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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 198.4m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 437,600
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 205.5
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:20.8%
People dying from cancer /yr: 224,700
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)

Cancer Organisations & Resources
Latest Research Publications from Brazil

Cancer Organisations & Resources (12 links)

Latest Research Publications from Brazil

Silva OB, Correia NAA, de Barros FT, et al.
3' untranslated region A>C (rs3212227) polymorphism of Interleukin 12B gene as a potential risk factor for Hodgkin's lymphoma in Brazilian children and adolescents.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(7):1010428319860400 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin 12 plays an important role in immunoregulation between the T helper 1/T helper 2 lymphocytes and in the antiviral and antitumor immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between the interleukin 12B polymorphism rs3212227 and the risk to develop Hodgkin's lymphoma in childhood and adolescents. A total of 100 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and a group of 181 healthy controls were selected at random from a forensic laboratory of the University of Pernambuco. The AA genotype was detected in the controls (53.04%) and the AC genotype was found in the patients (54%). The AC genotype showed an association with the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma (odds ratio = 2.091, 95% confidence interval = 1.240-3.523, p = 0.007). When AC + CC genotypes were analyzed together, an increase in risk of 1.9 times more chances for HL development could be observed (odds ratio = 1.923, 95% confidence interval = 1.166-3.170, p = 0.014). However, there was no association between the AC and CC genotypes of the interleukin 12B polymorphism with the clinical risk group (p = 0.992, p = 0.648, respectively). Our results suggest that the presence of the C allele may be contributing to the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and adolescents.

Baptista AD, Simão CX, Santos VCGD, et al.
Knowledge of human papillomavirus and Pap test among Brazilian university students.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2019; 65(5):625-632 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted virus in the world and is associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. The most effective approach to cervical cancer control continues to be screening through the preventive Papanicolaou test (Pap test). This study analyzes the knowledge of university students of health science programs as well as undergraduate courses in other areas of knowledge on important questions regarding HPV.
METHOD: Four hundred and seventy-three university students completed a questionnaire assessing their overall knowledge regarding HPV infection, cervical cancer, and the Pap test. A descriptive analysis is presented, and multivariate analysis using logistic regression identified factors associated with HPV/cervical cancer information.
RESULTS: Knowledge was higher for simple HPV-related and Pap test questions but was lower for HPV interrelations with genital warts and cervical cancer. Being from the health science fields and having high income were factors associated with greater knowledge. Only the minority of the participants recognized all the situations that increased the risk of virus infection presented in the questionnaire.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need for educational campaigns regarding HPV infection, its potential as a cervical cancer agent and the forms of prevention available.

Gonçalves SEAB, Ribeiro AAF, Hirose EY, et al.
Brazilian Nutritional Consensus in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Elderly.
Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2019; 17(2):eAE4340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Brazilian Nutritional Consensus in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Elderly was elaborated by nutritionists, nutrologists and hematologists physicians from 15 Brazilians reference centers in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, in order to emphasize the importancy of nutritional status and the body composition during the treatment, as well as the main characteristics related to patient's nutritional assessment. Establishing the consensus, we intended to improve and standardize the nutritional therapy during the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The Consensus was approved by the Brazilian Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation.

Patel H, Aguiar PM, Pessoa A, et al.
Identifying quality of life indicators to improve outpatient pharmacy services for prostate cancer patients: a comparison between Brazilian and British experiences.
Int Braz J Urol. 2019 May-Jun; 45(3):435-448 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer is the most common and fatal cancer amongst Brazilian males. The quality of prostate cancer care in Brazil was systematically reviewed and compared to United Kingdom (UK) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, which are considered an international benchmark in care, to determine any treatment gaps in Brazilian practice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of Brazilian and UK literature was undertaken. Additionally, quality of life scores was measured using a FACT-P questionnaire of 36 prostate cancer patients attending the Farmácia Universitária da Universidade de São Paulo (FARMUSP). These scores were compared against NICE care measures for patient safety, clinical effi cacy and quality of life indicators determined by either quantitative or qualitative methods. Key fi ndings: The quality of prostate cancer care in Brazil was considered good when compared to NICE guidelines. However, FACT-P data strongly indicated a poor understanding of treatment received by Brazilian patients and that their mental health needs were not being met.
CONCLUSIONS: NICE quality statements that address the holistic needs of patients should be implemented into Brazilian outpatient care plans. Addressing the non-medical concerns of patients may improve quality of life and can be easily rolled-out through existing Brazilian pharmacy services at no fi nancial cost to the Brazilian Unifi ed Health System (SUS).

