Gene Summary

Gene:IL12B; interleukin 12B
Aliases: CLMF, NKSF, CLMF2, IMD28, IMD29, NKSF2, IL-12B
Summary:This gene encodes a subunit of interleukin 12, a cytokine that acts on T and natural killer cells, and has a broad array of biological activities. Interleukin 12 is a disulfide-linked heterodimer composed of the 40 kD cytokine receptor like subunit encoded by this gene, and a 35 kD subunit encoded by IL12A. This cytokine is expressed by activated macrophages that serve as an essential inducer of Th1 cells development. This cytokine has been found to be important for sustaining a sufficient number of memory/effector Th1 cells to mediate long-term protection to an intracellular pathogen. Overexpression of this gene was observed in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting a role of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of the disease. The promoter polymorphism of this gene has been reported to be associated with the severity of atopic and non-atopic asthma in children. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interleukin-12 subunit beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IL12B (cancer-related)

Elsayed HM, Nabiel Y, Sheta T
IL12 Gene Polymorphism in Association with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HCV-infected Egyptian Patients.
Immunol Invest. 2017; 46(2):123-133 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma has been recorded the commonest cancer in Egypt. This increasing incidence may be attributed to the high prevalence of hepatitis C virus with its complications, so this study aimed to investigate the association between the potentially functional polymorphisms of IL12A and IL12B genes as a risk factor of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on top of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in an Egyptian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped two loci of IL12 which were rs568408 (3'UTR G>A) for IL12A and rs3212227 (3'UTR A>C) for IL12B in 78 patients with HCC on top of chronic HCV infection. In addition, 64 cancer-free chronic HCV patients were studied, besides 92 healthy subjects who were included as control.
RESULTS: Study of rs568408 (G>A) gene polymorphism showed that the A allele is higher while the G allele is lower in HCC cases than cancer-free chronic HCV patients (p = 0.006*). The A-containing genotypes AG and (AG+AA) were higher while the GG was lower (p = 0.009* and p = 0.005*), respectively. The study of the rs3212227 (A>C) polymorphism showed neither statistically significant differences between the C and A allele (p = 0.2) nor between CC, AC, or AC+CC in HCC cases and cancer-free chronic HCV patients (p = 0.7, p = 0.2, and p = 0.29), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that IL12A rs568408 (G>A) polymorphism may contribute to the risk of HCC on top of chronic HCV infection, whereas that of IL12B rs3212227 (A>C) do not.

Tan A, Gao Y, Yao Z, et al.
Genetic variants in IL12 influence both hepatitis B virus clearance and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma development in a Chinese male population.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6343-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
IL12 plays a major role not only in inducing appropriate immune responses against viral infections (including HBV) but also in the antitumor immune response. This study was conducted to investigate the relationships of genetic variants in IL12 with hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance and development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL12A (rs568406 and rs2243115) and IL12B (rs3212227) in 395 HBV-positive HCC patients, 293 persistent HBV carriers and 686 subjects with HBV natural clearance from southern China, using the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) method. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption status showed that rs568408 variant genotypes were significantly associated with host HBV-related HCC risk when compared with persistent HBV carriers, and carriers of the GA + AA genotype decreased the HCC risk in comparison with GG carriers (adjusted OR = 0.53, 95 % CI 0.35-0.80, P = 0.002). No relationships between the rs2243115 and rs3212227 SNPs and HCC risk were observed (all P > 0.05). Besides, rs568408 showed an approaching significant effect on susceptibility to HBV persistent infection (adjusted OR = 1.34, 95 % CI 0.99-1.81, P = 0.057 in dominant genetic models). Furthermore, the TG haplotype was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of HBV-related HCC (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.10-1.83, P = 0.006), while TA haplotype was associated with a decreased risk of HBV-related HCC (OR = 0.61, 95 % CI 0.45-0.83, P = 0.002). Our results reveal that the IL12A rs568408 variant may be a marker SNP for risk of both HBV clearance and HBV-related HCC development.

Yamaguchi T, Fushida S, Yamamoto Y, et al.
Tumor-associated macrophages of the M2 phenotype contribute to progression in gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination.
Gastric Cancer. 2016; 19(4):1052-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) of the M2 phenotype are known to promote tumor proliferation and to be associated with a poor prognosis in numerous cancers. Here, we investigated whether M2 macrophages participate in the development of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer.
METHODS: The characteristics of peritoneal macrophages in gastric cancer patients with or without peritoneal dissemination were examined by flow cytometry and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effects of M2 macrophages on phenotypic changes of the gastric cancer cell line MKN45 were assessed with a direct or indirect co-culture system in vitro and an in vivo mouse xenograft model.
RESULTS: The number of peritoneal macrophages with the M2 phenotype (CD68(+)CD163(+) or CD68(+)CD204(+)) was significantly higher in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination than in those without peritoneal dissemination. Higher expression of the M2-related messenger RNAs (IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor A, vascular endothelial growth factor C, matrix metalloproteinase 1, and amphiregulin) and lower expression of M1-related messenger RNAs (TNF-α, CD80, CD86, and IL-12p40) were also confirmed in the TAMs. Macrophage co-culture with gastric cancer cells converted M1 phenotype into M2 phenotype. Moreover, the coexistence of MKN45 cells with M2 macrophages resulted in cancer cell proliferation and an acceleration of tumor growth in the xenograft model.
CONCLUSIONS: Intraperitoneal TAMs in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination were polarized to the M2 phenotype, and could contribute to tumor proliferation and progression. Therefore, intraperitoneal TAMs are expected to be a promising target in the treatment of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer.

