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AIDS Related Cancers

People with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) may be more susceptible to developing certain types of cancer because their body's natural defences have been weakened. Prior to the AIDS epidemic in the 1990's Kaposi's sarcoma was a relatively rare disease usually seen only in older men or people who had organ transplants, however, increasing incidence of the disease has been associated with the spread of AIDS. Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancer that arises in the cells below the skin or in the mucous membrane lining of the mouth, nose, and anus. Lymphomas (Hodgkin's disease and particularly non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) can also be aids-related, these are cancers of the lymphatic system (part of the immune system). Many chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer can suppress the immune system. Treatment for cancer in people with AIDS may need to be modified since AIDS has already weakened their immune system.

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HIV/AIDS Related Cancers
Latest Research Publications
General HIV/AIDS Resources
AIDS-Related Lymphoma
Kaposi Sarcoma

HIV/AIDS Related Cancers (6 links)


Latest Research Publications

Clemente N, Alessandrini L, Vaccher E, et al.
Multiple preinvasive and invasive HPV-related lesions of the anogenital tract in a female patient with HIV infection: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(4):e5948 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been shown to be at increased risk for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection of the anogenital tract. Furthermore, in the last decades, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased the longevity of these patients who now live long enough to develop HPV-related cancers; hence, the impact of HPV infection on HIV-positive patients is of increasing concern.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported the case of an HIV-positive female patient on HAART with a good virological and immunological response and with a long history of HPV-related intraepithelial and invasive lesions of the anogenital tract.
DIAGNOSES: From 1996 to 2016, this patient was diagnosed with a high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; a HR-HPV positive inguinal lymph node metastasis from clinically undetectable primary squamous cell carcinoma; a HPV-related vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and an invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
INTERVENTIONS: All the intraepithelial and invasive lesions detected were properly treated, and subsequent follow up visits with gynecologic examination, anoscopy, pap smear and anal cytology were performed.
OUTCOMES: After a recurrence of the anal cancer and a subsequent salvage surgery with abdominoperineal resection, at the last available follow up visit no sign of disease recurrence was found.
LESSONS: This case stresses the importance of an accurate multidisciplinary follow-up in HIV-positive patients, including not only the routine medical, immunological, and virological evaluation, but also a periodical complete examination of the anogenital tract with cervicovaginal and anal cytology, colposcopy, high resolution anoscopy, and vulvar examination.

Tamalet C, Ravaux I, Dhiver C, et al.
Feasibility and Acceptability of Anal Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Screening in HIV-Infected Patients.
Intervirology. 2016; 59(2):118-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Anal cancer incidence is increasing among HIV-positive patients. No consensus currently exists for the screening of anal dysplasia. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of anal self-sampling and assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among HIV-positive patients from Marseille University Hospitals.
METHODS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, during their regular visits for the monitoring of their HIV infection in an HIV outpatient clinical unit of Marseille University Hospitals, patients were asked to self-sample anal swabs for HPV detection. A specimen self-collection kit was provided. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using in-house protocols. The quality of self-sampling was assessed by concurrent cellular quantification in collected samples.
RESULTS: The acceptability rate of anal self-sampling was 91%, and 91% of the self-sampled specimens were appropriate for HPV screening. In addition, 76% of the samples were positive for HPV, including 54% of HPV types with oncogenic potential.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that HPV detection and typing through anal self-sampling is a valuable strategy to screen patients at high risk for anal cancer development. This could allow earlier management of anal lesions and related cancer in patients at high risk for HPV.

Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B, Suchacz MM, Zieniewicz K, et al.
Generalized Posttransplant Kaposi Sarcoma without Mucocutaneous Manifestations in the First Liver Transplantation in an HIV-Positive Patient in Poland: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
Ann Transplant. 2016; 21:683-688 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent skin cancer in solid organ recipients, and also a typical malignancy in HIV-infected persons. CASE REPORT We describe here a rare case of primary nodal KS without mucocutaneous manifestations, diagnosed in a 20-year-old HIV/HBV co-infected patient 12 months after liver transplantation (LT), the first one performed in a HIV-positive patient in Poland. The course of the disease was very aggressive; the patient died four weeks after general lymphadenopathy appearance. In the autopsy, KS infiltration was found in numerous lymph nodes and in the lung' apexes without skin or other organs' involvement. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, posttransplant KS may present as general lymphadenopathy without mucocutaneous manifestations, thus mimicking posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, which is often the first clinical suspicion. Lymph node histopathological examination is necessary to make the right diagnosis.

