IL12A

Gene Summary

Gene:IL12A; interleukin 12A
Aliases: P35, CLMF, NFSK, NKSF1, IL-12A
Location:3q25.33
Summary:This gene encodes a subunit of a cytokine that acts on T and natural killer cells, and has a broad array of biological activities. The cytokine is a disulfide-linked heterodimer composed of the 35-kD subunit encoded by this gene, and a 40-kD subunit that is a member of the cytokine receptor family. This cytokine is required for the T-cell-independent induction of interferon (IFN)-gamma, and is important for the differentiation of both Th1 and Th2 cells. The responses of lymphocytes to this cytokine are mediated by the activator of transcription protein STAT4. Nitric oxide synthase 2A (NOS2A/NOS2) is found to be required for the signaling process of this cytokine in innate immunity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interleukin-12 subunit alpha
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: IL12A (cancer-related)

Zhang Z, Fye S, Borecki IB, Rader JS
Polymorphisms in immune mediators associate with risk of cervical cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 135(1):69-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The immune system is critical for controlling the progression of HPV cervical disease and the development of cancer. This study aimed to identify cervical cancer susceptibility alleles in candidate immune-modulating genes.
METHODS: Our family-based study involved a cohort of 641 probands (women with ICC/CIN III) and their biologic parents or siblings (641 trios). In the discovery phase (stage 1), involving 288 of the trios, 80 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 immune-modulating genes (IFNG, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, JAK1, JAK2, STAT1, STAT6, IL12A, TNF, LTA and LTB) were evaluated on the GoldenGate platform. We used the combined dataset for a total of 641 trios (stage 2) and the Taqman platform to validate the SNPs that had proved significant in the discovery dataset. The transmission disequilibrium test was used to detect significant shifts in allelic transmissions in the datasets.
RESULTS: Two SNPs in JAK2 and one SNP in STAT6 showed significant allelic association with cervical cancer in the stage 1 discovery dataset and were replicated in the larger joint analysis stage 2 dataset (JAK2 rs10815144, P=0.0029 and rs12349785, P=0.0058; and STAT6 rs3024971, P=0.0127). An additional SNP in exon 19 of JAK2 (rs2230724) was also examined in the combined dataset due to its strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs10815144. It was also significant (P=0.0335).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest an association of SNPs in JAK2 and STAT6 with cervical cancer. This association should be investigated in additional cervical cancer populations.

Jin P, Civini S, Zhao Y, et al.
Direct T cell-tumour interaction triggers TH1 phenotype activation through the modification of the mesenchymal stromal cells transcriptional programme.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(12):2955-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous cells with immunoregulatory and wound-healing properties. In cancer, they are known to be an essential part of the tumour microenvironment. However, their role in tumour growth and rejection remains unclear. To investigate this, we co-cultured human MSCs, tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and melanoma cells to investigate the role of MSCs in the tumour environment.
METHODS: Mesenchymal stromal cells were co-cultured with melanoma antigen-specific TIL that were stimulated either with HLA-A*0201(+) melanoma cells or with a corresponding clone that had lost HLA-A*0201 expression.
RESULTS: Activated TIL induced profound pro-inflammatory gene expression signature in MSCs. Analysis of culture supernatant found that MSCs secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TH1 cytokines that have been previously associated with immune-mediated antitumor responses. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis on selected markers revealed that the same activated MSCs secreted both the TH1 cytokine (interleukin-12) and indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), a classical immunosuppressive factor.
CONCLUSIONS: This study reflected that the plasticity of MSCs is highly dependent upon microenvironment conditions. Tumour-activated TIL induced TH1 phenotype change in MSCs that is qualitatively similar to the previously described immunologic constant of rejection signature observed during immune-mediated, tissue-specific destruction. This response may be responsible for the in loco amplification of antigen-specific anti-cancer immune response.

Zuccotti P, Colombrita C, Moncini S, et al.
hnRNPA2/B1 and nELAV proteins bind to a specific U-rich element in CDK5R1 3'-UTR and oppositely regulate its expression.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(6):506-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 1 (CDK5R1) encodes p35, a specific activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5). CDK5 and p35 have a fundamental role in neuronal migration and differentiation during CNS development. Both the CDK5R1 3'-UTR's remarkable size and its conservation during evolution strongly indicate an important role in post-transcriptional regulation. We previously validated different regulatory elements in the 3'-UTR of CDK5R1, which affect transcript stability, p35 levels and cellular migration through the binding with nELAV proteins and miR-103/7 miRNAs. Interestingly, a 138 bp-long region, named C2.1, was identified as the most mRNA destabilizing portion within CDK5R1 3'-UTR. This feature was maintained by a shorter region of 73 bp, characterized by two poly-U stretches. UV-CL experiments showed that this region interacts with protein factors. UV-CLIP assays and pull-down experiments followed by mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that nELAV and hnRNPA2/B1 proteins bind to the same U-rich element. These RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) were shown to oppositely control CDK5R1 mRNA stability and p35 protein content at post-trascriptional level. While nELAV proteins have a positive regulatory effect, hnRNPA2/B1 has a negative action that is responsible for the mRNA destabilizing activity both of the C2.1 region and of the full-length 3'-UTR. In co-expression experiments of hnRNPA2/B1 and nELAV RBPs we observed an overall decrease of p35 content. We also demonstrated that hnRNPA2/B1 can downregulate nELAV protein content but not vice versa. This study, by providing new insights on the combined action of different regulatory factors, contributes to clarify the complex post-transcriptional control of CDK5R1 gene expression.

