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90Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin)

Web Resources: 90Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin)
Latest Research Publications

Web Resources: 90Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) (5 links)


Latest Research Publications

Andrade-Campos MM, Liévano P, Espinosa-Lara N, et al.
Long-term complication in follicular lymphoma: assessing the risk of secondary neoplasm in 242 patients treated or not with 90-yttrium-ibritumomab-tiuxetan.
Eur J Haematol. 2016; 97(6):576-582 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have a 25% increased risk of secondary primary neoplasms (SPNs). Regarding the controversy about the increased risk of SPN in patients exposed to radioimmunotherapy (RIT), we have analyzed this issue in a cohort of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients treated with/without RIT.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study including all consecutive FL patients diagnosed since 2001 was performed. Demographic, clinical data including the incidence of any kind of neoplasm (excluding basocellular skin carcinoma) were recorded.
RESULTS: A total of 242 patients were registered, male/female: 103/139, mean age: 59.9 yr (15-86), stage IV (57.8%), and Follicular Lymphoma Prognostic Index (FLIPI) low-risk (62.15%) predominance. Ninety-six patients (39.7%) were treated with 90Y-IT. The median follow-up for patients treated or not with 90Y-IT was 61 (8-273) and 38 (1-171) months. With respect to SPN incidence, 38 (15.6%) patients have at least two cancers, in 17 (44.7%), FL was the SPN; for the rest (226), the global incidence of SPNs was 9.3% (21), but there were no differences related to the exposition or not to 90Y-IT (P = 0.26). In seven patients, more than two (2-6) different therapies were registered; four were exposed to fludarabine-based therapy, three to radiotherapy and two to autologous stem-cell transplantation, and in the RIT cohort, two patients developed myelodysplastic syndrome.
CONCLUSION: This is one of the largest single institution reports assessing the risk of SPN in FL patients treated (96) or not (146) with 90Y-IT. It seems that 90Y-IT does not increase significantly the risk of SPN but avoiding its use after fludarabine and other intense cytotoxic schemes is recommended.

Hadid T, Raufi A, Kafri Z, et al.
Safety and efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the community setting.
Nucl Med Biol. 2016; 43(4):227-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a unique therapeutic modality that combines biologic and radiolytic mechanisms to induce tumor kill. RIT is underutilized in the community outpatient setting.
METHODS: This is an institutional review of patients treated with RIT at St. John Hospital and Medical Center (SJH&MC) 2003-2011. RIT agents were dosed according to recommended guidelines. Response was assessed using the Revised Response Criteria for Malignant Lymphoma and toxicity was assessed using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. The primary aim was to assess overall response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS). The secondary aim was to assess the impact of variable host and disease factors on the ORR to RIT and OS.
RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were treated with RIT within the specified period at SJH&MC; of which 52% with follicular lymphoma (FL) and 46% with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The majority of patients had relapsed or refractory disease (98%). Median duration of follow-up was 17 months. The ORR was 73% with 44% complete remission (CR) rate and OS of 48 months. The ORR was 79% with 58% CR rate and OS of 82 months among FL patients. Among DLBCL patients, the ORR was 65% with 30% CR rate and OS of 39 months. Response to last therapy before RIT was the only significant predictor of response to RIT and a significant predictor of OS in multivariate analyses. Prior exposure to EBRT did not predict response or survival in multivariate analyses. Toxicity was manageable and predominantly hematologic.
CONCLUSIONS: RIT is effective and feasible for use in the community outpatient setting.
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PATIENT CARE: Patients with B-cell NHL can safely receive RIT close to home. With some coordination of effort, it is not difficult for community-based cancer centers to implement this treatment modality.

Casadei B, Pellegrini C, Pulsoni A, et al.
90-yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation of fludarabine, mitoxantrone, rituximab in intermediate/high-risk follicular lymphoma: updated long-term results after a median follow-up of 7 years.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(6):1093-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) after an induction phase with conventional chemoimmunotherapy became an attractive strategy of consolidation for patients with advanced follicular lymphoma: in particular, in many studies RIT was represented by yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan ((90) Y-IT). Independently by the different front-line treatment, updates on the long-term follow-up of these studies are needed because the disease course of follicular lymphoma is characterised by multiple relapses and progressively shorter durations of response. We report updated long-term efficacy and toxicity results of a multicenter phase II study on sequential treatment with four cycles of fludarabine, mitoxantrone, and rituximab followed by (90) Y-IT as front-line therapy for untreated patients with intermediate/high-risk follicular lymphoma. With a median follow-up of 84 months, only 19/49 (38.8%) complete response patients relapsed, yielding an estimated long-term disease-free survival of 62.6%. The 7-year overall survival was 72.7%. Four (7.3%) second acute myeloid leukemia occurred, with a median time following RIT of 42 months. A relevant patients' responsiveness to subsequent therapies occurred: approximately 65% of relapsed patients obtained a good clinical response after the second-line treatment. These data represented the first evidence of a real role even in the long period of 90Y-IT after a fludarabine-containing regimen plus rituximab in the treatment of high-risk follicular lymphoma.