Phakathi BP, Basson G, Karusseit VO, et al.
The effect of HIV infection on the surgical, chemo- and radiotherapy management of breast cancer. A prospective cohort study.
Int J Surg. 2016; 34:109-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in the world. Twenty-five percent of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reside in South Africa. The coincidence of breast cancer and HIV infection is therefore common in South Africa. There is a perception that systemic and local surgical complications are more common in HIV-infected patients, and that these patients tolerate chemo- and radiotherapy poorly.
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on the management of breast cancer by comparing HIV-infected to -noninfected patients. The outcomes of surgery and adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy were examined in these groups.
METHOD: The study was performed at the Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa, during 2009-2014. Patients scheduled for surgery for breast cancer were recruited prospectively and their HIV status was determined. All patients were managed according to standard guidelines for breast cancer. Patients were followed up for 30 days and local and systemic surgical complications documented. Completion or non-completion of courses of chemo- and radiotherapy, and reasons for non-completion were documented. HIV-infected and -noninfected patients respectively were grouped, and compared statistically.
RESULTS: One hundred and sixty patients (31 HIV-infected) were included. The frequency of surgical complications did not differ significantly between HIV-noninfected and infected patients (p = 0.08), more occurring in the HIV-noninfected patients. The risk ratio of HIV infection for surgical complications was 0.20 and the odds ratio 0.23. The completion of courses of chemo- and radiotherapy did not differ between the HIV-infected and -noninfected patients. Twenty-five of 27 HIV-infected patients (93%) and 100 of 113 HIV-noninfected patients (94%) completed their courses of chemotherapy (p = 0.68). Twelve of 14 HIV-infected patients (86%) and 40 of 41 HIV-noninfected patients (98%) completed their courses of radiotherapy (p = 0.16).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that HIV-infected patients with breast cancer do not experience more treatment-related complications and can be treated according to standard guidelines.

Magangane P, Sookhayi R, Govender D, Naidoo R
Determining protein biomarkers for DLBCL using FFPE tissues from HIV negative and HIV positive patients.
J Mol Histol. 2016; 47(6):565-577 [PubMed] Related Publications
DLBCL is the most common lymphoma subtype occurring in older populations as well as in younger HIV infected patients. The current treatment options for DLBCL are effective for most patients yet the relapse rate is high. While many biomarkers for DLBCL exist, they are not in clinical use due to low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, these biomarkers have not been studied in the HIV context. Therefore, the identification of new biomarkers for HIV negative and HIV positive DLBCL, may lead to a better understanding of the disease pathology and better therapeutic design. Protein biomarkers for DLBCL were determined using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and characterised using LC-MS. The expression of one of the biomarkers, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, was confirmed on a separate cohort of samples using immunohistochemistry. The biomarkers identified in the study consisted of four protein clusters including glycolytic enzymes, ribosomal proteins, histones and collagen. These proteins could differentiate between control and tumour tissue, and the DLBCL immunohistochemical subtypes in both cohorts. The majority (41/52) of samples in the confirmation cohort were negative for Hsp70 expression. The HIV positive DLBCL cases had a higher percentage of cases expressing Hsp70 than their HIV negative counterparts. The non-GC subtype also frequently overexpressed Hsp70, confirming MALDI IMS data. The expression of Hsp70 did not correlate with survival in both the HIV negative and HIV positive cohort. This study identified potential biomarkers for HIV negative and HIV positive DLBCL from FFPE tissue sections. These may be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers complementary to current clinical management programmes for DLBCL.

Squillace N, Galli L, Bandera A, et al.
High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and risk of cancer in HIV-infected subjects: Data from the ICONA Foundation Cohort.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(36):e4434 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Investigation of the relationship between high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and the risk of developing cancer in a prospective cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.The Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-naïve Patients Foundation Cohort is an Italian multicenter observational study recruiting HIV-positive patients while still antiretroviral treatment-naïve, regardless of the reason since 1997.Patients with at least 1 HDL-c value per year since enrollment and one such value before antiretroviral treatment initiation were included. HDL-c values were categorized as either low (<39 mg/dL in males or <49 mg/dL in females) or normal. Cancer diagnoses were classified as AIDS-defining malignancies (ADMs) or non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used.Among 4897 patients (13,440 person-years of follow-up [PYFU]), 104 diagnoses of cancer were observed (56 ADMs, 48 NADMs) for an overall incidence rate of 7.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.3-9.2) per 1000 PYFU.Low HDL-c values at enrollment were associated with higher risk both of cancer (crude hazard ratio [HR] 1.72, 95% CI 1.16-2.56, P = 0.007) and of NADM (crude HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.35-4.76, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of cancer diagnosis was higher in patients with low HDL-c values (adjusted HR [AHR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.18-2.95, P = 0.007) in older patients, those patients more recently enrolled, and in those with low current cluster of differentiation 4+ levels, and/or high current HIV-ribonucleic acid.The multivariate model confirmed an association between HDL-c (AHR 2.61, 95% CI 1.40-4.89, P = 0.003) and risk of NADM.Low HDL-c is an independent predictor of cancer in HIV-1-infected subjects.