Kim H, Gao W, Ho M
Novel immunocytokine IL12-SS1 (Fv) inhibits mesothelioma tumor growth in nude mice.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e81919 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Mesothelin is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein that is highly expressed on the cell surface of malignant mesothelioma. Monoclonal antibodies against mesothelin are being evaluated for the treatment of mesothelioma. Immunocytokines represent a novel class of armed antibodies. To provide an alternative approach to current mesothelin-targeted antibody therapies, we have developed a novel immunocytokine based on interleukin-12 (IL12) and the SS1 Fv specific for mesothelin. IL12 possesses potent anti-tumor activity in a wide variety of solid tumors. The newly-developed recombinant immunocytokine, IL12-SS1 (Fv), was produced in insect cells using a baculovirus-insect cell expression system. The SS1 single-chain Fv was fused to the C terminus of the p35 subunit of IL12 through a short linker (GSADGG). The single-chain IL12-SS1 (Fv) immunocytokine bound native mesothelin proteins on malignant mesothelioma (NCI-H226) and ovarian (OVCAR-3) cells as well as recombinant mesothelin on A431/H9 cells. The immunocytokine retained sufficient bioactivity of IL12 and significantly inhibited human malignant mesothelioma (NCI-H226) grown in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice and showed comparable anti-tumor activity to that of the SS1P immunotoxin. IL12-SS1 (Fv) is the first reported immunocytokine to mesothelin-positive tumors and may be an attractive addition to mesothelin-targeted cancer therapies.

Pozo K, Castro-Rivera E, Tan C, et al.
The role of Cdk5 in neuroendocrine thyroid cancer.
Cancer Cell. 2013; 24(4):499-511 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer that originates from calcitonin-secreting parafollicular cells, or C cells. We found that Cdk5 and its cofactors p35 and p25 are highly expressed in human MTC and that Cdk5 activity promotes MTC proliferation. A conditional MTC mouse model was generated and corroborated the role of aberrant Cdk5 activation in MTC. C cell-specific overexpression of p25 caused rapid C cell hyperplasia leading to lethal MTC, which was arrested by repressing p25 overexpression. A comparative phosphoproteomic screen between proliferating and arrested MTC identified the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) as a crucial Cdk5 downstream target. Prevention of Rb phosphorylation at Ser807/Ser811 attenuated MTC proliferation. These findings implicate Cdk5 signaling via Rb as critical to MTC tumorigenesis and progression.

Liang Q, Li L, Zhang J, et al.
CDK5 is essential for TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer progression.
Sci Rep. 2013; 3:2932 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a change of cellular plasticity critical for embryonic development and tumor metastasis. CDK5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase playing important roles in cancer progression. Here we show that CDK5 is commonly overexpressed and significantly correlated with several poor prognostic parameters of breast cancer. We found that CDK5 participated in TGF-β1-induced EMT. In MCF10A, TGF-β1 upregulated the CDK5 and p35 expression, and CDK5 knockdown inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT. CDK5 overexpression also exhibited a potential synergy in promoting TGF-β1-induced EMT. In mesenchymal breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and BT549, CDK5 knockdown suppressed cell motility and tumorigenesis. We further demonstrated that CDK5 modulated cancer cell migration and tumor formation by regulating the phosphorylation of FAK at Ser-732. Therefore, CDK5-FAK pathway, as a downstream step of TGF-β1 signaling, is essential for EMT and motility in breast cancer cells. This study implicates the potential value of CDK5 as a molecular marker for breast cancer.

Jin P, Ren H, Sun W, et al.
Circulating IL-35 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients.
Hum Immunol. 2014; 75(1):29-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
IL-35 is a novel inhibitory cytokine that is mainly produced by regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and is required for Treg-mediated immunosuppression. However, the plasma levels of IL-35 in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have never been investigated. In this study, we found that plasma IL-35 levels more significantly increased in PDAC patients than in normal controls (134.53 ± 92.45 pg/mL vs. 14.26 ± 6.56 pg/mL). IL-35 mRNA levels were positively correlated with plasma IL-35 levels (EBI3, R = 0.925, p<0.01; p35, R = 0.916, p<0.01). Furthermore, IL-35 expression levels were associated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001) and late tumor stage (p = 0.002). For the resected patients, high IL-35 expression levels were associated with large tumor size (p<0.01), higher TNM classification T staging (p<0.05), and late tumor stage (p<0.05). In conclusion, circulating IL-35 in PDAC patients significantly increased, suggesting that regulating the expression of IL-35 may provide a new possible target for the treatment of PDAC patients, especially for the resectable ones.

Yan GR, Tan Z, Wang Y, et al.
Quantitative proteomics characterization on the antitumor effects of isodeoxyelephantopin against nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Proteomics. 2013; 13(21):3222-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Isolated from Elephantopus scaber L., a Chinese medicinal herb that is widely used to prevent and treat cancers in China, isodeoxyelephantopin (ESI) exerted antitumor effects on several cancer cells. However, its antitumor mechanism is still not clear. In this study, we found that ESI could induce G2/M arrest and subsequently stimulate cell apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. We used SILAC quantitative proteomics to identify ESI-regulated proteins in cancer cells, and found that 124 proteins were significantly altered in expression. Gene ontology and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that these proteins were mainly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation response. Functional studies demonstrated that ESI induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis by inducing ROS generation, and that antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine could block the ESI-induced antitumor effects. Accumulated ROS resulted in DNA breakage, subsequent G2/M arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. ESI upregulated the expression of anticancer inflammation factors IL-12a, IFN-α, and IFN-β through ROS-dependent and independent pathways. The current work reveals that ESI exerts its antitumor effects through ROS-dependent DNA damage, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis mechanism and antitumor inflammation factor pathway.