Shimoni A, Zwas ST
Radioimmunotherapy and Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Semin Nucl Med. 2016; 46(2):119-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard therapy for patients with chemosensitive-relapsed or chemosensitive-refractory aggressive lymphoma. The use of rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has dramatically changed the outcome of patients with aggressive lymphoma, increasing both response and survival rates. However, despite this progress a significant proportion of patients are still refractory or relapse after frontline rituximab-containing therapy. Moreover, it is increasingly more difficult to rescue these patients with current salvage chemotherapy and ASCT approaches. Novel approaches are needed for these high-risk patients, especially in the rituximab era. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a form of targeted therapy using the parent monoclonal antibody to deliver radiation emitted by a conjugated radioisotope, to the vicinity of antigen-positive tissues. Two radioimmunoconjugates--yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and iodine-131 tositumomab (Bexxar) have been in clinical use. There are multiple studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of both agents in both indolent and aggressive lymphoma. Radiolabeled antibodies are ideal candidates to combine with high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT. RIT targets radiation to disease sites while limiting exposure of uninvolved critical organs, thus it can safely replace total-body irradiation during conditioning for ASCT. The major toxicity and limiting factor in RIT is myelotoxicity that is easily reversed by stem-cell rescue. RIT can be combined at standard doses with high-dose chemotherapy or can be given in escalated doses either alone or with high-dose chemotherapy before ASCT. Several phase II studies have shown the safety and potential efficacy of both agents using these approaches. A small randomized study comparing standard-dose Zevalin with combination of carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) high-dose chemotherapy and BEAM alone suggested a survival advantage of Zevalin-BEAM. However, a large randomized study comparing Bexxar-BEAM and rituximab-BEAM did not show any advantage. More studies are needed to establish the role and the dose of RIT given for ASCT.

Illidge TM, McKenzie HS, Mayes S, et al.
Short duration immunochemotherapy followed by radioimmunotherapy consolidation is effective and well tolerated in relapsed follicular lymphoma: 5-year results from a UK National Cancer Research Institute Lymphoma Group study.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 173(2):274-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: We report a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of abbreviated immunochemotherapy followed by (90) Y Ibritumomab tiuxetan ((90) Y-IT) in patients with recurrent follicular lymphoma. Of the 52 patients enrolled, 50 were treated with three cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) or R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone), followed by (90) Y-IT regimen (15 MBq/kg, maximum 1200 MBq) preceded by two infusions of 250 mg/m(2) rituximab. The overall response rate was 98% with complete response (CR) 30% and partial response (PR) 68%. 18 patients with a PR following chemotherapy improved to a CR following (90) Y-IT: a conversion rate of 40%. Seven patients with PR following (90) Y-IT subsequently improved to a CR 12-18 months later, leading to an overall CR rate of 44%. With a median follow-up of 5 years, median progression-free survival was 23·1 months and overall survival was 77·5% at 5 years. High trough serum rituximab levels (median 112 μg/ml; range 52-241) were attained after four doses of rituximab, prior to (90) Y-IT; this was not found to influence response rates. The treatment was well tolerated with few (13·5%) grade 3 or 4 infective episodes and manageable haematological toxicity. Abbreviated immunochemotherapy followed by (90) Y-IT is an effective and well-tolerated treatment in recurrent follicular lymphoma patients previously exposed to rituximab.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00637832.

Mondello P, Steiner N, Willenbacher W, et al.
90Y-Ibritumomab-Tiuxetan Consolidation Therapy for Advanced-Stage Mantle Cell Lymphoma After First-Line Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: Is It Time for a Step Forward?
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2016; 16(2):82-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive lymphoma with a dismal prognosis because of numerous relapses. Because the most promising results have been obtained with immunochemotherapy followed by autologous cell stem transplantation (ASCT), we evaluated the efficacy of yttrium-90 ibritumomab ((90)Y-IT) consolidation after such an intensive treatment.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 57 patients affected by intermediate or high-risk MCL in complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) after 3 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin [hydroxydaunorubicin], vincristine [Oncovin], prednisolone) plus 3 cycles of R-DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine [Ara-C], cisplatin [platinum]) followed by ASCT and additional consolidation treatment with (90)Y-IT in 28 cases. All patients underwent 2 years of rituximab maintenance.
RESULTS: After ASCT, 94% achieved CR and 4% achieved PR. The median follow-up was 6.2 years (range, 1.8-9.7 years). Treatment intensification was well tolerated and led to a significantly longer response duration in comparison to standard treatment. In contrast to the historical cohort, the addition of (90)Y-IT seems to overcome important risk factors such as Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) score and bone marrow infiltration.
CONCLUSION: In the present retrospective analysis, immunochemotherapy followed by ASCT resulted in a very high response rate, and subsequent (90)Y-IT consolidation significantly reduced the number of relapses and increased survival, suggesting that (90)Y-IT consolidation might be a valid option in first-line treatment. However, a prospective confirmatory trial is warranted.

Mondello P, Cuzzocrea S, Navarra M, Mian M
90 Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan: a nearly forgotten opportunityr.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(7):7597-609 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (90Y-IT) combines the benefits of a monoclonal antibody with the efficacy of radiation in the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a remarkably radiosensitive hematologic malignancy. 90Y-IT activity has been well established in the indolent setting, being approved in front-line treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients as well as salvage therapy. However, no advantage in OS was observed with respect to standard treatment. Promising data are available also for aggressive B-cell lymphoma. In particular, the addition of RIT to short-course first line chemotherapy enables reduction of chemotherapy while maintaining cure rates in elderly, untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Furthermore, 90Y-IT improves response rate and outcomes of relapsed/refractory DLBCL patients, eligible and ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Clinical results have shown a role of 90Y-IT even in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). RIT might improve responses and treat minimal residual disease when used as consolidation after first-line chemotherapy in MCL. Moreover, 90Y-IT has demonstrated its efficacy in combination with high-dose chemotherapies as conditioning regimen for ASCT, with evidence suggesting the ability to overcome chemotherapy resistance. Herein, we review the available evidence for this approved drug and examine the recently published and ongoing trials for potential novel indication in aggressive B-cell NHL.