Bachanova V, Connors JM
Hodgkin lymphoma in the elderly, pregnant, and HIV-infected.
Semin Hematol. 2016; 53(3):203-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) presenting in patients with co-incidental advanced age, pregnancy, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is uniquely challenging to manage. In this article we integrate recent evidence and clinical expertise to present recommendations for diagnosis and therapeutic management. Older patients with HL need to be carefully evaluated for comorbidies after which judicious choice of chemotherapy should minimize functional compromise. A pregnant patient with concurrent HL should be staged with minimal use of imaging requiring ionizing radiation and treated in an individualized manner optimally combining the strategies of treatment deferral when appropriate, use of single-agent vinblastine for symptomatic disease and reservation of multi-agent chemotherapy for the small minority of patients with aggressive clinical presentation. Treatment of HL coincident with HIV infection requires a combination of highly active anti-retroviral agents (HAART), standard multi-agent chemotherapy with meticulous attention to drug-drug interactions, and vigorous supportive care to ensure the best chance of cure.

Morgan C, Nicholls K, Gangat N, Sansome S
Pregnancy complicated by haemorrhagic ascites in a woman with newly diagnosed HIV.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
A young pregnant Zambian woman was referred from a district hospital in South Zambia to the university teaching hospital, Lusaka with severe anaemia and ascites. The ascites had developed over a month and the woman was currently 15 weeks pregnant. Further workup revealed that the patient was HIV-positive and the ascitic tap showed haemorrhagic fluid. After being reviewed by multiple doctors, the cause of the haemorrhagic ascites remained unclear; therefore, the decision was made to do a laparotomy. The laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a large cyst attached to the liver containing 5 L of bloodstained fluid. The histopathology report revealed features consistent with a giant haemangioma. There were many barriers to accessing optimum healthcare in this case. These included limited access to blood, poor communication resulting in the patient being unaware of her HIV status and lack of patient education about HIV.

Mena Á, Meijide H, Marcos PJ
Lung Cancer in HIV-Infected Patients.
AIDS Rev. 2016 Jul-Sep; 18(3):138-144 [PubMed] Related Publications
The widespread use of HAART for persons living with HIV since 1996 has resulted in a dramatic decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, other comorbidities are increasing, such as metabolic disturbances or cancers, including solid organ malignancies. Among the latest, lung cancer, especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, is on the rise. HIV infection, even controlling for smoking, is an independent risk factor for developing lung cancer. HIV could promote lung cancers through immunosuppression, chronic inflammation, and a direct oncogenic effect. Smoking, lung infections, and chronic pulmonary diseases are risk factors for lung cancer. All may contribute to the cumulative incidence of lung cancer in persons living with HIV. It is double that in the general population. The role of HAART in lung cancer development in persons living with HIV is not well established. Although data supporting it could be too preliminary, persons living with HIV should be considered within high-risk groups that could benefit from screening strategies with low-dose computed tomography, especially those with airway obstruction and emphysema. Current evidence suggests that quitting smoking strategies in persons living with HIV achieve abstinence rates comparable to those in healthy HIV-negative smokers.

Sakib SM, Sadler M
Dramatic treatment response of cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma in an HIV patient: a case report.
Clin Imaging. 2016 Nov - Dec; 40(6):1067-1069 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plasmablastic lymphoma is a variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, characterized by rapid progression and is associated with a poor outcome. We report a 35-year-old male with poorly controlled HIV infection and AIDS who presented with skin lesions and swelling throughout the body. Computed tomography (CT) revealed innumerable enhancing soft tissue masses within the subcutaneous soft tissues and lymphadenopathy. Plasmablastic lymphoma was diagnosed, patient was treated with chemotherapy, and post treatment CT demonstrated complete resolution. Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and surveillance of this disease.

Papanastasopoulos P, Annan B, Dalla Pria A, Bower M
HIV-related Kaposi's Sarcoma with Musculoskeletal Involvement in the Modern Antiretroviral Era.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(7):3465-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To describe the patterns of disease and clinical outcomes of MSK-KS in people living with HIV in the era of (combination anti-retroviral therapy cART).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed our prospectively collected dataset of patients with HIV with biopsy-proven KS; 17 out of 1,489 seropositive patients were identified with subsequent evidence of MSK involvement by KS. We collected data with regards to clinicopathological parameters and radiological patterns of disease.
RESULTS: Fourteen patients (82.4%) had AIDS Clinical Trials Group T1 stage disease at presentation including four (23.5%) with non-nodal visceral disease. At the time of MSK-KS diagnosis, more than 80% of 14 patients had excellent HIV control. The median interval between initial KS to MSK-KS diagnosis was 3.3 years. Five-year overall survival rate from initial KS diagnosis was 76%, and 60% from MSK-KS diagnosis. The majority of patients were asymptomatic and MSK-KS involvement was demonstrated during imaging prompted by progression of their mucocutaneous KS. The majority of lesions were lytic with cortical involvement on cross-sectional imaging, whereas a soft-tissue component was commonly associated with long-bone involvement.
CONCLUSION: MSK-KS continues to be a rare entity in the modern era of cART, however patients appear to experience significantly improved survival.