Araújo FAGDR, Sumita NM, Barroso UO
A continuous fall of PSA use for prostate cancer screening among Brazilian doctors since 2001. Good or bad notice?
Int Braz J Urol. 2019 May-Jun; 45(3):478-485 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate the trend of use of Prostate Specifi c Antigen (PSA) for screening of prostate cancer (PC) among Brazilian doctors, from the beginning of its regular availability in clinical laboratories.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A serial cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from a large database between 1997 and 2016. The general PSA screening trend during this period, adjusted for the total number of exams performed in men, was analyzed. Time-series analysis was performed through observation of the general regression curve using the generalized least squares method, and the impact of the recommendations was assessed with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.
RESULTS: During the period studied 2,521,383 PSA determinations were done. The age of the participants ranged from 21 to 111 years, with an average of 56.7 ± 22.7 years. The relative number of PSA tests/100.000 exams in males showed a constant reduction since 2001, and this trend was more evident in the group aged 55-69 years. Although statistically signifi cant, the impact of reduced PSA screening after the 2012 USPSTF publication was clinically irrelevant.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a continuous reduction in the use of PSA screening over time, regardless of the publication of recommendations or clinical guidelines. The fact that this trend was more pronounced among those with a greater benefi t potential (55-69 years), relative to groups with a greater damage potential due to overdiagnosis and overtreatment (aged >74 years and < 40 years), is a matter of concern. Follow-up studies of these trends are advisable.

Sasse AD, Dos Reis RB, Nogueira LM, et al.
Second brazilian consensus on the treatment of advanced prostate cancer - a SBOC-SBU-SBRT panel review.
Int Braz J Urol. 2019 May-Jun; 45(3):449-458 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and the fi fth leading cause of cancer deaths. In Brazil, it is likewise the second most common cancer among men, second only to non-melanoma skin cancers. The aim of this consensus is to align different opinions and interpretations of the medical literature in a practical and patient-oriented approach. The fi rst Brazilian Consensus on the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer was published in 2017, with the goal of reducing the heterogeneity of therapeutic conduct in Brazilian patients with metastatic prostate cancer. We acknowledge that in Brazil the incorporation of different technologies is a big challenge, especially in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), which allows for the disparity in the options available to patients treated in different institutions. In order to update the recommendations and to make them objective and easily accessible, once more a panel of specialists was formed in order to discuss and elaborate a new Brazilian Consensus on Advanced Prostate Cancer. This Consensus was written through a joint initiative of the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology (SBOC) and the Brazilian Society of Urology (SBU) to support the clinical decisions of physicians and other health professionals involved in the care of patients with prostate cancer.

Goldman RE, Figueiredo EN, Fustinoni SM, et al.
Brazilian Breast Cancer Care Network: the perspective of health managers.
Rev Bras Enferm. 2019; 72(suppl 1):274-281 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the organization of the Brazilian Breast Cancer Care Network, according to the perspective of managers of the Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde Sudeste (Southeast Regional Coordination of Health) of the city of São Paulo.
METHOD: A descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, carried out with seven managers of this Coordination. The interview data were analyzed based on the components of the operational structure of the Brazilian Health Care Network: Communication Center; Secondary and Tertiary Care Points; Support Systems; Logistic Systems; and Network Governance System.
RESULTS: There is heterogeneity in the operationalization of the Care Network and the obstacles to its integration and comprehensiveness were: fragility of the bond with the users; high turnover of professionals in Primary Health Care; lack of standardization of the reference system and counter-referral, and low cooperation between municipal and state health services.
FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The organization of the Brazilian Breast Cancer Care Network is fragmented, thus compromising the comprehensiveness of care.

Silva RP, Gigante DP, Amorim MHC, Leite FMC
Factors associated with having mammography examinations in primary health care users in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil.
Epidemiol Serv Saude. 2019; 28(1):e2018048 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: to estimate prevalence and factors associated with having mammography examinations among adult women aged 40 to 59 years old in primary health care services.
METHODS: a cross-sectional study was performed in 26 health centers in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil; data were collected from March to September 2014; the independent variables described sociodemographic, behavioral and reproductive characteristics, having mammography performed every two years as the outcome.
RESULTS: 400 users participated, 57.8% of whom undergo mammography every two years; having the examination was more prevalent among women aged 50-59 years (PR=1.48 - 95%CI 1.25;1.75), those belonging to economic class A/B (PR=1.81 - 95%CI 1.22;2.68) and those who no longer menstruate (PR=1.31 - 95%CI 1.08;1.60).
CONCLUSION: although the proportion of mammography examinations performed is in keeping with recommended levels, a higher frequency was found among the 50-59 age group belonging to class A/B, suggesting unequal access to this examination.

