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Iodine131 tositumomab (Bexxar)

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Latest Research Publications

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Latest Research Publications

Shimoni A, Zwas ST
Radioimmunotherapy and Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Semin Nucl Med. 2016; 46(2):119-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard therapy for patients with chemosensitive-relapsed or chemosensitive-refractory aggressive lymphoma. The use of rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has dramatically changed the outcome of patients with aggressive lymphoma, increasing both response and survival rates. However, despite this progress a significant proportion of patients are still refractory or relapse after frontline rituximab-containing therapy. Moreover, it is increasingly more difficult to rescue these patients with current salvage chemotherapy and ASCT approaches. Novel approaches are needed for these high-risk patients, especially in the rituximab era. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a form of targeted therapy using the parent monoclonal antibody to deliver radiation emitted by a conjugated radioisotope, to the vicinity of antigen-positive tissues. Two radioimmunoconjugates--yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and iodine-131 tositumomab (Bexxar) have been in clinical use. There are multiple studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of both agents in both indolent and aggressive lymphoma. Radiolabeled antibodies are ideal candidates to combine with high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT. RIT targets radiation to disease sites while limiting exposure of uninvolved critical organs, thus it can safely replace total-body irradiation during conditioning for ASCT. The major toxicity and limiting factor in RIT is myelotoxicity that is easily reversed by stem-cell rescue. RIT can be combined at standard doses with high-dose chemotherapy or can be given in escalated doses either alone or with high-dose chemotherapy before ASCT. Several phase II studies have shown the safety and potential efficacy of both agents using these approaches. A small randomized study comparing standard-dose Zevalin with combination of carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) high-dose chemotherapy and BEAM alone suggested a survival advantage of Zevalin-BEAM. However, a large randomized study comparing Bexxar-BEAM and rituximab-BEAM did not show any advantage. More studies are needed to establish the role and the dose of RIT given for ASCT.

Leonard JP, Gregory SA, Smith H, et al.
CHOP Chemotherapy Followed by Tositumomab and Iodine-131 Tositumomab for Previously Untreated Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2016; 16(4):191-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The efficacy and safety of tositumomab/iodine-131 tositumomab (TST/I-131 TST) were evaluated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients who responded to first-line cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP). Fifteen patients (median age, 52 years) received dosimetric and therapeutic doses of TST/I-131 TST. The most common Grade 3/4 hematologic adverse events were decreased absolute neutrophil count (47%), white blood cell count (40%), platelet count (27%), and hemoglobin (20%). The complete response (CR) rate increased from 60% post-CHOP to 80% post TST / I-131 TST. With a median follow-up of 120.0 months (range, 14-130 months), median duration of response (95% confidence intervals) was 58.4 months (12.0-not reached [NR]) for patients with confirmed complete response and 58.4 months (20.9-NR) for all confirmed responders. Median progression-free survival and time to treatment failure were 63.0 months (16.1-NR). Median overall survival was not reached; 2 patients died on study. CHOP and TST/I-131 TST demonstrated clinical activity with acceptable toxicity.

Shadman M, Gopal AK, Kammerer B, et al.
Radioimmunotherapy consolidation using 131I-tositumomab for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma in first remission.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2016; 57(3):572-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite initial responses to chemoimmunotherapy, relapse and minimal residual disease (MRD) remain major issues in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) patients. We administered (131)I-tositumomab to patients in complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) after induction chemotherapy. Toxicities and rate of PR to CR conversion and MRD elimination were assessed three months later. The study stopped prematurely after enrolling 16 patients. Four (25%) were in CR, 12 (75%) in PR, and 12 (75%) had MRD. Three months after treatment with (131)I-tositumomab, CR was achieved (n = 8; 50%) or sustained (n = 4; 25%) in 12 patients and MRD was eliminated in four of 12 patients (33%). Hematologic toxicities were anemia in one patient (6%), neutropenia in 13 (81%), and thrombocytopenia in eight (50%). Two patients (12%) developed MDS 17 and 20 months after consolidation. Consolidation with (131)I-tositumomab for CLL/SLL patients in first remission is feasible and may provide the benefit of converting PR to CR and/or eliminating MRD.

Kelly JL, Salles G, Goldman B, et al.
Low Serum Vitamin D Levels Are Associated With Inferior Survival in Follicular Lymphoma: A Prospective Evaluation in SWOG and LYSA Studies.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(13):1482-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recent literature reports a potential association between high vitamin D and improved lymphoma prognosis. We evaluated the impact of pretreatment vitamin D on follicular lymphoma (FL) outcome.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: SWOG participants were previously untreated patients with FL enrolled onto SWOG clinical trials (S9800, S9911, or S0016) involving CHOP chemotherapy plus an anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab or iodine-131 tositumomab) between 1998 and 2008. Participants included in our second independent cohort were also previously untreated patients with FL enrolled onto the Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) PRIMA trial of rituximab plus chemotherapy (randomly assigned to rituximab maintenance v observation) between 2004 and 2007. Using the gold-standard liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in stored baseline serum samples. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 5.4 years, the adjusted PFS and overall survival hazard ratios for the SWOG cohort were 1.97 (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.53) and 4.16 (95% CI, 1.66 to 10.44), respectively, for those who were vitamin D deficient (< 20 ng/mL; 15% of cohort). After a median follow-up of 6.6 years, the adjusted PFS and overall survival hazard ratios for the LYSA cohort were 1.50 (95% CI, 0.93 to 2.42) and 1.92 (95% CI, 0.72 to 5.13), respectively, for those who were vitamin D deficient (< 10 ng/mL; 25% of cohort).
CONCLUSION: Although statistical significance was not reached in the LYSA cohort, the consistent estimates of association between low vitamin D levels and FL outcomes in two independent cohorts suggests that serum vitamin D might be the first potentially modifiable factor to be associated with FL survival. Further investigation is needed to determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation in this clinical setting.