Galati D, Zanotta S
The Role of Cancer Biomarkers in HIV Infected Hosts.
Curr Med Chem. 2016; 23(22):2333-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
A higher incidence of cancer has been observed in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals as compared with healthy people of the same age. A complex relationship between HIV-induced immune suppression, chronic antigenic stimulation, and oncogenic virus co-infections may promote carcinogenesis and increase the risk of developing tumors in these patients. Cancers in HIV subjects include the AIDS-defining malignancies (ADMs) and other non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs). Antiretroviral therapy has reduced the incidence of ADMs whereas a concurrent increase of NADMs was observed in the last years. Biomarkers are measurable parameters, characterizing normal or pathogenic processes, which could provide a high potential for risk evaluation and diagnosis of patients. Therefore, the early detection of cancer biomarkers in HIV-positive subjects would be useful to identify patients at most risk of tumor disease development. This review will focus principally on the risk assessment and diagnostic role of several biomarkers of malignancy in HIV patients including cellular and viral biomarkers, cytokines, immune activation molecules and genetic polymorphisms.

Roberts JM, Jin F, Thurloe JK, et al.
The value of a transformation zone component in anal cytology to detect HSIL.
Cancer Cytopathol. 2016; 124(8):596-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In a cytology-based screening program intended to prevent anal cancer, the anal transformation zone (TZ) should be adequately sampled because it is the site most susceptible to the development of the cancer precursor, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). An adequate TZ component is defined as comprising at least 10 rectal columnar or squamous metaplastic cells. In the current study, the authors examined whether the presence of a TZ component in anal cytology correlated with the detection of histological HSIL.
METHODS: In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus infection in homosexual men, all participants underwent liquid-based cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with or without biopsy at each visit. True-negative cytology (negative cytology with non-HSIL biopsy or negative HRA), false-negative cytology (negative cytology with HSIL biopsy), and true-positive cytology (abnormal cytology with HSIL biopsy) were compared with regard to the presence or absence of a TZ component.
RESULTS: Of 617 participants, baseline results included 155 true-positive results, 191 true-negative results, and 31 false-negative results. The absence of an adequate TZ component was found to be significantly higher for false-negative (32.3%) than for either true-positive (11.0%; P = .0034) or true-negative (13.1%; P = .0089) results.
CONCLUSIONS: Significantly more false-negative cases lacked a TZ component compared with either true-positive or true-negative cases. TZ cells may be an important indicator of sample quality for anal cytology because, unlike cervical sampling, the anal canal is not visualized during cytology sampling. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:596-601. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

McKean J, Ronan-Bentle S
Abdominal Pain in the Immunocompromised Patient-Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Transplant, Cancer.
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2016; 34(2):377-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus, those who are posttransplant, and those undergoing chemotherapy are populations who are immunocompromised and present to the emergency department with abdominal pain related to their disease processes, opportunistic infections, and complications of treatment. Emergency department practitioners must maintain vigilance, as the physical examination is often unreliable in these patients. Cross-sectional imaging and early treatment of symptoms with aggressive resuscitation is often required.

Manciuc C, Filip-Ciubotaru F, Badescu A, et al.
THE PATIENT-DOCTOR-PSYCHOLOGIST TRIANGLE IN A CASE Of SEVERE IMUNOSUPRESSION IN THE HIV INFECTION.
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2016 Jan-Mar; 120(1):119-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the last two years the Romanian adult population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased due to sexual transmission, both heterosexual and homosexual. The case presented is that of a 33 year-old man, admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Iasi with acute respiratory failure and a confirmation of Kaposi's sarcoma. Tests later proved positive for HIV, the patient being included in the stage AIDS C3 (acute immunodeficiency syndrome). The respiratory failure was suspected to be caused by Pneumocystis carinii and cotrimoxazol therapy, oxygen therapy and anti-retroviral therapy were established. He was also referred to the oncology hospital for treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma. The patient's adherence to therapy was influenced by a strong doctor-patient relationship, as well as by psychological counseling and support. Creating a functional doctor-patient-psychologist team is key throughout the HIV-positive patient's existence, for supporting long term adherence to therapy and acceptance of the diagnosis. This case highlights the need for a strong psychosocial compartment in every medical center that deals with HIV-infected individuals.

Alex-Okoro J, Orji FT, Umedum NG, Akpeh JO
The comparison of the pathological data of oropharyngeal masses between HIV and non-HIV patients.
Acta Otolaryngol. 2016; 136(9):969-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONCLUSION: Although this study did not show higher risk of oropharyngeal malignancy in HIV patients overall, they still had much higher prevalence of NHL as well as HL than HIV negative patients. Presence of cervical lymphadenopathy is unreliable in differentiating malignant oropharyngeal tumours from benign lymphoid hyperplasia in HIV patients.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the histology of oropharyngeal masses between HIV positive and negative patients.
METHODS: A retrospective review of 119 patients who underwent oropharyngeal biopsies in a tertiary institution between 2007-2014 and whose HIV status was known (HIV positives =47; negatives =72).
RESULTS: Malignancies occurred in 63.8% of HIV patients and 65% of the negative group (p = 0.87). While non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constituted 40%, 27%, and 17% of malignancies in HIV patients, respectively; in the HIV-negative group, it was 53%, 13%, and 2% for SCC, NHL, and HL, respectively (p = 0.039, 0.017, and 0.035, respectively). Reactive lymphoid proliferation accounted for 82.4% of the benign masses in the HIV positive group. Malignant tumours were recorded more in younger patient in the HIV positive than the negative group (p = 0.001).