Hardikar S, Johnson LG, Malkki M, et al.
A population-based case-control study of genetic variation in cytokine genes associated with risk of cervical and vulvar cancers.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 139(1):90-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be the necessary cause of cervical cancer and a majority of vulvar cancers. Persistent HPV infections must evade host immune responses, including cytokines released by activated T-helper (Th) cells. In this study, we investigated the risk of cervical and vulvar cancers associated with common genetic variations in 560 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate cytokine genes.
METHODS: The study included 399 invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 502 in situ or invasive adenocarcinomas (AC) of the cervix; 357 in situ or invasive vulvar SCC; and 1109 controls from the Seattle-area case-control studies of HPV-related cancers. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a log additive model, with adjustment for multiple testing.
RESULTS: Statistically significant risks were observed for HPV16-containing SCC of the cervix with the variant allele rs879576 in IL17RA and rs2229094 in TNF [OR, 95% CI and multiple-testing corrected p: 1.91 (1.30-2.79), p=0.018 and 0.61 (0.45-0.83), p=0.02, respectively]. We also observed significantly increased risk of HPV-positive vulvar cancers associated with variant alleles in CSF2 (rs25882 and rs27438, 26-28% increased risk) and IL-12B (rs2569254 and rs3181225, 40-41% increased risk) genes.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that variation in several Th-cytokine genes is significantly associated with cervical and vulvar cancer risk. The strong association between these HPV-related cancers and common variation in cytokine genes in the Th1 and Th17 pathways may be important for development of new therapies.

Sun R, Jia F, Liang Y, et al.
Interaction analysis of IL-12A and IL-12B polymorphisms with the risk of colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9295-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
IL-12 is an antitumor cytokine with functions of inhibiting tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis, indicating that IL-12 is a promising candidate for cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IL-12A rs568408, IL-12A rs2243115, and IL-12B rs3212227 with the susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). Two hundred and fifty-seven histopathologically confirmed CRC patients and 236 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled. The three polymorphisms were genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. We found that the IL-12A rs568408 AG/AA genotypes were associated with an increased risk of CRC with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.66 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.48). Stratified analyses showed that patients carrying the IL-12B rs3212227AC/CC genotypes had a 1.97-fold increased risk of tumor metastasis (OR = 1.97; 95 % CI, 1.04-3.70). Gene-gene interaction analysis showed that subjects carrying the IL-12A rs568408AG/AA and IL-12B rs3212227AA genotypes had a 2.40-fold increased risk of CRC (OR = 2.40; 95 % CI, 1.14-5.07) and individuals carrying the IL-12A rs568408AG/AA and IL-12B rs3212227AC/CC genotypes had a 1.93-fold increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.93; 95 % CI, 1.10-3.41). These findings indicate that IL-12A rs568408 and IL-12B rs3212227 may be related to the development of CRC.

Lei J, Rudolph A, Moysich KB, et al.
Assessment of variation in immunosuppressive pathway genes reveals TGFBR2 to be associated with prognosis of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer after chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer Res. 2015; 17:18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Tumor lymphocyte infiltration is associated with clinical response to chemotherapy in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. To identify variants in immunosuppressive pathway genes associated with prognosis after adjuvant chemotherapy for ER-negative patients, we studied stage I-III invasive breast cancer patients of European ancestry, including 9,334 ER-positive (3,151 treated with chemotherapy) and 2,334 ER-negative patients (1,499 treated with chemotherapy).
METHODS: We pooled data from sixteen studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), and employed two independent studies for replications. Overall 3,610 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 133 genes were genotyped as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study, in which phenotype and clinical data were collected and harmonized. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess genetic associations with overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Heterogeneity according to chemotherapy or ER status was evaluated with the log-likelihood ratio test.
RESULTS: Three independent SNPs in TGFBR2 and IL12B were associated with OS (P <10⁻³) solely in ER-negative patients after chemotherapy (267 events). Poorer OS associated with TGFBR2 rs1367610 (G > C) (per allele hazard ratio (HR) 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22 to 1.95), P = 3.08 × 10⁻⁴) was not found in ER-negative patients without chemotherapy or ER-positive patients with chemotherapy (P for interaction <10-3). Two SNPs in IL12B (r² = 0.20) showed different associations with ER-negative disease after chemotherapy: rs2546892 (G > A) with poorer OS (HR 1.50 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.86), P = 1.81 × 10⁻⁴), and rs2853694 (A > C) with improved OS (HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.87), P = 3.67 × 10⁻⁴). Similar associations were observed with BCSS. Association with TGFBR2 rs1367610 but not IL12B variants replicated using BCAC Asian samples and the independent Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary Breast Cancer Study and yielded a combined HR of 1.57 ((95% CI 1.28 to 1.94), P = 2.05 × 10⁻⁵) without study heterogeneity.
CONCLUSIONS: TGFBR2 variants may have prognostic and predictive value in ER-negative breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings provide further insights into the development of immunotherapeutic targets for ER-negative breast cancer.

Fang S, Wang Y, Chun YS, et al.
Association of Common Genetic Polymorphisms with Melanoma Patient IL-12p40 Blood Levels, Risk, and Outcomes.
J Invest Dermatol. 2015; 135(9):2266-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent investigation has identified association of IL-12p40 blood levels with melanoma recurrence and patient survival. No studies have investigated associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with melanoma patient IL-12p40 blood levels or their potential contributions to melanoma susceptibility or patient outcome. In the current study, 818,237 SNPs were available for 1,804 melanoma cases and 1,026 controls. IL-12p40 blood levels were assessed among 573 cases (discovery), 249 cases (case validation), and 299 controls (control validation). SNPs were evaluated for association with log[IL-12p40] levels in the discovery data set and replicated in two validation data sets, and significant SNPs were assessed for association with melanoma susceptibility and patient outcomes. The most significant SNP associated with log[IL-12p40] was in the IL-12B gene region (rs6897260, combined P=9.26 × 10(-38)); this single variant explained 13.1% of variability in log[IL-12p40]. The most significant SNP in EBF1 was rs6895454 (combined P=2.24 × 10(-9)). A marker in IL12B was associated with melanoma susceptibility (rs3213119, multivariate P=0.0499; OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.00-2.24), whereas a marker in EBF1 was associated with melanoma-specific survival in advanced-stage patients (rs10515789, multivariate P=0.02; HR=1.93, 95% CI 1.11-3.35). Both EBF1 and IL12B strongly regulate IL-12p40 blood levels, and IL-12p40 polymorphisms may contribute to melanoma susceptibility and influence patient outcome.