Kawashima H
Radioimmunotherapy: a specific treatment protocol for cancer by cytotoxic radioisotopes conjugated to antibodies.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2014; 2014:492061 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) represents a selective internal radiation therapy, that is, the use of radionuclides conjugated to tumor-directed monoclonal antibodies (including those fragments) or peptides. In a clinical field, two successful examples of this treatment protocol are currently extended by (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and (131)I-tositumomab (Bexxar), both of which are anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies coupled to cytotoxic radioisotopes and are approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. In addition, some beneficial observations are obtained in preclinical studies targeting solid tumors. To date, in order to reduce the unnecessary exposure and to enhance the therapeutic efficacy, various biological, chemical, and treatment procedural improvements have been investigated in RIT. This review outlines the fundamentals of RIT and current knowledge of the preclinical/clinical trials for cancer treatment.

Dewaraja YK, Schipper MJ, Shen J, et al.
Tumor-Absorbed Dose Predicts Progression-Free Survival Following (131)I-Tositumomab Radioimmunotherapy.
J Nucl Med. 2014; 55(7):1047-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The study aimed at identifying patient-specific dosimetric and nondosimetric factors predicting outcome of non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients after (131)I-tositumomab radioimmunotherapy for potential use in treatment planning.
METHODS: Tumor-absorbed dose measures were estimated for 130 tumors in 39 relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients by coupling SPECT/CT imaging with the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code. Equivalent biologic effect was calculated to assess the biologic effects of nonuniform absorbed dose including the effects of the unlabeled antibody. Evaluated nondosimetric covariates included histology, presence of bulky disease, and prior treatment history. Tumor level outcome was based on volume shrinkage assessed on follow-up CT. Patient level outcome measures were overall response (OR), complete response (CR), and progression-free survival (PFS), determined from clinical assessments that included PET/CT.
RESULTS: The estimated mean tumor-absorbed dose had a median value of 275 cGy (range, 94-711 cGy). A high correlation was observed between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered mean tumor-absorbed doses (P < 0.001; r = 0.85). In univariate tumor-level analysis, tumor shrinkage correlated significantly with almost all of the evaluated dosimetric factors, including equivalent biologic effect. Regression analysis showed that OR, CR, and PFS were associated with the dosimetric factors and equivalent biologic effect. Both mean tumor-absorbed dose (P = 0.025) and equivalent biologic effect (P = 0.035) were significant predictors of PFS whereas none of the nondosimetric covariates were found to be statistically significant factors affecting PFS. The most important finding of the study was that in Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by mean dose, longer PFS was observed in patients receiving mean tumor-absorbed doses greater than 200 cGy than in those receiving 200 cGy or less (median PFS, 13.6 vs. 1.9 mo for the 2 dose groups; log-rank P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: A higher mean tumor-absorbed dose was significantly predictive of improved PFS after (131)I-tositumomab radioimmunotherapy. Hence tumor-absorbed dose, which can be estimated before therapy, can potentially be used to design radioimmunotherapy protocols to improve efficacy.

Friedberg JW, Unger JM, Burack WR, et al.
R-CHOP with iodine-131 tositumomab consolidation for advanced stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): SWOG S0433.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 166(3):382-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radiolabelled antiCD-20 antibodies have demonstrated single agent activity in relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The S0433 clinical trial enrolled patients with newly diagnosed, advanced stage or bulky stage II, histologically confirmed DLBCL. Patients received six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone), two cycles of CHOP, then iodine-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy consolidation 30-60 d after completion of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Eighty-four eligible patients were enrolled, and 56 patients completed the entire course of protocol treatment. Of the 84 patients evaluable for treatment response, 72 [86%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 76-92%] achieved a partial response (n = 21) or a confirmed (n = 41) or unconfirmed (n = 10) complete response to therapy. With a median follow-up of 3·9 years, the 2-year PFS estimate is 69% and the 2-year overall survival estimate is 77%. Rituximab levels at time of radioimmunotherapy did not correlate with toxicity or outcome. Twenty percent of patients had double hit features (MYC+; BCL2+) by immunohistochemistry, and had inferior outcome. These current results suggest that the incorporation of novel agents earlier in therapy may ultimately have greater impact in DLBCL, as early progressions, deaths and declining performance status during CHOP chemotherapy limited the number of patients who ultimately could benefit from radioimmunotherapy consolidation.

Elstrom RL, Ruan J, Christos PJ, et al.
Phase 1 study of radiosensitization using bortezomib in patients with relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma receiving radioimmunotherapy with 131I-tositumomab.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(2):342-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is effective treatment for indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), but response durations are usually limited, especially in aggressive NHL. We hypothesized that administration of bortezomib as a radiosensitizer with RIT would be tolerable and improve efficacy in NHL. This phase 1 dose-escalation study evaluated escalating doses of bortezomib combined with 131I-tositumomab in patients with relapsed/refractory NHL. Twenty-five patients were treated. Treatment was well tolerated, with primarily hematologic toxicity. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined to be 0.9 mg/m2 bortezomib, in combination with a standard dose of 75 cGy 131I-tositumomab. Sixteen patients responded (64%), including 44% complete responses (CRs), with 82% CR in patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). At a median follow-up of 7 months, median progression-free survival was 7 months, and seven of 11 patients with FL remained in remission at a median of 22 months. In conclusion, bortezomib can be safely administered in combination with 131I-tositumomab with promising response rates.