Hsu FN, Chen MC, Lin KC, et al.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 modulates STAT3 and androgen receptor activation through phosphorylation of Ser⁷²⁷ on STAT3 in prostate cancer cells.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 305(8):E975-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is known to regulate prostate cancer metastasis. Our previous results indicated that Cdk5 activates androgen receptor (AR) and supports prostate cancer growth. We also found that STAT3 is a target of Cdk5 in promoting thyroid cancer cell growth, whereas STAT3 may play a role as a regulator to AR activation under cytokine control. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Cdk5 and its activator p35 on STAT3/AR signaling in prostate cancer cells. Our results show that Cdk5 biochemically interacts with STAT3 and that this interaction depends on Cdk5 activation in prostate cancer cells. The phosphorylation of STAT3 at Ser⁷²⁷ (p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3) is regulated by Cdk5 in cells and xenograft tumors. The mutant of STAT3 S727A reduces its interaction with Cdk5. We further show that the nuclear distribution of p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 and the expression of STAT3-regulated genes (junB, c-fos, c-myc, and survivin) are regulated by Cdk5 activation. STAT3 mutant does not further decrease cell proliferation upon Cdk5 inhibition, which implies that the role of STAT3 regulated by Cdk5 correlates to cell proliferation control. Interestingly, Cdk5 may regulate the interaction between STAT3 and AR through phosphorylation of Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 and therefore upregulate AR protein stability and transactivation. Correspondingly, clinical evidence shows that the level of p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 is significantly correlated with Gleason score and the levels of upstream regulators (Cdk5 and p35) as well as downstream protein (AR). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cdk5 regulates STAT3 activation through Ser⁷²⁷ phosphorylation and further promotes AR activation by protein-protein interaction in prostate cancer cells.

Schäfer G, Kabanda S, van Rooyen B, et al.
The role of inflammation in HPV infection of the Oesophagus.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:185 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several human cancers are known to be associated with inflammation and/or viral infections. However, the influence of tumour-related inflammation on viral uptake is largely unknown. In this study we used oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a model system since this type of cancer is associated with chronic irritation, inflammation and viral infections. Although still debated, the most important viral infection seems to be with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The present study focused on a possible correlation between inflammation, OSCC development and the influence of HPV infection.
METHODS: A total of 114 OSCC biopsies and corresponding normal tissue were collected at Groote Schuur Hospital and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa), that were subjected to RNA and DNA isolation. RNA samples were analysed by quantitative Light Cycler RT-PCR for the expression of selected genes involved in inflammation and infection, while conventional PCR was performed on the DNA samples to assess the presence of integrated viral DNA. Further, an in vitro infection assay using HPV pseudovirions was established to study the influence of inflammation on viral infectivity using selected cell lines.
RESULTS: HPV DNA was found in about 9% of OSCC patients, comprising predominantly the oncogenic type HPV18. The inflammatory markers IL6 and IL8 as well as the potential HPV receptor ITGA6 were significantly elevated while IL12A was downregulated in the tumour tissues. However, none of these genes were expressed in a virus-dependent manner. When inflammation was mimicked with various inflammatory stimulants such as benzo-α-pyrene, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan in oesophageal epithelial cell lines in vitro, HPV18 pseudovirion uptake was enhanced only in the benzo-α-pyrene treated cells. Interestingly, HPV pseudovirion infectivity was independent of the presence of the ITGA6 receptor on the surface of the tested cells.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that although the carcinogen benzo-α-pyrene facilitated HPV pseudovirion uptake into cells in culture, HPV infectivity was independent of inflammation and seems to play only a minor role in oesophageal cancer.

Wang Z, Liu JQ, Liu Z, et al.
Tumor-derived IL-35 promotes tumor growth by enhancing myeloid cell accumulation and angiogenesis.
J Immunol. 2013; 190(5):2415-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
IL-35 is a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines that is comprised of an IL-12 p35 subunit and an IL-12 p40-related protein subunit, EBV-induced gene 3 (EBI3). IL-35 functions through IL-35R and has a potent immune-suppressive activity. Although IL-35 was demonstrated to be produced by regulatory T cells, gene-expression analysis revealed that it is likely to have a wider distribution, including expression in cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-35 is produced in human cancer tissues, such as large B cell lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and melanoma. To determine the roles of tumor-derived IL-35 in tumorigenesis and tumor immunity, we generated IL-35-producing plasmacytoma J558 and B16 melanoma cells and observed that the expression of IL-35 in cancer cells does not affect their growth and survival in vitro, but it stimulates tumorigenesis in both immune-competent and Rag1/2-deficient mice. Tumor-derived IL-35 increases CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cell accumulation in the tumor microenvironment and, thereby, promotes tumor angiogenesis. In immune-competent mice, spontaneous CTL responses to tumors are diminished. IL-35 does not directly inhibit tumor Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell activation, differentiation, and effector functions. However, IL-35-treated cancer cells had increased expression of gp130 and reduced sensitivity to CTL destruction. Thus, our study indicates novel functions for IL-35 in promoting tumor growth via the enhancement of myeloid cell accumulation, tumor angiogenesis, and suppression of tumor immunity.