Pessôa-Pereira D, Medeiros MFDS, Lima VMS, et al.
Association between BRAF (V600E) mutation and clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a Brazilian single-centre case series.
Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Mar-Apr; 63(2):97-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of the BRAF (V600E) mutation in consecutive cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients diagnosed and treated at the Hospital Sao Rafael (Salvador, BA, Brazil) and evaluate its association with clinical and pathological characteristics of PTC.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled in the study a total of 43 consecutive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. We performed DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to determine BRAF (V600E) mutation status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify independent associations.
RESULTS: The prevalence of BRAF (V600E) mutation was 65.1% (28/43). A high frequency of older patients (p value: 0.004) was observed among the BRAF-mutated PTC group and, in contrast, a low frequency of concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) (p value: 0.011) was noted. Multivariate analysis confirmed that older age (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.33; p value: 0.047) and HT (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.006-0.40; p value: 0.005) were independent factors associated with BRAF (V600E) mutation.
CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of BRAF (V600E) mutation in PTC cases. Older age and no concurrent HT were independently associated with BRAF (V600E) mutation.

Rosario PW, Calsolari MR
Serum PTH reference values in an adult Brazilian population: implications for the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism.
Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Mar-Apr; 63(2):182-185 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To define serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) reference values in carefully selected subjects following the recommended pre-analytical guidelines.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: First, 676 adults who would be submitted to thyroidectomy were evaluated. Patients using interfering medications or with malabsorption syndrome, hypomagnesemia, hyper- or hypophosphatemia, hypo- or hypercalcemia, 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 30 ng/dL, estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio ≥ 0.25, thyroid dysfunction, parathyroid adenoma detected during surgery were excluded. The sample consisted of 312 subjects.
RESULTS: The median, minimum, maximum, and 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the PTH values obtained were 30, 7.2, 78, 10.1, and 52 pg/mL, respectively. Thus, the reference range was 10 to 52 pg/mL. PTH > 65 pg/mL, the upper limit of normal according to the manufacturer of the kit, was observed in only one subject (0.3%). Considering the upper limit proposed by the kit's manufacturer, 1/6 hypercalcemic patients and 4/8 normocalcemic patients with PHPT had normal PTH. Using the upper limit established in this study, only one normocalcemic patient had normal PTH. Thus, the sensitivity of PTH in detecting asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) using the values recommended by the kit and established in this study was 64% and 93%, respectively (50% versus 87.5% for normocalcemic PHPT).
CONCLUSION: The upper reference limit of PTH obtained for a rigorously selected sample was 20% lower than that provided by the assay, which increased its sensitivity in detecting PHPT.

Sakamoto AJ, Brizon VSC, Bulgareli JV, et al.
Influence of municipal socioeconomic indices on mortality rates for oral and oropharyngeal cancer in older adults in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.
Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2019; 22:e190013 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Oral and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases strongly influenced by socioeconomic factors. The risk of developing these diseases increases with age and most cases occur in the elderly, with higher mortality rates. This study aimed to analyze the influence of municipal socioeconomic indices on mortality rates for oral (OC) and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in elderly residents from 645 cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2013 to 2015.
METHOD: Secondary data on deaths were obtained in the Mortality Information System from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The number of elderly, as well as per capita median income values and Human Development Index by municipality (HDI-M) values were obtained from data by the SEADE Foundation. Descriptiveand exploratory analysis of data was performed, followed by negative binomial models described by the Proc Genmod procedure and evaluated by the corrected AIC (Akaike Information Criterion), the likelihood level, and the Wald test (α = 0.05).
RESULTS: Around 30% of the cities notified deaths in 2013, 16.74% in 2014, and 18.61% in 2015. Founded mortality mean rates from OC and OPC were, respectively, 20.0 (± 430.9) and 10.7 (± 17.5) deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. Meanincome ranged, in local currency, from 434.2 to 2,009.00. HDI-M ranged from 0.65 to 0.89. There was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in mortality rates for OC and OPC in elderly with the increase in the cities' mean income and HDI-M values.
CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic inequalities in the cities the on mortality rates for OC and OPC in elderly residents.

Silva MJSD, Melo ECP, Osorio-de-Castro CGS
Origin-destination flows in chemotherapy for breast cancer in Brazil: implications for pharmaceutical services.
Cien Saude Colet. 2019; 24(3):1153-1164 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study maps and analyzes patient flows for breast cancer chemotherapy in order to identify the potential implications for organization of pharmaceutical services in the cancer care network. An ecological study design sought to correlate the place of residence with place of care for breast cancer patients. All chemotherapy procedures financed by Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS) and performed from January to December 2013 were included. Flows were mapped using TerraView® software. A total of 1 347 803 outpatient chemotherapy procedures were delivered by 243 cancer care units located in 156 municipalities. Seventeen cities concentrated approximately 50.0 % of the procedures. A total of 8 538 origin-destination flows were generated and 49.2% of procedures were performed in services located outside the municipality in which the patient resided. Context challenges, related to inequality of access to chemotherapy and hindrances in planning and management of pharmaceutical services, were discussed.