Gopal AK, Gooley TA, Rajendran JG, et al.
Myeloablative I-131-tositumomab with escalating doses of fludarabine and autologous hematopoietic transplantation for adults age ≥ 60 years with B cell lymphoma.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014; 20(6):770-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myeloablative therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are underutilized in older patients with B cell non-Hodgkin (B-NHL) lymphoma. We hypothesized that myeloablative doses of (131)I-tositumomab could be augmented by concurrent fludarabine, based on preclinical data indicating synergy. Patients were ≥ 60 years of age and had high-risk, relapsed, or refractory B-NHL. Therapeutic infusions of (131)I-tositumomab were derived from individualized organ-specific absorbed dose estimates delivering ≤ 27 Gy to critical organs. Fludarabine was initiated 72 hours later followed by ASCT to define the maximally tolerated dose. Thirty-six patients with a median age of 65 years (range, 60 to 76), 2 (range, 1 to 9) prior regimens, and 33% with chemoresistant disease were treated on this trial. Dose-limiting organs included lung (30), kidney (4), and liver (2) with a median administered (131)I activity of 471 mCi (range, 260 to 1620). Fludarabine was safely escalated to 30 mg/m(2) × 7 days. Engraftment was prompt, there were no early treatment-related deaths, and 2 patients had ≥ grade 4 nonhematologic toxicities. The estimated 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and nonrelapse mortality were 54%, 53%, and 7%, respectively (median follow up of 3.9 years). Fludarabine up to 210 mg/m(2) can be safely delivered with myeloablative (131)I-tositumomab and ASCT in older adults with B-NHL.

Olney HJ, Freeman MA, Stewart DA, et al.
Prolonged progression-free survival and preserved quality of life in the Canadian prospective study of tositumomab and iodine(131)-tositumomab for previously treated, rituximab-exposed, indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2014; 55(12):2754-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radioimmunotherapy offers a unique treatment modality for indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL). We report 5-year outcomes and quality of life (QoL) in tositumomab and iodine(131)-tositumomab (TST/I(131)-TST) treated patients with iNHL previously treated with rituximab. Ninety-three patients with ≥ 2 lines of therapy, responding to last treatment, were enrolled at 12 Canadian centers. Median age, disease duration and number of prior therapies (#PTx) were 59 years, 4.9 years and 5, respectively. Outcomes were response rate (43.0%), median progression-free survival (mPFS) (12.0 months), 5-year PFS (27%) and median overall survival (OS) (59.8 months). In responders, median response duration and mPFS were not reached. Improvements in QoL were seen by week 7. In univariate and multivariate analyses, hemoglobin, disease bulk and body surface area (BSA) predicted OS, whereas lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bulk, BSA and #PTx predicted PFS. Most common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue and nausea. Two cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were reported. TST/I(131)-TST was associated with durable responses, and prolonged OS and PFS in heavily pretreated iNHL.

Sarkozy C, Salles G
Treatment approaches to asymptomatic follicular lymphoma.
Expert Rev Hematol. 2013; 6(6):747-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease in which some patients present an indolent evolution for decades and others, a rather aggressive form of the disease requiring immediate therapy. While immunochemotherapy has emerged as a standard of care for symptomatic patients, treatment of the asymptomatic population remains controversial. Since the disease is still considered incurable, delayed initiation of therapy is an acceptable option. However, four single injections of rituximab can result in an acceptable clinical response and can improve the duration of the interval without cytotoxic therapy. With recent therapeutic approaches that enable substantial improvements in life expectancy for follicular lymphoma patients, limiting short- or long-term treatment toxicities appears as a new concern in the asymptomatic population. Based on these options, the challenge is to preserve patient quality of life and prolong survival: from the patient's perspective, his/her opinion is therefore of significant importance.

Press OW, Unger JM, Rimsza LM, et al.
A comparative analysis of prognostic factor models for follicular lymphoma based on a phase III trial of CHOP-rituximab versus CHOP + 131iodine--tositumomab.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(23):6624-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: There is currently no consensus on optimal frontline therapy for patients with follicular lymphoma. We analyzed a phase III randomized intergroup trial comparing six cycles of CHOP-R (cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (Oncovin)-rituximab) with six cycles of CHOP followed by iodine-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to assess whether any subsets benefited more from one treatment or the other, and to compare three prognostic models.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses of 532 patients enrolled on this trial and compared the prognostic value of the FLIPI (follicular lymphoma international prognostic index), FLIPI2, and LDH + β2M (lactate dehydrogenase + β2-microglobulin) models.
RESULTS: Outcomes were excellent, but not statistically different between the two study arms [5-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 60% with CHOP-R and 66% with CHOP-RIT (P = 0.11); 5-year overall survival (OS) of 92% with CHOP-R and 86% with CHOP-RIT (P = 0.08); overall response rate of 84% for both arms]. The only factor found to potentially predict the impact of treatment was serum β2M; among patients with normal β2M, CHOP-RIT patients had better PFS compared with CHOP-R patients, whereas among patients with high serum β2M, PFS by arm was similar (interaction P value = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: All three prognostic models (FLIPI, FLIPI2, and LDH + β2M) predicted both PFS and OS well, though the LDH + β2M model is easiest to apply and identified an especially poor risk subset. In an exploratory analysis using the latter model, there was a statistically significant trend suggesting that low-risk patients had superior observed PFS if treated with CHOP-RIT, whereas high-risk patients had a better PFS with CHOP-R.