Kim JS, Kim SY, Lee M, et al.
Radioresistance in a human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line is associated with DNA methylation changes and topoisomerase II α.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(4):558-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence suggests that changes in methylation patterns may help mediate the sensitivity or resistance of cancer cells to ionizing radiation. The present study provides evidence for the involvement of radioresistance-induced DNA methylation changes in tumor radioresistance. We established radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells via long-term fractionated irradiation, and examined differences in DNA methylation between control and radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells. Interestingly, we found that the promoter-CpG islands of 5 previously identified radioresistance-related genes (TOPO2A, PLXDC2, ETNK2, GFI1, and IL12B) were significantly altered in the radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells. Furthermore, the demethylation of these gene promoters with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) increased their transcription levels. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine also sensitized the radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to irradiation, indicating that changes in DNA methylation contributed to their radioresistance. Of the tested genes, the expression and activity levels of TOPO2A were tightly associated with the radioresistant phenotype in our system, suggesting that the hypermethylation of TOPO2A might be involved in this radioresistance. Collectively, our data suggest that radiation-induced epigenetic changes can modulate the radioresistance of laryngeal cancer cells, and thus may prove useful as prognostic indicators for radiotherapy.

Ebadi N, Jahed M, Mivehchi M, et al.
Interleukin-12 and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and risk of bladder cancer in the Iranian population.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(18):7869-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an antitumor and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an inflammatory cytokine, are immunomodulatory products that play important roles in responses in cancers and inflammation. We tested the association between two polymorphisms of IL-12(1188A>C; rs3212227) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) and the risk of bladder cancer in 261 patients and 251 healthy individuals. We also investigated the possible association of these SNPs in patients with high-risk jobs and smoking habits with the incidence of bladder cancer. The genotype distributions of IL-6 (-174 C/G) genotype were similar between the cases and the control groups; however, among patients with smoking habits, the association between IL-6 gene polymorphism and incidence of bladder cancer was significant. After a control adjustment for age and sex, the following results were recorded: CC genotype (OR= 2.11, 95%CI=1.56-2.87, p=0.007), GC genotype (OR=2.18, 95%CI=1.16-4.12, p=0.014) and GC+ CC (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.43-4.47, p=0.011). A significant risk of bladder cancer was observed for the heterozygous genotype (AC) of IL-12 (OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.01-2.14, p=0.045) in all cases, and among smokers (AC) (OR=3.13, 95%CI=1.82-5.37, p=0.00014), combined AC+CC (OR=3.05, 95%CI=1.8-5.18, p=0.000015). Moreover among high risk job patients, there was more than a 3-fold increased risk of cancer in the carriers of IL-12 beta heterozygous (OR=3.7, 95%CI=2.04-6.57, p=0.000056) and combined AC+CC(OR=3.29, 95%CI=1.58-5.86, p=0.00002) genotypes as compared with the AA genotype with low-risk jobs. As a conclusion, this study suggests that IL-12(3'UTR A>C) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in the Iranian population with smoking habits and/or performing high-risk jobs.

Choi J, Song N, Han S, et al.
The associations between immunity-related genes and breast cancer prognosis in Korean women.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e103593 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We investigated the role of common genetic variation in immune-related genes on breast cancer disease-free survival (DFS) in Korean women. 107 breast cancer patients of the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS) were selected for this study. A total of 2,432 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 283 immune-related genes were genotyped with the GoldenGate Oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA). A multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model and polygenic risk score model were used to estimate the effects of SNPs on breast cancer prognosis. Harrell's C index was calculated to estimate the predictive accuracy of polygenic risk score model. Subsequently, an extended gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA-SNP) was conducted to approximate the biological pathway. In addition, to confirm our results with current evidence, previous studies were systematically reviewed. Sixty-two SNPs were statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. The most significant SNPs were rs1952438 in SOCS4 gene (hazard ratio (HR) = 11.99, 95% CI = 3.62-39.72, P = 4.84E-05), rs2289278 in TSLP gene (HR = 4.25, 95% CI = 2.10-8.62, P = 5.99E-05) and rs2074724 in HGF gene (HR = 4.63, 95% CI = 2.18-9.87, P = 7.04E-05). In the polygenic risk score model, the HR of women in the 3rd tertile was 6.78 (95% CI = 1.48-31.06) compared to patients in the 1st tertile of polygenic risk score. Harrell's C index was 0.813 with total patients and 0.924 in 4-fold cross validation. In the pathway analysis, 18 pathways were significantly associated with breast cancer prognosis (P<0.1). The IL-6R, IL-8, IL-10RB, IL-12A, and IL-12B was associated with the prognosis of cancer in data of both our study and a previous study. Therefore, our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in immune-related genes have relevance to breast cancer prognosis among Korean women.

