Gene Summary

Gene:AMPH; amphiphysin
Aliases: AMPH1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein associated with the cytoplasmic surface of synaptic vesicles. A subset of patients with stiff-man syndrome who were also affected by breast cancer are positive for autoantibodies against this protein. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional splice variants have been described, but their full length sequences have not been determined. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 11.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Chemoprevention
  • Gastric Mucosa
  • Transcription
  • Promoter Regions
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • CCND1
  • HOXA11
  • Forecasting
  • Cancer DNA
  • Genetic Techniques
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Genotype
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Infections
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Helicobacter Infections
  • SUZ12
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Helicobacter pylori and cancer
  • Chromosome 7
  • Epigenetics
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • DNA Methylation
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • CpG Islands
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Breast Cancer
  • Lymph Nodes
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Polycomb-Group Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Homeobox Genes
  • Cyclin D1
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Epigenomics
  • Hyperplasia
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: AMPH (cancer-related)

Michalak S, Piorunek T, Zaborowski M, et al.
Autoimmune response in lung cancer patients with neurological paraneoplastic syndromes.
Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2019; 53(3):217-226 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate granzyme B, perforin and FasL expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in lung cancer patients and in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS).
CLINICAL RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: Cellular immune response is activated as part of anti-tumour reaction of the malignancy-bearing host. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are defined as indirect effects of cancer on the nervous system and are considered immune-mediated. Such stimulation of the immune system may limit the aggressiveness of cancer and the development of metastasis, and thereby improve survival. Granzyme B and perforin pathway, and Fas ligand (FasL) - Fas receptor interaction play an important role in cytotoxic response.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients were included in the study: 28 subjects with PNS and 24 subjects with lung cancer. PNS cases were diagnosed according to the Graus criteria. The presence of onconeural antibodies (anti-Hu/anti-Ri/anti-Yo/anti-Ma/Ta/anti-CV2/anti-amphiphysin/anti-myelin/anti-neuroendothelium/anti-MAG/anti-GAD) was detected with indirect immunofluorescence and confirmed with Line Blotting. The expression of granzyme B, perforin and FasL was detected in PBMCs with ELISA.
RESULTS: PPBMC-FasL expression was increased in lung cancer compared to other patient groups. The granzyme to FasL ratio was significantly higher in lung cancer patients with peripheral than with central PNS involvement. In a multiple regression model, sex was an independent factor influencing PBMC expression of granzyme and perforin.
CONCLUSIONS: FasL expression in PBMCs is up-regulated in lung cancer patients. The interplay between granzyme B and FasL may be involved in the development of PNS at the level of the peripheral and the central nervous systems in different manners. Gender is associated with PBMC expression of granzyme B and perforin in lung cancer patients.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The novel findings that we report broaden the current knowledge on PNS pathomechanism, with aspects that have not been previously explored. Our findings provide a rationale for further exploration of the granzyme B/FasL pathway with regards to its potential diagnostic value. However, our study is preliminary and needs further research, especially in the context of the prognostic value of the proposed markers.

Wagner-Altendorf TA, Wandinger KP, Frydrychowicz A, et al.
Anti-Amphiphysin-associated limbic encephalitis in a 72-year-old patient with aortic angiosarcoma.
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalopathic syndromes have been described most often in association with small cell lung cancer or breast cancer, tumours of the ovaries, testes, lymphoma and thymoma. Antibodies associated with paraneoplastic encephalopathies are, among others, anti-Hu, anti-Ma2 and, in part, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA)-receptor antibodies. Here, we present the case of a 72-year-old patient hospitalised due to progressive cognitive decline and disorientation. Diagnostic workup revealed paraneoplastic anti-amphiphysin associated limbic encephalitis on the basis of an aortic angiosarcoma with metastases to kidney, muscle and bones. Highly aggressive chemotherapy as well as immunosuppressive therapy and cytoreductive laparoscopic nephrectomy were initiated. However, follow-up revealed further tumour progress and a worsening of neurological symptoms.

Xi J, Li M, Jing B, et al.
Long-Circulating Amphiphilic Doxorubicin for Tumor Mitochondria-Specific Targeting.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018; 10(50):43482-43492 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mitochondria have emerged as a novel target for cancer chemotherapy primarily due to their central roles in energy metabolism and apoptosis regulation. Here, we report a new molecular approach to achieve high levels of tumor- and mitochondria-selective deliveries of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. This is achieved by molecular engineering, which functionalizes doxorubicin with a hydrophobic lipid tail conjugated by a solubility-promoting poly(ethylene glycol) polymer (amphiphilic doxorubicin or amph-DOX). In vivo, the amphiphile conjugated to doxorubicin exhibits a dual function: (i) it binds avidly to serum albumin and hijacks albumin's circulating and transporting pathways, resulting in prolonged circulation in blood, increased accumulation in tumor, and reduced exposure to the heart; (ii) it also redirects doxorubicin to mitochondria by altering the drug molecule's intracellular sorting and transportation routes. Efficient mitochondrial targeting with amph-DOX causes a significant increase of reactive oxygen species levels in tumor cells, resulting in markedly improved antitumor efficacy than the unmodified doxorubicin. Amphiphilic modification provides a simple strategy to simultaneously increase the efficacy and safety of doxorubicin in cancer chemotherapy.

