CITED1

Gene Summary

Gene:CITED1; Cbp/p300 interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp rich carboxy-terminal domain 1
Aliases: MSG1
Location:Xq13.1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator with Asp/Glu-rich C-terminal domain (CITED) family of proteins. The encoded protein, also known as melanocyte-specific gene 1, may function as a transcriptional coactivator and may play a role in pigmentation of melanocytes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cbp/p300-interacting transactivator 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (54)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Messenger RNA
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Transcriptome
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Melanocytes
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Adenoma
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • p53 Protein
  • Vimentin
  • Genetic Markers
  • X Chromosome
  • Signal Transduction
  • Xenograft Models
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Kidney
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Carcinoma
  • Melanoma
  • Cell Differentiation
  • beta Catenin
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Mutation
  • Infant
  • Transcription Factors
  • Up-Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • BRAF
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CITED1 (cancer-related)

Chen X, Yang M, Hao W, et al.
Differentiation-inducing and anti-proliferative activities of isoliquiritigenin and all-trans-retinoic acid on B16F0 melanoma cells: Mechanisms profiling by RNA-seq.
Gene. 2016; 592(1):86-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma is a cancer that arises from melanocytes, specialized pigmented cells that are found predominantly in the skin. The incidence of malignant melanoma has significantly increased over the last decade. With the development of therapy, the survival rate of some kind of cancer has been improved greatly. But the treatment of melanoma remains unsatisfactory. Much of melanoma's resistance to traditional chemotherapy is believed to arise intrinsically, by virtue of potent growth and cell survival-promoting genetic alteration. Therefore, significant attention has recently been focused on differentiation therapy, as well as differentiation inducer compounds. In previous study, we found isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a natural product extracted from licorice, could induce B16F0 melanoma cell differentiation. Here we investigated the transcriptional response of melanoma differentiation process induced by ISL and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). Results showed that 390 genes involves in 201 biochemical pathways were differentially expressed in ISL treatment and 304 genes in 193 pathways in RA treatment. Differential expressed genes (DGEs, fold-change (FC)≥10) with the function of anti-proliferative and differentiation inducing indicated a loss of grade malignancy characteristic. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated glutathione metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathway were the top three relative pathway perturbed by ISL, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was the most important pathway in RA treatment. In the analysis of hierarchical clustering of DEGs, we discovered 72 DEGs involved in the process of drug action. We thought Cited1, Tgm2, Xaf1, Cd59a, Fbxo2, Adh7 may have critical role in the differentiation of melanoma. The evidence displayed herein confirms the critical role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in melanoma pathobiology and provides evidence for future targets in the development of next-generation biomarkers and therapeutics.

Lu JC, Zhang YP
E2F, HSF2, and miR-26 in thyroid carcinoma: bioinformatic analysis of RNA-sequencing data.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(1):15017576 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of thyroid carcinoma (THCA) using bioinformatics. RNA-sequencing data of THCA (N = 498) and normal thyroid tissue (N = 59) were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Next, gene expression levels were calculated using the TCC package and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the edgeR package. A co-expression network was constructed using the EBcoexpress package and visualized by Cytoscape, and functional and pathway enrichment of DEGs in the co-expression network was analyzed with DAVID and KOBAS 2.0. Moreover, modules in the co-expression network were identified and annotated using MCODE and BiNGO plugins. Small-molecule drugs were analyzed using the cMAP database, and miRNAs and transcription factors regulating DEGs were identified by WebGestalt. A total of 254 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated DEGs were identified between THCA samples and controls. DEGs enriched in biological process terms were related to cell adhesion, death, and growth and negatively correlated with various small-molecule drugs. The co-expression network of the DEGs consisted of hub genes (ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, and SERPINA1) and one module (JUN, FOSB, and EGR1). Furthermore, 5 miRNAs and 5 transcription factors were identified, including E2F, HSF2, and miR-26. miR-26 may participate in THCA by targeting CITED1 and PLA2R1; E2F may participate in THCA by regulating ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, EGR1, and JUN; HSF2 may be involved in THCA development by regulating SERPINA1 and FOSB; and small-molecule drugs may have anti-THCA effects. Our results provide novel directions for mechanistic studies and drug design of THCA.