Yadav DS, Chattopadhyay I, Verma A, et al.
A pilot study evaluating genetic alterations that drive tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer in Northeast India.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9317-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The susceptibility of an individual to oral cancer is mediated by genetic factors and carcinogen-exposure behaviors such as betel quid chewing, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. This pilot study was aimed to identify the genetic alteration in 100 bp upstream and downstream flanking regions in addition to the exonic regions of 169 cancer-associated genes by using Next Generation sequencing with aim to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer of Northeast India. To understand the role of chemical compounds present in tobacco and betel quid associated with the progression of oral cancer, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (Indels) found in this study were analyzed for their association with chemical compounds found in tobacco and betel quid using Comparative Toxogenomic Database. Genes (AR, BRCA1, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with arecoline which is the major component of areca nut. Genes (BARD1, BRCA2, CCND2, IGF1R, MSH6, and RASSF1) with novel deletion and genes (APC, BRMS1, CDK2AP1, CDKN2B, GAS1, IGF1R, and RB1) with novel insertion were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1 which is produced by fermented areca nut. Genes (ADH6, APC, AR, BARD1, BRMS1, CDKN1A, E2F1, FGFR4, FLNC, HRAS, IGF1R, IL12B, IL8, NBL1, STAT5B, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1. Genes (ATM, BRCA1, CDKN1A, EGFR, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with tobacco specific nitrosamines.

Jin P, Civini S, Zhao Y, et al.
Direct T cell-tumour interaction triggers TH1 phenotype activation through the modification of the mesenchymal stromal cells transcriptional programme.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(12):2955-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous cells with immunoregulatory and wound-healing properties. In cancer, they are known to be an essential part of the tumour microenvironment. However, their role in tumour growth and rejection remains unclear. To investigate this, we co-cultured human MSCs, tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and melanoma cells to investigate the role of MSCs in the tumour environment.
METHODS: Mesenchymal stromal cells were co-cultured with melanoma antigen-specific TIL that were stimulated either with HLA-A*0201(+) melanoma cells or with a corresponding clone that had lost HLA-A*0201 expression.
RESULTS: Activated TIL induced profound pro-inflammatory gene expression signature in MSCs. Analysis of culture supernatant found that MSCs secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TH1 cytokines that have been previously associated with immune-mediated antitumor responses. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis on selected markers revealed that the same activated MSCs secreted both the TH1 cytokine (interleukin-12) and indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), a classical immunosuppressive factor.
CONCLUSIONS: This study reflected that the plasticity of MSCs is highly dependent upon microenvironment conditions. Tumour-activated TIL induced TH1 phenotype change in MSCs that is qualitatively similar to the previously described immunologic constant of rejection signature observed during immune-mediated, tissue-specific destruction. This response may be responsible for the in loco amplification of antigen-specific anti-cancer immune response.

Pan D, Zeng X, Yu H, et al.
Role of cytokine gene polymorphisms on prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma after radical surgery resection.
Gene. 2014; 544(1):32-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to determine whether SNPs of cytokine genes influence survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after radical surgery resection. We evaluated 14 SNPs of eight cytokine genes in 263 patients treated with radical surgery resection of HCC. Categorical variables were compared by the χ(2) test and Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan-Meier methods with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used to compare survival of resected HCC patients according to the genotype. Among the 14 studied SNPs of cytokine genes, only the TNF-α-863 (CA+CC) genotypes were revealed to be significant independent predictors of prolonged overall survival (OS) after HCC radical surgery resection (HR: 0.586, 95% CI: 0.355-0.968), considering for other clinical factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between the 14 SNPs and relapse-free survival (RFS) of resected HCC patients. In addition, combination analysis with the Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12B, TGF-β1) or Th2 cytokine (IL-6, IL-10) genetic polymorphisms by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariate analysis did not reveal any significant association between OS and RFS of resected HCC patients.

Yin J, Wang X, Wei J, et al.
Interleukin 12B rs3212227 T > G polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma in a Chinese population.
Dis Esophagus. 2015; 28(3):291-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA) is one of common malignant tumors in the world. Multiple genes that play critical roles in inflammatory pathways probably are associated with GCA risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the genetic effects of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): interleukin 9 (IL9) rs31563 C > T, IL9 rs31564 G > T, IL10 rs1800872 T > G, IL12A rs2243115 T > G, IL12B rs3212227 T > G, and IL13 rs1800925 C > T on the development of GCA. Two hundred and forty-three GCA cases and 476 controls were recruited. Their genotypes were determined using a custom-by-design 48-Plex SNPscan kit. IL12B rs3212227 T > G polymorphism was associated with the increased risk of GCA. However, there was no significant association between the other five SNPs and GCA risk. Stratified analyses indicated that the risk of GCA associated with the IL12B rs3212227 T > G polymorphism was evident among female patients and patients who never smoked or consumed alcoholic drinks. These findings indicated that functional polymorphism IL12B rs3212227 T > G might correlate with GCA risk. However, our results were obtained with a limited sample size; the power of our analysis was low. Larger studies are required to confirm the current findings.

Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.
Genetic gains and losses in oral squamous cell carcinoma: impact on clinical management.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(1):29-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The identification of genetic markers associated with oral cancer is considered essential to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, early tumor and relapse detection and, ultimately, to delineate individualized therapeutic approaches. Here, we aimed at identifying such markers.
METHODS: Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analyses encompassing 133 cancer-related genes were performed on a panel of primary oral tumor samples and its corresponding resection margins (macroscopically tumor-free tissue) allowing, in both types of tissue, the detection of a wide arrange of copy number imbalances on various human chromosomes.
RESULTS: We found that in tumor tissue, from the 133 cancer-related genes included in this study, those that most frequently exhibited copy number gains were located on chromosomal arms 3q, 6p, 8q, 11q, 16p, 16q, 17p, 17q and 19q, whereas those most frequently exhibiting copy number losses were located on chromosomal arms 2q, 3p, 4q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 11q and 18q. Several imbalances were highlighted, i.e., losses of ERBB4, CTNNB1, NFKB1, IL2, IL12B, TUSC3, CDKN2A, CASP1, and gains of MME, BCL6, VEGF, PTK2, PTP4A3, RNF139, CCND1, FGF3, CTTN, MVP, CDH1, BRCA1, CDKN2D, BAX, as well as exon 4 of TP53. Comparisons between tumor and matched macroscopically tumor-free tissues allowed us to build a logistic regression model to predict the tissue type (benign versus malignant). In this model, the TUSC3 gene showed statistical significance, indicating that loss of this gene may serve as a good indicator of malignancy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards relevance of the above mentioned cancer-related genes as putative genetic markers for oral cancer. For practical clinical purposes, these genetic markers should be validated in additional studies.