Jalah R, Rosati M, Ganneru B, et al.
The p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 promotes stabilization and export of the p35 subunit: implications for improved IL-12 cytokine production.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(9):6763-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
IL-12 is a 70-kDa heterodimeric cytokine composed of the p35 and p40 subunits. To maximize cytokine production from plasmid DNA, molecular steps controlling IL-12p70 biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels were investigated. We show that the combination of RNA/codon-optimized gene sequences and fine-tuning of the relative expression levels of the two subunits within a cell resulted in increased production of the IL-12p70 heterodimer. We found that the p40 subunit plays a critical role in enhancing the stability, intracellular trafficking, and export of the p35 subunit. This posttranslational regulation mediated by the p40 subunit is conserved in mammals. Based on these findings, dual gene expression vectors were generated, producing an optimal ratio of the two subunits, resulting in a ~1 log increase in human, rhesus, and murine IL-12p70 production compared with vectors expressing the wild type sequences. Such optimized DNA plasmids also produced significantly higher levels of systemic bioactive IL-12 upon in vivo DNA delivery in mice compared with plasmids expressing the wild type sequences. A single therapeutic injection of an optimized murine IL-12 DNA plasmid showed significantly more potent control of tumor development in the B16 melanoma cancer model in mice. Therefore, the improved IL-12p70 DNA vectors have promising potential for in vivo use as molecular vaccine adjuvants and in cancer immunotherapy.

Hussain SK, Madeleine MM, Johnson LG, et al.
Nucleotide variation in IL-10 and IL-12 and their receptors and cervical and vulvar cancer risk: a hybrid case-parent triad and case-control study.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(1):201-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Given the important role of cell mediated immunity in viral clearance and control of premalignant lesions, we hypothesize that variation in the IL-12/IL-10 cytokine and cytokine receptor genes may influence cervical and vulvar cancer risk. We evaluated 76 tagSNPs from seven candidate genes (IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-10RA, IL-10RB, IL-12RB1, and IL12RB2) in case-parent sets (n=43 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), n=96 cervical adenocarcinoma, n=53 vulvar SCC), additional cases (n=356 cervical SCC, n=406 cervical adenocarcinoma, and n=473 vulvar SCC) and population based controls (1,111). We calculated log-additive odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between tagSNP and cancer risk using a pseudo-likelihood based method which combined genotype information on cases, parents, and population controls. After correction for multiple comparisons, we identified several statistically significant SNP associations. Cervical SCC risk was associated with the minor alleles of the IL10RA rs9610 3' UTR SNP (OR=1.76, 95% CI=1.15-2.68) and two synonymous IL12RB2 SNPs (rs4297265, OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.26-0.82; rs2229546, OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.21-0.87). Cervical adenocarcinoma risk was associated with the minor alleles of the IL10RA rs4252314 intronic SNP (OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.26-3.96) and IL12RB1 rs11575934 non-synonymous SNP (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.12-2.05). Finally, the minor allele of the IL12B rs3181224 3' UTR SNP was associated with a reduced risk of vulvar SCC (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.12-0.74). These results raise the possibility that a shift in the balance of the immune response due to genetic variants in key cytokine genes could influence the development of cervical and vulvar cancer.

Ichikawa M, Arai Y, Haruta M, et al.
Meiosis error and subsequent genetic and epigenetic alterations invoke the malignant transformation of germ cell tumor.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(3):274-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are thought to arise from primordial germ cells (PGCs) that undergo epigenetic reprogramming. To explore the mechanisms of GCT formation, we analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphism array comparative genomic hybridization patterns and the methylation status of 15 tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of two imprinted genes, H19 and SNRPN, in 28 children with GCTs. Three GCTs with 25-26 segmental uniparental disomies (UPDs), heterozygous centromeric regions, and a highly methylated SNRPN DMR may have occurred through meiosis I error. Three other GCTs with whole UPD and homozygous centromeric regions of all chromosomes may have occurred through endoreduplication of a haploid set in an ovum or testis. The other 22 GCTs had heterozygous centromeric regions of all chromosomes and no or a small number of segmental or whole UPDs and may have developed from premeiotic PGCs before imprint erasure or a reestablishment of imprinting. Gain and amplification of 3p24-p22 and 20q13-q13, and loss and UPD of 1p36-p35, 4q21-q21, 5q11-q13, and 6q26-qter were found in five or more tumors. 1p36-p35 loss was frequent, and found in 19 tumors; RUNX3 residing at 1p36 was methylated in the promoter regions of 16 tumors. Two yolk sac tumors with many segmental UPDs or whole UPD of all chromosomes had gain of 20q13-q13 and loss of 1p36-p35, and seven or eight methylated TSGs. These genetic and epigenetic alterations may have caused malignant transformation because they were rarely found in teratomas with segmental or whole UPDs.

Tuna M, Ju Z, Amos CI, Mills GB
Soft tissue sarcoma subtypes exhibit distinct patterns of acquired uniparental disomy.
BMC Med Genomics. 2012; 5:60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are heterogeneous mesenchymal tumors with diverse subtypes. STS can be classified into two main categories according to the type of genomic alteration: recurrent translocation driven STS, and non-recurrent translocations. However, little has known about acquired uniparental disomy in STS.
METHODS: In this study, we analyzed SNP microarray data to determine the frequency and distribution patterns of acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) in major soft tissue sarcoma (STS) subtypes using CNAG and R softwares.
RESULTS: We identified recurrent aUPD regions specific to alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with the most frequent at 11p15.4, gastrointestinal stromal tumor at 1p36.11-p35.3, leiomyosarcoma at 17p13.3-p13.1, myxofibrosarcoma at 1p35.1-p34.2 and 16q23.3-q24.1, and pleomorphic liposarcoma at 13q13.2-q13.3 and 13q14.11-q14.2. In contrast, specific recurrent aUPD regions were not identified in dedifferentiated liposarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, and synovial sarcoma. Strikingly total, centromeric and segmental aUPD regions are more frequent in STS that do not exhibit recurrent translocation events.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study yields a detailed map of aUPD across 9 diverse STS subtypes and suggests the potential location of several novel tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes.