Yang H, Wan Z, Huang C, et al.
AMPH-1 is a tumor suppressor of lung cancer by inhibiting Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathway.
Lasers Med Sci. 2019; 34(3):473-478 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amphiphysin 1 (AMPH-1) is a nerve terminal-enriched protein and it is a 128-kD protein with three identified functional domains. Some studies found that AMPH-1 was a dominant autoantigen associated with breast cancer and melanoma. However, its function in lung cancer is unknown. Here, we showed that AMPH-1 knockdown dramatically increased cell proliferation, attenuated cell apoptosis, and promoted cell cycle progression in human lung cancer cells. In vivo xenograft studies confirmed that the AMPH-1-knockdown cells were more tumorigenic than the controls. Moreover, we demonstrated that silencing AMPH-1 markedly activated Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathway. In summary, our results identified the anti-oncogenic function of AMPH-1 in lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. It is proposed that AMPH-1 may have potential as a new therapeutic target in human lung cancer treatment.

Manhalter N, Györfi O, Boros E, et al.
Case report of a woman with anti amphiphysin positive stiff person syndrome.
Ideggyogy Sz. 2017; 70(5-6):213-216 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stiff person syndrome is a rare neuroimmunological disease, characterized by severe, involuntary stiffness with superimposed painful muscle spasms, which are worsened by external stimuli. The classical form is associated with high levels of antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase. One of the variant forms is associated with antibodies against amphiphysin. This entity is a paraneoplastic syndrome, caused primarily by breast cancer, secondarily by lung cancer. Symptomatic therapy of anti amphiphysin positive stiff person syndrome includes treatment with benzodiazepines and baclofen (including intrathecal baclofen therapy). The effect of immunological therapies is controversial. Treatment of the underlying cancer may be very effective. In this report, we describe a 68 year old female presenting with an unusally rapidly developing anti amphiphysin positive stiff person syndrome, which was associated with breast cancer. Her painful spasms abolished after intrathecal baclofen treatment was initiated. Her condition improved spontaneously and significantly after cancer treatment, which enabled to start her complex rehabilitation and the simultaneous dose reduction of the intrathecal baclofen. The bedridden patient improved to using a rollator walker and the baclofen pump could be removed 18 monthes after breast surgery. This highlights the importance of cancer screening and treatment in anti amphiphysin positive stiff person syndrome cases.

Murphy BL, Zalewski NL, Degnim AC, et al.
Breast cancer-related paraneoplastic neurologic disease.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 167(3):771-778 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Paraneoplastic neurologic disease (PND) is an aberrant immune-mediated response against the nervous system triggered by malignancy. Given the rarity, a paucity of data describing breast cancer-related PND (BC-PND) exists; we sought to further examine this specific patient population.
METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients at our institution from 1997 to 2016 with BC-PND. Retrospective review with a descriptive analysis determined factors associated with PND and BC, which were compared to national breast cancer median of age (61 years) and average stage at diagnosis (60% local disease).
RESULTS: BC-PND was diagnosed in 56 female patients at a median age of 52.8 years. Only 20% of invasive cancer patients had local disease. The majority of patients were hormone receptor positive and Her2 negative. Neurological symptoms presented prior to BC diagnosis in 57.1% of patients. Of all patients, 30 (53.6%) had autoantibodies detected: Purkinje Cell Cytoplasmic Autoantibody Type-1 (PCA-1[anti-Yo]), n = 10; amphiphysin-IgG, n = 9; Anti-Neuronal Nuclear Autoantibody Type-2 (ANNA-2[anti-Ri]), n = 5; and others, n = 6. The most common neurologic findings were cerebellar ataxia, myelopathy, and myopathy. Immunotherapy benefit was found to be robust (21.6%), mild to moderate (52.9%), absent (17.6%), or indeterminate (7.8%).
CONCLUSIONS: PND symptoms often presented prior to BC diagnosis, with the BC biologic subtype characteristics typical of the general BC population. BC diagnoses were often made at younger ages than that of the general BC population and with later-stage disease. Roughly 75% of patients benefited from immunotherapy. These data provide helpful information to providers treating this population of patients.