Witzig TE, Hong F, Micallef IN, et al.
A phase II trial of RCHOP followed by radioimmunotherapy for early stage (stages I/II) diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: ECOG3402.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 170(5):679-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Patients with early stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receive RCHOP (rituximab cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) alone or with involved field radiotherapy (IFRT). Anti-CD20 radioimmunotherapy (RIT) delivers radiation to microscopic sites outside of known disease. This phase II study aimed to achieve a functional complete response (CR) rate of ≥75% to RCHOP and (90) Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan RIT. Patients with stages I/II DLBCL received 4-6 cycles of RCHOP followed by RIT [14·8 MBq/kg (0·4 mCi/kg)]; patients with positron emission tomographypositive sites of disease after RCHOP/RIT received 30 Gy IFRT. Of the 62 patients enrolled; 53 were eligible. 42% (22/53) had stage I/IE; 58% (31/53) stage II/IIE. After RCHOP, 79% (42/53) were in CR/unconfirmed CR. Forty-eight patients proceeded to RIT. One partial responder after RIT received IFRT and achieved a CR. The best response after RCHOP + RIT in all 53 patients was a functional CR rate of 89% (47/53; 95% confidence interval: 77-96%). With a median follow-up of 5·9 years, 7 (13%) patients have progressed and 4 (8%) have died (2 with DLBCL). At 5 years, 78% of patients remain in remission and 94% are alive. Chemoimmunotherapy and RIT is an active regimen for early stage DLBCL patients. Eighty-nine percent of patients achieved functional CR without the requirement of IFRT. This regimen is worthy of further study for early stage DLBCL in a phase III trial.

Andrade-Campos MM, Montes-Limón AE, Soro-Alcubierre G, et al.
Patients Older Than 65 Years With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Are Suitable for Treatment With (90)Yttrium-Ibritumumab Tiuxetan: A Single-Institution Experience.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2015; 15(8):464-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The mean age of patients included in clinical trials does not reflect the current clinical practice for patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). We compared our outcomes for patients with B-NHL aged < 65 and > 65 years who were treated with 90-yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy ((90)Y-IT).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 108 patients who had received (90)Y-IT according to the hospital protocol (ISCRTN36210045) were eligible. A quality of life (QoL) assessment using the Medical Outcomes Study short form 36-item survey was performed for patients aged > 65 years.
RESULTS: Of the 108 patients, 43 were aged > 65 years (mean age, 73.4 years; men 46.15%); 37 had follicular NHL (86.0%). Also, 27 patients had previously undergone < 2 therapy regimens (62.8%). The mean follow-up period was 45.2 months. The mean progression-free survival (PFS) period was 71.3 months, and the mean overall survival was 78.2 months. The median values were not reached. The overall response rate was 90.5%, and a complete response was observed in 36 of the 43 patients aged > 65 years (85.7%). Neutropenia (43.3%) and thrombocytopenia (45.2%) were the most frequent grade 3 and 4 toxicities. Five patients required a red blood cell transfusion and 11, a platelet transfusion. Five patients aged > 65 years (11.6%) developed a second tumor. These outcomes were similar to those for the younger patients. The QoL assessment showed scores similar to those of general population for general health and social functioning.
CONCLUSION: This is the largest cohort of NHL treated with RIT in a single institution in Spain. We observed a high response rate and prolonged PFS in patients with B-NHL, independent of patient age. Thus, consolidation RIT offers better outcomes with manageable toxicity.

Berger MD, Branger G, Klaeser B, et al.
Zevalin and BEAM (Z-BEAM) versus rituximab and BEAM (R-BEAM) conditioning chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.
Hematol Oncol. 2016; 34(3):133-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early relapse is common in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) highlighting the unmet need for further improvement of therapeutic options for these patients. CD20 inhibition combined with induction chemotherapy as well as consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) is increasingly considered cornerstones within current therapy algorithms of MCL whereas the role of radioimmunotherapy is unclear. This retrospective single center study compared 46 consecutive MCL patients receiving HDCT in first or second remission. Thirty-five patients had rituximab and BEAM (R-BEAM), and 11 patients received ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin®), an Yttrium-90 labeled CD20 targeting antibody, prior to BEAM (Z-BEAM) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We observed that the 5-year overall survival (OS) in the R-BEAM and Z-BEAM groups was 55% and 71% (p = 0.288), and the 4-year progression free survival (PFS) was 32% and 41%, respectively (p = 0.300). There were no treatment related deaths in both groups, and we observed no differences in toxicities, infection rates or engraftment. Our data suggest that the Z-BEAM conditioning regimen followed by ASCT is well tolerated, but was not associated with significantly improved survival compared to R-BEAM. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Yoo C, Yoon DH, Kim S, et al.
Serum beta-2 microglobulin as a prognostic biomarker in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.
Hematol Oncol. 2016; 34(1):22-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although serum beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) has been suggested as a prognostic factor for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), additional data are necessary to confirm its role. Between November 2005 and July 2014, a total of 52 patients with MCL were identified from the database of Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Pretreatment serum B2M information was available in 50 patients (96%). Overall survival (OS) was compared according to the serum B2M level with a cut-off value of 2.5 mg/L. The median MCL international prognostic index (MIPI) score was 5.84 (range 4.72-7.80), and the median biologic MIPI (MIPI-b) score was 6.27 (4.93-8.47). Pretreatment serum B2M was elevated in 30 patients (60%) and was significantly related to advanced stage (p = 0.02) and high MIPI (p = 0.03) and MIPI-b (p = 0.03) scores. With median follow-up duration of 29.8 months (range 0.8-87.0 months), the median OS was 56.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 36.6-75.9 months] in all patients, and serum B2M was significantly associated with OS (p = 0.001). In multivariate analyses adjusted for MIPI or MIPI-b scores and rituximab, elevated serum B2M was significantly associated with poor OS (when adjusting MIPI, hazard ratio = 26.4, 95% CI 2.9-241.3, p = 0.004; when adjusting MIPI-b, hazard ratio = 20.1, 95% CI 2.4-170.1, p = 0.006). Thus, pretreatment serum B2M may be an independent and significant prognostic factor in patients with MCL.