Long J, Zhang X, Wen M, et al.
IL-35 over-expression increases apoptosis sensitivity and suppresses cell growth in human cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 430(1):364-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin (IL)-35 is a novel heterodimeric cytokine in the IL-12 family and is composed of two subunits: Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-12p35. IL-35 is expressed in T regulatory (Treg) cells and contributes to the immune suppression function of these cells. In contrast, we found that both IL-35 subunits were expressed concurrently in most human cancer cell lines compared to normal cell lines. In addition, we found that TNF-α and IFN-γ stimulation led to increased IL-35 expression in human cancer cells. Furthermore, over-expression of IL-35 in human cancer cells suppressed cell growth in vitro, induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and mediated robust apoptosis induced by serum starvation, TNF-α, and IFN-γ stimulation through the up-regulation of Fas and concurrent down-regulation of cyclinD1, survivin, and Bcl-2 expression. In conclusion, our results reveal a novel functional role for IL-35 in suppressing cancer activity, inhibiting cancer cell growth, and increasing the apoptosis sensitivity of human cancer cells through the regulation of genes related to the cell cycle and apoptosis. Thus, this research provides new insights into IL-35 function and presents a possible target for the development of novel cancer therapies.

Stanilov NS, Miteva LD, Dobreva ZG, et al.
Monocytes expression of IL-12 related and IL-10 genes in association with development of colorectal cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(12):10895-902 [PubMed] Related Publications
The main regulator of anti-tumor immune response is the activity of monocytes, suggesting that the produced cytokines may have a prognostic role. This study investigates gene expression of interleukin (IL)-12-related cytokine and IL-10 in stimulated monocytes from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Relative quantification of IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-23A and IL-10 mRNA transcripts was performed on the third hours after stimulation by real-time qPCR. We also explored an inhibitor of JNK signaling pathway activation for the observed cytokine gene expression. A strong downregulation of IL-12B mRNA expression in CRC monocytes compared to healthy donors was observed. The rate of transcription of IL-12B in stimulated monocytes was associated with the stage of CRC. The expression of IL-12A gene in stimulated monocytes from patients with advanced was lower than early cancer. Moreover, we observed stage dependent JNK inhibition mediated reduction in IL-12A expression. The hyporesponsiveness was strongly expressed in monocytes from advanced then early stages of CRC. Expression of IL-10 mRNA was almost equally in CRC monocytes from early stages and healthy donors. We demonstrated that altered gene expression profiles of IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-23A at mRNA level in CRC monocytes was associated with tumor development and can be attributed to anticancer immune response.

Nilsson O
Profiling of ileal carcinoids.
Neuroendocrinology. 2013; 97(1):7-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Identification of common molecular mechanisms is needed to facilitate the development of new treatment options for patients with ileal carcinoids.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent profiling studies on ileal carcinoids were examined to obtain a comprehensive view of risk factors, genetic aberrations, and transcriptional alterations. Special attention was paid to mechanisms that could provide novel targets for therapy.
RESULTS: Genome-wide association studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at IL12A and DAD1 are associated with an increased risk of ileal carcinoids. Genomic profiling revealed distinct patterns of copy-number alterations in ileal carcinoids. Two groups of carcinoids could be identified by hierarchical clustering. A major group of tumors was characterized by loss on chromosome 18 followed by additional losses on chromosomes 3p, 11q, and 13. Three minimal common regions of deletions were identified at 18q21.1-q21.31, 18q22.1-q22.2, and 18q22.3-q23. A minor group of tumors was characterized by clustered gains on chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 14, and 20. Expression profiling identified three groups of ileal carcinoids by principal component analysis. Tumor progression was associated with changes in gene expression including downregulation of MIR133A. Candidate genes for targeted therapy included ERBB2/HER2, DAD1, PRKCA, RYBP, CASP1, CASP4, CASP5, VMAT1, RET, APLP1, OR51E1, GPR112, SPOCK1, RUNX1, and MIR133A.
CONCLUSION: Profiling of ileal carcinoids has revealed recurrent genetic alterations and distinct patterns of gene expression. Frequent alterations in cellular pathways and genes were identified, suggesting novel targets for therapy. Translational studies are needed to validate suggested molecular targets.

Zhou L, Yao F, Luan H, et al.
Functional polymorphisms in the interleukin-12 gene contribute to cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies.
Gene. 2012; 510(1):71-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence from preclinical and clinical studies has shown that interleukin-12 (IL-12) has some effectiveness against endogenously arising carcinogenesis. Several potentially functional polymorphisms of IL-12 gene have been implicated in cancer risk, but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between IL-12 polymorphisms and cancer risk.
METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of science and CBM databases were searched for all articles published up to June 10, 2012 that addressed IL-12 polymorphisms and cancer risk. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1.6 and STATA 12.0 softwares.
RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included with a total of 6463 cancer cases and 7412 healthy controls. We found that the 3'UTR A>C (rs3212227) polymorphism of IL-12B gene was associated with significantly increased overall risk of cancers using random effects model (C vs A: odds ratio [OR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.27; AC+CC vs AA: OR=1.20, 95%CI: 1.01-1.43). However, the 3'UTR G>A (rs568408), IVS2 T>A (rs582054) and 5'UTR T>G (rs2243115) polymorphisms of IL-12A gene did not appear to have an influence on cancer susceptibility. Further subgroup analyses showed that the 3'UTR A>C (rs3212227) polymorphism was associated with increased cancer risks in the subgroups of Asians, cervical and nasopharyngeal cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Results from the current meta-analysis indicates that the 3'UTR A>C (rs3212227) polymorphism of IL-12B gene might be a potential biomarker for cancer risk among Asians, especially for cervical and nasopharyngeal cancers.