Cantelli G, Orgaz JL, Rodriguez-Hernandez I, et al.
TGF-β-Induced Transcription Sustains Amoeboid Melanoma Migration and Dissemination.
Curr Biol. 2015; 25(22):2899-914 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell migration underlies metastatic dissemination of cancer cells, and fast "amoeboid" migration in the invasive fronts of tumors is controlled by high levels of actomyosin contractility. How amoeboid migration is regulated by extracellular signals and sustained over time by transcriptional changes is not fully understood. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is well known to promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and contribute to metastasis, but melanocytes are neural crest derivatives that have undergone EMT during embryonic development. Surprisingly, we find that in melanoma, TGF-β promotes amoeboid features such as cell rounding, membrane blebbing, high levels of contractility, and increased invasion. Using genome-wide transcriptomics, we find that amoeboid melanoma cells are enriched in a TGF-β-driven signature. We observe that downstream of TGF-β, SMAD2 and its adaptor CITED1 control amoeboid behavior by regulating the expression of key genes that activate contractile forces. Moreover, CITED1 is highly upregulated during melanoma progression, and its high expression is associated with poor prognosis. CITED1 is coupled to a contractile-rounded, amoeboid phenotype in a panel of 16 melanoma cell lines, in mouse melanoma xenografts, and in 47 human melanoma patients. Its expression is also enriched in the invasive fronts of lesions. Functionally, we show how the TGF-β-SMAD2-CITED1 axis promotes different steps associated with progression: melanoma detachment from keratinocytes, 2D and 3D migration, attachment to endothelial cells, and in vivo lung metastatic initial colonization and outgrowth. We propose a novel mechanism by which TGF-β-induced transcription sustains actomyosin force in melanoma cells and thereby promotes melanoma progression independently of EMT.

Sumantran VN, Mishra P, Sudhakar N
Microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes regulating lipid metabolism during melanoma progression.
Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2015; 52(2):125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new hallmark of cancer involves acquisition of a lipogenic phenotype which promotes tumorigenesis. Little is known about lipid metabolism in melanomas. Therefore, we used BRB (Biometrics Research Branch) class comparison tool with multivariate analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in human cutaneous melanomas, compared with benign nevi and normal skin derived from the microarray dataset (GDS1375). The methods were validated by identifying known melanoma biomarkers (CITED1, FGFR2, PTPRF, LICAM, SPP1 and PHACTR1) in our results. Eighteen genes regulating metabolism of fatty acids, lipid second messengers and gangliosides were 2-9 fold upregulated in melanomas of GDS-1375. Out of the 18 genes, 13 were confirmed by KEGG pathway analysis and 10 were also significantly upregulated in human melanoma cell lines of NCI-60 Cell Miner database. Results showed that melanomas upregulated PPARGC1A transcription factor and its target genes regulating synthesis of fatty acids (SCD) and complex lipids (FABP3 and ACSL3). Melanoma also upregulated genes which prevented lipotoxicity (CPT2 and ACOT7) and regulated lipid second messengers, such as phosphatidic acid (AGPAT-4, PLD3) and inositol triphosphate (ITPKB, ITPR3). Genes for synthesis of pro-tumorigenic GM3 and GD3 gangliosides (UGCG, HEXA, ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1) were also upregulated in melanoma. Overall, the microarray analysis of GDS-1375 dataset indicated that melanomas can become lipogenic by upregulating genes, leading to increase in fatty acid metabolism, metabolism of specific lipid second messengers, and ganglioside synthesis.