Roberson PL, Wilderman SJ, Avram AM, et al.
Biological-effect modeling of radioimmunotherapy for non-hodgkins lymphoma: determination of model parameters.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2014; 29(1):26-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Treatment with Tositumomab and 131I tositumomab anti-CD20 radioimmunotherapy (Bexxar) yields a nonradioactive antibody antitumor response (the so-called cold effect) and a radiation response. Numerical parameter determination by least-squares (LS) fitting was implemented for more accurate parameter estimates in equivalent biological-effect calculations.
METHODS: One hundred thirty-two tumors in 37 patients were followed using five or six SPECT/CT studies per patient, three each (typical) post-tracer (0.2 GBq) and post-therapy (∼3 GBq) injections. The SPECT/CT data were used to calculate position- and time-dependent dose rates and antibody concentrations for each tumor. CT-defined tumor volumes were used to track tumor volume changes. Combined biological-effect and cell-clearance models were fit to tumor volume changes. Optimized parameter values determined using LS fitting were compared to previous fitted values that were determined by matching calculated to measured tumor volume changes using visual assessment. Absorbed dose sensitivity (α) and cold-effect sensitivity (λp) parameters were the primary fitted parameters, yielding equivalent biological-effect (E) values.
RESULTS: Individual parameter uncertainties were approximately 10% and 30% for α and λp, respectively. LS versus previously fit parameter values were highly correlated, although the averaged α value decreased and the averaged λp value increased for the LS fits compared to the previous fits. Correlation of E with 2-month tumor shrinkage data was similar for the two fitting techniques. The LS fitting yielded improved fit quality and likely improved parameter estimation.

Kitson SL, Cuccurullo V, Moody TS, Mansi L
Radionuclide antibody-conjugates, a targeted therapy towards cancer.
Curr Radiopharm. 2013; 6(2):57-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) is an investigational procedure which utilises monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), peptide conjugates and/or other chemical compounds. These bio-vectors are able to transport a dose of alpha particles to destroy cancer cells. Radionuclide antibody-conjugates (RACs), labelled with beta emitters, have already been used in humans. More recently, TAT has been introduced to treat oncological diseases mainly leukaemia and lymphoma. Encouraging results have also been obtained in solid neoplasms with the administration of anti-tenascin. This chimeric antibody labelled with astatine-211 was delivered in patients with recurrent brain tumours into a surgically created cavity. Conversely, a clinical trial using a standard TAT approach to treat patients with metastatic melanoma, observed the shrinkage of the solid tumour mass. This response in melanoma may lead to an alternative mechanism for TAT, called tumour-antivascular- alpha-therapy (TAVAT), and forms the basis of a novel approach to the treatment of cancer disease states. In this paper, we will concentrate mainly on the application of TAT using antibodies. In particular, an investigation into the major general features connected with the use of alpha emitters in cancer therapy will be discussed. The prospective role of TAT with RACs will also be outlined briefly, especially focussing on the most important therapeutic strategies to date based on antibodies radiolabelled with beta emitters.

Navarro-Teulon I, Lozza C, Pèlegrin A, et al.
General overview of radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors.
Immunotherapy. 2013; 5(5):467-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) represents an attractive tool for the treatment of local and/or diffuse tumors with radiation. In RIT, cytotoxic radionuclides are delivered by monoclonal antibodies that specifically target tumor-associated antigens or the tumor microenvironment. While RIT has been successfully employed for the treatment of lymphoma, mostly with radiolabeled antibodies against CD20 (Bexxar(®); Corixa Corp., WA, USA and Zevalin(®); Biogen Idec Inc., CA, USA and Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), its use in solid tumors is more challenging and, so far, few trials have progressed beyond Phase II. This review provides an update on antibody-radionuclide conjugates and their use in RIT. It also discusses possible optimization strategies to improve the clinical response by considering biological, radiobiological and physical features.

Vose JM, Carter S, Burns LJ, et al.
Phase III randomized study of rituximab/carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) compared with iodine-131 tositumomab/BEAM with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results from the BMT CTN 0401 trial.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(13):1662-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: This clinical trial evaluated standard-dose radioimmunotherapy with a chemotherapy-based transplantation regimen followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation versus rituximab with the same regimen in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with chemotherapy-sensitive persistent or relapsed DLBCL were randomly assigned to receive iodine-131 tositumomab (dosimetric dose of 5 mCi on day -19 and therapeutic dose of 0.75 Gy on day -12), carmustine 300 mg/m(2) (day -6), etoposide 100 mg/m(2) twice daily (days -5 to -2), cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) twice daily (days -5 to -2), and melphalan 140 mg/m(2) (day -1; B-BEAM) or rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on days -19 and -12 and the same chemotherapy regimen (R-BEAM).
RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled, with 113 patients randomly assigned to R-BEAM and 111 patients assigned to B-BEAM. Two-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates, the primary end point, were 48.6% (95% CI, 38.6% to 57.8%) for R-BEAM and 47.9% (95% CI, 38.2% to 57%; P = .94) for B-BEAM, and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 65.6% (95% CI, 55.3% to 74.1%) for R-BEAM and 61% (95% CI, 50.9% to 69.9%; P = .38) for B-BEAM. The 100-day treatment-related mortality rates were 4.1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 8.0%) for R-BEAM and 4.9% (95% CI, 0.8% to 9.0%; P = .97) for B-BEAM. The maximum mucositis score was higher in the B-BEAM arm (0.72) compared with the R-BEAM arm (0.31; P < .001).
CONCLUSION: The B-BEAM and R-BEAM regimens produced similar 2-year PFS and OS rates for patients with chemotherapy-sensitive relapsed DLBCL. No differences in toxicities other than mucositis were noted.