Kim H, Gao W, Ho M
Novel immunocytokine IL12-SS1 (Fv) inhibits mesothelioma tumor growth in nude mice.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e81919 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesothelin is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein that is highly expressed on the cell surface of malignant mesothelioma. Monoclonal antibodies against mesothelin are being evaluated for the treatment of mesothelioma. Immunocytokines represent a novel class of armed antibodies. To provide an alternative approach to current mesothelin-targeted antibody therapies, we have developed a novel immunocytokine based on interleukin-12 (IL12) and the SS1 Fv specific for mesothelin. IL12 possesses potent anti-tumor activity in a wide variety of solid tumors. The newly-developed recombinant immunocytokine, IL12-SS1 (Fv), was produced in insect cells using a baculovirus-insect cell expression system. The SS1 single-chain Fv was fused to the C terminus of the p35 subunit of IL12 through a short linker (GSADGG). The single-chain IL12-SS1 (Fv) immunocytokine bound native mesothelin proteins on malignant mesothelioma (NCI-H226) and ovarian (OVCAR-3) cells as well as recombinant mesothelin on A431/H9 cells. The immunocytokine retained sufficient bioactivity of IL12 and significantly inhibited human malignant mesothelioma (NCI-H226) grown in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice and showed comparable anti-tumor activity to that of the SS1P immunotoxin. IL12-SS1 (Fv) is the first reported immunocytokine to mesothelin-positive tumors and may be an attractive addition to mesothelin-targeted cancer therapies.

Saxena R, Chawla YK, Verma I, Kaur J
Effect of IL-12B, IL-2, TGF-β1, and IL-4 polymorphism and expression on hepatitis B progression.
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2014; 34(2):117-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-induced chronic inflammation is considered to be the major etiological factor for HBV-related disease chronicity. Cytokines act as the key coordinators of the inflammatory responses involved in HBV disease pathogenesis. The present study assessed association among IL-12B(+1188), IL-2(-330), TGF-β1(-509), and IL-4(-590) genotypes; mRNA; and protein levels with HBV-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in India. For this, 403 subjects (153 controls, 67 inactive HBV-carriers, 62 chronic-active HBV patients, 62 HBV-cirrhotics, and 59 HBV-HCC ssubjects) were enrolled in the study. The genotyping was carried by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (IL-12+1188A/C, IL-2-330T/G, and TGF-β1-509C/T), and allele specific (AS)-polymerase chain reaction (IL-4-590C/T). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction methods were used for assessing protein and the mRNA expression, respectively, of the mentioned cytokines. The study revealed that the IL-12B(+1188) CC genotype shared a significant positive association with hepatitis, among controls. While, in the case of IL-2(-330), both the TG and GG genotypes were not significantly associated with HCC risk. The TGF-β1(-509) TT genotype acted as a potential protective factor for cirrhosis and the HCC risk, among carriers. On the contrary, the IL-4(-590) CT genotype was found to be a vital protective factor for the development of hepatitis, among carriers. Besides, IL-12B, TGF-β1, and IL-2 seem to be majorly involved in the development of HCC, while, IL-4 might be responsible for the progression of the HBV disease till cirrhosis development. These initial findings are indicative of the vital role of genotypes and/or levels of IL-12B, IL-2, IL-4, and TGF-β1 in HBV disease chronicity in Indian population.

Jin P, Ren H, Sun W, et al.
Circulating IL-35 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients.
Hum Immunol. 2014; 75(1):29-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
IL-35 is a novel inhibitory cytokine that is mainly produced by regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and is required for Treg-mediated immunosuppression. However, the plasma levels of IL-35 in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have never been investigated. In this study, we found that plasma IL-35 levels more significantly increased in PDAC patients than in normal controls (134.53 ± 92.45 pg/mL vs. 14.26 ± 6.56 pg/mL). IL-35 mRNA levels were positively correlated with plasma IL-35 levels (EBI3, R = 0.925, p<0.01; p35, R = 0.916, p<0.01). Furthermore, IL-35 expression levels were associated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001) and late tumor stage (p = 0.002). For the resected patients, high IL-35 expression levels were associated with large tumor size (p<0.01), higher TNM classification T staging (p<0.05), and late tumor stage (p<0.05). In conclusion, circulating IL-35 in PDAC patients significantly increased, suggesting that regulating the expression of IL-35 may provide a new possible target for the treatment of PDAC patients, especially for the resectable ones.

Jalah R, Rosati M, Ganneru B, et al.
The p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 promotes stabilization and export of the p35 subunit: implications for improved IL-12 cytokine production.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(9):6763-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
IL-12 is a 70-kDa heterodimeric cytokine composed of the p35 and p40 subunits. To maximize cytokine production from plasmid DNA, molecular steps controlling IL-12p70 biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels were investigated. We show that the combination of RNA/codon-optimized gene sequences and fine-tuning of the relative expression levels of the two subunits within a cell resulted in increased production of the IL-12p70 heterodimer. We found that the p40 subunit plays a critical role in enhancing the stability, intracellular trafficking, and export of the p35 subunit. This posttranslational regulation mediated by the p40 subunit is conserved in mammals. Based on these findings, dual gene expression vectors were generated, producing an optimal ratio of the two subunits, resulting in a ~1 log increase in human, rhesus, and murine IL-12p70 production compared with vectors expressing the wild type sequences. Such optimized DNA plasmids also produced significantly higher levels of systemic bioactive IL-12 upon in vivo DNA delivery in mice compared with plasmids expressing the wild type sequences. A single therapeutic injection of an optimized murine IL-12 DNA plasmid showed significantly more potent control of tumor development in the B16 melanoma cancer model in mice. Therefore, the improved IL-12p70 DNA vectors have promising potential for in vivo use as molecular vaccine adjuvants and in cancer immunotherapy.

