AIDS Related Cancers
People with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) may be more susceptible to developing certain types of cancer because their body's natural defences have been weakened. Prior to the AIDS epidemic in the 1990's Kaposi's sarcoma was a relatively rare disease usually seen only in older men or people who had organ transplants, however, increasing incidence of the disease has been associated with the spread of AIDS. Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancer that arises in the cells below the skin or in the mucous membrane lining of the mouth, nose, and anus. Lymphomas (Hodgkin's disease and particularly non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) can also be aids-related, these are cancers of the lymphatic system (part of the immune system). Many chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer can suppress the immune system. Treatment for cancer in people with AIDS may need to be modified since AIDS has already weakened their immune system.
Latest Research Publications
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HIV/AIDS Related Cancers (6 links)
Latest Research Publications
Multiple preinvasive and invasive HPV-related lesions of the anogenital tract in a female patient with HIV infection: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(4):e5948 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported the case of an HIV-positive female patient on HAART with a good virological and immunological response and with a long history of HPV-related intraepithelial and invasive lesions of the anogenital tract.
DIAGNOSES: From 1996 to 2016, this patient was diagnosed with a high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; a HR-HPV positive inguinal lymph node metastasis from clinically undetectable primary squamous cell carcinoma; a HPV-related vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and an invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
INTERVENTIONS: All the intraepithelial and invasive lesions detected were properly treated, and subsequent follow up visits with gynecologic examination, anoscopy, pap smear and anal cytology were performed.
OUTCOMES: After a recurrence of the anal cancer and a subsequent salvage surgery with abdominoperineal resection, at the last available follow up visit no sign of disease recurrence was found.
LESSONS: This case stresses the importance of an accurate multidisciplinary follow-up in HIV-positive patients, including not only the routine medical, immunological, and virological evaluation, but also a periodical complete examination of the anogenital tract with cervicovaginal and anal cytology, colposcopy, high resolution anoscopy, and vulvar examination.
Feasibility and Acceptability of Anal Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Screening in HIV-Infected Patients.
Intervirology. 2016; 59(2):118-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, during their regular visits for the monitoring of their HIV infection in an HIV outpatient clinical unit of Marseille University Hospitals, patients were asked to self-sample anal swabs for HPV detection. A specimen self-collection kit was provided. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using in-house protocols. The quality of self-sampling was assessed by concurrent cellular quantification in collected samples.
RESULTS: The acceptability rate of anal self-sampling was 91%, and 91% of the self-sampled specimens were appropriate for HPV screening. In addition, 76% of the samples were positive for HPV, including 54% of HPV types with oncogenic potential.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that HPV detection and typing through anal self-sampling is a valuable strategy to screen patients at high risk for anal cancer development. This could allow earlier management of anal lesions and related cancer in patients at high risk for HPV.
Generalized Posttransplant Kaposi Sarcoma without Mucocutaneous Manifestations in the First Liver Transplantation in an HIV-Positive Patient in Poland: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
Ann Transplant. 2016; 21:683-688 [PubMed] Related Publications
The effect of HIV infection on the surgical, chemo- and radiotherapy management of breast cancer. A prospective cohort study.
Int J Surg. 2016; 34:109-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on the management of breast cancer by comparing HIV-infected to -noninfected patients. The outcomes of surgery and adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy were examined in these groups.
METHOD: The study was performed at the Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa, during 2009-2014. Patients scheduled for surgery for breast cancer were recruited prospectively and their HIV status was determined. All patients were managed according to standard guidelines for breast cancer. Patients were followed up for 30 days and local and systemic surgical complications documented. Completion or non-completion of courses of chemo- and radiotherapy, and reasons for non-completion were documented. HIV-infected and -noninfected patients respectively were grouped, and compared statistically.
RESULTS: One hundred and sixty patients (31 HIV-infected) were included. The frequency of surgical complications did not differ significantly between HIV-noninfected and infected patients (p = 0.08), more occurring in the HIV-noninfected patients. The risk ratio of HIV infection for surgical complications was 0.20 and the odds ratio 0.23. The completion of courses of chemo- and radiotherapy did not differ between the HIV-infected and -noninfected patients. Twenty-five of 27 HIV-infected patients (93%) and 100 of 113 HIV-noninfected patients (94%) completed their courses of chemotherapy (p = 0.68). Twelve of 14 HIV-infected patients (86%) and 40 of 41 HIV-noninfected patients (98%) completed their courses of radiotherapy (p = 0.16).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that HIV-infected patients with breast cancer do not experience more treatment-related complications and can be treated according to standard guidelines.