Pereira IF, Firmino RT, Meira HC, et al.
Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis in Brazilian Patients: Prevalence and Associated Factors.
In Vivo. 2019 Mar-Apr; 33(2):605-609 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aim: To determine the prevalence of radiation-induced oral mucositis (OM) and associated factors.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed at a reference dental care center. The medical records of patients submitted to radiotherapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer were used to collect clinical and demographic variables. The data were submitted to descriptive analysis and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance [p<0.05; 95% confidence intervaI (CI)].
RESULTS: Four hundred and thirteen patients were analyzed. The mean age was 55±14 years. The prevalence of OM in the overall sample was 41.9% and was higher among males (78.2%). The following variables were significantly associated with the outcome: radiation dose [prevalence ratio (PR)= 1.04; 95% CI=1.02-1.06]; concomitant chemotherapy (PR=1.48, 95% CI=1.05-2.08); oral candidiasis (PR=1.97, 95% CI=1.44-2.68); and osteoradionecrosis (PR=1.51, 95% CI=1.10-2.06).
CONCLUSION: Radiation-induced OM was associated with radiation dose, concomitant chemotherapy, oral candidiasis and osteoradionecrosis. The rate of OM underscores the importance of adequate oral care prior to treatment for head and neck cancer.

Laus AC, de Paula FE, de Lima MA, et al.
EGF+61 A>G polymorphism is not associated with lung cancer risk in the Brazilian population.
Mol Biol Rep. 2019; 46(2):2417-2425 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in EGF promoter region (EGF+61 A>G-rs4444903) has been associated with cancer susceptibility. Yet, in lung cancer, the EGF+61 A>G role is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of lung cancer associated with EGF+61 A>G SNP in the Brazilian population. For that, 669 lung cancer patients and 1104 controls were analyzed. EGF+61 A>G genotype was assessed by PCR-RFLP and TaqMan genotyping assay. Both patients and controls were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. As expected, uni- and multivariate analyses showed that tobacco consumption and age were significant risk factors for lung cancer. The genotype frequencies in lung cancer patients were 27.3% of AA, 47.4% of AG and 25.3% of GG, and for controls were 25.3% of AA, 51.6% of AG and 23.1% of GG. The allele frequencies were 51.1% of A and 48.9% of G for both cases and controls. No significant differences for the three genotypes (AA, AG and GG-codominant model) were observed between cases and controls. We then grouped AG and GG (recessive model) genotypes, as well as AA and AG (dominant model), and again, no significant differences were also found. This is the largest study to explore EGF+61 A>G polymorphism association with lung cancer risk and suggests that this SNP is not a risk factor for lung cancer in the Brazilian population.

Simon SD, Bines J, Werutsky G, et al.
Characteristics and prognosis of stage I-III breast cancer subtypes in Brazil: The AMAZONA retrospective cohort study.
Breast. 2019; 44:113-119 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe stage I-III breast cancer (BC) molecular subtypes and outcomes among a cohort of patients from Brazil.
METHODS: AMAZONA study is a retrospective cohort conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 including women of at least 18 years old, with histologically proven breast cancer, diagnosed in 2001 (n = 2198) and 2006 (n = 2714). In this analysis, we included patients who underwent surgery, had stage I-III disease and available pathological information (n = 2296). We estimated molecular subtypes by local immunohistochemical stains. Data was obtained from medical charts and public databases.
RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 54 years and 41.1% were younger than 50 years. 23.3% were diagnosed in stage I, 53.5% in stage II and 23.2% in stage III. 80.8% were treated in the public health system. 71.3% had hormonal receptor positive disease, 15.7% were HER-2 positive and 21.1% had triple-negative breast cancer. 55.6% were treated with mastectomy and 96.2% received adjuvant treatment (82.2% chemotherapy). 13.4% of HER-2 positive patients received adjuvant trastuzumab. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 96.84% for stage I, 94.16% for stage II and 70.48% for stage III. Molecular subtypes were independent prognostic factor in stages II and III patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian women have a higher risk of being diagnosed with late stage breast cancer and younger age than in high-income countries. Luminal-like disease is the most common molecular subtype in the country. Triple negative and HER-2 positive had the worst prognosis.

Barros ÂF, Araújo JM, Murta-Nascimento C, Dias A
Clinical pathways of breast cancer patients treated in the Federal District, Brazil.
Rev Saude Publica. 2019; 53:14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical pathways of women with breast cancer treated in public hospitals, and to analyze the factors that influence the time interval between the first appointment and the start of therapy.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 600 women with breast cancer treated in nine public hospitals in the Brazilian Federal District. Patients were interviewed between September 2012 and September 2014. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were adjusted to evaluate the variables associated with the time interval studied. The most frequent pathway was the one that started in primary care with following care in the therapy service (28.9%). In the multiple adjustment, factors associated to a longer time interval between the first appointment and therapy were: lower family income (OR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.32-2.68), the first appointment in public services (OR = 1.78; 95%CI 1.20-2.64), care in more than two health services in the clinical pathway (OR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.19-2.44); and obtaining the anatomopathological analysis of the biopsy in public services instead of private health services (OR = 1.87; 95%CI 1.29-2.71). Independently, the implementation of specialist appointment scheduling, with care regulation, was associated with a shorter time interval between first appointment and therapy (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.16-0.65).
CONCLUSIONS: We observed that multiple pathways were covered by women with breast cancer treated in public services of the Federal District. Socioeconomic iniquities and several aspectos of the pathways covered were associated with a longer time interval between the first appointment and the start of breast cancer therapy.