Huang C, Sheng Y, Jia J, Chen L
Identification of melanoma biomarkers based on network modules by integrating the human signaling network with microarrays.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2014; 10 Suppl:C114-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a leading cause of cancer death. Thus, accurate prognostic biomarkers that will assist rational treatment planning need to be identified.
METHODS: Microarray analysis of melanoma and normal tissue samples was performed to identify differentially expressed modules (DEMs) from the signaling network and ultimately detect molecular markers to support histological examination. Network motifs were extracted from the human signaling network. Then, significant expression-correlation differential modules were identified by comparing the network module expression-correlation differential scores under normal and disease conditions using the gene expression datasets. Finally, we obtained DEMs by the Wilcoxon rank test and considered the average gene expression level in these modules as the classification features for diagnosing melanoma.
RESULTS: In total, 99 functional DEMs were identified from the signaling network and gene expression profiles. The area under the curve scores for cancer module genes, melanoma module genes, and whole network modules are 92.4%, 90.44%, and 88.45%, respectively. The classification efficiency rates for nonmodule features are 71.04% and 79.38%, which correspond to the features of cancer genes and melanoma cancer genes, respectively. Finally, we acquired six significant molecular biomarkers, namely, module 10 (CALM3, Ca 2+ , PKC, PDGFRA, phospholipase-g, PIB5PA, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase), module 14 (SRC, Src homology 2 domain-containing [SHC], SAM68, GIT1, transcription factor-4, CBLB, GRB2, VAV2, LCK, YES, PTCH2, downstream of tyrosine kinase [DOK], and KIT), module 16 (ELK3, p85beta, SHC, ZFYVE9, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, CITED1, SH3KBP1, HCK, DOK, and KIT), module 45 (RB, CCND3, CCNA2, CDK4, and CDK6), module 75 (PCNA, CDK4, and CCND1), and module 114 (PSD93, NMDAR, and FYN).
CONCLUSION: We explored the gene expression profile and signaling network in a global view and identified DEMs that can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers for melanoma.

Sehic D, Ciornei CD, Gisselsson D
Evaluation of CITED1, SIX1, and CD56 protein expression for identification of blastemal elements in Wilms tumor.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2014; 141(6):828-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Successful further treatment of Wilms tumors (WTs) after preoperative chemotherapy and surgery depends on correct histopathologic risk stratification, including quantification of remaining blastemal elements. In the present study, we assessed the usefulness of protein markers for the detection of WT blastema.
METHODS: Expression of the candidate blastemal protein markers CITED1, SIX1, and CD56 was evaluated by immunofluorescence regarding sensitivity and specificity for staining blastema in a tissue microarray containing cores from 30 WTs, a small number of rarer pediatric renal neoplasms, and normal postnatal kidney.
RESULTS: CITED1, SIX1, and CD56 were expressed in blastema in 100%, 89%, and 74%, respectively, of the WTs with this component present. However, they were also expressed in 64%, 25%, and 79%, respectively, of epithelial WT elements and 48%, 52%, and 62%, respectively, of stromal WT elements.
CONCLUSIONS: SIX1 showed the highest specificity, CITED1 the highest sensitivity, and CD56 low specificity and sensitivity for detection of postchemotherapy WT blastema. Cytokeratin staining proved to be a useful way to determine rudimentary tubular elements not readily recognized by routine staining.

Karlsson J, Holmquist Mengelbier L, Ciornei CD, et al.
Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney demonstrates an embryonic signature indicative of a primitive nephrogenic origin.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(5):381-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is a tumor affecting children with a median age of 3 years at diagnosis. The cell of origin of CCSK is unknown and data on the molecular changes giving rise to CCSK is scarce. This has hindered the identification of positive diagnostic markers and development of molecularly targeted treatment protocols for CCSK. We have characterized a panel of CCSK to gain information regarding its molecular profile and possible origin. High-resolution genomic analysis with single nucleotide polymorphism array of 37 tumors did not reveal any clues to the mechanisms behind tumor development as remarkably few genetic imbalances were found. Gene expression analysis revealed a highly characteristic gene signature, enriched for pathways involved in embryonic development, including kidney formation. The presence of markers for two different developmental lineages in the embryonic kidney was therefore investigated in the tumor cells. FOXD1 which identifies cells giving rise to stromal elements, and CITED1, a marker for cells primed for nephrogenic epithelial differentiation, were both highly expressed in CCSK. In addition, the early embryonic marker OSR1 was expressed at higher levels in CCSK than in Wilms tumor, normal fetal kidney or adult kidney. As this marker discriminates the intermediate mesoderm from other mesodermal structures, our study could suggest that CCSK arises from a mesodermal cell type that retains the capacity to initiate differentiation towards both nephrons and stroma, but remains locked in a primitive state.