Kato H, Yanagisawa N, Morioka H, et al.
Laryngeal Kaposi's Sarcoma Complicated by the Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in an HIV-infected Patient.
Intern Med. 2016; 55(8):1001-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
We herein report a case of laryngeal Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) complicated by immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient. The patient initially presented with KS involving the larynx, which was successfully treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and antiretroviral therapy (ART). PLD was discontinued after 2 courses because of a marked clinical improvement; however, the patient experienced progressive odynophagia and dyspnea 2 months after the initiation of ART. Laryngoscopy revealed a severely swollen, inflamed epiglottis. The readministration of PLD was successful, and the patient was thereafter discharged without any subsequent complications.

Zlotorzynska M, Spaulding AC, Messina LC, et al.
Retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality by HIV status in a Georgia, USA, prisoner cohort during the HAART era.
BMJ Open. 2016; 6(4):e009778 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) have emerged as significant contributors to cancer mortality and morbidity among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Because NADCs are also associated with many social and behavioural risk factors that underlie HIV, determining the extent to which each of these factors contributes to NADC risk is difficult. We examined cancer incidence and mortality among persons with a history of incarceration, because distributions of other cancer risk factors are likely similar between prisoners living with HIV and non-infected prisoners.
DESIGN: Registry-based retrospective cohort study.
PARTICIPANTS: Cohort of 22,422 persons incarcerated in Georgia, USA, prisons on 30 June 1991, and still alive in 1998.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer incidence and mortality were assessed between 1998 and 2009, using cancer and death registry data matched to prison administrative records. Age, race and sex-adjusted standardised mortality and incidence ratios, relative to the general population, were calculated for AIDS-defining cancers, viral-associated NADCs and non-infection-associated NADCs, stratified by HIV status.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in cancer mortality relative to the general population in the cohort, regardless of HIV status. In contrast, cancer incidence was elevated among the PLWH. Furthermore, incidence of viral-associated NADCs was significantly higher among PLWH versus those without HIV infection (standardised incidence ratio=6.1, 95% CI 3.0 to 11.7, p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Among PLWH with a history of incarceration, cancer incidence was elevated relative to the general population, likely related to increased prevalence of oncogenic viral co-infections. Cancer prevention and screening programmes within prisons may help to reduce the cancer burden in this high-risk population.

Shiferaw N, Salvador-Davila G, Kassahun K, et al.
The Single-Visit Approach as a Cervical Cancer Prevention Strategy Among Women With HIV in Ethiopia: Successes and Lessons Learned.
Glob Health Sci Pract. 2016; 4(1):87-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the second most common form of cancer for women in Ethiopia. Using a single-visit approach to prevent cervical cancer, the Addis Tesfa (New Hope) project in Ethiopia tested women with HIV through visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid wash (VIA) and, if tests results were positive, offered immediate cryotherapy of the precancerous lesion or referral for loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). The objective of this article is to review screening and treatment outcomes over nearly 4 years of project implementation and to identify lessons learned to improve cervical cancer prevention programs in Ethiopia and other resource-constrained settings.
METHODS: We analyzed aggregate client data from August 2010 to March 2014 to obtain the number of women with HIV who were counseled, screened, and treated, as well as the number of annual follow-up visits made, from the 14 tertiary- and secondary-level health facilities implementing the single-visit approach. A health facility assessment (HFA) was also implemented from August to December 2013 to examine the effects of the single-visit approach on client flow, staff workload, and facility infrastructure 3 years after initiating the approach.
RESULTS: Almost all (99%) of the 16,632 women with HIV counseled about the single-visit approach were screened with VIA during the study period; 1,656 (10%) of them tested VIA positive (VIA+) for precancerous lesions. Among those who tested VIA+ and were thus eligible for cryotherapy, 1,481 (97%) received cryotherapy treatment, but only 80 (63%) women eligible for LEEP actually received the treatment. The HFA results showed frequent staff turnover, some shortage of essential supplies, and rooms that were judged by providers to be too small for delivery of cervical cancer prevention services.
CONCLUSION: The high proportions of VIA screening and cryotherapy treatment in the Addis Tesfa project suggest high acceptance of such services by women with HIV and feasibility of implementation in secondary- and tertiary-level health facilities. However, success of cervical cancer prevention programming must address wider health system challenges to ensure sustainability and appropriate scale-up to the general population of Ethiopia and other resource-constrained settings.