Lim TT
Paraneoplastic autoimmune movement disorders.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2017; 44:106-109 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders.
RECENT FINDINGS: The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome.
SUMMARY: Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy.

Wei YC, Huang CC, Liu CH, et al.
Peripheral neuropathy in limbic encephalitis with anti-glutamate receptor antibodies: Case report and systematic literature review.
Brain Behav. 2017; 7(9):e00779 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Autoantibodies to the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor and
METHODS: We analyzed the serial nerve conduction studies of a previously reported case of anti-AMPA receptor encephalitis, who was presented with conscious disturbance and quadriplegia. Initial nerve conduction studies (NCS) revealed motor axonal polyneuropathy with active denervation. We also performed systematic review of similar cases with overlapped peripheral neuropathy and glutamate receptor encephalitis through Embase, PubMed, and MEDLINE.
RESULTS: Follow-up NCS of the patient with anti-AMPA receptor encephalitis found reverse of the acute neuropathy, which was compatible with clinical recovery of quadriplegia. The systematic review identified 10 cases with overlapping peripheral neuropathy with anti-AMPA or NMDA receptor encephalitis. Motor or sensorimotor neuropathies were more common than pure sensory neuropathies. Anti-Hu, anti-amphiphysin, or anti-gnaglioside antibodies coexisted in some cases and might be associated with the peripheral symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: Both anti-AMPA and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis could overlap with acute peripheral neuropathy. It is important to consider peripheral symptoms and perform diagnostic tests.

Fukuda TG, do Rosário MS, Branco RCC, et al.
Multiple paraneoplastic antibodies (anti-SOX1, anti-Hu, and anti-Amphiphysin) detected in a patient with limbic encephalitis and small cell lung cancer.
Neurol India. 2017 Sep-Oct; 65(5):1127-1128 [PubMed] Related Publications

Meng J
Distinct functions of dynamin isoforms in tumorigenesis and their potential as therapeutic targets in cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(25):41701-41716 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dynamins and their related proteins participate in the regulation of neurotransmission, antigen presentation, receptor internalization, growth factor signalling, nutrient uptake, and pathogen infection. Recently, emerging findings have shown dynamin proteins can also contribute to the genesis of cancer. This up-to-date review herein focuses on the functionality of dynamin in cancer development. Dynamin 1 and 2 both enhance cancer cell proliferation, tumor invasion and metastasis, whereas dynamin 3 has tumor suppression role. Antisense RNAs encoded on the DNA strand opposite a dynamin gene regulate the function of dynamin, and manipulate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Certain dynamin-related proteins are also upregulated in distinct cancer conditions, resulting in apoptotic resistance, cell migration and poor prognosis. Altogether, dynamins are potential biomarkers as well as representing promising novel therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. This study also summarizes the current available dynamin-targeted therapeutics and suggests the potential strategy based on signalling pathways involved, providing important information to aid the future development of novel cancer therapeutics by targeting these dynamin family members.

Gadoth A, Kryzer TJ, Fryer J, et al.
Microtubule-associated protein 1B: Novel paraneoplastic biomarker.
Ann Neurol. 2017; 81(2):266-277 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To report the identification of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 1B as the antigen of the previously described Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody type 2 (PCA-2) antibody, its frequency, and clinical, oncological, and serological associations.
METHODS: Archival serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were available from 96 of 118 consecutive PCA-2-IgG-seropositive patients identified during 1993-2016. The autoantigen, defined in mouse brain lysate by Western blot and mass spectrometry, was confirmed by dual immunohistochemical staining using commercial antibodies. The major antigenic region was defined by Western blot using recombinant protein fragments.
RESULTS: IgG in 95 of 96 patients' serum or CSF (but in none of 98 healthy or disease control subjects' serum specimens) bound to recombinant MAP1B. A minority (17.5%) of patients' IgG also bound to MAP1A. PCA-2 was often accompanied by additional neural autoantibody markers of small-cell carcinoma, including collapsin response-mediated protein 5 (CRMP5) IgG (26%) or antineuronal nuclear antibody type 1 (ANNA-1) IgG (also known as anti-Hu; 13%). Neurological manifestations in 95 patients were (in decreasing frequency): peripheral neuropathy, 53%; cerebellar ataxia, dysmetria, or dysarthria, 38%; and encephalopathy, 27%. Cancer (majority small-cell lung carcinoma [SCLC]) was detected in 66 of 84 evaluated patients (79%). The MAP1B (PCA-2) autoantibody detection rate, among approximately 70,000 patients undergoing service neural autoantibody evaluation in 2015, was 0.024%, equaling amphiphysin IgG (0.026%) and more common than ANNA-2 (also known as anti-Ri; 0.016%) and PCA-Tr (also known as delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor [DNER]; 0.006%).
INTERPRETATION: MAP1B, the PCA-2 autoantigen, represents a novel target in paraneoplastic neurological disorders and has high predictive value for SCLC. Its relatively high prevalence, compared with other recognized paraneoplastic neural autoantibodies, justifies its testing in comprehensive paraneoplastic neural autoantibody evaluation. Ann Neurol 2017;81:266-277.