Bustamante-Teixeira MT, Latorre MDRDO, Guerra MR, et al.
Incidence of rare cancers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
Tumori. 2019; 105(1):22-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION:: Rare cancers are a challenge for clinical practice as well as for epidemiology and public health. Studies on this subject are few and limited to the study of cases with scarce epidemiologic information. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of rare cancers and to compare the demographic, anatomic, and histologic characteristics of rare and nonrare (common) cancers.
METHODS:: Incidence data were obtained from the Population-based Cancer Registry of São Paulo, Brazil. Rare neoplasms were those defined in the RARECARE list, which takes into account an incidence lower than 6/100,000/year.
RESULTS:: In São Paulo, 20.4% of tumors had an incidence lower than 6/100,000/year from 1997 to 2012, being therefore considered as rare tumors. We identified 11 entities with an incidence greater than 6/100,000/year (common neoplasms) and 186 entities with an incidence lower than 6/100,000/year (rare neoplasms). The mean annual incidence of all cancers was 365 per 100,000 in São Paulo between 1997 and 2012, and the incidence of all rare tumors was 74.5 per 100,000.
CONCLUSIONS:: This study presents the burden of rare cancers in Brazil. It is expected to be an incentive for further studies of these entities in order to know the epidemiologic profile of rare tumors in Brazil and to provide a more effective diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

Fujimoto RHP, Koifman RJ, Silva IFD
Survival rates of breast cancer and predictive factors: a hospital-based study from western Amazon area in Brazil.
Cien Saude Colet. 2019; 24(1):261-273 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer survival in Latin America countries is below Central European countries. Hospital-based breast cancer survival studies in western Amazon, Brazil, are lacking. This article aims to estimate hospital-based breast cancer survival in Rio Branco, Acre, and predictor factors. Hospital-based cohort study of all women diagnosed with breast cancer (2007-2012) was proceeded. Information were obtained from medical reports, and follow-up was until 2013. One-, 2- and 5- years breast cancer specific-survival were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Crude and adjusted Harzards Ratios (HR) were estimated by proportional Cox regression model. One-, 2-, and 5-year overall breast cancer survival were 95.5%, 83.7%, and 87.3% respectively. Surgery combined to radiotherapy significantly affected 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival (99%, 94%, and 90.6%, respectively) as compared to other treatments (77%,57.1%, and 37.5%, respectively). Comparing to surgery combined to radiotherapy treatment, surgery alone increased the risk of death, independently of age and stage (HR = 7.23;95%CI:2.29-22.83). In Rio Branco, Acre, 5-year breast cancer survival is similar to more developed areas in Brazil. Surgery combined to radiotherapy was independently associated to a lower risk of death as compared to surgery alone and other treatment.

Meneses AD, Mattos PAL, Eulálio WMN, et al.
Initial experience of video endoscopic inguinal Lymphadenectomy in a center located at northeast brazilian region.
Int Braz J Urol. 2019 Mar-Apr; 45(2):325-331 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy - VEIL - has emerged as an alternative to reduce post-surgical complications (PSC) in patients with penile cancer submitted to inguinal lymphadenectomy (IL). In some series, these PSC are observed in more than 50% of patients. The objectives of the present study are to describe the initial experience of VEIL in a Hospital in Teresina, PI, Brazil, and to analyze PSC incidence.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of patients submitted to VEIL from March 2014 to November 2015. Data were collected regarding surgical time, bleeding, complications, lymph node number, conversion, global complications, drainage time, cellulitis, lymphocele, cutaneous necrosis, miocutaneous necrosis and hospitalization time.
RESULTS: 20 lower limbs of 11 patients were operated. Mean age was 51.4 (24-72) years. Mean surgical time was 85 (60-120) minutes. No patient showed intrasurgical complications, bleeding > 50 mL or conversion. Three surgeries evolved with lower limb edema, 2 with lymphoceles and one patient had cutaneous necrosis and another bulging of surgical wound. Mean time of hospitalization was 4 (2-11) days. A mean of 5.8 (1-12) lymph nodes were dissected in each surgery.
CONCLUSION: VEIL is a safe and easy technique with lower incidence of PSC that can be reproduced in small centers.