Dieudonné A, Hobbs RF, Lebtahi R, et al.
Study of the impact of tissue density heterogeneities on 3-dimensional abdominal dosimetry: comparison between dose kernel convolution and direct Monte Carlo methods.
J Nucl Med. 2013; 54(2):236-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Dose kernel convolution (DK) methods have been proposed to speed up absorbed dose calculations in molecular radionuclide therapy. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of tissue density heterogeneities (TDH) on dosimetry when using a DK method and to propose a simple density-correction method.
METHODS: This study has been conducted on 3 clinical cases: case 1, non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with (131)I-tositumomab; case 2, a neuroendocrine tumor treatment simulated with (177)Lu-peptides; and case 3, hepatocellular carcinoma treated with (90)Y-microspheres. Absorbed dose calculations were performed using a direct Monte Carlo approach accounting for TDH (3D-RD), and a DK approach (VoxelDose, or VD). For each individual voxel, the VD absorbed dose, D(VD), calculated assuming uniform density, was corrected for density, giving D(VDd). The average 3D-RD absorbed dose values, D(3DRD), were compared with D(VD) and D(VDd), using the relative difference Δ(VD/3DRD). At the voxel level, density-binned Δ(VD/3DRD) and Δ(VDd/3DRD) were plotted against ρ and fitted with a linear regression.
RESULTS: The D(VD) calculations showed a good agreement with D(3DRD). Δ(VD/3DRD) was less than 3.5%, except for the tumor of case 1 (5.9%) and the renal cortex of case 2 (5.6%). At the voxel level, the Δ(VD/3DRD) range was 0%-14% for cases 1 and 2, and -3% to 7% for case 3. All 3 cases showed a linear relationship between voxel bin-averaged Δ(VD/3DRD) and density, ρ: case 1 (Δ = -0.56ρ + 0.62, R(2) = 0.93), case 2 (Δ = -0.91ρ + 0.96, R(2) = 0.99), and case 3 (Δ = -0.69ρ + 0.72, R(2) = 0.91). The density correction improved the agreement of the DK method with the Monte Carlo approach (Δ(VDd/3DRD) < 1.1%), but with a lesser extent for the tumor of case 1 (3.1%). At the voxel level, the Δ(VDd/3DRD) range decreased for the 3 clinical cases (case 1, -1% to 4%; case 2, -0.5% to 1.5%, and -1.5% to 2%). No more linear regression existed for cases 2 and 3, contrary to case 1 (Δ = 0.41ρ - 0.38, R(2) = 0.88) although the slope in case 1 was less pronounced.
CONCLUSION: This study shows a small influence of TDH in the abdominal region for 3 representative clinical cases. A simple density-correction method was proposed and improved the comparison in the absorbed dose calculations when using our voxel S value implementation.

Press OW, Unger JM, Rimsza LM, et al.
Phase III randomized intergroup trial of CHOP plus rituximab compared with CHOP chemotherapy plus (131)iodine-tositumomab for previously untreated follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma: SWOG S0016.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(3):314-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Advanced follicular lymphomas (FL) are considered incurable with conventional chemotherapy and there is no consensus on the best treatment approach. Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and Cancer and Leukemia Group B compared the safety and efficacy of two immunochemotherapy regimens for FL in a phase III randomized intergroup protocol (SWOG S0016) that enrolled 554 patients with previously untreated, advanced-stage FL between March 1, 2001, and September 15, 2008.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were eligible for the study if they had advanced-stage (bulky stage II, III, or IV) evaluable FL of any grade (1, 2, or 3) and had not received previous therapy. In one arm of the study, patients received six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy at 3-week intervals with six doses of rituximab (CHOP-R). In another arm of the study, patients received six cycles of CHOP followed by consolidation with tositumomab/iodine I-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT).
RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 4.9 years, the 2-year estimate of progression-free survival (PFS) was 76% on the CHOP-R arm and 80% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .11). The 2-year estimate of overall survival (OS) was 97% on the CHOP-R arm and 93% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .08).
CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of a significant improvement in PFS comparing CHOP-RIT with CHOP-R. However, PFS and OS were outstanding on both arms of the study. Future studies are needed to determine the potential benefits of combining CHOP-R induction chemotherapy with RIT consolidation and/or extended rituximab maintenance therapy.

Rose AC, Shenoy PJ, Garrett G, et al.
A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of radioimmunotherapy consolidation for patients with untreated follicular lymphoma.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2012; 12(6):393-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is characterized by multiple relapses and progressively shorter response durations with subsequent therapies. Despite the development of numerous treatment strategies to reduce the risk of progression, optimal therapeutic strategies for patients with FL remain undefined. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with an anti-CD20 antibody linked to iodine-131 or to yttrium-90 has emerged as well-tolerated treatment after induction. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses to quantify the benefits of consolidative RIT.
METHODS: We searched the CENTRAL and MEDLINE libraries, and conference abstracts for reports on phase II/III clinical trials that assessed RIT consolidation for patients with untreated FL. Extracted data included pretreatment disease status, patient characteristics, treatment regimen, response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Pooled estimates of complete response (CR), overall response (OR), 2- and 5-year PFS and OS rates were computed by using random effects models.
RESULTS: Eight studies (n = 783) were included in the meta-analyses. CR rates after RIT ranged from 69.0% to 96.5%, 2-year PFS ranged from 64.8% to 86.1%, and 5-year PFS ranged from 47.0% to 67.3%. The pooled estimates of the CR rate and OR rate were 82.7% (95% CI, 67.4%-91.7%) and 96.2% (95% CI, 90.4%-98.6%), respectively. The pooled estimates for 5-year PFS and OS were 57.6% (95% CI, 47.8%-66.9%) and 90.1% (95% CI, 83.9%-94.1%), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: We believe that these aggregated data can further the discussion on RIT as a consolidation therapy and inform decisions on future study designs Additional studies are needed to compare the benefits of RIT consolidation to maintenance therapy with rituximab.