Arnason JE, Luptakova K, Rosenblatt J, et al.
Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan followed by rituximab maintenance as treatment for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are not candidates for autologous stem cell transplant.
Acta Haematol. 2015; 133(4):347-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Not all patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are candidates for aggressive regimens. (90)Y ibritumomab tiuxetan ((90)Y-IT), an anti-CD20 radionuclide-conjugated antibody, has demonstrated clinical efficacy in DLBCL with a favorable toxicity profile.
METHODS: This phase II trial investigated the overall response rate (ORR), event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity of treatment with (90)Y-IT (0.4 or 0.3 mCi (90)Y/kg based on platelets) followed by rituximab maintenance therapy in patients with DLBCL not candidates for transplant.
RESULTS: 25 patients were enrolled. At best response 8 patients obtained a complete response (CR) and 1 a partial response (ORR 36%). Median EFS was 2.5 months and OS 8.1 months. No patient who obtained CR later relapsed systemically. Two patients were free of disease at the 61- and 100-month follow-ups; 65% had grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia, but no significant bleeding was observed. Grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity occurred in 36%. Patients who had progressed through a rituximab-containing regimen responded poorly.
CONCLUSION: The ORR of 36% with (90)Y-IT as salvage therapy for DLBCL while inferior to more aggressive regimens is significant with acceptable toxicity. For a subset of patients not candidates for salvage with autologous transplant, this treatment strategy can produce a durable, long-lasting remission.

Koechli V, Klaeser B, Banz Y, et al.
Consolidation of first remission using radioimmunotherapy with yttrium-90-ibritumomab-tiuxetan in adult patients with Burkitt lymphoma.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(3):307-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
The addition of anti-CD20 antibodies to high intensity polychemotherapy regimens has improved response and survival rates in newly diagnosed patients with Burkitt lymphoma (BL). However, the role of additional anti-CD20 directed radioimmunotherapy for consolidation of first remission (CR1) has not been reported so far in BL patients receiving rituximab during first-line treatment. We compared five BL patients receiving Y-90-IT radioimmunotherapy consolidation in CR1 to 22 consecutive BL patients without consolidation. We observed that Y-90-IT treatment was associated with clinically relevant myelosuppression. After a median follow-up of 50 months, none of the patients with Y-90-IT treatment relapsed, and no patient died. In contrast, one patient (4.5%) in the non-Y-90-IT group relapsed (50 months-PFS 95.5%; p=0.6336), and one patient died (50 months-OS 95.5%; p=0.6171). In conclusion, our data suggest that survival rates are excellent and equal in rituximab pretreated BL patients with or without Y-90-IT consolidation in first remission.

Cassaday RD, Storer BE, Sorror ML, et al.
Long-term outcomes of patients with persistent indolent B cell malignancies undergoing nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015; 21(2):281-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Relapse is least common in patients with indolent B cell (iB) malignancies (ie, iB non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL]) who undergo nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation (NMAT) in complete remission (CR). However, for the many patients unable to achieve this state, outcomes are poorly described and methods to improve results are unknown. We sought to describe the long-term follow-up and predictive factors for these poor-risk patients unable to achieve CR before NMAT. We identified and evaluated patients with iB-NHL including chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with fludarabine/total body irradiation-based NMAT that had evidence of persistent disease before NMAT. From December 1998 to April 2009, 89 patients were identified, most commonly with small/chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (n = 62) and follicular lymphoma (n = 24). Pretransplant anti-CD20 radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using standard yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan was administered to 18 patients (20%) who more frequently had chemoresistant disease (81% versus 39%, P = .003), disease bulk > 5 cm (61% versus 15%, P < .001), thrombocytopenia < 25k/μL (33% versus 7%, P = .002), and Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Comorbidity Index scores ≥ 3 (72% versus 37%, P = .006). After adjusting for these imbalances, RIT-treated patients had improved rates of progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio [HR] = .4; 95% confidence interval [CI], .2 to .9, P = .02) and overall survival (OS) (HR = .3; 95% CI, .1 to .8, P = .008) compared with the non-RIT group. The 3-year adjusted estimates of PFS and OS for the RIT and non-RIT groups were 71% and 87% versus 44% and 59%, respectively. The use of RIT was the only factor independently associated with improved PFS and OS. Rates of nonrelapse mortality and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were similar between the 2 groups, although over 70% of patients developed clinically significant acute or chronic GVHD. In conclusion, despite relatively high rates of GVHD, patients with persistent iB-NHL can derive durable benefit from NMAT.