Cubero DIG, Sette CVM, Piscopo BCP, et al.
Epidemiological profile of Brazilian oncological patients seen by a reference oncology center of the public health system and who migrate in search of adequate health care.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2018; 64(9):814-818 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Structural disparities between different Brazilian regions in public health system cause patients to migrate in search of better conditions to treat their diseases. Besides patient's discomfort, there is a concentration of care in large centres, causing overload to current capacity.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate migratory flow and associated factors in a reference service in oncology.
METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted at a referral oncology service in Great ABC region of São Paulo. Patients were interviewed, and clinical and demographic data collected.
RESULTS: Between March-July 2016, 217 patients were included. Analysis showed a divergence between the postal code registered in the medical record and that recorded during the interview in approximately 10% of cases. Of these, 42.9% were residents of other states. Search for treatment motivated most patients to seek service outside their city.
CONCLUSION: Results reflect the informal search for medical care outside the home area. Besides the direct impact on patients' quality of life, migratory flow has an economic-social impact because these patients place a burden and impose costs on services of cities where they do not perform their responsibilities as citizens. Confirmation of the existence of a significant migratory flow demonstrates the need to discuss restructuring public health policies.

Silva Junior WFD, Rosa LID, Belesso M, et al.
Treatment outcomes of adult Burkitt lymphoma: results with a modified LMB protocol in Brazil and feasibility of outpatient administration.
J Chemother. 2018 Oct - Dec; 30(6-8):375-379 [PubMed] Related Publications
While Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma more prevalent in tropical areas, few studies on BL have been conducted in Latin America. Here, we evaluate the clinical presentation and outcomes of an adapted LMB regimen for adults with sporadic BL. We retrospectively evaluated hospital records from University of São Paulo (USP) between 1999 and 2017. Thirty-six patients were included, the median age was 33.5 years and 69% (25) were male. Most patients presented advanced stage disease (81%), 8% had CNS disease, and the majority belonged to LMB group B (75% (27)). Three patients died during the induction phase, and the remaining patients (33) achieved complete response. There was one relapse over a median follow-up of 6 years. Overall survival estimated at 5 years was 89%. We conclude that an adapted LMB protocol is safe and feasible in Brazil.

Medeiros GC, Thuler LCS, Bergmann A
Delay in breast cancer diagnosis: a Brazilian cohort study.
Public Health. 2019; 167:88-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the delay in breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and its risk factors.
STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study of BC patients referred to treatment at oncological reference hospital, Brazil. Delay in BC diagnosis was defined as a time interval ≥90 days between the first contact with a care provider and a BC diagnosis.
METHODS: The association between independent variables and delay was performed by univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression.
RESULTS: Five hundred and twenty-six women were included in the study. Delay was observed in 68.8% and was associated with performing histopathological examination at oncological reference hospital (odds ratio [OR]: 3.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.91-8.20) or at another public health service (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.50-3.56) and attending gynecological consultations annually (OR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.97-5.33) or every 2-3 years (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.55-5.28). Patients who presented a lump as the first sign or symptom had a lower chance of delay (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.29-0.65).
CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in the structure and access to health services are needed to reduce the time to diagnosis.

Braga LLBC, Batista MHR, de Azevedo OGR, et al.
oipA "on" status of Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer in North-Eastern Brazil.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although, outer membrane protein OipA of Helicobacter pylori has been associated with gastric mucosal damage and gastroduodenal diseases, studies evaluating gastric cancer patients are scarce. We investigated whether the functional oipA "on" status was associated with gastric cancer in the North-eastern Brazil, region with high prevalence of gastric cancer.
METHODS: We included samples from 95 H. pylori positive subjects (23 patients with gastritis, 24 with gastric cancer, 32 first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients and 16 children). oipA was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. cagA and vacA status were evaluated by PCR.
RESULTS: Overall 81.1% of the H. pylori strains had functional oipA. In adults, the oipA "on" status (OR = 9.20; 95%CI = 1.45-58.48, P = 0.02) and increasing age (OR = 1.08; 95%CI = 1.03-1.14; P = 0.003) were independently associated with gastric cancer in a logistic model. The oipA "on" status (OR = 14.75; 95%CI: 2.53-86.13, P = 0.003) was also associated with first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients when compared with gastritis. The frequency of oipA "on" status did not differ between children and adults (P = 0.87). The oipA "on" status was significantly correlated with the presence of cagA and vacA s1 m1.
CONCLUSION: oipA "on" status was independently associated with gastric cancer and first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients in North-eastern Brazil.