Murphy AJ, Pierce J, de Caestecker C, et al.
CITED1 confers stemness to Wilms tumor and enhances tumorigenic responses when enriched in the nucleus.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(2):386-402 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood kidney cancer and retains gene expression profiles reminiscent of the embryonic kidney. We have shown previously that CITED1, a transcriptional regulator that labels the self-renewing, multipotent nephron progenitor population of the developing kidney, is robustly expressed across all major WT disease and patient characteristics. In this malignant context, CITED1 becomes enriched in the nucleus, which deviates from its cytosolic predominance in embryonic nephron progenitors. We designed the current studies to test the functional and mechanistic effects of differential CITED1 subcellular localization on WT behavior. To mimic its subcellular distribution observed in clinical WT specimens, CITED1 was misexpressed ectopically in the human WT cell line, WiT49, as either a wild-type (predominantly cytosolic) or a mutant, but transcriptionally active, protein (two point mutations in its nuclear export signal, CITED1ΔNES; nuclear-enriched). In vitro analyses showed that CITED1ΔNES enhanced WiT49 proliferation and colony formation in soft agar relative to wild-type CITED1 and empty vector controls. The nuclear-enriched CITED1ΔNES cell line showed the greatest tumor volumes after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient mice (n=15 animals per cell line). To elucidate CITED1 gene targets in this model, microarray profiling showed that wild-type CITED1 foremost upregulated LGR5 (stem cell marker), repressed CDH6 (early marker of epithelial commitment of nephron progenitors), and altered expression of specific WNT pathway participants. In summary, forced nuclear enrichment of CITED1 in a human WT cell line appears to enhance tumorigenicity, whereas ectopic cytosolic expression confers stem-like properties and an embryonic phenotype, analogous to the developmental context.

Méniel V, Song F, Phesse T, et al.
Cited1 deficiency suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(8):e1003638 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Conditional deletion of Apc in the murine intestine alters crypt-villus architecture and function. This process is accompanied by multiple changes in gene expression, including upregulation of Cited1, whose role in colorectal carcinogenesis is unknown. Here we explore the relevance of Cited1 to intestinal tumorigenesis. We crossed Cited1 null mice with Apc(Min/+) and AhCre(+)Apc(fl/fl) mice and determined the impact of Cited1 deficiency on tumour growth/initiation including tumour multiplicity, cell proliferation, apoptosis and the transcriptome. We show that Cited1 is up-regulated in both human and murine tumours, and that constitutive deficiency of Cited1 increases survival in Apc(Min/+) mice from 230.5 to 515 days. However, paradoxically, Cited1 deficiency accentuated nearly all aspects of the immediate phenotype 4 days after conditional deletion of Apc, including an increase in cell death and enhanced perturbation of differentiation, including of the stem cell compartment. Transcriptome analysis revealed multiple pathway changes, including p53, PI3K and Wnt. The activation of Wnt through Cited1 deficiency correlated with increased transcription of β-catenin and increased levels of dephosphorylated β-catenin. Hence, immediately following deletion of Apc, Cited1 normally restrains the Wnt pathway at the level of β-catenin. Thus deficiency of Cited1 leads to hyper-activation of Wnt signaling and an exaggerated Wnt phenotype including elevated cell death. Cited1 deficiency decreases intestinal tumourigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice and impacts upon a number of oncogenic signaling pathways, including Wnt. This restraint imposed by Cited1 is consistent with a requirement for Cited1 to constrain Wnt activity to a level commensurate with optimal adenoma formation and maintenance, and provides one mechanism for tumour repression in the absence of Cited1.