Hussain SK, Madeleine MM, Johnson LG, et al.
Nucleotide variation in IL-10 and IL-12 and their receptors and cervical and vulvar cancer risk: a hybrid case-parent triad and case-control study.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(1):201-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Given the important role of cell mediated immunity in viral clearance and control of premalignant lesions, we hypothesize that variation in the IL-12/IL-10 cytokine and cytokine receptor genes may influence cervical and vulvar cancer risk. We evaluated 76 tagSNPs from seven candidate genes (IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-10RA, IL-10RB, IL-12RB1, and IL12RB2) in case-parent sets (n=43 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), n=96 cervical adenocarcinoma, n=53 vulvar SCC), additional cases (n=356 cervical SCC, n=406 cervical adenocarcinoma, and n=473 vulvar SCC) and population based controls (1,111). We calculated log-additive odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between tagSNP and cancer risk using a pseudo-likelihood based method which combined genotype information on cases, parents, and population controls. After correction for multiple comparisons, we identified several statistically significant SNP associations. Cervical SCC risk was associated with the minor alleles of the IL10RA rs9610 3' UTR SNP (OR=1.76, 95% CI=1.15-2.68) and two synonymous IL12RB2 SNPs (rs4297265, OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.26-0.82; rs2229546, OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.21-0.87). Cervical adenocarcinoma risk was associated with the minor alleles of the IL10RA rs4252314 intronic SNP (OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.26-3.96) and IL12RB1 rs11575934 non-synonymous SNP (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.12-2.05). Finally, the minor allele of the IL12B rs3181224 3' UTR SNP was associated with a reduced risk of vulvar SCC (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.12-0.74). These results raise the possibility that a shift in the balance of the immune response due to genetic variants in key cytokine genes could influence the development of cervical and vulvar cancer.

Ding D, Lou X, Hua D, et al.
Recurrent targeted genes of hepatitis B virus in the liver cancer genomes identified by a next-generation sequencing-based approach.
PLoS Genet. 2012; 8(12):e1003065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Integration of the viral DNA into host chromosomes was found in most of the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Here we devised a massive anchored parallel sequencing (MAPS) method using next-generation sequencing to isolate and sequence HBV integrants. Applying MAPS to 40 pairs of HBV-related HCC tissues (cancer and adjacent tissues), we identified 296 HBV integration events corresponding to 286 unique integration sites (UISs) with precise HBV-Human DNA junctions. HBV integration favored chromosome 17 and preferentially integrated into human transcript units. HBV targeted genes were enriched in GO terms: cAMP metabolic processes, T cell differentiation and activation, TGF beta receptor pathway, ncRNA catabolic process, and dsRNA fragmentation and cellular response to dsRNA. The HBV targeted genes include 7 genes (PTPRJ, CNTN6, IL12B, MYOM1, FNDC3B, LRFN2, FN1) containing IPR003961 (Fibronectin, type III domain), 7 genes (NRG3, MASP2, NELL1, LRP1B, ADAM21, NRXN1, FN1) containing IPR013032 (EGF-like region, conserved site), and three genes (PDE7A, PDE4B, PDE11A) containing IPR002073 (3', 5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase). Enriched pathways include hsa04512 (ECM-receptor interaction), hsa04510 (Focal adhesion), and hsa04012 (ErbB signaling pathway). Fewer integration events were found in cancers compared to cancer-adjacent tissues, suggesting a clonal expansion model in HCC development. Finally, we identified 8 genes that were recurrent target genes by HBV integration including fibronectin 1 (FN1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT1), two known recurrent target genes, and additional novel target genes such as SMAD family member 5 (SMAD5), phosphatase and actin regulator 4 (PHACTR4), and RNA binding protein fox-1 homolog (C. elegans) 1 (RBFOX1). Integrating analysis with recently published whole-genome sequencing analysis, we identified 14 additional recurrent HBV target genes, greatly expanding the HBV recurrent target list. This global survey of HBV integration events, together with recently published whole-genome sequencing analyses, furthered our understanding of the HBV-related HCC.

Long J, Zhang X, Wen M, et al.
IL-35 over-expression increases apoptosis sensitivity and suppresses cell growth in human cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 430(1):364-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin (IL)-35 is a novel heterodimeric cytokine in the IL-12 family and is composed of two subunits: Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-12p35. IL-35 is expressed in T regulatory (Treg) cells and contributes to the immune suppression function of these cells. In contrast, we found that both IL-35 subunits were expressed concurrently in most human cancer cell lines compared to normal cell lines. In addition, we found that TNF-α and IFN-γ stimulation led to increased IL-35 expression in human cancer cells. Furthermore, over-expression of IL-35 in human cancer cells suppressed cell growth in vitro, induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and mediated robust apoptosis induced by serum starvation, TNF-α, and IFN-γ stimulation through the up-regulation of Fas and concurrent down-regulation of cyclinD1, survivin, and Bcl-2 expression. In conclusion, our results reveal a novel functional role for IL-35 in suppressing cancer activity, inhibiting cancer cell growth, and increasing the apoptosis sensitivity of human cancer cells through the regulation of genes related to the cell cycle and apoptosis. Thus, this research provides new insights into IL-35 function and presents a possible target for the development of novel cancer therapies.