Martins-Costa MC, Lindsey SC, Cunha LL, et al.
A pioneering RET genetic screening study in the State of Ceará, Brazil, evaluating patients with medullary thyroid cancer and at-risk relatives: experience with 247 individuals.
Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 62(6):623-635 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Initial diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is frequently associated with advanced stages and a poor prognosis. Thus, the need for earlier diagnoses and detection in relatives at risk for the disease has led to increased use of RET genetic screening.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed RET screening in 247 subjects who were referred to the Brazilian Research Consortium for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (BRASMEN) Center in the State of Ceará. Direct genetic sequencing was used to analyze exons 8, 10, 11, and 13-16 in MTC index cases and specific exons in at risk relatives. Afterward, clinical follow-up was offered to all the patients with MTC and their affected relatives.
RESULTS: RET screening was performed in 60 MTC index patients and 187 at-risk family members. At the initial clinical assessment of the index patients, 54 (90%) were diagnosed with apparently sporadic disease and 6 (10%) diagnosed with hereditary disease. After RET screening, we found that 31 (52%) index patients had sporadic disease, and 29 (48%) had hereditary disease. Regarding at-risk relatives, 73/187 were mutation carriers. Mutations in RET codon 804 and the rare p.M918V mutation were the most prevalent.
CONCLUSIONS: Performing RET screening in Ceará allowed us to identify a different mutation profile in this region compared with other areas. RET screening also enabled the diagnosis of a significant number of hereditary MTC patients who were initially classified as sporadic disease patients and benefited their relatives, who were unaware of the risks and the consequences of bearing a RET mutation.

Maselli-Schoueri JH, Affonso-Kaufman FA, de Melo Sette CV, et al.
Time trend of breast cancer mortality in BRAZILIAN men: 10-year data analysis from 2005 to 2015.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Male Breast Cancer (MBC) is rare, which makes its understanding and treatment be extrapolated from what is known about the occurrence in women, with few epidemiological studies, with few epidemiological studies. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to study breast cancer mortality in adult males in Brazil and its administrative regions between 2005 and 2015.
METHODS: Ecological study with data on MBC mortality in adults between 2005 and 2015. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System of the Department of Informatics of SUS (the Unified Health System of the country). Descriptive statistics were used for MBC mortality and linear regression to analyze the relationship between mortality and the country's administrative regions. Percentage Change (PC) and Annual Percentage Change (APC) were the trend measures used for MBC mortality for the period.
RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2015, there were 1521 deaths due to MBC in adults in Brazil. Regarding mortality by region, there was great oscillation in the rates of the country as a whole (PC = 113,87; β = 0,009 (IC95% 0,000 - 0,018); r
CONCLUSION: Mortality in adults due to MBC increased in Brazil during the study period with the highest percentage increase occurring for individuals aged 80 years or older.

Cotrim DP, Ribeiro ARG, Paixão D, et al.
Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in non-selected ovarian carcinoma patients in Brazil.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 pathogenic (P) and likely pathogenic (LP) germline variants are frequent among patients with ovarian carcinoma. However, these variants have not been extensively characterized in patients with ovarian cancer in Brazil.
METHODS: In this retrospective study we evaluated clinical characteristics and BRCA1/2 genetic test results from patients with ovarian carcinoma who underwent genetic counseling at A.C.Camargo Cancer Center (Brazil) between 2015 and 2017 and had performed germline genetic testing of BRCA1/2 genes.
RESULTS: Among 158 patients, 33 P and LP variants and were found (20.8%), 27 in BRCA1 and six in BRCA2, and six variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS). Thirteen percent of the patients did not have Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) results. Three P variants in BRCA1 were found in more than one patient: c.5266dupC (p.Gln1756Profs*74), c.3331_3334delCAAG (p.Gln1111Asnfs5*), and c.211A > G (p.Arg71Gly). One LP variant in BRCA1 had not been previously described, c.4153_4154delCT (p.Leu1385Ilefs*5). Patients with previous diagnosis of breast cancer were carriers of P or LP variant in 8 of 12 cases (66.7%), and patients with a family history of ovarian or breast cancer in first- or second-degree relatives were carriers of P or LP variant in 26.7% of cases compared to 16.9% for patients without family history (p = 0.166).
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of BRCA1/2 germline P and LP variants is slightly higher than previously described by the largest occidental studies, with a high prevalence of variant c.5266dupC (p.Gln1756Profs*74) in BRCA1 observed. Moreover, we identified a new LP variant.

Hahn EC, Bittar CM, Vianna FSL, et al.
TP53 p.Arg337His germline mutation prevalence in Southern Brazil: Further evidence for mutation testing in young breast cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0209934 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Premenopausal breast cancer (BC) is a core tumor of Li-Fraumeni (LFS) and Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) Syndromes, predisposition disorders caused by germline mutations in TP53 gene. In the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil, a specific TP53 germline mutation, c.1010G>A (p.Arg337His), was identified at a population frequency of 0.3%, the highest value ever described for a TP53 germline variation. In Brazilian BC patients, carrier frequency can vary from 0.5% to 8.7%. The current study assessed carrier frequency by genotyping TP53 c.1010G>A in 2 BC groups: 1) 315 patients unselected for age of diagnosis and family history (FH) and 2) 239 patients diagnosed before 46 years and without Chompret criteria for LFS or LFL. One carrier was identified in group 1 (0.3%; CI 95% 0.1-1.76%) and six carriers in group 2 (2.5%; CI 95% 0.93-5.39%). The frequencies differed significantly between groups (p = 0.04). The mutation carrier frequency observed in group 2 could justify mutation testing in BC patients diagnosed before 46 years and without Chompret criteria for LFS or LFL. Further studies in larger samples of BC patients of different ages and regions of the country are necessary to provide more definitive TP53 p.Arg337His carrier frequencies in different scenarios.