Vahedi A, Estakhri R, Somi MH, et al.
Diagnostic value of serum P35 in comparison with tissue P35 in gastric adenocarcinoma and their relationship with microscopic prognostic factors.
Pak J Biol Sci. 2012; 15(14):685-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early diagnosis of Gastric adenocarcinoma could increase survival of the patients and also remarkably reduce treatment costs. This study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic value of serum P35 in comparison with tissue P35 in gastric adenocarcinoma and their relationship with microscopic prognostic factors. In this descriptive analytical study, 35 patients (74.3% male and 25.7% female with mean age of 63.00 +/- 12.75 years with gastric adenocarcinoma were evaluated. Blood samples were taken from all patients before gastrectomy to evaluate serum P35 with ELISA method and after surgery tissue samples were gathered to evaluate tissue P35 with immunohistochemical method. The relation between tissue and serum P35 with severity of the disease and microscopic findings was assessed. Tissue P35 was negative in 57.1%, positive in 22.9% and very positive in 20%. Mean serum P35 was 1.34 +/- 0.43 mg dL(-1). There was no relation between serum P35 and adenocarcinoma type, tumor grade, vascular and neurological invasion and number of lymph node involved. Serum P35 levels significantly increased by increase in tissue P35 positivity (p = 0.004). There was significant correlation between tissue P35 and adenocarcinoma type (p = 0.006), neurological involvement (p = 0.04) and number of involved lymph nodes (p = 0.001). Although serum P35 level was higher in cases with more lymph node involvement and vascular and neural invasion, the marker was not capable to predict the involvement degree of stomach cancer. In comparison with serum P35, tissue P35 plays more significant role in these cases.

Voorham QJ, Carvalho B, Spiertz AJ, et al.
Chromosome 5q loss in colorectal flat adenomas.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(17):4560-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Flat adenomas are a subgroup of colorectal adenomas that have been associated with a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with their polypoid counterparts. Here, we aimed to compare one of the molecular changes most explicitly associated with adenoma to carcinoma progression, that is, chromosomal instability, between flat and polypoid colorectal adenomas.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Consecutive series of 83 flat and 35 polypoid adenomas were analyzed for DNA copy number changes using a high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization platform, microsatellite instability (MSI) status, and for mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Immunohistochemical stainings for CD3, CD8, and FoxP3 expression were carried out.
RESULTS: Patterns of DNA copy number changes differed between the two phenotypes, with significantly more frequent loss of 5q14.3 and 5q15-q31.1 in flat adenomas, whereas losses of 1p36.32-p35.3, 10q25.3, 17p12, and chromosome 18 were more frequent in polypoid adenomas (false discovery rate < 0.2). MSI was observed in one flat adenoma. As the 5q15-q31.1 region harbors the APC locus, APC mutation status was investigated, showing significantly less mutations in flat adenomas (P = 0.04). An initial exploration of a possible association of 5q loss with inflammation indicated that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were more abundant in the stroma of flat adenomas compared with that of polypoid adenomas.
CONCLUSION: Flat and polypoid adenomas have partially distinct chromosomal profiles, consistent with differences in the biology underlying these phenotypes. Alterations more specific to flat adenomas, in particular 5q loss, may be associated with inflammation.

Tao YP, Wang WL, Li SY, et al.
Associations between polymorphisms in IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-12Rβ1, IL-27 gene and serum levels of IL-12p40, IL-27p28 with esophageal cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(11):1891-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-12Rβ1, and IL-27 gene polymorphisms and serum levels of IL-12, IL-27 are associated with esophageal cancer.
METHODS: We genotyped IL-12A gene rs568408, IL-12B gene rs3212227, IL-12Rβ1 gene 378 C/G, IL-27 gene rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206 polymorphisms in a case-control study of 426 esophageal cancer patients and 432 health controls, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and serum IL-12p40 and IL-27p28 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS: Both serum IL-12p40 and IL-27p28 levels were significantly higher in controls than those in patients (P < 0.01). Rs568408 AG/AA, rs3212227 CC/AC, and IL-12Rβ1 378 GG/GC genotypes were associated with significantly increased risk of esophageal cancer (rs568408: χ(2) = 5.704, P = 0.017; rs3212227: χ(2) = 7.689, P = 0.006; IL-12Rβ1 378C/G: χ(2) = 5.206, P = 0.023). Moreover, rs3212227 CC/AC and 378 GG/GC genotypes were observed significantly associated with decreased serum IL-12p40 level in patients compare to other genotypes (rs3212227: t = 2.129, P = 0.034; IL-12Rβ1 378 C/G: t = 2.178, P = 0.030). Furthermore, frequency of rs3212227 CC/AC genotypes was significantly higher in patients with poor differentiation than those with AA genotype (χ(2) = 4.314, P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the impaired production of IL-12p40 and IL-27p28 behaves as risk factors for esophageal cancer occurrence. IL-12B gene rs3212227 CC/AC and IL-12Rβ1 gene 378 GG/GC genotypes, which associated with decreased IL-12p40 level, may contribute to esophageal cancer susceptibility.

Demelash A, Rudrabhatla P, Pant HC, et al.
Achaete-scute homologue-1 (ASH1) stimulates migration of lung cancer cells through Cdk5/p35 pathway.
Mol Biol Cell. 2012; 23(15):2856-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Our previous data suggested that the human basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor achaete-scute homologue-1 (hASH1) may stimulate both proliferation and migration in the lung. In the CNS, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its activator p35 are important for neuronal migration that is regulated by basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Cdk5/p35 may also play a role in carcinogenesis. In this study, we found that the neuronal activator p35 was commonly expressed in primary human lung cancers. Cdk5 and p35 were also expressed by several human lung cancer cell lines and coupled with migration and invasion. When the kinase activity was inhibited by the Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine or dominant-negative (dn) Cdk5, the migration of lung cancer cells was reduced. In neuroendocrine cells expressing hASH1, such as a pulmonary carcinoid cell line, knocking down the gene expression by short hairpin RNA reduced the levels of Cdk5/p35, nuclear p35 protein, and migration. Furthermore, expression of hASH1 in lung adenocarcinoma cells normally lacking hASH1 increased p35/Cdk5 activity and enhanced cellular migration. We were also able to show that p35 was a direct target for hASH1. In conclusion, induction of Cdk5 activity is a novel mechanism through which hASH1 may regulate migration in lung carcinogenesis.