Determining protein biomarkers for DLBCL using FFPE tissues from HIV negative and HIV positive patients.
J Mol Histol. 2016; 47(6):565-577 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and risk of cancer in HIV-infected subjects: Data from the ICONA Foundation Cohort.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(36):e4434 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hodgkin lymphoma in the elderly, pregnant, and HIV-infected.
Semin Hematol. 2016; 53(3):203-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pregnancy complicated by haemorrhagic ascites in a woman with newly diagnosed HIV.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung Cancer in HIV-Infected Patients.
AIDS Rev. 2016 Jul-Sep; 18(3):138-144 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dramatic treatment response of cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma in an HIV patient: a case report.
Clin Imaging. 2016 Nov - Dec; 40(6):1067-1069 [PubMed] Related Publications
HIV-related Kaposi's Sarcoma with Musculoskeletal Involvement in the Modern Antiretroviral Era.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(7):3465-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed our prospectively collected dataset of patients with HIV with biopsy-proven KS; 17 out of 1,489 seropositive patients were identified with subsequent evidence of MSK involvement by KS. We collected data with regards to clinicopathological parameters and radiological patterns of disease.
RESULTS: Fourteen patients (82.4%) had AIDS Clinical Trials Group T1 stage disease at presentation including four (23.5%) with non-nodal visceral disease. At the time of MSK-KS diagnosis, more than 80% of 14 patients had excellent HIV control. The median interval between initial KS to MSK-KS diagnosis was 3.3 years. Five-year overall survival rate from initial KS diagnosis was 76%, and 60% from MSK-KS diagnosis. The majority of patients were asymptomatic and MSK-KS involvement was demonstrated during imaging prompted by progression of their mucocutaneous KS. The majority of lesions were lytic with cortical involvement on cross-sectional imaging, whereas a soft-tissue component was commonly associated with long-bone involvement.
CONCLUSION: MSK-KS continues to be a rare entity in the modern era of cART, however patients appear to experience significantly improved survival.
The Role of Cancer Biomarkers in HIV Infected Hosts.
Curr Med Chem. 2016; 23(22):2333-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
The value of a transformation zone component in anal cytology to detect HSIL.
Cancer Cytopathol. 2016; 124(8):596-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus infection in homosexual men, all participants underwent liquid-based cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with or without biopsy at each visit. True-negative cytology (negative cytology with non-HSIL biopsy or negative HRA), false-negative cytology (negative cytology with HSIL biopsy), and true-positive cytology (abnormal cytology with HSIL biopsy) were compared with regard to the presence or absence of a TZ component.
RESULTS: Of 617 participants, baseline results included 155 true-positive results, 191 true-negative results, and 31 false-negative results. The absence of an adequate TZ component was found to be significantly higher for false-negative (32.3%) than for either true-positive (11.0%; P = .0034) or true-negative (13.1%; P = .0089) results.
CONCLUSIONS: Significantly more false-negative cases lacked a TZ component compared with either true-positive or true-negative cases. TZ cells may be an important indicator of sample quality for anal cytology because, unlike cervical sampling, the anal canal is not visualized during cytology sampling. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:596-601. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Abdominal Pain in the Immunocompromised Patient-Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Transplant, Cancer.
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2016; 34(2):377-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
THE PATIENT-DOCTOR-PSYCHOLOGIST TRIANGLE IN A CASE Of SEVERE IMUNOSUPRESSION IN THE HIV INFECTION.
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2016 Jan-Mar; 120(1):119-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The comparison of the pathological data of oropharyngeal masses between HIV and non-HIV patients.
Acta Otolaryngol. 2016; 136(9):969-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the histology of oropharyngeal masses between HIV positive and negative patients.
METHODS: A retrospective review of 119 patients who underwent oropharyngeal biopsies in a tertiary institution between 2007-2014 and whose HIV status was known (HIV positives =47; negatives =72).
RESULTS: Malignancies occurred in 63.8% of HIV patients and 65% of the negative group (p = 0.87). While non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constituted 40%, 27%, and 17% of malignancies in HIV patients, respectively; in the HIV-negative group, it was 53%, 13%, and 2% for SCC, NHL, and HL, respectively (p = 0.039, 0.017, and 0.035, respectively). Reactive lymphoid proliferation accounted for 82.4% of the benign masses in the HIV positive group. Malignant tumours were recorded more in younger patient in the HIV positive than the negative group (p = 0.001).