Perrotta de Souza LM, Moreira JP, Fogaça HS, et al.
Increasing pancreatic cancer is not paralleled by pancreaticoduodenectomy volumes in Brazil: A time trend analysis.
Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2019; 18(1):79-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Currently, surgical resection represents the only curative treatment for pancreatic cancer (PC), however, the majority of tumors are no longer resectable by the time of diagnosis. The aim of this study was to describe time trends and distribution of pancreaticoduodenectomies (PDs) performed for treating PC in Brazil in recent years.
METHODS: Data were retrospectively obtained from Brazilian Health Public System (namely DATASUS) regarding hospitalizations for PC and PD in Brazil from January 2008 to December 2015. PC and PD rates and their mortalities were estimated from DATASUS hospitalizations and analyzed for age, gender and demographic characteristics.
RESULTS: A total of 2364 PDs were retrieved. Albeit PC incidence more than doubled, the number of PDs increased only 37%. Most PDs were performed in men (52.2%) and patients between 50 and 69 years old (59.5%). Patients not surgically treated and those 70 years or older had the highest in-hospital mortality rates. The most developed regions (Southeast and South) as well as large metropolitan integrated municipalities registered 76.2% and 54.8% of the procedures, respectively. LMIM PD mortality fluctuated, ranging from 13.6% in 2008 to 11.8% in 2015.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a trend towards regionalization and volume-outcome relationships for PD due to PC, as large metropolitan integrated municipalities registered most of the PDs and more stable mortality rates. The substantial differences between PD and PC increasing rates reveals a limiting step on the health system resoluteness. Reduction in the number of hospital beds and late access to hospitalization, despite improvement in diagnostic methods, could at least in part explain these findings.

Oliveira WRP, Tirico MCCP, Souza AAV, et al.
Skin lesions in organ transplant recipients: a study of 177 consecutive Brazilian patients.
Int J Dermatol. 2019; 58(4):440-448 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Skin lesions are very common among organ transplant recipients (OTR), particularly infections and tumors, because of the immunosuppressive state these patients are put in.
METHODS: 177 OTR were examined. Skin lesions were categorized into neoplastic, infectious, and inflammatory diseases.
RESULTS: The mean age of OTR was 52 years, the mean age at transplantation was 42.7 years, and kidney was the most common organ transplanted (72%). Skin lesions were found in 147 patients (83%). Cutaneous infections were seen in 106 patients (60%). Warts (30%) had the larger incidence and were associated with azathioprine (P = 0.026), cyclosporine (P = 0.006), and tacrolimus (P = 0.009). Superficial mycoses occurred in 16% of OTR, mostly onychomycosis, which was associated with tacrolimus (P = 0.040). Actinic keratosis (AK) occurred in 31% of patients and cutaneous tumors in 56%. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most common tumor type affecting 36% of OTR (n = 64), with invasive SCC predominating over in situ SCC, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounted for 17%. Both SCC and BCC were more numerous in patients' skin type I (P < 0.05). SCC was more frequent (36%) in combined kidney and liver recipients (P = 0.004), and BCC was associated with cyclosporine (P = 0.047). Inflammatory complications (acne, alopecia, hypertrichosis, and gingival overgrowth) were observed in 17.5% of patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Organ transplant recipients must be regularly evaluated by dermatologists, who should be alert to the onset of infections and skin (pre)malignant diseases in these patients.

Felicio PS, Alemar B, Coelho AS, et al.
Screening and characterization of BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu in Brazil: Results from 1380 individuals from the South and Southeast.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 228-229:93-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Portuguese immigration to Brazil occurred in several waves and greatly contributed to the genetic composition of current Brazilian population. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of a Portuguese founder Alu insertion in BRCA2 exon 3 (c.156_157insAlu) among individuals fulfilling Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) syndrome criteria in 1,380 unrelated families originated from three distinct Brazilian States. We identified the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation in nine (9/1,380; 0.65%) probands analised. In carrier probands, European ancestry had the highest proportion (80%), followed by the African (10%) and Amerindian and in most families with the rearrangement, haplotype analyses were compatible with the Portuguese ancestral haplotype. In conclusion, the present study reports a low albeit relevant frequency of the Portuguese BRCA2 founder mutation c.156_157insAlu in Brazilian patients at-risk for HBOC Brazilian population.

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