Berger B, Hottenrott T, Rauer S, Stich O
Screening for onconeural antibodies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.
BMC Neurol. 2017; 17(1):5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Some so-called "non-classical" paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS), namely optic neuritis and myelitis, clinically overlap with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), and conversely, in cancer-associated NMOSD, a paraneoplastic etiology has been suggested in rare cases. Therefore, we retrospectively investigated the prevalence of onconeural antibodies, which are highly predictive for a paraneoplastic etiology, and the prevalence of malignancies in NMOSD patients.
METHODS: We retrospectively screened 23 consecutive patients from our clinic with NMOSD (13 were anti-aquaporin-4 [AQP4] antibody positive, 10 were AQP4 negative) for onconeural antibodies using an immunoblot.
RESULTS: All patients were negative for a broad spectrum of antibodies targeting intracellular onconeural antigens (Hu, Yo, Ri, CV2/CRMP5, Ma1, Ma2, Zic4, SOX1, Tr, and amphiphysin). Notably, only two patients had a malignancy. However, neoplastic entities (astrocytic brain tumor and acute myeloid leukemia) were not typical for PNS.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that there is no need to routinely screen anti-AQP4 antibody positive NMOSD patients with a typical presentation for onconeural antibodies. Furthermore, absence of these antibodies in NMOSD, which is typically non-paraneoplastic, confirms their high specificity for PNS.

Hirunagi T, Sato K, Fujino M, et al.
Subacute cerebellar ataxia with amphiphysin antibody developing in a patient with follicular thyroid adenoma: a case report.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2016; 56(11):769-772 [PubMed] Related Publications
The patient was a 61-year-old woman with thyroid enlargement since her 20s. She began to fall down repeatedly towards the end of June 2015. She was admitted to our hospital in the middle of August because of difficulty in walking. Upon admission, she presented with neck tremor and was unable to maintain a sitting position due to ataxia of the trunk and limbs. We studied serum anti-neuronal antibodies and obtained a positive result for anti-amphiphysin antibody (AMPH-Ab). Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed elevated protein levels and IgG index. Other than the thyroid mass, a tumor was not detected. The resected thyroid specimen showed follicular adenoma. After performing immunotherapies, the cerebrospinal fluid protein levels and IgG index decreased, and her ataxia did not progress. When subacute cerebellar ataxia is suspected, studying AMPH-Ab should be considered.

Inuzuka T
[Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated with Malignant Tumors].
Brain Nerve. 2016; 68(9):1049-1055 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autoimmune encephalitis consists of limbic symptoms and signs associated with antibodies against neuronal cell-surface antigens or intracellular antigens. Some cases are known to be associated with anti-channel or anti-receptor-related molecule antibodies. Whether these cases are paraneoplastic depends on the kinds of antigens that the antibodies are produced against. Other cases due to well-characterized onco-neural antibodies are almost always paraneoplastic and are generally resistant to anti-tumor therapy and/or immunotherapy. An exception is anti-Ma2 antibody-positive encephalitis associated with a testicular tumor. Antibodies for intracellular antigens are considered not to be pathogenic. Rather, the T-cell response is thought to be responsible. These antibodies are useful markers for the diagnosis of paraneoplastic disorders and in the search for underlying cancer, as neurological symptoms often precede tumor diagnosis. There is a relationship among onco-neural antibodies, clinical features, tumor types, and response to immunotherapy. Here we describe the characteristics of autoimmune encephalitis cases with antibodies against different intracellular antigens, such as Hu, Ma2, CRMP5, or amphiphysin.

Sæther SG, Schou M, Stoecker W, et al.
Onconeural Antibodies in Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Care.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017; 29(1):74-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraneoplastic neurological disorders associated with onconeural antibodies often appear with neuropsychiatric symptoms. To study the prevalence of onconeural antibodies in patients admitted to acute psychiatric inpatient care, the serum of 585 such patients was tested for antibodies targeting MOG, GLRA1B, DPPX, GRM1, GRM5, DNER, Yo, ZIC4, GAD67, amphiphysin, CV2, Hu, Ri, Ma2, and recoverin. Only one sample was positive (antirecoverin IgG). The present findings suggest that serum onconeural antibody positivity is rare among patients acutely admitted for inpatient psychiatric care. The clinical implications of this finding are discussed.