Nasu T, Oku Y, Takifuji K, et al.
Predicting lymph node metastasis in early colorectal cancer using the CITED1 expression.
J Surg Res. 2013; 185(1):136-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The identification of molecular markers that are useful for predicting lymph node metastasis is urgently needed to determine treatment strategies for T1 colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously showed that 10 candidate genes are correlated with de-differentiation at the invasion front of CRC using a gene expression analysis. These 10 genes are potential markers that may predict lymph node metastasis by CRC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples were obtained from 161 patients with CRC. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays were performed using 66 T3 samples in order to extract genes correlated with lymph node metastasis. Immunohistochemical studies of the extracted genes were performed on 66 T3 and 95 T1 samples. A univariate analysis followed by a multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis.
RESULTS: The CITED1 messenger RNA expression was found to be an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis in T3 CRC patients (P = 0.040). A high CITED1 protein expression, as detected with immunohistochemistry, was also an independent risk factor in T3 CRC patients (P = 0.035). In T1 colorectal cancer patients, a high CITED1 protein expression was found to be an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis (P = 0.010). The positive predictive and negative predictive values in the T1 colorectal cancer patients were 27.5% and 95.5%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The CITED1 expression is correlated with lymph node metastasis in patients with CRC. In T1 colorectal cancer patients, CITED1 has the potential ability to predict the presence of lymph node metastasis.

Jacques C, Guillotin D, Fontaine JF, et al.
DNA microarray and miRNA analyses reinforce the classification of follicular thyroid tumors.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(5):E981-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Focusing on mitochondrial function and thyroid tumorigenesis, we used an integrative approach to identify relevant biomarkers for borderline thyroid lesions.
DESIGN: Using cDNA and microRNA (miRNA) microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR analysis (qPCR), we explored samples of various types of thyroid tumors including 25 benign follicular adenomas represented by macrofollicular variants of thyroid adenomas, 38 oncocytic variants of follicular thyroid tumors, 19 papillary thyroid carcinomas, and 10 tumors of uncertain malignant potential, together with 53 normal thyroid tissue samples.
RESULTS: Our transcriptomic analysis, which highlighted discrepancies between controls and tumor tissues, as well as between various tumor types, led to the identification of 13 genes, allowing discrimination between the thyroid adenomas, oncocytic variants of follicular thyroid tumors, and papillary thyroid carcinomas, whereas the tumors of uncertain malignant potential were found to overlap these classes. Five of these genes (TP53, HOXA9, RUNX1, MYD88, and CITED1), with a differential expression confirmed by qPCR analysis, are implicated in tumorigenesis, 4 in mitochondrial metabolism (MRPL14, MRPS2, MRPS28, and COX6A1), and 2 in thyroid metabolic pathways (CaMKIINalpha and TPO). The global miRNA analysis revealed 62 differential miRNAs, the expression level for 10 of these being confirmed by qPCR. The differential expression of the miRNAs was in accordance with the modulation of gene expression and the ontologies revealed by our transcriptomic analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings reinforce the classification of follicular thyroid tumors established by the World Health Organization, and our technique offers a novel molecular approach to refine the classification of thyroid tumors of uncertain malignant potential.

Brown KW, Charles A, Dallosso A, et al.
Characterization of 17.94, a novel anaplastic Wilms' tumor cell line.
Cancer Genet. 2012; 205(6):319-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of Wilms' tumor (WT), its cell biology is less well understood, partly due to the paucity of established WT cell lines. We report here the establishment of a new anaplastic WT cell line, 17.94, which expressed NCAM, SALL1, and CITED1-phenotypic features expected of metanephric blastema-derived cells. Treatment of 17.94 cells with 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate caused morphological changes, which led to reduced NCAM and SALL1 expression, but expression of vimentin was maintained, indicating a potential for stromal differentiation. The 17.94 cell line contained a TP53 mutation, consistent with the anaplastic histology of the original tumor, but lacked mutations in WT1, WTX, or CTNNB1, which are the other genes involved in WT pathogenesis. The 17.94 cells showed no loss of heterozygosity at 7p, 11p, or 16q; however, DNA hypermethylation was detected at several loci, including the H19 differentially methylated region (indicative of loss of imprinting of IGF2 at 11p15) and at the PCDH@ gene clusters at 5q31. The derivation of the 17.94 cell line should help to further dissect the genetic-epigenetic interactions involved in the pathogenesis of WT.