Laryngeal Kaposi's Sarcoma Complicated by the Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in an HIV-infected Patient.
Intern Med. 2016; 55(8):1001-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality by HIV status in a Georgia, USA, prisoner cohort during the HAART era.
BMJ Open. 2016; 6(4):e009778 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DESIGN: Registry-based retrospective cohort study.
PARTICIPANTS: Cohort of 22,422 persons incarcerated in Georgia, USA, prisons on 30 June 1991, and still alive in 1998.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer incidence and mortality were assessed between 1998 and 2009, using cancer and death registry data matched to prison administrative records. Age, race and sex-adjusted standardised mortality and incidence ratios, relative to the general population, were calculated for AIDS-defining cancers, viral-associated NADCs and non-infection-associated NADCs, stratified by HIV status.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in cancer mortality relative to the general population in the cohort, regardless of HIV status. In contrast, cancer incidence was elevated among the PLWH. Furthermore, incidence of viral-associated NADCs was significantly higher among PLWH versus those without HIV infection (standardised incidence ratio=6.1, 95% CI 3.0 to 11.7, p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Among PLWH with a history of incarceration, cancer incidence was elevated relative to the general population, likely related to increased prevalence of oncogenic viral co-infections. Cancer prevention and screening programmes within prisons may help to reduce the cancer burden in this high-risk population.
The Single-Visit Approach as a Cervical Cancer Prevention Strategy Among Women With HIV in Ethiopia: Successes and Lessons Learned.
Glob Health Sci Pract. 2016; 4(1):87-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: We analyzed aggregate client data from August 2010 to March 2014 to obtain the number of women with HIV who were counseled, screened, and treated, as well as the number of annual follow-up visits made, from the 14 tertiary- and secondary-level health facilities implementing the single-visit approach. A health facility assessment (HFA) was also implemented from August to December 2013 to examine the effects of the single-visit approach on client flow, staff workload, and facility infrastructure 3 years after initiating the approach.
RESULTS: Almost all (99%) of the 16,632 women with HIV counseled about the single-visit approach were screened with VIA during the study period; 1,656 (10%) of them tested VIA positive (VIA+) for precancerous lesions. Among those who tested VIA+ and were thus eligible for cryotherapy, 1,481 (97%) received cryotherapy treatment, but only 80 (63%) women eligible for LEEP actually received the treatment. The HFA results showed frequent staff turnover, some shortage of essential supplies, and rooms that were judged by providers to be too small for delivery of cervical cancer prevention services.
CONCLUSION: The high proportions of VIA screening and cryotherapy treatment in the Addis Tesfa project suggest high acceptance of such services by women with HIV and feasibility of implementation in secondary- and tertiary-level health facilities. However, success of cervical cancer prevention programming must address wider health system challenges to ensure sustainability and appropriate scale-up to the general population of Ethiopia and other resource-constrained settings.
Surgical excision alone for stage T1 anal verge cancers in people living with HIV.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016; 42(6):813-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Demographic and clinicopathological data was prospectively collected from all HIV positive individuals with anal cancer, treated between 1986 and 2015. The date from anal cancer diagnosis until the date of the last follow up were collected.
RESULTS: Fifteen patients had T1N0M0 cancer of the anal verge from a total of 92 patients with HIV-associated anal cancer. The mean age was 49 years (range 36-57). The average age of HIV diagnosis was 35 years (range 19-48) and four patients had a diagnosis of AIDS prior to the diagnosis of anal cancer. All patients were surgically managed with complete local excision of the tumour. There were no complications or need for any adjuvant therapy. No patients have relapsed and at a median follow up of 4 years (range 3-15), the overall survival was 100%.
CONCLUSION: Surgical resection for early stage anal verge cancers is an effective strategy in PLWH. Increasing awareness of anal cancer and anoscopy surveillance in PLWH will hopefully continue to identify anal cancers at an early stage that are amenable to minimally invasive surgical management.
HHV-8 DNA replication correlates with the clinical status in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
J Clin Virol. 2016; 78:47-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the plasma HHV-8 DNA viral load and the clinical status of AIDS-KS.