Kraeber-Bodéré F, Bodet-Milin C, Rousseau C, et al.
Radioimmunoconjugates for the treatment of cancer.
Semin Oncol. 2014; 41(5):613-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been developed for more than 30 years. Two products targeting the CD20 antigen are approved in the treatment of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (NHBL): iodine 131-tositumomab and yttrium 90-ibritumomab tiuxetan. RIT can be integrated in clinical practice for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma (FL) or as consolidation after induction chemotherapy. High-dose treatment, RIT in first-line treatment, fractionated RIT, and use of new humanized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), in particular targeting CD22, showed promising results in NHBL. In other hemopathies, such as multiple myeloma, efficacy has been demonstrated in preclinical studies. In solid tumors, more resistant to radiation and less accessible to large molecules such as MAbs, clinical efficacy remains limited. However, pretargeting methods have shown clinical efficacy. Finally, new beta emitters such as lutetium 177, with better physical properties will further improve the safety of RIT and alpha emitters, such as bismuth 213 or astatine 211, offer the theoretical possibility to eradicate the last microscopic clusters of tumor cells, in the consolidation setting. Personalized treatments, based on quantitative positron emission tomography (PET), pre-therapeutic imaging, and dosimetry procedures, also could be applied to adapt injected activity to each patient.

Meerkhan SA, Sjögreen-Gleisner K, Larsson E, et al.
Testis dosimetry in individual patients by combining a small-scale dosimetry model and pharmacokinetic modeling-application of (111)In-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan (Zevalin(®)).
Phys Med Biol. 2014; 59(24):7889-904 [PubMed] Related Publications
A heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons in the testicles may result in a significant difference between an absorbed dose to the radiosensitive spermatogonia and the mean absorbed dose to the whole testis. This study focused on absorbed dose distribution in patients at a finer scale than normally available in clinical dosimetry, which was accomplished by combining a small-scale dosimetry model with patient pharmacokinetic data. The activity in the testes was measured and blood sampling was performed for patients that underwent pre-therapy imaging with (111)In-Zevalin(®). Using compartment modeling, testicular activity was separated into two components: vascular and extravascular. The uncertainty of absorbed dose due to geometry variations between testicles was explored by an assumed activity micro-distribution and by varying the radius of the interstitial tubule. Results showed that the absorbed dose to germ cells might be strongly dependent on the location of the radioactive source, and may exceed the absorbed dose to the whole testis by as much as a factor of two. Small-scale dosimetry combined with compartmental analysis of clinical data proved useful for gauging tissue dosimetry and interpreting how intrinsic geometric variation influences the absorbed dose.

Persky DO, Miller TP, Unger JM, et al.
Ibritumomab consolidation after 3 cycles of CHOP plus radiotherapy in high-risk limited-stage aggressive B-cell lymphoma: SWOG S0313.
Blood. 2015; 125(2):236-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the S0313 trial, we evaluated the impact of adding ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation to 3 cycles of standard cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy plus involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) in patients with limited-stage aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (LD-NHL). Patients with at least 1 stage-modified adverse risk factor (nonbulky stage II, age >60 years, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, or World Health Organization performance status of 2) were treated with CHOP on days 1, 22, and 43, followed 3 weeks later by 40 to 50 Gy of IFRT. An ibritumomab tiuxetan regimen was initiated 3 to 6 weeks following IFRT. Forty-six patients were registered and eligible, with median follow-up of 7.3 years. The progression-free survival estimate is 89% at 2 years, 82% at 5 years, and 75% at 7 years. The overall survival estimate is 91% at 2 years, 87% at 5 years, and 82% at 7 years. Grade 4 adverse events occurring more than once included neutropenia (8), leukopenia (5), and lymphopenia (2). Febrile neutropenia was observed in 4 patients. No cases of treatment-related myeloid neoplasms were noted. In conclusion, patients with high-risk LD-NHL treated with 3 cycles of CHOP plus IFRT followed by ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation had outcomes that compare favorably to our historical experience. The clinical trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00070018.

Kawashima H
Radioimmunotherapy: a specific treatment protocol for cancer by cytotoxic radioisotopes conjugated to antibodies.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2014; 2014:492061 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) represents a selective internal radiation therapy, that is, the use of radionuclides conjugated to tumor-directed monoclonal antibodies (including those fragments) or peptides. In a clinical field, two successful examples of this treatment protocol are currently extended by (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and (131)I-tositumomab (Bexxar), both of which are anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies coupled to cytotoxic radioisotopes and are approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. In addition, some beneficial observations are obtained in preclinical studies targeting solid tumors. To date, in order to reduce the unnecessary exposure and to enhance the therapeutic efficacy, various biological, chemical, and treatment procedural improvements have been investigated in RIT. This review outlines the fundamentals of RIT and current knowledge of the preclinical/clinical trials for cancer treatment.

Bouabdallah K, Furst S, Asselineau J, et al.
90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan, fludarabine, busulfan and antithymocyte globulin reduced-intensity allogeneic transplant conditioning for patients with advanced and high-risk B-cell lymphomas.
Ann Oncol. 2015; 26(1):193-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) refractory to initial chemotherapy or relapsing after autologous stem-cell transplantation have a poor prognosis. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen can be a therapeutic option. However, the high incidence of relapse remains a challenging issue. We speculated that the incorporation of (90)Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan into a fludarabine-based RIC regimen would improve the lymphoma control without overwhelming toxicity. Our aim was to evaluate the safety of (90)Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan in association with such a regimen in a prospective multicenter phase II trial.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with advanced lymphoma from five distinct institutions were included between February 2008 and October 2010. Thirty patients in complete or partial response after failure of a median of 3 (range, 2-4) previous chemotherapy regimens including autologous transplant in 29 were evaluable for nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at day 100 post-transplant that was the primary end point.
RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 29-60 months), the 2-year event-free and overall survivals of the whole study group were both 80% [95 confidence interval (CI) 60.8% to 90.5%). The 100-day and 2-year post-transplant cumulative incidences of NRM were 3.3% (95% CI 0.2% to 14.9%) and 13.3% (95% CI 5.4% to 33.2%), respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 6.7% (95% CI 1.7% to 25.4%). The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease were 27% and 14%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: For chemosensitive advanced high-risk B-cell lymphoma, the addition of (90)Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan to a RIC regimen based on fludarabine, busulfan and antithymocyte globulin followed by allogeneic transplant is safe and highly effective. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00607854.

