 5 years for mesothelioma and for lung, larynx, and ovary cancers attributable to occupational asbestos exposures, were respectively 735, 233, 29, and 14 for Argentina; 340, 611, 68, and 43 for Brazil; 255, 97, 14, and 9 for Colombia, and 1075, 219, 18, and 22 for Mexico.
CONCLUSIONS: The limitations in compiling the estimates highlight the need for improvement in the quality of asbestos-related environmental and health data. Nevertheless, the figures are already usable to promote a ban on asbestos use.

Aponte-Tinao L, Ayerza MA, Muscolo DL, Farfalli GL
Survival, recurrence, and function after epiphyseal preservation and allograft reconstruction in osteosarcoma of the knee.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015; 473(5):1789-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone tumor resections for limb salvage have become the standard treatment. Recently, intercalary tumor resection with epiphyseal sparing has been used as an alternative in patients with osteosarcoma. The procedure maintains normal joint function and obviates some complications associated with osteoarticular allografts or endoprostheses; however, long-term studies analyzing oncologic outcomes are scarce, and to our knowledge, the concern that a higher local recurrence rate may be an issue has not been addressed.
QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We wanted to assess (1) the overall survival in patients treated with this surgical technique; (2) the percentage of local recurrence and limb survival, specifically the incidence of recurrence in the remaining epiphysis; (3) the frequency of orthopaedic complications, and, (4) the functional outcomes in patients who have undergone intercalary tumor resection.
METHODS: We analyzed all 35 patients with osteosarcomas about the knee (distal femur and proximal tibia) treated at our center between 1991 and 2008 who had resection preserving the epiphysis and reconstruction with intercalary allografts. Minimum followup was 5 years, unless death occurred earlier (mean, 9 years; range, 1-16 years), and no patients were lost to followup. During the study period, our indications for this approach included patients without metastases, with clinical and imaging response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, that a residual epiphysis of at least 1 cm thickness could be available after a surgical margin width in bone of 10 mm was planned, and 16% of patients (35 of 223) meeting these indications were treated using this approach. Using a chart review, we ascertained overall survival of patients, oncologic complications such as local recurrence and tumor progression, limb survival, and orthopaedic complications including infection, fracture, and nonunion. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Patient function was evaluated using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS)-93 scoring system.
RESULTS: Overall survival rate of the patients was 86% (95% CI, 73%-99%) at 5 and 10 years. Five patients died of disease. No patient had a local recurrence in the remaining bony epiphysis, but three patients (9%; 95% CI, 0%-19%) had local recurrence in the soft tissue. The limb survival rate was 97% (95% CI, 89%-100%) at 5 and 10 years. Complications treated with additional surgical procedures were recorded for 19 patients (54%), including three local recurrences, two infections, 11 fractures, and three nonunions. In 10 of these 19 patients, the allograft was removed. Only five of the total 35 study patients (14%) lost the originally preserved epiphysis owing to complications. The mean functional score was 26 points (range, 10-30 points, with a higher score representing a better result) at final followup.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the recurrence rate was high in this series, the small sample size means that even one or two fewer recurrences might have resulted in a much more favorable percentage. Because of this, future, larger studies will need to determine whether this is a safe approach, and perhaps should compare epiphyseal preservation with other possible approaches, including endoprosthetic reconstruction and/or osteoarticular allografts.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study.

Montoya D, Elias AS, Mosto J, et al.
Positive margins following breast cancer tumorectomy. Can we predict the occurrence of residual disease?
Tumori. 2014 Jul-Aug; 100(4):420-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: In conservative early stage breast cancer surgery, the sample's margins are directly related to relapse, and positive or close margins indicate the need for additional surgery. Since the range of residual disease in secondary surgeries and the related pathological factors are highly variable, we intended to evaluate the number of additional surgeries due to compromised margins and identify the percentage of residual disease and factors related to it.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of 659 tumorectomy or needle localization surgery patients with breast carcinoma at the Hospital Universitario Austral in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between December 2000 and December 2012. The variables considered were age, type of surgery, type of margin, tumor size, histological grade, extensive intraductal component and immunohistochemical profile. We investigated how they related to the presence of residual disease.
RESULTS: We identified 68 patients (10%) who were reoperated because of positive (75%) or close (25%) margins. Residual disease was identified in 68% of them; the positive (66%) and close (70%) margin ratio was similar. The individual analysis of variables was statistically significant only for tumors larger than 3 cm (Pearson's chi square [1] = 6.7194; P = 0.0095; relative risk = 1.56 [95% CI 1.09-2.21]) with an association between age and tumor size: Pearson's chi square (1) = 3.8984; P = 0.0483; relative risk = 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.21).
CONCLUSIONS: The need for second surgery due to compromised margins is not common, with variable residual tumor identifying ranges. Some pathological factors can predict the persistence of residual disease. In our series, tumor size >3 cm was the variable identified as an independent predictor.

Cittadini MC, Cornaglia PM, Perovic NR, et al.
Beef consumption and fatty acids serum concentration: relationship with salivary gland tumors in Córdoba, Argentina.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(10):5579-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The objective of the present study was to analyze beef consumption, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acid (FA) serum concentration and their relation to salivary gland tumors (SGT). A questionnaire on non-nutritional risk factors and a validated food frequency questionnaire were applied in 20 SGT and 20 control (Co) patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Food data were processed by the Interfood v.1.3 software. Serum CLA was analyzed by chromatography.
RESULTS: Non-significant differences were found between SGT and Co regarding lean and fatty BC and serum CLA. Serum n-3 linolenic acid concentration was higher in Co than in SGT (p=0.004). No associations between BC and CLA serum concentration were found, but a strong-positive association between total energy intake and total fat intake and SGT were observed. A significant inverse association between oleic and linoleic FA intake and SGT was recorded.
CONCLUSION: Serum oleic and linolenic FAs showed a significant negative association with SGT.

Cermignani L, Alberdi C, Demichelis S, et al.
Features related to breast cancer in an entire Argentine rural population.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(10):5537-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: A descriptive study was developed in an entire Argentine rural community considering breast cancer risk factors, preventive strategies and breast cancer incidence.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: the study comprised of 83 women. A questionnaire of 34 items was employed; a mammogram and a breast ultrasound were performed. ANOVA and Pearson correlation were employed.
RESULTS: Mean age was 54.5 years; 69% of women were postmenopausal; 96% had children; breastfeeding was X=10 months/child; Body Mass Index (BMI) was X=27.8 kg/m(2); 13% had first-degree relatives with breast cancer; 90% of women considered mammographic screening a necessary study. One woman had presented breast cancer. Argentine screening guidelines were not followed and an inverse relationship between education level and age of first mammogram was found (p<0.05). Mammographic and ultrasound studies did not reveal potential abnormalities.
CONCLUSION: Peculiar social and cultural characteristics may be relevant to evaluate breast cancer risk factors in Argentina.

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