Schwartzkroin PA, Wenzel HJ
Are developmental dysplastic lesions epileptogenic?
Epilepsia. 2012; 53 Suppl 1:35-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cortical dysplasia of various types, reflecting abnormalities of brain development, have been closely associated with epileptic activities. Yet, there remains considerable discussion about if/how these structural lesions give rise to seizure phenomenology. Animal models have been used to investigate the cause-effect relationships between aberrant cortical structure and epilepsy. In this article, we discuss three such models: (1) the Eker rat model of tuberous sclerosis, in which a gene mutation gives rise to cortical disorganization and cytologically abnormal cellular elements; (2) the p35 knockout mouse, in which the genetic dysfunction gives rise to compromised cortical organization and lamination, but in which the cellular elements appear normal; and (3) the methylazoxymethanol-exposed rat, in which time-specific chemical DNA disruption leads to abnormal patterns of cell formation and migration, resulting in heterotopic neuronal clusters. Integrating data from studies of these animal models with related clinical observations, we propose that the neuropathologic features of these cortical dysplastic lesions are insufficient to determine the seizure-initiating process. Rather, it is their interaction with a more subtly disrupted cortical "surround" that constitutes the circuitry underlying epileptiform activities as well as seizure propensity and ictogenesis.

Yuzhalin AE, Kutikhin AG
Interleukin-12: clinical usage and molecular markers of cancer susceptibility.
Growth Factors. 2012; 30(3):176-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The last decade has seen the emergence of immunomodulators as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Interleukins (ILs) are a category of small cell-signaling molecules that organize communication and interaction between immune cells and therefore they could be used as perfect immunomodulators. IL-12 is a promising candidate for cancer immunotherapy since it plays a major role in development of antitumor immune response. Numerous studies report that IL-12 promotes an effective destruction of cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, IL-12 has anti-angiogenic activity and it is able to dramatically decrease tumor-supportive activities of tumor-associated macrophages. The first part of the review is devoted to immunobiology of IL-12. Signaling pathways of IL-12 as well as clinical trials of this cytokine are discussed. The second part of the review is concerned on the inherited variations in IL-12A and IL-12B genes that could modulate cancer susceptibility, and as a consequence, possess predictive, therapeutic, or prognostic significance. It is known that functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-12A and IL-12B genes may dramatically affect on protein expression level, or alter its functions, which may lead to immune disorders, autoimmune diseases, and eventually contribute to cancer occurrence. The list of genetic polymorphisms for further investigations might include the following: IL-12B_+1188A/C (rs3212227), IL-12A_+277G/A (rs568408), IL-12A_-798T/A (rs582054), IL-12A_-504T/G (rs190533), IL-12A_-1148T/C (rs2243123), and IL-12B_+16974 A/C. Perhaps, some of these SNPs may become an attractive target for oncogenomics and possibly could be used in programs of early cancer diagnosis as well as cancer prevention in the nearest future.

Persson M, Andrén Y, Moskaluk CA, et al.
Clinically significant copy number alterations and complex rearrangements of MYB and NFIB in head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(8):805-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the head and neck is a malignant tumor with poor long-term prognosis. Besides the recently identified MYB-NFIB fusion oncogene generated by a t(6;9) translocation, little is known about other genetic alterations in ACC. Using high-resolution, array-based comparative genomic hybridization, and massively paired-end sequencing, we explored genomic alterations in 40 frozen ACCs. Eighty-six percent of the tumors expressed MYB-NFIB fusion transcripts and 97% overexpressed MYB mRNA, indicating that MYB activation is a hallmark of ACC. Thirty-five recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) were detected, including losses involving 12q, 6q, 9p, 11q, 14q, 1p, and 5q and gains involving 1q, 9p, and 22q. Grade III tumors had on average a significantly higher number of CNAs/tumor compared to Grade I and II tumors (P = 0.007). Losses of 1p, 6q, and 15q were associated with high-grade tumors, whereas losses of 14q were exclusively seen in Grade I tumors. The t(6;9) rearrangements were associated with a complex pattern of breakpoints, deletions, insertions, inversions, and for 9p also gains. Analyses of fusion-negative ACCs using high-resolution arrays and massively paired-end sequencing revealed that MYB may also be deregulated by other mechanisms in addition to gene fusion. Our studies also identified several down-regulated candidate tumor suppressor genes (CTNNBIP1, CASP9, PRDM2, and SFN) in 1p36.33-p35.3 that may be of clinical significance in high-grade tumors. Further, studies of these and other potential target genes may lead to the identification of novel driver genes in ACC.