Rajguru S, Kristinsdottir T, Eickhoff J, et al.
Yttrium 90-ibritumomab tiuxetan plus rituximab maintenance as initial therapy for patients with high-tumor-burden follicular lymphoma: a Wisconsin Oncology Network study.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2014; 12(8):509-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Yttrium 90-ibritumomab tiuxetan (90Y-IT) radioimmunotherapy has proved to be effective in relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL). We conducted a clinical trial in which 90Y-IT followed by maintenance rituximab (MR) was evaluated as initial therapy for high-tumor-burden FL.
METHODS: Eligible patients had histologically confirmed FL and met the GELF (Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes Folliculaires) criteria for high tumor burden. All patients received a single dose of 90Y-IT. Patients with platelet counts of 150,000/mm³ or higher received 0.4 mCi/kg, and patients with platelet counts between 100,000/mm³ and 149,000/mm³ received 0.3 mCi/kg. At 6 months, patients without progressive disease (PD) received rituximab weekly for 4 weeks at a dose of 375 mg/m² (consolidation therapy), followed by MR consisting of the same dose every 3 months for a planned 5 years.
RESULTS: From January 2005 through November 2007, a total of 16 patients were enrolled. The median age was 52 years (range, 37-75). The major toxicity from 90Y-IT was myelosuppression, with 88% and 31% of the patients experiencing grade 3 and grade 4 hematologic toxicity, respectively. The responses to 90Y-IT induction therapy were as follows: 7 patients with complete response/unconfirmed complete response (CR/Cru), 4 with partial response (PR), 3 with stable disease (SD), and 2 with progressive disease (PD). We identified 6 patients with early PD (range, 4-16 months) and 10 patients with prolonged remission (range, 37-101+ months). Compared with the patients who had prolonged remission, the patients who had early PD tended to have larger baseline nodal masses. The median progression-free survival (PFS) has not been reached after a median follow-up period of 48 months. The 3-year PFS and overall survival (OS) rates were 56% (95% CI, 37%-87%) and 93% (95% CI, 80%-100%), respectively.
CONCLUSION: The overall response rate (ORR) to 90Y-IT was 69% in patients who had previously untreated, high-tumor-burden FL, which is lower than what is observed with contemporary rituximab/chemotherapy combinations. MR after 90Y-IT did convert all PRs to CRs. Alternative therapies should be considered for patients who have FL with large nodal masses (>9 cm), whereas very durable responses are possible in patients who have intermediate-size masses (>9 cm).

Lossos IS, Fabregas JC, Koru-Sengul T, et al.
Phase II study of (90)Y Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) in patients with previously untreated marginal zone lymphoma.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(6):1750-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The best upfront therapy for patients with non-gastric extranodal marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs) is not defined. We assessed the safety and efficacy of radioimmunotherapy with (90)yttrium ((90)Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan as upfront therapy in MZL (NCT00453102). A total of 16 patients were enrolled, 81% with advanced-stage disease and 44% with bulky disease. The overall response rate (ORR) at 12 weeks post-therapy was 87.5% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 65.6-97.7%), including a complete response in eight (50%), complete response unconfirmed in one (6%) and partial response in five (31%) patients. With a median follow-up of 65.6 months (range 4.0-96.5), the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 47.6 months (range 4.0-93.3) and median overall survival (OS) was not reached. The 5-year PFS was 40% (90% CI: 19.9-59.5%) and 5-year OS was 71.8% (90% CI: 46.8-86.5%). Overall, (90)Y ibritumomab tiuxetan was well tolerated and led to long-term responses and PFS rates.

Mondello P, Pitini V, Arrigo C, et al.
90Y-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan consolidation after autologous stem cell transplantation improves survival of patients with intermediate-/high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma not responding adequately to first-line treatment.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(9):5121-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma entity whose prognosis for high-risk patients is poor. Aggressive salvage treatments to improve patient outcome have been unsatisfactory. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin®; (90)Y-IT) consolidation after early salvage chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation. Thirty-seven patients with intermediate-high risk DLBCL not in complete remission (CR) after three cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphomide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) were assessed retrospectively. After early salvage treatment, 70% achieved CR and 30% partial remission. Twenty patients underwent additional consolidation with (90)Y-IT. During the 3-year follow-up, 50% in the (90)Y-IT-treated group experienced relapse compared to 82.3% in the other cohort (p=0.002). Progression- and disease-free survival were significantly longer in the (90)Y-IT group. However, probably due to the relatively short follow-up period, no difference in overall survival was observed. (90)Y-IT consolidation after early salvage chemotherapy improves treatment responses and reduces the percentage of relapses without significant additional toxicities.