Murphy AJ, Pierce J, de Caestecker C, et al.
SIX2 and CITED1, markers of nephronic progenitor self-renewal, remain active in primitive elements of Wilms' tumor.
J Pediatr Surg. 2012; 47(6):1239-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: SIX2 and CITED1 are transcriptional regulators that specify self-renewing nephronic progenitor cells of the embryonic kidney. We hypothesized that SIX2, which promotes and maintains this stem cell population, and CITED1 remain active in Wilms' tumor (WT).
METHODS: To evaluate expression domains and the pathogenic significance of SIX2 and CITED1 across WT, the Children's Oncology Group provided 40 WT specimens of stages I to IV (n = 10 per stage), which were enriched for unfavorable histology (n = 20) and treatment failure (relapse or death, n = 20). SIX2 and CITED1 protein expression was evaluated qualitatively (immunohistochemistry) and quantitatively (Western blot, or WB). Gene transcription was estimated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: SIX2 was visualized by immunohistochemistry in 36 (94.7%) of 38 specimens. Protein and messenger RNA expression of SIX2 were quantitatively similar across all stages of disease (P = .48 WB; P = 0.38 qPCR), in favorable or unfavorable histology (P = 0.51 WB; P = 0.58 qPCR), and in treatment failure or success (P = 0.86 WB; P = 0.49 qPCR). Although CITED1 expression paralleled SIX2 qualitatively, no quantitative correlation between SIX2 and CITED1 expression was observed (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.28; P = 0.08). As in the fetal kidney, overlapping, but also distinct, WT cellular expression domains were observed between SIX2 and CITED1.
CONCLUSION: SIX2 and CITED1 remain active across all disease characteristics of WT. Activity of these genes in WT potentially identifies a population of self-renewing cancer cells that exhibit an embryonic, stemlike phenotype. Taken together, these transcriptional regulators may be fundamental to WT cellular self-renewal and may represent targets for novel therapies that promote terminal differentiation.

Murphy AJ, Axt JR, de Caestecker C, et al.
Molecular characterization of Wilms' tumor from a resource-constrained region of sub-Saharan Africa.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 131(6):E983-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sub-Saharan African children have an increased incidence of Wilms' tumor (WT) and experience alarmingly poor outcomes. Although these outcomes are largely due to inadequate therapy, we hypothesized that WT from this region exhibits features of biological aggressiveness that may warrant broader implementation of high-risk therapeutic protocols. We evaluated 15 Kenyan WT (KWT) for features of aggressive disease (blastemal predominance and Ki67/cellular proliferation) and treatment resistance (anaplasia and p53 immunopositivity). To explore the additional biological features of KWT, we determined the mutational status of the CTNNB1/β-catenin and WT1 genes and performed immunostaining for markers of Wnt pathway activation (β-catenin) and nephronic progenitor cell self-renewal (WT1, CITED1 and SIX2). We characterized the proteome of KWT using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). The results were compared to histology- and age-matched North American WT (NAWT) controls. For patients with KWT, blastemal predominance was noted in 53.3% and anaplasia in 13%. We detected increased loss to follow-up (p = 0.028), disease relapse (p = 0.044), mortality (p = 0.001) and nuclear unrest (p = 0.001) in patients with KWT compared to controls. KWT and NAWT showed similar Ki67/cellular proliferation. We detected an increased proportion of epithelial nuclear β-catenin in KWT (p = 0.013). All 15 KWT specimens were found to harbor wild-type CTNNB1/β-catenin, and one contained a WT1 nonsense mutation. WT1 was detected by immunostaining in 100% of KWT, CITED1 in 80% and SIX2 in 80%. IMS revealed a molecular signature unique to KWT that was distinct from NAWT. The African WT specimens appear to express markers of adverse clinical behavior and treatment resistance and may require alternative therapies or implementation of high-risk treatment protocols.