Hattori N, Gopal AK, Shields AT, et al.
131I-tositumomab myeloablative radioimmunotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: radiation dose to the testes.
Nucl Med Commun. 2012; 33(12):1225-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate radiation doses to the testes delivered by a radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibody and its effects on male sex hormone levels.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Testicular uptake and retention of (131)I-tositumomab were measured, and testicular absorbed doses were calculated for 67 male patients (54 ± 11 years of age) with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had undergone myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using (131)I-tositumomab. Time-activity curves for the major organs, testes, and whole body were generated from planar imaging studies. In a subset of patients, male sex hormones were measured before and 1 year after the therapy.
RESULTS: The absorbed dose to the testes showed considerable variability (range = 4.4-70.2 Gy). Pretherapy levels of total testosterone were below the lower limit of the reference range, and post-therapy evaluation demonstrated further reduction [4.6 ± 1.8 nmol/l (pre-RIT) vs. 3.8 ± 2.9 nmol/l (post-RIT), P<0.05]. Patients receiving higher radiation doses to the testes (≥ 25 Gy) showed a greater reduction [4.7 ± 1.6 nmol/l (pre-RIT) vs. 3.3 ± 2.7 nmol/l (post-RIT), P<0.05] compared with patients receiving lower doses (<25 Gy), who showed no significant change in total testosterone levels.
CONCLUSION: The testicular radiation absorbed dose varied highly among individual patients. Patients receiving higher doses to the testes were more likely to show post-RIT suppression of testosterone levels.

Schipper MJ, Koral KF, Avram AM, et al.
Prediction of therapy tumor-absorbed dose estimates in I-131 radioimmunotherapy using tracer data via a mixed-model fit to time activity.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2012; 27(7):403-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: For individualized treatment planning in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), correlations must be established between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered absorbed doses. The focus of this work was to investigate this correlation for tumors.
METHODS: The study analyzed 57 tumors in 19 follicular lymphoma patients treated with I-131 tositumomab and imaged with SPECT/CT multiple times after tracer and therapy administrations. Instead of the typical least-squares fit to a single tumor's measured time-activity data, estimation was accomplished via a biexponential mixed model in which the curves from multiple subjects were jointly estimated. The tumor-absorbed dose estimates were determined by patient-specific Monte Carlo calculation.
RESULTS: The mixed model gave realistic tumor time-activity fits that showed the expected uptake and clearance phases even with noisy data or missing time points. Correlation between tracer and therapy tumor-residence times (r=0.98; p<0.0001) and correlation between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered mean tumor-absorbed doses (r=0.86; p<0.0001) were very high. The predicted and delivered absorbed doses were within ± 25% (or within ± 75 cGy) for 80% of tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: The mixed-model approach is feasible for fitting tumor time-activity data in RIT treatment planning when individual least-squares fitting is not possible due to inadequate sampling points. The good correlation between predicted and delivered tumor doses demonstrates the potential of using a pretherapy tracer study for tumor dosimetry-based treatment planning in RIT.

Vose JM, Bierman PJ, Loberiza FR, et al.
Phase II trial of 131-Iodine tositumomab with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2013; 19(1):123-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the standard outpatient dose of 131-Iodine tositumomab (75 cGy) combined with high-dose carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) followed by autologous stem cell rescue for the treatment of chemotherapy-sensitive relapsed or refractory, or high-risk first complete remission (CR) patients with diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL). Forty patients with chemotherapy-sensitive persistent or relapsed or high/intermediate or high international prognostic index DLCBL were treated in a phase II trial combining 75 cGy 131-Iodine tositumomab with high-dose BEAM followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. The CR rate after transplantation was 78%, and the overall response rate was 80%. Short-term and long-term toxicities were similar to historical control patients treated with BEAM alone. With a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 3-10 years), the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55%-83%), and the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 70% (95% CI, 53%-82%). The PFS and OS were encouraging in this group of chemotherapy-sensitive persistent, relapsed, or high-risk patients with DLBCL. A follow-up phase III trial with 131-Iodine tositumomab/BEAM vs rituximab/BEAM was planned based on this information.

Tomblyn M
Radioimmunotherapy for B-cell non-hodgkin lymphomas.
Cancer Control. 2012; 19(3):196-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), in both up-front and relapsed/refractory settings. Two approved agents (90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and 131I-tositumomab) are available in the United States. Both target CD20 with similar clinical outcomes but with unique clinical considerations and radiation precautions due to the use of varying radioisotopes.
METHODS: This paper reviews the available evidence for these approved RIT agents and examines the recently published and ongoing clinical trials of potential novel indications for aggressive B-cell NHL.
RESULTS: A pretreatment biodistribution evaluation required before administering the 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan therapeutic dose has been removed, which once limited its usage. The potential clinical applications of RIT include relapsed/refractory indolent B-cell NHL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, indolent lymphoma in the front-line setting, and mantle cell lymphoma. Multiple novel RIT agents are in preclinical and clinical development, and the addition of radiosensitizers or external-beam radiotherapy may act in synergy with RIT for both indolent and aggressive lymphomas. The risk of treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome does not appear to be higher in patients treated with RIT over those receiving chemotherapy alone.
CONCLUSIONS: RIT is a safe, effective, and significantly underutilized therapy for patients with B-cell NHL, and many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and 131I-tositumomab for relapsed/refractory indolent B-cell lymphomas. Continued research to establish its efficacy for other lymphoma subtypes is warranted.