STUDY DESIGN: A total of 378 blood samples were obtained from 62 patients with AIDS-KS followed longitudinally. All patients received antiretroviral therapy (ART) or anti-neoplastic therapy. The patients were divided into four groups according to their clinical status: onset disease (OD), progressive disease (PD), stable or partial remission (S/PR) and complete remission (CR).
RESULTS: Plasma HHV-8 DNAaemia was detected in all samples obtained from patients with OD or PD (100%); in contrast, HHV-8 DNAaemia was found only in a minority of patients with CR (8%) and was invariably undetectable in patients with stable CR. HHV-8 DNA detection in plasma was strongly associated with an unfavourable outcome (odds ratio=231.9; p<0.0001). Conversely, neither the HIV-1 viral load nor peripheral CD4(+) T-cell counts were associated with the KS clinical status, though both parameters did affect HHV-8 DNAaemia levels (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that HHV-8 DNAaemia was strongly and independently correlated with both clinical status (p<0.05) and HIV-1 plasma viraemia (p=0.027).
CONCLUSIONS: The strong association of plasma HHV-8 DNAaemia with onset or progressive disease is compatible with an active role of replicating virus in clinically active AIDS-KS. An accurate evaluation of the plasma HHV-8 load might be useful for monitoring AIDS-KS under antiretroviral or antineoplastic therapy.
Lung Malignancies in HIV Infection.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2016; 37(2):267-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Cancer prevention in HIV-infected populations.
Semin Oncol. 2016; 43(1):173-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Plasmablastic lymphoma in HIV patients: Experience at a tertiary care hospital in eastern India.
Indian J Cancer. 2015 Oct-Dec; 52(4):563-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: This study serves as a review of a clinical experience with six HIV patients with PBL and observes the spectrum of clinical presentations, histopathologies, and 1-year outcomes in PBL patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review of six PBL patients was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in eastern India using relevant radiological, histopathogical, and immunohistological studies.
RESULTS: Incidence of PBL among HIV patients was 0.58% (6/1,028). Mean CD4 count at presentation was 125.5 ± 71.1 cells/μL. Sites of involvement included pleura, lung parenchyma, suprarenal gland, pelvic cavity, and retroorbital space (one each). Immunohistopathology of biopsied sample in each patient revealed PBL (positive plasma cell markers MUM-1/IRF4, CD38, and CD138/syndecan; and negative of B-cell markers CD3, CD20, and CD30). Three (60%) were positive for Epstein Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin G (IgG). Five surviving patients received CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) regimen and attained partial remission (PR) after six cycles. Subsequently, three patients were started on EPOCH (etoposide, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) therapy; two attained near total regression after 6 months (four cycles). Overall, four patients remained alive with good quality of life at the end of 1 year of follow-up.
CONCLUSION: PBL in HIV occurs at unusual sites with varying aggressivity. This study is too small to comment on the long-term outcomes of PBL in HIV; however, coadministration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with standard chemotherapy may improve survival.
CD4+/CD8+ ratio, age, and risk of serious noncommunicable diseases in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS. 2016; 30(6):899-908 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2017 Related Publications
DESIGN: Observational cohort study.
METHODS: We assessed CD4/CD8 ratio and incident NCDs (cardiovascular, cancer, liver, and renal diseases) in HIV-infected adults started on antiretroviral therapy between 1998 and 2012. Study inclusion began once patients maintained virologic suppression for 12 months (defined as baseline). We examined age and baseline CD4/CD8 ratio and used Cox proportional hazard models to assess baseline CD4/CD8 ratio and NCDs.
RESULTS: This study included 2006 patients. Low baseline CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with older age, male sex, and low CD4 lymphocyte counts. In models adjusting for CD4 lymphocyte count, CD4/CD8 ratio was inversely associated with age (P < 0.01). Among all patients, 182 had incident NCDs, including 46 with coronary artery disease (CAD) events. CD4/CD8 ratio was inversely associated with risk of CAD events [adjusted HR per 0.1 increase in CD4/CD8 ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-0.99, P = 0.03]. This association was driven by those under age 50 years (adjusted HR 0.83 [0.70-0.97], P = 0.02) vs. those over age 50 years (adjusted HR = 0.96 [0.79-1.18], P = 0.71). CD4/CD8 ratio was not significantly associated with incident noncardiac NCDs.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher CD4/CD8 ratio after 1 year of HIV virologic suppression was independently predictive of decreased CAD risk, particularly among younger adults. Advanced immune senescence may contribute to CAD events in younger HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy.