Alfa-Wali M, Dalla Pria A, Nelson M, et al.
Surgical excision alone for stage T1 anal verge cancers in people living with HIV.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016; 42(6):813-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Anal cancer accounts for a small percentage of colorectal malignancies. Early stage (T1N0M0) cancers of the anal verge have been treated with local surgical excision alone in individuals without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The risk of anal cancer is higher in people living with HIV (PLWH). We present results of the outcomes of T1 anal verge cancers treated by local excision only in a series of PLWH.
METHODS: Demographic and clinicopathological data was prospectively collected from all HIV positive individuals with anal cancer, treated between 1986 and 2015. The date from anal cancer diagnosis until the date of the last follow up were collected.
RESULTS: Fifteen patients had T1N0M0 cancer of the anal verge from a total of 92 patients with HIV-associated anal cancer. The mean age was 49 years (range 36-57). The average age of HIV diagnosis was 35 years (range 19-48) and four patients had a diagnosis of AIDS prior to the diagnosis of anal cancer. All patients were surgically managed with complete local excision of the tumour. There were no complications or need for any adjuvant therapy. No patients have relapsed and at a median follow up of 4 years (range 3-15), the overall survival was 100%.
CONCLUSION: Surgical resection for early stage anal verge cancers is an effective strategy in PLWH. Increasing awareness of anal cancer and anoscopy surveillance in PLWH will hopefully continue to identify anal cancers at an early stage that are amenable to minimally invasive surgical management.

Broccolo F, Tassan Din C, Viganò MG, et al.
HHV-8 DNA replication correlates with the clinical status in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
J Clin Virol. 2016; 78:47-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The value of plasma levels of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA as a marker of clinical status in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) remains to be elucidated.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the plasma HHV-8 DNA viral load and the clinical status of AIDS-KS.
STUDY DESIGN: A total of 378 blood samples were obtained from 62 patients with AIDS-KS followed longitudinally. All patients received antiretroviral therapy (ART) or anti-neoplastic therapy. The patients were divided into four groups according to their clinical status: onset disease (OD), progressive disease (PD), stable or partial remission (S/PR) and complete remission (CR).
RESULTS: Plasma HHV-8 DNAaemia was detected in all samples obtained from patients with OD or PD (100%); in contrast, HHV-8 DNAaemia was found only in a minority of patients with CR (8%) and was invariably undetectable in patients with stable CR. HHV-8 DNA detection in plasma was strongly associated with an unfavourable outcome (odds ratio=231.9; p<0.0001). Conversely, neither the HIV-1 viral load nor peripheral CD4(+) T-cell counts were associated with the KS clinical status, though both parameters did affect HHV-8 DNAaemia levels (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that HHV-8 DNAaemia was strongly and independently correlated with both clinical status (p<0.05) and HIV-1 plasma viraemia (p=0.027).
CONCLUSIONS: The strong association of plasma HHV-8 DNAaemia with onset or progressive disease is compatible with an active role of replicating virus in clinically active AIDS-KS. An accurate evaluation of the plasma HHV-8 load might be useful for monitoring AIDS-KS under antiretroviral or antineoplastic therapy.

Sigel K, Pitts R, Crothers K
Lung Malignancies in HIV Infection.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2016; 37(2):267-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Pulmonary malignancies are a major source of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons. Non-AIDS-defining lung cancers (mostly non-small cell lung cancers) are now a leading cause of cancer death among HIV-infected persons. HIV-associated factors appear to affect the risk of lung cancer and may adversely impact cancer treatment and outcomes. HIV infection also may modify the potential harms and benefits of lung cancer screening with computed tomography. AIDS-defining lung malignancies include pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma and pulmonary lymphoma, both of which are less prevalent with widespread adoption of antiretroviral therapy.

Goncalves PH, Montezuma-Rusca JM, Yarchoan R, Uldrick TS
Cancer prevention in HIV-infected populations.
Semin Oncol. 2016; 43(1):173-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer since the advent of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While cART substantially decreases the risk of developing some cancers, HIV-infected individuals remain at high risk for Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma, and several solid tumors. Currently HIV-infected patients represent an aging group, and malignancies have become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Tailored cancer-prevention strategies are needed for this population. In this review we describe the etiologic agents and pathogenesis of common malignancies in the setting of HIV, as well as current evidence for cancer prevention strategies and screening programs.

Bishnu S, Banerjee S, Bandyopadhyay D, et al.
Plasmablastic lymphoma in HIV patients: Experience at a tertiary care hospital in eastern India.
Indian J Cancer. 2015 Oct-Dec; 52(4):563-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL), a rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) variant specifically associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), expresses well-differentiated plasma cell markers like CD138, bright CD38, and MUM1; but not conventional B-cell markers. It occurs at unusual sites like oral cavity and orbit, and has poor survival rates.
AIMS: This study serves as a review of a clinical experience with six HIV patients with PBL and observes the spectrum of clinical presentations, histopathologies, and 1-year outcomes in PBL patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review of six PBL patients was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in eastern India using relevant radiological, histopathogical, and immunohistological studies.
RESULTS: Incidence of PBL among HIV patients was 0.58% (6/1,028). Mean CD4 count at presentation was 125.5 ± 71.1 cells/μL. Sites of involvement included pleura, lung parenchyma, suprarenal gland, pelvic cavity, and retroorbital space (one each). Immunohistopathology of biopsied sample in each patient revealed PBL (positive plasma cell markers MUM-1/IRF4, CD38, and CD138/syndecan; and negative of B-cell markers CD3, CD20, and CD30). Three (60%) were positive for Epstein Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin G (IgG). Five surviving patients received CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) regimen and attained partial remission (PR) after six cycles. Subsequently, three patients were started on EPOCH (etoposide, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) therapy; two attained near total regression after 6 months (four cycles). Overall, four patients remained alive with good quality of life at the end of 1 year of follow-up.
CONCLUSION: PBL in HIV occurs at unusual sites with varying aggressivity. This study is too small to comment on the long-term outcomes of PBL in HIV; however, coadministration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with standard chemotherapy may improve survival.