Li BH, Xu SB, Li F, et al.
Stat6 activity-related Th2 cytokine profile and tumor growth advantage of human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Cell Signal. 2012; 24(3):718-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) is critical in Th2 polarization of immune cells and active Stat6 activity has been suggested in anti-tumor immunity in animal models. The present study aims at investigating the impact of natural Stat6 activity on tumor microenvironment in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Using colorectal cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 whose IL-4/Stat6 activities were known and nude mice as a model, we examined correlative relationships between Stat6 activities and gene expression profiles together with cellular behaviors in vitro and in vivo. HT-29 cells carrying active Stat6 signaling displayed spontaneous expression profiles favoring Th2 cytokines, cell cycle promotion, anti-apoptosis and pro-metastasis with increased mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-13, GATA-3, CDK4, CD44v6 and S100A4 using RT-PCR. In contrast, Caco-2 cells carrying defective Stat6 signaling exhibited spontaneous expression profiles favoring Th1 and Th17 cytokines, cell cycle inhibition, pro-apoptosis and anti-metastasis with elevated mRNA expression of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-12A, IL-17, IL-23, T-bet, CDKN1A, CDKNIB, CDKN2A and NM23-H1. Xenograft tumors of Stat6-active HT-29 cells showed a growth advantage over those of Stat6-defective Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, mice bearing HT-29 tumors expressed increased levels of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in the blood and pro-growth and/or pro-metastasis proteins CDK4 and CD44v6 in the tumor. To the contrary, mice bearing Caco-2 tumors expressed heightened levels of Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNF in the blood and pro-apoptosis and anti-metastatic proteins p53 and p27(kip1) in the tumor. Colorectal cancer cells carrying active Stat6 signaling may create a microenvironment favoring Th2 cytokines and promoting expression of genes related to pro-growth, pro-metastasis and anti-apoptosis, which leads to a tumor growth advantage in vivo. These findings may imply why Stat6 pathway is constitutively activated in a number of human malignancies.

Rubinek T, Shulman M, Israeli S, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor klotho in human breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 133(2):649-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Klotho is a single pass transmembrane protein, associated with premature aging. We identified tumor suppressor activities for klotho, associated with reduced expression in breast cancer. We now aimed to analyze klotho expression in early stages of breast tumorigenesis and elucidate mechanisms leading to klotho silencing in breast tumors. We studied klotho expression, using immunohistochemistry, and found high klotho expression in all normal and mild hyperplasia samples, whereas reduced expression was associated with moderate and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Promoter methylation and histone deacetylation were studied as possible mechanisms for klotho silencing. Using bisulfite sequencing, and methylation-specific PCR, we identified KLOTHO promoter methylation in five breast cancer cell lines and in hyperplastic MCF-12A cells, but not in the non-tumorous mammary cell line HB2. Importantly, methylation status inversely correlated with klotho mRNA levels, and treatment of breast caner cells with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine elevated klotho expression by up to 150-fold. KLOTHO promoter methylation was detected in 8/23 of breast cancer samples but not in normal breast samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that in HB2 KLOTHO promoter was enriched with AcH3K9; however, in breast cancer cells, H3K9 was deacetylated, and treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide bishydroxamide (SAHA) restored H3K9 acetylation. Taken together, these data indicate loss of klotho expression as an early event in breast cancer development, and suggest a role for DNA methylation and histone deacetylation in klotho silencing. Klotho expression and methylation may, therefore, serve as early markers for breast tumorigenesis.

Zhao JJ, Pan K, Li JJ, et al.
Identification of LZAP as a new candidate tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e26608 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: LZAP was isolated as a binding protein of the Cdk5 activator p35. LZAP has been highly conserved during evolution and has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor in various cancers. This study aimed to investigate LZAP expression and its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Meanwhile, the function of LZAP in hepatocarcinogenesis was further investigated in cell culture models and mouse models.
METHODS: Real-time quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to explore LZAP expression in HCC cell lines and primary HCC clinical specimens. The functions of LZAP in the proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, migration, invasion and apoptosis of HCC cell lines were also analyzed by infecting cells with an adenovirus containing full-length LZAP. The effect of LZAP on tumorigenicity in nude mice was also investigated.
RESULTS: LZAP expression was significantly decreased in the tumor tissues and HCC cell lines. Clinicopathological analysis showed that LZAP expression was significantly correlated with tumor size, histopathological classification and serum α-fetoprotein (AFP). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that decreasing LZAP expression was associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients. LZAP expression was an independent prognostic marker of overall HCC patient survival in a multivariate analysis. The re-introduction of LZAP expression in the HepG2 and sk-Hep1 HCC cell lines significantly inhibited proliferation and colony formation in the HCC cells and induced G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of the HCC cells in vitro. Restoring LZAP expression in the HCC cell lines also inhibited migration and invasion. In addition, experiments with a mouse model revealed that LZAP overexpression could suppress HCC tumorigenicity in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that LZAP may play an important role in HCC progression and could be a potential molecular therapy target for HCC.

Tham SM, Ng KH, Pook SH, et al.
Tumor and microenvironment modification during progression of murine orthotopic bladder cancer.
Clin Dev Immunol. 2011; 2011:865684 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The aim of this study was to monitor changes in the expression of immune-related genes in the bladder after tumor implantation. Mice were orthotopically implanted with MB49-PSA cells (C57BL/6 mice) on day 1 and terminated on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Another mouse model (MBT-2/C3H mice) was examined at day 7. Gene expression analysis was performed using a TaqMan Low Density Mouse Immune Panel (Applied Biosystems, USA) on RNA extracted from the bladders. Selected genes were reconfirmed by real-time PCR analysis and RT-PCR on the mRNA from other animals. Immune suppressive (IL13, IL1β, PTGS2, NOS2, IL10, CTLA4, and CCL22) and immune stimulatory genes (CSF2, GZMB, IFNγ, CXCL10, TNFα, CD80, IL12a, and IL6) and AGTR2 were increased by day 7. By day 28, IL10, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL11, CTLA4, GZMB, IFNγ, CSF2, and IL6 were significantly increased. Therapeutic strategies involving TH1 induction and TH2 dampening may improve responses to immunotherapy.

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