Tebo AE, Haven TR, Jackson BR
Autoantibody diversity in paraneoplastic syndromes and related disorders: The need for a more guided screening approach.
Clin Chim Acta. 2016; 459:162-169 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made in understanding the role and diversity of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) and related autoimmune neurologic diseases. We evaluated the positivity rates for diverse autoantibody panels to rationalize testing strategies and utilization.
METHODS: The result patterns for different autoantibody panels for PNS offered at 2 reference laboratories in the U.S. were retrospectively reviewed for the same period. The positivity rates were evaluated and compared for specific autoantibodies within panels offered at both laboratories.
RESULTS: For the Hu, Ri, Yo, and amphiphysin antibodies offered by both laboratories, no significant difference in positivity rates was observed. The positivity rates for non-classic PNS markers were 0% [AGNA and PCCA-Tr], and 0.06% [ANNA-3 and PCAC-2] while the prevalence of antibodies associated with neuromuscular autoimmunity varied from 1.40% to 4.44% [Striated muscle, AChR binding, ganglionic AChR, VGCC, P/Q- and N-type VGCC].
CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that test utilization could be substantially improved based on ordering practice geared towards clinical manifestations and prevalence of autoantibodies. Concerted efforts towards streamlining diagnostic algorithms based on risk, clinical manifestations, characterization of autoantibodies and their associations as well as therapeutic strategies are needed.

Berger B, Stich O, Labeit S, Rauer S
Screening for anti-titin antibodies in patients with various paraneoplastic neurological syndromes.
J Neuroimmunol. 2016; 295-296:18-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anti-titin antibodies indicate a paraneoplastic etiology pointing towards a thymoma in myasthenia gravis (MG), but their seroprevalence and potential diagnostic value in patients with other paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) is unknown. Therefore, we screened the sera of 44 PNS patients with well-characterized onconeural antibodies (anti-Hu, Yo, Ri, CV2/CRMP5, Ma1, Ma2/Ta, or amphiphysin) for anti-titin reactivity. Two patients (4.5%) were positive for anti-titin antibodies: both patients differed regarding the PNS (sensorimotor neuropathy and subacute cerebellar degeneration vs. chorea), well-characterized onconeural antibodies (CV2/CRMP5 vs. Ri), and malignoma (small cell lung cancer vs. breast cancer). However, retrospectively, the patients neither showed any symptoms of MG nor a thymoma on a computed tomographic (CT) scan. The results of this study indicate that anti-titin antibodies without a predictive relevance for MG or thymoma may be present in a small proportion of patients with PNS.

Storstein A, Raspotnig M, Vitaliani R, et al.
Prostate cancer, Hu antibodies and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes.
J Neurol. 2016; 263(5):1001-1007 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among American and European men. Nervous system affection caused by local tumor growth or osseous metastases are the main causes of neurological symptoms in prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer is rarely reported in association with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). We have, therefore, studied clinical and paraclinical findings of a series of patients with prostate cancer and PNS, and reviewed cases reported in the literature. Case histories of 14 patients with definite PNS from the PNS Euronetwork database and from the authors' databases were reviewed. A PubMed literature search identified 23 patients with prostate cancer and PNS. Thus, a total of 37 case histories were reviewed with respect to syndrome type, cancer evolution, paraclinical investigations, antibody status, treatment and outcome. The three most frequent isolated PNS were paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM)/limbic encephalitis and subacute sensory neuronopathy (SSN). Onconeural antibodies were detected in 23 patients, in most cases the Hu antibody (17 patients, 74 % of all antibody-positive cases). Other well-characterized onconeural antibodies (Yo, CV2/CRMP5, amphiphysin, VGCC antibodies) were found in a minority. PNS was diagnosed prior to prostate cancer diagnosis in 50 % of the cases. The association of PNS with prostate cancer is quite infrequent, but clinically important. PNS often heralds prostate cancer diagnosis. Syndromes associated with Hu antibodies predominate. Another tumor more prone to associate with PNS should always be excluded.