Skarbnik AP, Smith MR
Radioimmunotherapy in mantle cell lymphoma.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2012; 25(2):201-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), though characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(11; 14) (q13; q32), is a heterogeneous disease. Often termed an aggressive lymphoma in the U.S., but included in indolent lymphoma trials in Europe, MCL is not curable with standard immuno-chemotherapy. There is no single standard initial therapy for this disease. Although standard lymphoma therapies yield high response rates, relapse is inevitable. Unmet needs in MCL include better induction therapy, consolidation treatments to prolong first remission and better therapeutic options for relapsed disease. In this review, we evaluate the role of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in MCL, a novel strategy combining monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes to deliver radiation directly to tumour tissue, both in the frontline and relapsed setting.

Persky DO, Dornan D, Goldman BH, et al.
Fc gamma receptor 3a genotype predicts overall survival in follicular lymphoma patients treated on SWOG trials with combined monoclonal antibody plus chemotherapy but not chemotherapy alone.
Haematologica. 2012; 97(6):937-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fc gamma receptor polymorphisms were linked to outcome in follicular lymphoma patients treated with single-agent rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. In particular, 158F/F genotype of Fc gamma receptor 3A and 131R/R genotype of Fc gamma receptor 2A correlated with worse outcome compared to high-affinity 158V/V and 131H/H, respectively. We examined this association in the context of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody combined with chemotherapy, as compared to chemotherapy alone, in follicular lymphoma patients treated on SWOG clinical trials.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Tissue from 142 SWOG patients treated with chemotherapy alone (protocol S8809, n = 70) or combined chemotherapy and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab and Iodine I-131 tositumomab on protocols S9800 and S9911, n = 30 and 42, respectively) was analyzed. DNA was extracted and assayed for Fc gamma receptor 3A V158F and 2A R131H polymorphisms using a TaqMan SNP assay. Stratified Cox's regression was used to assess association with overall survival.
RESULTS: For Fc gamma receptor 3A, there was an association with overall survival in the combination therapy trials but not in the chemotherapy-only trial. Having at least one Fc gamma receptor 3A V allele was associated with improved overall survival versus F/F (HR = 0.33, 95% CI, 0.11, 0.96, P = 0.042). For overall survival, there was evidence of a statistical interaction between the use of mAb and the number of V alleles (0, 1, or 2) (P = 0.006). There was no such association for Fc gamma receptor 2A.
CONCLUSIONS: Fc gamma receptor 3A polymorphism status may be predictive of survival in follicular lymphoma patients receiving treatments containing an anti-CD20 antibody but not treatment with chemotherapy alone. Thus, Fc gamma receptor 3A polymorphisms may be important to consider in designing new follicular lymphoma trials and new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00933127).

Chamarthy MR, Williams SC, Moadel RM
Radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: from the 'magic bullets' to 'radioactive magic bullets'.
Yale J Biol Med. 2011; 84(4):391-407 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of lymphoma with Zevalin and Bexxar was approved by FDA in 2002 and 2003, respectively, for the treatment of relapsed or refractory CD20+ follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma. In 2009, Zevalin was also approved for consolidation therapy in patients with follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that achieve a partial or complete response to first-line chemotherapy. For follicular lymphoma patients, the overall response and progression-free survival rates have significantly improved since the implementation of RIT. The predominant complication of RIT is hematological toxicity that is usually manageable. There are ongoing trials to further define the expanding role of RIT as first line or concomitant therapy in the treatment of lymphoma as well as for certain antibiotic resistant infections and aggressive malignancies. There is also growing interest in the development of newer protocols for increased and more uniform dose delivery resulting in better outcomes and improved patient survival. This review will primarily focus on the role of RIT in treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is of established clinical utility and FDA approved. The mechanism of RIT, available radionuclides and pharmacokinetics, therapy administration, clinical utility and toxicities, and future directions would be discussed.

Schaefer NG, James E, Wahl RL
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors combined with external beam and radioimmunotherapy to treat aggressive lymphoma.
Nucl Med Commun. 2011; 32(11):1046-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To assess the possible radiosensitizing capabilities of two different poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in combination with external beam and I-tositumomab in a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Epstein-Barr virus-infected human Raji lymphoma cells with lentivirally transfected green fluorescent protein and luciferase in log-phase growth were incubated with various doses of AZD-2281 and ABT-888 24 h before external beam radiation exposure. A 500 nmol/l concentration of AZD-2281 and ABT-888 was used to assess the growth curve of Raji lymphoma cells over 5 days. The number of double-stranded breaks was visually assessed using a H2AX antibody and confocal microscopy. Intracellular PARP activity was measured 2 h after incubation with AZD-2281 (500 nmol/l) and ABT-888 using a colorimetric PARP assay kit. The radiosensitizing effect of AZD-2281 (500 nmol/l) with various doses of I-tositumomab was assessed after 24 h.
RESULTS: A volume of 500 nmol/l of AZD-2281 and 500 nmol/l of ABT-888, in combination with 0, 4, 8, and 12 Gy external beam radiation, showed a 5.2, 7.1, 10.1, and 33.1% radiosensitization. A measure of 500 nmol/l AZD-2281 and ABT-888 significantly reduced the percentage of viable cells on days 3-5 compared with controls. The maximal relative reduction in viable cells was 78.5%, and this occurred with AZD-2281 (500 nmol/l) on day 5. AZD-2281 revealed a higher number of double-stranded breaks with confocal microscopy than did ABT-888. Two hours after incubation of Raji cells with 500 nmol/l of AZD-2281 or ABT-888, the colorimetric PARP activity assay showed a reduction of 30.36% with ABT-888 and of 47.8% with AZD-2281. Combining AZD-2281 (500 nmol/l) with 0, 5 μCi (0.185 MBq), 10 μCi (0.37 MBq) and 20 μCi (0.74 MBq) ¹³¹I-tositumomab revealed a significant reduction in cell viability after 24 h with 5 μCi (0.185 MBq) (P<0.01) and 10 μCi (0.37 MBq) (P<0.01) radiation dose.
CONCLUSION: PARP inhibitors AZD-2281 and ABT-888 are highly radiosensitizing agents when used before external beam radiation and ¹³¹I-tositumomab.