Chen H, Cheng S, Wang J, et al.
Interleukin-12B rs3212227 polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(12):10235-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
IL-12 plays a very important role in the development and progress of cancer. IL-12B rs3212227 polymorphism has been reported and many studies have focused on the role of this polymorphism in various cancers. However, the association between IL-12B rs3212227 polymorphism and cancer risk remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a systematic meta-analysis to estimate the overall cancer risk associated with this gene polymorphism and to quantify any potential between-study heterogeneity. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for case-control studies published up to April 1, 2012 that investigated IL-12B rs3212227 polymorphism and cancer risk. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were used to access the strength of this association. Heterogeneity among articles and publication bias were also verified. Ten studies with 2,954 cancer patients and 3,276 healthy controls were included. This meta-analysis showed that there was a significant association between IL-12B rs3212227 polymorphism and overall cancer risk (CC/AC vs AA: OR = 1.32, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.63). When stratified by cancer type, we found a significant increased risk in cervical and nasopharyngeal cancer (OR = 1.34, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.73; OR = 2.03, 95 % CI = 1.57-2.63, respectively). In the stratified analysis, we also observed a similar association in population-based studies (OR = 1.34, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.80), Asian populations (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.67) and European populations (OR = 1.54, 95 % CI = 1.04-2.28). According to the results of our meta-analysis, IL-12B rs3212227 polymorphism probably is associated with a high risk of cancer.

Stanilov NS, Miteva LD, Dobreva ZG, et al.
Monocytes expression of IL-12 related and IL-10 genes in association with development of colorectal cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(12):10895-902 [PubMed] Related Publications
The main regulator of anti-tumor immune response is the activity of monocytes, suggesting that the produced cytokines may have a prognostic role. This study investigates gene expression of interleukin (IL)-12-related cytokine and IL-10 in stimulated monocytes from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Relative quantification of IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-23A and IL-10 mRNA transcripts was performed on the third hours after stimulation by real-time qPCR. We also explored an inhibitor of JNK signaling pathway activation for the observed cytokine gene expression. A strong downregulation of IL-12B mRNA expression in CRC monocytes compared to healthy donors was observed. The rate of transcription of IL-12B in stimulated monocytes was associated with the stage of CRC. The expression of IL-12A gene in stimulated monocytes from patients with advanced was lower than early cancer. Moreover, we observed stage dependent JNK inhibition mediated reduction in IL-12A expression. The hyporesponsiveness was strongly expressed in monocytes from advanced then early stages of CRC. Expression of IL-10 mRNA was almost equally in CRC monocytes from early stages and healthy donors. We demonstrated that altered gene expression profiles of IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-23A at mRNA level in CRC monocytes was associated with tumor development and can be attributed to anticancer immune response.

Zhou L, Yao F, Luan H, et al.
Functional polymorphisms in the interleukin-12 gene contribute to cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies.
Gene. 2012; 510(1):71-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence from preclinical and clinical studies has shown that interleukin-12 (IL-12) has some effectiveness against endogenously arising carcinogenesis. Several potentially functional polymorphisms of IL-12 gene have been implicated in cancer risk, but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between IL-12 polymorphisms and cancer risk.
METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of science and CBM databases were searched for all articles published up to June 10, 2012 that addressed IL-12 polymorphisms and cancer risk. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1.6 and STATA 12.0 softwares.
RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included with a total of 6463 cancer cases and 7412 healthy controls. We found that the 3'UTR A>C (rs3212227) polymorphism of IL-12B gene was associated with significantly increased overall risk of cancers using random effects model (C vs A: odds ratio [OR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.27; AC+CC vs AA: OR=1.20, 95%CI: 1.01-1.43). However, the 3'UTR G>A (rs568408), IVS2 T>A (rs582054) and 5'UTR T>G (rs2243115) polymorphisms of IL-12A gene did not appear to have an influence on cancer susceptibility. Further subgroup analyses showed that the 3'UTR A>C (rs3212227) polymorphism was associated with increased cancer risks in the subgroups of Asians, cervical and nasopharyngeal cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Results from the current meta-analysis indicates that the 3'UTR A>C (rs3212227) polymorphism of IL-12B gene might be a potential biomarker for cancer risk among Asians, especially for cervical and nasopharyngeal cancers.

Tao YP, Wang WL, Li SY, et al.
Associations between polymorphisms in IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-12Rβ1, IL-27 gene and serum levels of IL-12p40, IL-27p28 with esophageal cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(11):1891-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-12Rβ1, and IL-27 gene polymorphisms and serum levels of IL-12, IL-27 are associated with esophageal cancer.
METHODS: We genotyped IL-12A gene rs568408, IL-12B gene rs3212227, IL-12Rβ1 gene 378 C/G, IL-27 gene rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206 polymorphisms in a case-control study of 426 esophageal cancer patients and 432 health controls, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and serum IL-12p40 and IL-27p28 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS: Both serum IL-12p40 and IL-27p28 levels were significantly higher in controls than those in patients (P < 0.01). Rs568408 AG/AA, rs3212227 CC/AC, and IL-12Rβ1 378 GG/GC genotypes were associated with significantly increased risk of esophageal cancer (rs568408: χ(2) = 5.704, P = 0.017; rs3212227: χ(2) = 7.689, P = 0.006; IL-12Rβ1 378C/G: χ(2) = 5.206, P = 0.023). Moreover, rs3212227 CC/AC and 378 GG/GC genotypes were observed significantly associated with decreased serum IL-12p40 level in patients compare to other genotypes (rs3212227: t = 2.129, P = 0.034; IL-12Rβ1 378 C/G: t = 2.178, P = 0.030). Furthermore, frequency of rs3212227 CC/AC genotypes was significantly higher in patients with poor differentiation than those with AA genotype (χ(2) = 4.314, P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the impaired production of IL-12p40 and IL-27p28 behaves as risk factors for esophageal cancer occurrence. IL-12B gene rs3212227 CC/AC and IL-12Rβ1 gene 378 GG/GC genotypes, which associated with decreased IL-12p40 level, may contribute to esophageal cancer susceptibility.