Castilho JL, Shepherd BE, Koethe J, et al.
CD4+/CD8+ ratio, age, and risk of serious noncommunicable diseases in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS. 2016; 30(6):899-908 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In virologically suppressed HIV-infected adults, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have been associated with immune senescence and low CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio. Age differences in the relationship between CD4/CD8 ratio and NCDs have not been described.
DESIGN: Observational cohort study.
METHODS: We assessed CD4/CD8 ratio and incident NCDs (cardiovascular, cancer, liver, and renal diseases) in HIV-infected adults started on antiretroviral therapy between 1998 and 2012. Study inclusion began once patients maintained virologic suppression for 12 months (defined as baseline). We examined age and baseline CD4/CD8 ratio and used Cox proportional hazard models to assess baseline CD4/CD8 ratio and NCDs.
RESULTS: This study included 2006 patients. Low baseline CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with older age, male sex, and low CD4 lymphocyte counts. In models adjusting for CD4 lymphocyte count, CD4/CD8 ratio was inversely associated with age (P < 0.01). Among all patients, 182 had incident NCDs, including 46 with coronary artery disease (CAD) events. CD4/CD8 ratio was inversely associated with risk of CAD events [adjusted HR per 0.1 increase in CD4/CD8 ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-0.99, P = 0.03]. This association was driven by those under age 50 years (adjusted HR 0.83 [0.70-0.97], P = 0.02) vs. those over age 50 years (adjusted HR = 0.96 [0.79-1.18], P = 0.71). CD4/CD8 ratio was not significantly associated with incident noncardiac NCDs.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher CD4/CD8 ratio after 1 year of HIV virologic suppression was independently predictive of decreased CAD risk, particularly among younger adults. Advanced immune senescence may contribute to CAD events in younger HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy.

Bradbury M, Cabrera S, García-Jiménez A, et al.
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: clinical presentation, management and outcomes in women infected with HIV.
AIDS. 2016; 30(6):859-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of developing preinvasive lesions of the lower genital tract. There are a limited number of studies on vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in HIV-positive women. We aimed to review the clinical presentation of VIN, management and survival outcomes in this group of patients.
DESIGN: Observational cohort study.
METHODS: Data was collected from women diagnosed with VIN at the Hospital Vall d'Hebron between September 1994 and October 2011. The main outcome measures were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Risk factors for recurrence and progression were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven out of 107 women were HIV positive (34.6%). The median follow-up time was 32 (range 12-179) months. Compared with the HIV-negative group, HIV-positive women were younger (median age 37 vs. 44 years, P = 0.003) and presented with multifocal and multicentric disease more frequently (63.6 vs. 22.2% and 84.8 vs. 43.3%, respectively, P < 0.0001). RFS and PFS were lower in the HIV-positive group (42.4 vs. 71.4% P = 0.043 and 69.7 vs. 95.2% P = 0.006, respectively). RFS was significantly associated to multicentric and multifocal disease on multivariate analysis. PFS was associated to HIV infection on univariate analysis.
CONCLUSION: HIV-positive women are at increased risk of developing VIN and frequently present at a younger age with multifocal and multicentric disease. They have shorter RFS and PFS compared with HIV-negative women. Close surveillance of the lower genital tract is mandatory to enable early recognition and treatment of any suspicious lesions. Close follow-up after treatment of VIN is essential to exclude early recurrence or progression.

Ong JJ, Fairley CK, Carroll S, et al.
Cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer using regular digital ano-rectal examinations in men who have sex with men living with HIV.
J Int AIDS Soc. 2016; 19(1):20514 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2017 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV is an important issue but there are no consistent guidelines for how to screen for this cancer. In settings where screening with anal cytology is unavailable, regular anal examinations have been proposed in some guidelines but their cost-effectiveness is unknown.
METHODS: Our objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regular anal examinations to screen for anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM living in Australia using a probabilistic Markov model. Data sources were based on the medical literature and a clinical trial of HIV-positive MSM receiving an annual anal examination in Australia. The main outcome measures for calculating effectiveness were undiscounted and discounted (at 3%) lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER).
RESULTS: Base-case analysis estimated the average cost of screening for and management of anal cancer ranged from $195 for no screening to $1,915 for lifetime annual screening of men aged ≥ 50. Screening of men aged ≥ 50 generated ICERs of $29,760 per QALY gained (for screening every four years), $32,222 (every three years) and $45,484 (every two years). Uncertainty for ICERs was mostly influenced by the cost (financially and decrease in quality of life) from a false-positive result, progression rate of anal cancer, specificity of the anal examination, the probability of detection outside a screening program and the discount rate.
CONCLUSIONS: Screening for anal cancer by incorporating regular anal examinations into routine HIV care for MSM aged ≥ 50 is most likely to be cost-effective by conventional standards. Given that anal pap smears are not widely available yet in many clinical settings, regular anal exams for MSM living with HIV to detect anal cancer earlier should be implemented.