Howard DM, Kearfott KJ, Wilderman SJ, Dewaraja YK
Comparison of I-131 radioimmunotherapy tumor dosimetry: unit density sphere model versus patient-specific Monte Carlo calculations.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2011; 26(5):615-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High computational requirements restrict the use of Monte Carlo algorithms for dose estimation in a clinical setting, despite the fact that they are considered more accurate than traditional methods. The goal of this study was to compare mean tumor absorbed dose estimates using the unit density sphere model incorporated in OLINDA with previously reported dose estimates from Monte Carlo simulations using the dose planning method (DPMMC) particle transport algorithm. The dataset (57 tumors, 19 lymphoma patients who underwent SPECT/CT imaging during I-131 radioimmunotherapy) included tumors of varying size, shape, and contrast. OLINDA calculations were first carried out using the baseline tumor volume and residence time from SPECT/CT imaging during 6 days post-tracer and 8 days post-therapy. Next, the OLINDA calculation was split over multiple time periods and summed to get the total dose, which accounted for the changes in tumor size. Results from the second calculation were compared with results determined by coupling SPECT/CT images with DPM Monte Carlo algorithms. Results from the OLINDA calculation accounting for changes in tumor size were almost always higher (median 22%, range -1%-68%) than the results from OLINDA using the baseline tumor volume because of tumor shrinkage. There was good agreement (median -5%, range -13%-2%) between the OLINDA results and the self-dose component from Monte Carlo calculations, indicating that tumor shape effects are a minor source of error when using the sphere model. However, because the sphere model ignores cross-irradiation, the OLINDA calculation significantly underestimated (median 14%, range 2%-31%) the total tumor absorbed dose compared with Monte Carlo. These results show that when the quantity of interest is the mean tumor absorbed dose, the unit density sphere model is a practical alternative to Monte Carlo for some applications. For applications requiring higher accuracy, computer-intensive Monte Carlo calculation is needed.

Illidge T, Morschhauser F
Radioimmunotherapy in follicular lymphoma.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2011; 24(2):279-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The exquisite sensitivity of haematological malignancies to targeted radiation make Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) a theoretically attractive therapeutic approach. Furthermore, impressive results initially achieved by the pioneers in this field and more recently in larger studies have demonstrated the high clinical activity of RIT in follicular NHL (FL). For more than a decade clinical RIT of FL has been dominated by targeting the CD20 antigen and a number of pivotal clinical studies have resulted in the approval by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) of two radioimmunconjugates, (131)I-tositumomab (Bexxar) and (90)Y-ibritumomab (Zevalin). (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan was subsequently approved within the EU in 2004 and more recently in the EU and in the US as a front line "consolidation" treatment in follicular NHL. Recent data have demonstrated that fractionated radioimmunotherapy targeting CD22 with (90)Y-epratuzumab tetraxetan achieved a high degree of durable complete responses in relapsed/refractory NHL. Despite the fact that these RIT agents clearly have unique non-cross reactive mechanisms of action with proven high clinical efficacy in patients resistant to both chemotherapy and rituximab, they have not been widely adopted by haemato-oncology community to date. This chapter reviews the progress that has been made in the development of clinical radioimmunotherapy in follicular lymphoma and suggest some guidelines to use it appropriately in first-line but also in the increasing number of patients emerging who are rituximab-refractory.

Buchegger F, Antonescu C, Helg C, et al.
Six of 12 relapsed or refractory indolent lymphoma patients treated 10 years ago with 131I-tositumomab remain in complete remission.
J Nucl Med. 2011; 52(6):896-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The purpose of our study was to update the safety and efficacy results of radioimmunotherapy in relapsed or resistant indolent or transformed non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
METHODS: More than 9 y ago, we treated 12 indolent and 4 transformed, relapsed or refractory lymphoma patients with a single administration of nonmyeloablative therapy with tositumomab and (131)I-tositumomab. The 16 patients had a mean of 3.1 (range, 1-6) previous chemotherapy and antibody treatments.
RESULTS: Six of 12 relapsed indolent lymphoma patients remain disease-free a mean of 9.8 y (range, 8.6-10.7 y) after radioimmunotherapy. Three of 4 transformed lymphoma patients progressed after radioimmunotherapy, and 1 patient had a partial response of 10 mo.
CONCLUSION: Optimal patient benefit might be obtained in indolent lymphoma when administering radioimmunotherapy up-front in combination with chemotherapy and rituximab treatment. However, these results show that radioimmunotherapy alone achieved long-lasting remissions in 6 of 12 (50%) indolent lymphoma patients in relapse after 1 or multiple chemotherapies.

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