Vinjam MR, Shanmugarajah P, Ford HL
Ophthalmoplegia heralding the onset of anti-amphiphysin related paraneoplastic stiff person syndrome.
J Neurol. 2016; 263(5):1017-1018 [PubMed] Related Publications

Galassi G, Ariatti A, Rovati R, et al.
Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis associated with amphiphysin autoimmunity and breast cancer: a paraneoplastic accompaniment.
Acta Neurol Belg. 2016; 116(3):395-7 [PubMed] Related Publications

Schneider BG, Mera R, Piazuelo MB, et al.
DNA Methylation Predicts Progression of Human Gastric Lesions.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015; 24(10):1607-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Development of the intestinal subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma is marked by a progression of histopathologic lesions. Residents of the Andean regions of Colombia are at high risk for gastric cancer.
METHODS: A cohort of 976 Colombian subjects was followed over 16 years examining effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication and treatment with antioxidants on progression of lesions. We performed methylation analysis of DNA from baseline antral biopsies from 104 subjects for whom follow-up data were available for at least 12 years. Methylation was quantitated for AMPH, CDKN2A, CDH1, EN1, EMX1, NKX6-1, PCDH10, RPRM, RSPO2, SORCS3, ZIC1, and ZNF610 genes, using Pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: Levels of DNA methylation were associated with baseline diagnosis for AMPH, EMX1, RPRM, RSPO2, SORCS3, and ZNF610. After adjusting for baseline diagnosis and H. pylori infection, methylation levels of AMPH, PCDH10, RSPO2, and ZNF610 had progression coefficients that increased and P values that decreased over 6, 12, and 16 years. Methylation for SORCS3 was associated with progression at all 3 time points but without the continual strengthening of the effect. Scores for mononuclear leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or intraepithelial lymphocytes were unrelated to progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Methylation levels of AMPH, PCDH10, RSPO2, SORCS3, and ZNF610 predict progression of gastric lesions independent of the effect of duration of H. pylori infection, baseline diagnosis, gender of the patient, or scores for mononuclear leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or intraepithelial lymphocytes.
IMPACT: DNA methylation levels in AMPH, PCDH10, RSPO2, SORCS3, and ZNF610 may contribute to identification of persons with gastric lesions likely to progress.

Gozzard P, Woodhall M, Chapman C, et al.
Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders in small cell lung carcinoma: A prospective study.
Neurology. 2015; 85(3):235-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and range of paraneoplastic neurologic disorders (PNDs) and neuronal antibodies in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
METHODS: Two hundred sixty-four consecutive patients with biopsy-proven SCLC were recruited at the time of tumor diagnosis. All patients underwent full neurologic examination. Serum samples were taken prior to chemotherapy and analyzed for 15 neuronal antibodies. Thirty-eight healthy controls were analyzed in parallel.
RESULTS: PNDs were quite prevalent (n = 24, 9.4%), most frequently Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (3.8%), sensory neuronopathy (1.9%), and limbic encephalitis (1.5%). Eighty-seven percent of all patients with PNDs had antibodies to SOX2 (62.5%), HuD (41.7%), or P/Q VGCC (50%), irrespective of their syndrome. Other neuronal antibodies were found at lower frequencies (GABAb receptor [12.5%] and N-type VGCC [20.8%]) or very rarely (GAD65, amphiphysin, Ri, CRMP5, Ma2, Yo, VGKC complex, CASPR2, LGI1, and NMDA receptor [all <5%]).
CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of PNDs is broader and the frequency is higher than previously appreciated, and selected antibody tests (SOX2, HuD, VGCC) can help determine the presence of an SCLC.

Berger B, Bischler P, Dersch R, et al.
"Non-classical" paraneoplastic neurological syndromes associated with well-characterized antineuronal antibodies as compared to "classical" syndromes - More frequent than expected.
J Neurol Sci. 2015; 352(1-2):58-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) are rare disorders in association with cancer and sub-divided into "classical" and "non-classical" syndromes according to a 2004 consensus paper proposed by a panel of PNS experts. "Classical" PNSs are regarded to account for the vast majority of cases. However, systematic reports on clinical PNS manifestations are rare. Therefore, we analyzed the spectrum of PNS in our clinic.
METHODS: We retrospectively investigated medical records from consecutive patients diagnosed with definite PNS and serological evidence of well-characterized onconeural antibodies (anti-Hu, Yo, Ri, CV2/CRMP5, Ma1, Ma2, and amphiphysin) analyzed between 1991 and 2014 in our clinic.
RESULTS: Of the 50 patients identified with onconeural antibody-positive PNS, 28 patients (56.0%) had "classical" PNS, and 22 (44.0%) "non-classical" PNS. Subacute cerebellar degeneration was the most frequent "classical" syndrome, brainstem encephalitis and subacute sensorimotor neuronopathy the most frequent "non-classical" syndromes. Anti-Hu antibodies were most frequent in both groups. 86.1% of patients developed neurological symptoms before the cancer was known. No differences between "classical" and "non-classical" syndromes were detected with respect to age, tumor entities and median time to diagnosis. However, whereas most patients with "classical" syndromes were females, there was no gender predominance in patients with "non-classical" PNS and the latter had significantly more frequent peripheral neurological syndromes.
CONCLUSIONS: The so-called "non-classical" PNSs in association with well-characterized onconeural antibodies were more common in our patient population than expected. Therefore, in neurological disorders of unclear etiology with a subacute onset and atypical presentation further diagnostic work-up including investigation of onconeural antibodies is necessary.