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: clinical presentation, management and outcomes in women infected with HIV.
AIDS. 2016; 30(6):859-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
DESIGN: Observational cohort study.
METHODS: Data was collected from women diagnosed with VIN at the Hospital Vall d'Hebron between September 1994 and October 2011. The main outcome measures were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Risk factors for recurrence and progression were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven out of 107 women were HIV positive (34.6%). The median follow-up time was 32 (range 12-179) months. Compared with the HIV-negative group, HIV-positive women were younger (median age 37 vs. 44 years, P = 0.003) and presented with multifocal and multicentric disease more frequently (63.6 vs. 22.2% and 84.8 vs. 43.3%, respectively, P < 0.0001). RFS and PFS were lower in the HIV-positive group (42.4 vs. 71.4% P = 0.043 and 69.7 vs. 95.2% P = 0.006, respectively). RFS was significantly associated to multicentric and multifocal disease on multivariate analysis. PFS was associated to HIV infection on univariate analysis.
CONCLUSION: HIV-positive women are at increased risk of developing VIN and frequently present at a younger age with multifocal and multicentric disease. They have shorter RFS and PFS compared with HIV-negative women. Close surveillance of the lower genital tract is mandatory to enable early recognition and treatment of any suspicious lesions. Close follow-up after treatment of VIN is essential to exclude early recurrence or progression.
Cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer using regular digital ano-rectal examinations in men who have sex with men living with HIV.
J Int AIDS Soc. 2016; 19(1):20514 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2017 Related Publications
METHODS: Our objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regular anal examinations to screen for anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM living in Australia using a probabilistic Markov model. Data sources were based on the medical literature and a clinical trial of HIV-positive MSM receiving an annual anal examination in Australia. The main outcome measures for calculating effectiveness were undiscounted and discounted (at 3%) lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER).
RESULTS: Base-case analysis estimated the average cost of screening for and management of anal cancer ranged from $195 for no screening to $1,915 for lifetime annual screening of men aged ≥ 50. Screening of men aged ≥ 50 generated ICERs of $29,760 per QALY gained (for screening every four years), $32,222 (every three years) and $45,484 (every two years). Uncertainty for ICERs was mostly influenced by the cost (financially and decrease in quality of life) from a false-positive result, progression rate of anal cancer, specificity of the anal examination, the probability of detection outside a screening program and the discount rate.
CONCLUSIONS: Screening for anal cancer by incorporating regular anal examinations into routine HIV care for MSM aged ≥ 50 is most likely to be cost-effective by conventional standards. Given that anal pap smears are not widely available yet in many clinical settings, regular anal exams for MSM living with HIV to detect anal cancer earlier should be implemented.
CHOP Chemotherapy for Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with and without HIV in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era in Malawi.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150445 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2017 Related Publications
Prevalence and mortality of cancer among HIV-infected inpatients in Beijing, China.
BMC Infect Dis. 2016; 16:82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/03/2017 Related Publications
METHODS: Hospital records from a total of 1946 HIV-infected patients were collected from the Beijing Ditan Hospital. The data, from 2008 to 2013, were collected retrospectively. The cancer diagnoses included AIDS-defining cancers (ADC) and non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC). Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors predicting the concurrence of cancer with HIV. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS: 7.7 % (149 cases) of all HIV-infected inpatients had concurrent cancer at their first hospital admission; of those, 33.6 % (50 cases) had ADCs, and 66.4 % (99 cases) had NADCs. The most prevalent NADCs were Hodgkin's lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. Patients who did not accept antiretroviral therapy (ART) were more likely to suffer from cancer [AOR = 2.07 (1.42-3.01), p = 0.001]. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that the survival probability of HIV-positive cancer patients was significantly lower than that of HIV-positive cancer-free patients (log-rank test, p < 0.001). For patients diagnosed with cancer, the mortality was also higher among those who did not receive ART [AHR = 2.19 (1.84-2.61), p < 0.001].
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cancer concurrence among hospitalized HIV-infected patients was 7.7 %. Concurrent cancer also increased mortality among HIV-infected patients. ART was protective against concurrent cancer as well as mortality among HIV-infected cancer patients. These results highlight the importance of promoting cancer screening and early ART initiation among HIV-infected patients.
Discoid lupus erythematosus-related squamous cell carcinoma of the lip in an HIV-seropositive black male.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015 Oct-Dec; 11(4):1036 [PubMed] Related Publications