Uike N, Choi I, Tsuda M, et al.
Factors associated with effects of 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: single-institution experience with 94 Japanese patients in rituximab era.
Int J Hematol. 2014; 100(4):386-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
This retrospective study analyzes the results of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in 94 Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at a single institution. All patients had previously been administered with 1-8 (median 1) regimens of rituximab alone or combined with other chemotherapeutic regimens at a mean age of 64 years. The overall response rate was 90 % and the complete response (CR) rate was 69 %. The median overall survival was not reached and progression-free survival (PFS) was 26 months, respectively, for the early phase 50 patients during a median follow-up period of 46.5 months. In this cohort, the PFS rates for the 50 early phase patients who had undergone ≤2 and ≥3 previous regimens, and for those who achieved CR compared with those who did not (partial response, PR; stable disease, SD; progressive disease, PD) were 38 and 11 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that these two factors were statistically significant (p = 0.0011 and p <0.0001, respectively). The overall incidence of grade ≥3 non-hematological toxicity was 9 %. Two patients died of treatment-related deteriorating hepatitis C. A second malignancy developed in two patients at 10.5 and 3.5 months after treatment. We recommend administering (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan as early in the disease course as possible, and at the latest as a third-line therapy to maximize the benefits of RIT, which should improve the quality of life for patients.

Kaneko K, Choi I, Nakagawa M, et al.
Does tumoral (111)In-ibritumomab accumulation correlate with therapeutic effect and outcome in relapsed or refractory low-grade B-cell lymphoma patients undergoing (90)Y-ibritumomab radioimmunotherapy?
Eur Radiol. 2014; 24(12):3191-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether tumoral (111)In-ibritumomab accumulation on pre-treatment imaging correlates with therapeutic responses and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) undergoing (90)Y-ibritumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT).
METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 39 patients with low-grade B-cell NHL treated with RIT. We classified the patients into positive and negative groups according to the presence or absence of tumoral (111)In-ibritumomab accumulation on pre-treatment (111)In-ibritumomab examinations. We then determined the correlation between the (111)In-ibritumomab imaging findings and the patients' therapeutic responses and PFS.
RESULTS: Tumoral (111)In-ibritumomab accumulation was positive in 64.1% and negative in 35.9% of the patients. The (111)In-positive patients had a significantly higher overall response rate (ORR) compared to the (111)In-negative patients (100.0% vs. 78.6%, p = 0.02). The (111)In-negative patients with advanced disease (stages III/IV) had a significantly lower ORR (40%) and a significantly higher rate of progressive disease (40.0%) compared to those of the (111)In-negative patients with limited disease (stages I/II) (100% and 0%, p = 0.009 each). However, these two groups had similar 2-year PFS rates (65.0% vs. 50.0%, p = 0.80).
CONCLUSIONS: (111)In-ibritumomab imaging findings seem to correlate with ORR and the progressive disease rate after RIT, but not with PFS.
KEY POINTS: All 39 NHL patients had tumoral accumulation on pretreatment FDG-PET/CT. 64.1% of NHL patients had tumoral accumulation on a pretreatment (111) In-ibritumomab examination. (90) Y-ibritumomab RIT resulted in high overall response and complete remission rates. (111) In-ibritumomab avidity of lymphoma lesions could predict a strong therapeutic effect. (111) In-ibritumomab imaging findings did not correlate with progression-free survival.

Mei M, Wondergem MJ, Palmer JM, et al.
Autologous transplantation for transformed non-Hodgkin lymphoma using an yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan conditioning regimen.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014; 20(12):2072-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transformation from indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has historically been associated with a poor prognosis. A small series of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) studies using conventional conditioning regimens has demonstrated durable progression-free survival (PFS) rates ranging from 25% to 47%, but data in the rituximab era are lacking. Here we report the results of a multicenter retrospective trial evaluating ASCT in patients with transformed lymphoma using the Z-BEAM conditioning regimen, which combines yttrium-90-labeled ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) with high-dose BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) chemotherapy. Sixty-three patients from 4 institutions were treated between 2003 and 2011. Histological confirmation of transformation was required and defined as a diagnosis of DLBCL in patients with either a prior history or concomitant diagnosis of low-grade B cell NHL. Median patient age at ASCT was 59.5 years, median number of prior regimens was 2, and all patients were exposed to rituximab. Disease status at ASCT was as follows: first complete remission (CR) (n = 30), first partial remission (n = 11), first relapse (n = 14), and at least second CR (n = 8). The median time from diagnosis of histological transformation to ASCT was 7.5 months (range, 2.8 to 116). Two-year nonrelapse mortality was 0%. Median follow-up for living patients was 28 months (range, 5 to 103). Two-year PFS was 68% (95% confidence interval, 58% to 75%), and overall survival was 90% (95% confidence interval, 80% to 95%). In conclusion, the Z-BEAM conditioning regimen for ASCT is well tolerated by patients with transformed lymphoma and demonstrates encouraging clinical outcomes.

Matesan M, Rajendran J, Press OW, et al.
90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy in allogeneic transplantation in B-cell lymphoma with extensive marrow involvement and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: utility of pretransplantation biodistribution.
Nucl Med Commun. 2014; 35(11):1132-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Biodistribution data to date using In-ibritumomab tiuxetan have been initially obtained in patients with less than 25% lymphomatous bone marrow involvement and adequate hematopoietic synthetic function. In this article we present the results of an analysis of the biodistribution data obtained from a cohort of patients with extensive bone marrow involvement, baseline cytopenias, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma or CLL expressing the CD20 antigen, who had failed at least one prior regimen, and had evidence of persistent disease were included in this analysis; however, only 38 of them completed the treatment. Semiquantitative analysis of the biodistribution was performed using regions of interest over the liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and sacrum. The observed interpatient variability including higher liver uptake in four patients is discussed.
RESULTS: No severe solid organ toxicity was observed at the maximum administered activity of 1184 MBq (32 mCi) Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. After accounting for differences in marrow involvement, patients with CLL exhibit comparable biodistributions to those with B-NHL. We found that the estimated sacral marrow uptake on 48 h images in patients with bone marrow involvement may be an indicator of bone marrow involvement. There was no correlation between tumor visualization and response to treatment.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the imaging step is not critical when the administered activity is below 1184 MBq (32 mCi). However, our analysis confirms that the semiquantitative imaging data can be used to identify patients at risk for liver toxicity when higher doses of Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan are used. Patients with CLL can have excellent targeting of disease by In-ibritumomab tiuxetan, indicating potential efficacy in this patient population.