Thompson VC, Day TK, Bianco-Miotto T, et al.
A gene signature identified using a mouse model of androgen receptor-dependent prostate cancer predicts biochemical relapse in human disease.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 131(3):662-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) have been detected in experimental and clinical prostate tumors. Mice with enforced prostate-specific expression of one such receptor variant, AR-E231G, invariably develop prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia by 12 weeks and metastatic prostate cancer by 52 weeks. The aim of this study was to identify genes with altered expression in the prostates of AR-E231G mice at an early stage of disease that may act as drivers of AR-mediated tumorigenesis. The gene expression profile of AR-E231G prostate tissue from 12-week-old mice was compared to an equivalent profile from mice expressing the AR-T857A receptor variant (analogous to the AR-T877A variant in LNCaP cells), which do not develop prostate tumors. One hundred and thirty-two genes were differentially expressed in AR-E231G prostates. Classification of these genes revealed enrichment for cellular pathways known to be involved in prostate cancer, including cell cycle and lipid metabolism. Suppression of two genes upregulated in the AR-E231G model, ADM and CITED1, increased cell death and reduced proliferation of human prostate cancer cells. Many genes differentially expressed in AR-E231G prostates are also deregulated in human tumors. Three of these genes, ID4, NR2F1 and PTGDS, which were expressed at consistently lower levels in clinical prostate cancer compared to nonmalignant tissues, formed a signature that predicted biochemical relapse (hazard ratio 2.2, p = 0.038). We believe that our findings support the value of this novel mouse model of prostate cancer to identify candidate therapeutic targets and/or biomarkers of human disease.

Sassa M, Hayashi Y, Watanabe R, et al.
Aberrant promoter methylation in overexpression of CITED1 in papillary thyroid cancer.
Thyroid. 2011; 21(5):511-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: More than 80% of all thyroid cancers, the most common endocrine malignancy, are papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). It is well established that CITED1 (Cbp/p300 Interacting Transactivators with glutamic acid [E] and aspartic acid [D]-rich C-terminal domain) mRNA is characteristically overexpressed in PTC. Our previous study suggested a positive association of BRAF mutation with CITED1 overexpression. However, the mechanism of CITED1 expression in PTC remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we analyzed whether aberrant methylation of CITED1 gene promotes CITED1 overexpression in PTC.
METHOD: CITED1 mRNA expression levels were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in three PTC-derived cell lines, TPC1, K1, and KTC-1, and in surgically dissected PTC and surrounding normal tissues from 19 patients. The BRAF mutation status of the cells and clinical specimens was determined by direct sequencing. The methylation status of the deoxycitidine-phosphate-deoxyguanosine dinucleotides (CpGs) in the CITED1 promoter was analyzed by the bisulfite-sequencing method using genomic DNA. Finally, the expression of CITED1 mRNA in TPC1 cells, when subjected to pharmacological inhibition of methylation, was analyzed.
RESULTS: CITED1 mRNA was expressed at lower levels in TPC1 than in K1 and KTC-1 cells. A BRAF mutation was present in K1 and KTC-1 cells, but not in TPC1 cells. CITED1 promoter was hypomethylated in K-1 and KTC-1 cells, but not in TPC1 cells. In surgically dissected specimens, the mean expression level of CITED1 mRNA was 30-fold higher in PTC tissues than in normal tissues. CpGs in the CITED1 promoter were more heavily methylated in normal tissues than in PTC tissues. In PTC specimens without a BRAF mutation, two CpGs were more heavily methylated than in PTC specimens with the BRAF V600E mutation. Pharmacological inhibition of methylation in TPC1 cells by 5'-aza-2'-deoxycitidine resulted in increased expression of CITED1 mRNA.
CONCLUSION: Hypomethylation of the CpGs in the promoter region of CITED1 is associated with higher expression of CITED1 mRNA in PTC tissues, consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic regulation is involved in the overexpression of CITED1. This hypothesis is supported by pharmacologic inhibition studies in TPC1 cells.

Smith AG, Lim W, Pearen M, et al.
Regulation of NR4A nuclear receptor expression by oncogenic BRAF in melanoma cells.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011; 24(3):551-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating mutations in the MAPK pathway effectors, NRAS or BRAF, are detected in over 70% of melanomas. Accordingly, the identification of downstream targets of constitutive MAPK signalling in melanoma represents a major goal in understanding the genesis of this disease. We report here the regulation of members of the NR4A family of nuclear receptors by the BRAF-MEK-ERK cascade in melanoma cells. Expression profiling of melanoma cells in which both the NR4A1 and NR4A2 family members have been down-regulated by siRNA revealed alterations in genes associated with proliferation, survival and invasiveness of tumour cells. Notably, the up-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway antagonists, DACT1 and CITED1, following NR4A1/2 ablation suggests a possible link between NR4A and β-catenin activity in melanoma cells. Taken together, these data suggest that dysregulation of NR4A nuclear receptors expression and function by the MAPK pathway may contribute to melanoma tumourigenicity.