Kaarvatn MH, Vrbanec J, Kulic A, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphism in the interleukin 12B gene is associated with risk for breast cancer development.
Scand J Immunol. 2012; 76(3):329-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
We analysed the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene encoding the IL-12 subunit p40 (IL12B, rs3212227, A>C) with breast cancer. The SNPs allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between patients (n = 191) and healthy (n = 194) women in a case-control study from Croatia. The major allele (A) was associated with susceptibility to breast cancer (P = 0.003; OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.17-2.38). Likewise, the minor allele (C) was significantly correlated with protection (P = 0.003; OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.42-0.86). At the genotype level, AA homozygosity was significantly associated with predisposition to disease (P = 0.013; OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.09-2.59), whereas the minor allele homozygosity (CC) was correlated with protection to disease (P = 0.020, OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09-0.91). The heterozygous genotype showed no significant correlation with disease. The product of the IL12B gene (IL-12 p40) can either form a homodimeric cytokine or be part of two pro-inflammatory (IL-12 and IL-23) cytokines. It is presently unclear whether the major allele is associated with higher or lower protein levels of IL-12 p40 and IL-12 p70, which are critical in inflammation and adaptive immune responses. However, as the A allele is high producer of IL12B (p40) mRNA, these results might imply that higher levels of IL-12 p40 (either as homodimers or joined with one or both of the other two subunits) predispose to breast cancer.

Yuzhalin AE, Kutikhin AG
Interleukin-12: clinical usage and molecular markers of cancer susceptibility.
Growth Factors. 2012; 30(3):176-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The last decade has seen the emergence of immunomodulators as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Interleukins (ILs) are a category of small cell-signaling molecules that organize communication and interaction between immune cells and therefore they could be used as perfect immunomodulators. IL-12 is a promising candidate for cancer immunotherapy since it plays a major role in development of antitumor immune response. Numerous studies report that IL-12 promotes an effective destruction of cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, IL-12 has anti-angiogenic activity and it is able to dramatically decrease tumor-supportive activities of tumor-associated macrophages. The first part of the review is devoted to immunobiology of IL-12. Signaling pathways of IL-12 as well as clinical trials of this cytokine are discussed. The second part of the review is concerned on the inherited variations in IL-12A and IL-12B genes that could modulate cancer susceptibility, and as a consequence, possess predictive, therapeutic, or prognostic significance. It is known that functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-12A and IL-12B genes may dramatically affect on protein expression level, or alter its functions, which may lead to immune disorders, autoimmune diseases, and eventually contribute to cancer occurrence. The list of genetic polymorphisms for further investigations might include the following: IL-12B_+1188A/C (rs3212227), IL-12A_+277G/A (rs568408), IL-12A_-798T/A (rs582054), IL-12A_-504T/G (rs190533), IL-12A_-1148T/C (rs2243123), and IL-12B_+16974 A/C. Perhaps, some of these SNPs may become an attractive target for oncogenomics and possibly could be used in programs of early cancer diagnosis as well as cancer prevention in the nearest future.

do Carmo Vasconcelos de Carvalho V, de Macêdo JL, de Lima CA, et al.
IFN-gamma and IL-12B polymorphisms in women with cervical intraepithellial neoplasia caused by human papillomavirus.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(7):7627-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted organism associated with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer, the second main cause of malignancy in women worldwide. The virus itself, however, is not enough to cause lesions on the cervix. Several studies suggest that some polymorphic sites changes the cytokines levels and influence the cancer development in HPV infected patients. In this study, we evaluated the presence of functional polymorphisms at +874 (T/A) IFNG and +1188 (A/C) IL-12B genes in cervical smears samples from 76 healthy women and 162 women, HPV positive, with CIN lesion--CIN I (45), CIN II (55), CIN III (53) and cervical cancer (9)--in Brazilian population. There was no significant differences in genotype (p = 0.4192) and allele (p = 0.370; OR = 1.20) distributions between CIN patients and control groups on IFNG allelic polymorphism. Moreover, for IL-12B gene, there was a significant difference in genotype (p = 0.015) and allele distribution (p = 0.014; OR = 0.5754) between the groups. When samples were stratified according to grade of cervical lesion, the AA genotype and A allele were less frequent in the group with low-grade cervical lesions than in group with high-grade cervical lesions (p = 0.0036 and p = 0.0010; OR = 0.3819, respectively), suggesting that the C allele (mutant) may protect against the emergence of CIN lesions and its progression.

Sima X, Xu J, Li Q, et al.
Gene-gene interactions between interleukin-12A and interleukin-12B with the risk of brain tumor.
DNA Cell Biol. 2012; 31(2):219-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging evidence from preclinical and clinical studies has shown that interleukin-12 (IL-12) has some effectiveness against endogenously arising brain tumor. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of IL-12A and IL-12B polymorphisms on the risk of brain tumor. We analyzed IL-12A rs2243115 and IL-12B rs3212227 polymorphisms in 170 patients with brain tumor and 222 healthy controls in a Chinese population using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and DNA sequencing method. Individuals carrying a G allele of IL-12A rs2243115 had a significantly higher risk of developing brain tumor compared with those carrying a T allele (odds ratio [OR]=2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-3.45). After stratification analysis according to tumor types, a similarly higher risk was detected in patients with glioma (OR=2.56, 95% CI, 1.25-5.21). When gene-gene interactions were examined, carriers at both loci rs2243115 TG/GG and rs3212227 AC/CC had a 2.62-fold increased risk of glioma compared with those with rs2243115 TT and rs3212227 AC/CC genotypes (OR=2.62, 95% CI, 1.05-6.50). This study provides evidence that IL-12A rs2243115 may be associated with the risk of brain tumor. Additionally, gene-gene interactions of IL-12A rs2243115 and IL-12B rs3212227 may contribute to brain tumor susceptibility.

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