Nakanishi Y, Akiyama N, Tsukaguchi T, et al.
Mechanism of Oncogenic Signal Activation by the Novel Fusion Kinase FGFR3-BAIAP2L1.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(3):704-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent cancer genome profiling studies have identified many novel genetic alterations, including rearrangements of genes encoding FGFR family members. However, most fusion genes are not functionally characterized, and their potentials in targeted therapy are unclear. We investigated a recently discovered gene fusion between FGFR3 and BAI1-associated protein 2-like 1 (BAIAP2L1). We identified 4 patients with bladder cancer and 2 patients with lung cancer harboring the FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 fusion through PCR and FISH assay screens. To investigate the oncogenic potential of the fusion gene, we established an FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 transfectant with Rat-2 fibroblast cells (Rat-2_F3-B). The FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 fusion had transforming activity in Rat2 cells, and Rat-2_F3-B cells were highly tumorigenic in mice. Rat-2_F3-B cells showed in vitro and in vivo sensitivity in the selective FGFR inhibitor CH5183284/Debio 1347, indicating that FGFR3 kinase activity is critical for tumorigenesis. Gene signature analysis revealed that FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 activates growth signals, such as the MAPK pathway, and inhibits tumor-suppressive signals, such as the p53, RB1, and CDKN2A pathways. We also established Rat-2_F3-B-ΔBAR cells expressing an FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 variant lacking the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) dimerization domain of BAIAP2L1, which exhibited decreased tumorigenic activity, FGFR3 phosphorylation, and F3-B-ΔBAR dimerization, compared with Rat-2_F3-B cells. Collectively, these data suggest that constitutive dimerization through the BAR domain promotes constitutive FGFR3 kinase activation and is essential for its potent oncogenic activity.

Yang YS, Carney RP, Stellacci F, Irvine DJ
Enhancing radiotherapy by lipid nanocapsule-mediated delivery of amphiphilic gold nanoparticles to intracellular membranes.
ACS Nano. 2014; 8(9):8992-9002 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (amph-NPs), composed of gold cores surrounded by an amphiphilic mixed organic ligand shell, are capable of embedding within and traversing lipid membranes. Here we describe a strategy using crosslink-stabilized lipid nanocapsules (NCs) as carriers to transport such membrane-penetrating particles into tumor cells and promote their transfer to intracellular membranes for enhanced radiotherapy of cancer. We synthesized and characterized interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar lipid vesicles (ICMVs) carrying amph-NPs embedded in the capsule walls, forming Au-NCs. Confocal and electron microscopies revealed that the intracellular distribution of amph-NPs within melanoma and breast tumor cells following uptake of free particles vs Au-NCs was quite distinct and that amph-NPs initially delivered into endosomes by Au-NCs transferred over a period of hours to intracellular membranes through tumor cells, with greater intracellular spread in melanoma cells than breast carcinoma cells. Clonogenic assays revealed that Au-NCs enhanced radiotherapeutic killing of melanoma cells. Thus, multilamellar lipid capsules may serve as an effective carrier to deliver amphiphilic gold nanoparticles to tumors, where the membrane-penetrating properties of these materials can significantly enhance the efficacy of frontline radiotherapy treatments.

Moon J, Lee ST, Shin JW, et al.
Non-stiff anti-amphiphysin syndrome: clinical manifestations and outcome after immunotherapy.
J Neuroimmunol. 2014; 274(1-2):209-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amphiphysin antibody causes paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome and can also result in a variety of neurological manifestations. Here, we investigated the clinical spectrum of 20 patients with non-stiff anti-amphiphysin syndrome and their responses to immunotherapy. The most common neurological manifestation was limbic encephalitis (n=10), followed by dysautonomia (n=9), and cerebellar dysfunction (n=6). Cancer was detected in only seven patients. Intravenous immunoglobulin or steroid treatment was effective in most patients, but three improved only after rituximab treatment. Our study suggests that anti-amphiphysin syndrome can manifest as non-stiff encephalomyelitis and is only partially associated with cancer. Active immunotherapy, including rituximab, would be beneficial.