Gopal S, Fedoriw Y, Kaimila B, et al.
CHOP Chemotherapy for Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with and without HIV in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era in Malawi.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150445 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2017 Related Publications
There are no prospective studies of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated with CHOP in sub-Saharan Africa. We enrolled adults with aggressive NHL in Malawi between June 2013 and May 2015. Chemotherapy and supportive care were standardized, and HIV+ patients received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thirty-seven of 58 patients (64%) were HIV+. Median age was 47 years (IQR 39-56), and 35 (60%) were male. Thirty-five patients (60%) had stage III/IV, 43 (74%) B symptoms, and 28 (48%) performance status ≥ 2. B-cell NHL predominated among HIV+ patients, and all T-cell NHL occurred among HIV- individuals. Thirty-one HIV+ patients (84%) were on ART for a median 9.9 months (IQR 1.1-31.7) before NHL diagnosis, median CD4 was 121 cells/μL (IQR 61-244), and 43% had suppressed HIV RNA. HIV+ patients received a similar number of CHOP cycles compared to HIV- patients, but more frequently developed grade 3/4 neutropenia (84% vs 31%, p = 0.001), resulting in modestly lower cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin doses with longer intervals between cycles. Twelve-month overall survival (OS) was 45% (95% CI 31-57%). T-cell NHL (HR 3.90, p = 0.017), hemoglobin (HR 0.82 per g/dL, p = 0.017), albumin (HR 0.57 per g/dL, p = 0.019), and IPI (HR 2.02 per unit, p<0.001) were associated with mortality. HIV was not associated with mortality, and findings were similar among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Twenty-three deaths were from NHL (12 HIV+, 11 HIV-), and 12 from CHOP (9 HIV+, 3 HIV-). CHOP can be safe, effective, and feasible for aggressive NHL in Malawi with and without HIV.

Yang J, Su S, Zhao H, et al.
Prevalence and mortality of cancer among HIV-infected inpatients in Beijing, China.
BMC Infect Dis. 2016; 16:82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer is responsible for elevated HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Research on HIV-infected patients with concurrent cancer is rare in China. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with cancer among HIV-infected inpatients in Beijing, and to investigate the mortality and risk factors among HIV-infected inpatients with cancer.
METHODS: Hospital records from a total of 1946 HIV-infected patients were collected from the Beijing Ditan Hospital. The data, from 2008 to 2013, were collected retrospectively. The cancer diagnoses included AIDS-defining cancers (ADC) and non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC). Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors predicting the concurrence of cancer with HIV. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS: 7.7 % (149 cases) of all HIV-infected inpatients had concurrent cancer at their first hospital admission; of those, 33.6 % (50 cases) had ADCs, and 66.4 % (99 cases) had NADCs. The most prevalent NADCs were Hodgkin's lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. Patients who did not accept antiretroviral therapy (ART) were more likely to suffer from cancer [AOR = 2.07 (1.42-3.01), p = 0.001]. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that the survival probability of HIV-positive cancer patients was significantly lower than that of HIV-positive cancer-free patients (log-rank test, p < 0.001). For patients diagnosed with cancer, the mortality was also higher among those who did not receive ART [AHR = 2.19 (1.84-2.61), p < 0.001].
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cancer concurrence among hospitalized HIV-infected patients was 7.7 %. Concurrent cancer also increased mortality among HIV-infected patients. ART was protective against concurrent cancer as well as mortality among HIV-infected cancer patients. These results highlight the importance of promoting cancer screening and early ART initiation among HIV-infected patients.

Molomo EM, Bouckaert M, Khammissa RA, et al.
Discoid lupus erythematosus-related squamous cell carcinoma of the lip in an HIV-seropositive black male.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015 Oct-Dec; 11(4):1036 [PubMed] Related Publications
Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is an autoimmune disease commonly affecting sun-exposed areas of the skin. Subjects with DLE have high-levels of plasmacytoid dendritic cells -derived interferon-α, which mediates both loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens and exaggerated inflammatory state, and supports proliferation and differentiation of hyperactive B-cells. In a few cases, DLE of the lips, scalp, ears or nose may eventually progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Photosensitivity and the long-standing immune-mediated chronic inflammation and dysregulated healing characterized by atrophy, hypopigmentation or scarring inherent to DLE are risk factors for progression to SCC. We review some aspects of the pathogenesis of DLE and the possible roles of inflammation and photosensitivity in the carcinomatous transformation of DLE keratinocytes, and present an illustrative case of DLE of the lower lip in an HIV-tuberculosis co-infected black person, that progressed to SCC.


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