Fruchart C, Tilly H, Morschhauser F, et al.
Upfront consolidation combining yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan and high-dose therapy with stem cell transplantation in poor-risk patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014; 20(12):1905-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
We evaluated the safety and efficacy of standard-dose yttrium-90 (Y(90)) ibritumomab tiuxetan combined with high-dose BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan) after first-line induction treatment in young patients with poor prognoses diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00689169). Seventy-five high-risk (≥2 International Prognostic Index [IPI] factors) consecutive DLBCL patients (≤65 years old) in complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) after rituximab chemotherapy were treated with Y(90) ibritumomab tiuxetan and BEAM regimen followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The median follow-up was 34 months. Of the 75 patients, 71 underwent ASCT and were eligible for analysis. Median time to reach a neutrophil count of >500/μL and platelet count of >20,000/μL was 11 days. Mucositis ≥3 (51%) occurred in most patients. Other adverse events were similar to those seen with BEAM alone. The overall response rate was 86%; 59 patients (83%) achieved a CR or unconfirmed CR. The 2-year event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival were 79%, 83%, and 91%, respectively. Disease status (CR/PR) and positron emission tomography (PET) findings before transplantation did not predict treatment failure. The IPI (2 versus >2) and maximum tumor diameter of ≥10 cm at diagnosis appeared to be prognosis factors for OS but not for EFS. Adding Y(90) ibritumomab tiuxetan to BEAM is safe and does not increase transplantation-related toxicity. First-line consolidation with Y(90) ibritumomab tiuxetan and high-dose chemotherapy induced high rates of EFS and OS in poor-prognosis patients with DLBCL, regardless of PET status after induction treatment and warrants a randomized study.

Takahashi M, Momose T, Koyama K, et al.
Dynamic metabolic changes during the first 3 months after 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan radioimmunotherapy.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2014; 2014:368947 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the time course of tumor metabolism during the first 3 months after (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in patients with refractory malignant lymphoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with recurrent follicular lymphoma underwent FDG-PET imaging before and after 1-, 4-, and 12-week RIT with (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. Tumor metabolic activity on FDG-PET scans was assessed as the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax).
RESULTS: Decrease in metabolism was detected 1 week after RIT. In the most decreased lesion, SUVmax decreased to 20% of the baseline value during the first week. Most lesions continued to decrease for up to 4 weeks. Some lesions showed increased metabolism from 4 to 12 weeks, while the level of FDG accumulations at 12 weeks was still lower than the baseline.
CONCLUSIONS: Tumor response to RIT could be observed as early as 1 week after the administration of RIT. After tumor activity decreases, the metabolism may increase at least between 4 and 12 weeks. It suggests that the metabolic changes should be carefully evaluated during this period.

Samaniego F, Berkova Z, Romaguera JE, et al.
90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan radiotherapy as first-line therapy for early stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas, including bulky disease.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 167(2):207-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
(90) Y-ibritumomab-tiuxetan ((90) YIT) was used as a first-line therapy for patients with early-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) or marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL). Thirty-one patients were treated, with an overall 3-month response rate of 100% (68% complete response, 29% unconfirmed complete response and 3% partial response). At a median follow-up of 56 months, ten patients (32%) had disease relapse or progression. The progression-free rates at 3 and 5 years were lower in males, patients with FL, stage II disease and non-bulky disease, although they did not reach statistical significance. Grade 3-4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anaemia were 61%, 35%, and 3%, respectively. (90) YIT was well tolerated, including in those patients over 60 years old, and achieved high response rates in patients with early-stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Bulky disease did not adversely affect tumour response.

Andrade-Campos MM, Montes-Limón AE, Soro-Alcubierre G, et al.
Long-term efficacy of (90)Y ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy in follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma and health-related quality of life.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(12):1985-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of 37 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients treated with (90)ytrium ibritumomab tiuxetan (90Y-IT), outside of clinical trial, according to protocol ISCRTN36210045, after ≥5 years follow-up to February 2014. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated with the SF-36, Spanish version, and compared with the general population of Spain. Patients had a mean age of 61.9 (range, 30-85) years and included 18 males. FLIPI, low: 25 (67.6 %), intermedium 9 (24.3 %), and low 3 (8.1 %). Previous therapy schedules >2: 48.6 % The median follow-up was 66 months, mean Time to Relapse (TTR) 71.3 months (58.8-83.8) median not reached. Thirty-four patients achieved complete response (91.8 %), and three no response. Mean overall survival: 82.3 months (71.6-92.9). Four patients presented with concomitant tumors (colon, breast, prostate, lung) after radioimmunotherapy, and three developed second primary neoplasms (esophagus, renal, and myelodysplastic syndrome in a relapsed patient who received fludarabine). Four of 10 deaths were related to lymphoma progression. Hematological toxicities were mild and easily managed. No patients required hospitalization. Negative scores were obtained in the physical and emotional roles items; however, the perception of general health and vitality were better than in the general population, with the best outcomes in non-relapsed patients. Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-IT was safe and effective as long-term therapy in patients with FL. Early use of radioimmunotherapy could offer good, sustained responses with low toxicity over the long term and acceptable HRQoL.

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