Neshige S, Hara N, Takeshima S, et al.
[Anti-amphiphysin antibody-positive paraneoplastic neurological syndrome with a longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion of the dorsal column].
Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2014; 54(7):572-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 53-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of gait disturbance and paresthesia of the lower extremities. She also had marked deep sense impairment in her lower limbs. Cervical MRI showed a longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion of the dorsal column at levels C1-T11. The findings of cerebrospinal fluid examination, including the IgG index (0.65), were normal. Serum anti-AQP4 antibody was negative, but anti-amphiphysin antibody was positive. Electrophysiological examinations suggested the presence of lesions in the dorsal column of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Enlargement of and fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in her left parasternal lymph node was observed on contrast-enhanced CT and PET-CT, respectively. The lymph node biopsy was underwent by using thoracoscopy. The metastasis of carcinoma was pathologically confirmed. Although the primary tumor was not detected on PET-CT re-examination, immunostaining of the biopsied lymph node specimen was positive for both the progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor. On the basis of these findings, the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome due to potential breast cancer. The disorder is an immunological subacute sensory neuropathy with a longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion of the dorsal column and a DRG lesion.

Horta ES, Lennon VA, Lachance DH, et al.
Neural autoantibody clusters aid diagnosis of cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(14):3862-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Clustering of neural autoantibodies in patients with paraneoplastic neurologic disorders may predict tumor type. A mathematical analysis of neural autoantibody clusters was performed in 78,889 patients undergoing evaluation for a suspected paraneoplastic autoimmune neurologic disorder. Tumor predictive autoantibody profiles were confirmed in sera from patients with histologically proven tonsillar cancer, thymoma, and lung cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of note, 78,889 patient sera were tested for 15 defined neural autoantibodies (1.2 million tests). The observed and hypothesized frequencies of autoantibody clusters were compared and their tumor associations defined. A tumor validation study comprised serum from 368 patients with a variety of tumors (thymoma, lung, or tonsil).
RESULTS: Informative oncological associations included (i) thymoma in 85% of patients with muscle striational, acetylcholine receptor antibodies plus CRMP5 autoantibodies; (ii) lung carcinoma in 80% with both P/Q-type and N-type calcium channel antibodies plus SOX1-IgG; and (iii) in men, prostate carcinoma frequency more than doubled when striational and muscle AChR specificities were accompanied by ganglionic AChR antibody. In women, amphiphysin-IgG alone was associated commonly with breast carcinoma, but amphiphysin-IgG, coexisting with antineuronal nuclear autoantibody-type 1 or CRMP5-IgG, was associated with lung cancer (P < 0.0001). In the validation cohorts, many tumor-associated profiles were encountered that matched the clusters identified in the screening study (e.g., 15% of thymoma patients had striational, acetylcholine receptor antibodies plus collapsin response-mediator protein-5 autoantibodies).
CONCLUSIONS: Neural autoantibodies commonly coexist in specific clusters that are identifiable by comprehensive screening. Signature autoantibody clusters may predict a patient's cancer risk and type.

Prokic I, Cowling BS, Laporte J
Amphiphysin 2 (BIN1) in physiology and diseases.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2014; 92(5):453-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amphiphysin 2, also named bridging integrator-1 (BIN1) or SH3P9, has been recently implicated in rare and common diseases affecting different tissues and physiological functions. BIN1 downregulation is linked to cancer progression and also correlates with ventricular cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia preceding heart failure. Increased BIN1 expression is linked to increased susceptibility for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. In addition, altered splicing may account for the muscle component of myotonic dystrophies, while recessive germinal mutations cause centronuclear myopathy. Despite undoubtedly underlining the relevance of BIN1 in human diseases, the molecular and cellular bases leading to such different diseases are unclear at present. BIN1 is a key regulator of endocytosis and membrane recycling, cytoskeleton regulation, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. In light of the recent findings on the molecular, cellular, and physiological roles of BIN1, we discuss potential pathological mechanisms and highlight common disease pathways and also tissue-specific regulation. Next challenges will be to validate BIN1 both as a prognostic marker for the related diseases and as a potential therapeutic target.

Torres B, Ruoho AE
N-terminus regulation of VMAT2 mediates methamphetamine-stimulated efflux.
Neuroscience. 2014; 259:194-202 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The 20 amino acid (AA) N-terminus of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) was examined as a regulator of VMAT2 function. Removal of the first 16 or 19 AAs of the N-terminus resulted in a molecule with reduced ability to sequester [(3)H]-5HT. A glutathione-S-transferase-construct of the N-terminus underwent phosphorylation in the presence of PKC at serines 15 and 18. These putative phosphorylation sites were examined for effects on function. Phospho-mimetic substitution of serines 15 and 18 with aspartate in the full-length VMAT2 resulted in reduced [(3)H]-5HT sequestration and reduced methamphetamine (METH)-stimulated efflux of preloaded [(3)H]-5HT. In contrast, mutation of serines 15 and 18 to alanines maintained intact net substrate sequestration but eliminated METH-stimulated efflux of pre-accumulated [(3)H]-5HT. In summary, these data suggest a model in which the VMAT2 N-terminus regulates monoamine sequestration.

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