Arora N, Scognamiglio T, Lubitz CC, et al.
Identification of borderline thyroid tumors by gene expression array analysis.
Cancer. 2009; 115(23):5421-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A subset of follicular lesions of the thyroid is encapsulated similar to follicular adenomas but with partial nuclear features suggestive of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), raising the possibility of biologically borderline tumors.
METHODS: Gene expression profiling and advanced significance analyses were performed on 50 histologically unequivocal benign and malignant tumors, and a list of 61 differentially expressed genes was generated. By using this 61-gene list, unsupervised hierarchical and K-means cluster analyses were performed on 40 additional tumors, including 15 histologically borderline tumors, 11 benign tumors, and 14 PTCs.
RESULTS: Analysis revealed 3 distinct tumor groups-benign, malignant, and intermediate. Tumors in the intermediate group (n = 15) were mostly histologic borderline tumors and had an expression profile overlapping with the benign and malignant groups. Twenty-seven genes were expressed differentially between the benign and intermediate groups, including the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein/p300-interactivator with glutamic acid/aspartic acid-rich carboxy-terminal domain 1 or CITED1 gene and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 or FGFR2 gene. Fourteen genes were expressed differentially between the intermediate group and malignant tumors, notably overexpression of the met proto-oncogene and of the high-mobility group adenine/thymine-hook 2 or HMGA2 gene in malignancies. Mutations of the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 or BRAF gene were identified in 4 of 14 malignant tumors but not in benign or intermediate tumors. Patients who had either histologically or molecularly borderline tumors did not have metastasis or recurrences.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression profiling supported the finding that encapsulated thyroid follicular lesions with partial nuclear features of PTC are biologically borderline tumors that are distinct molecularly from benign and malignant tumors.

Watanabe R, Hayashi Y, Sassa M, et al.
Possible involvement of BRAFV600E in altered gene expression in papillary thyroid cancer.
Endocr J. 2009; 56(3):407-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatic mutations in BRAF, especially BRAFV600E, are frequently identified in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) tumors. It has been established that expression levels of numbers of genes are characteristically altered in PTC, however, the link between BRAF mutation and gene expression patterns are still elusive. In the present study, we analyzed relative expression levels of the wild type BRAF and BRAFV600E mRNA by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and cDNAPCR- RFLP in 19 PTC specimens and adjacent normal thyroid tissues. BRAFV600E mRNA was detected in 17 out of 19 PTC specimens, and the expression levels were valuable among the specimens, suggesting alternative expression of BRAFV600E in each cell and/or alternative population of BRAFV600E-positive clones in the tumor. We then analyzed expression levels of 20 genes by qPCR, and analyzed for possible correlation with expression levels of BRAFV600E mRNA. Expression levels of fibronectin, vimentin and CITED1 (Cbp/p300 interacting protein with glutamic acid and aspartic acid rich carboxyl terminal domain) were positively correlated with those of BRAFV600E, suggesting pathophysiological links between activated BRAF and overexpression of these genes. Among these genes expression of vimentin was decreased by inhibiting BRAF expression in NPA cells that express BRAFV600E by means of siRNA, suggesting activated BRAF positively regulate expression of vimentin. Collectively, our analyses illustrated the possibilities that variable expression of BRAFV600E may modify characters of PTC through its effects on gene expression.

Metsuyanim S, Pode-Shakked N, Schmidt-Ott KM, et al.
Accumulation of malignant renal stem cells is associated with epigenetic changes in normal renal progenitor genes.
Stem Cells. 2008; 26(7):1808-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies indicate a dual epigenetic role of the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins in self-renewal of stem cells and oncogenesis. Their elevation in our previous human kidney microarray screen led us examine whether they participate in processes involving normal and malignant renal progenitors. We therefore analyzed the expression of the PcG genes (EZH2, BMI-1, EED, SUZ12) in relation to that of the nephric-progenitor genes (WT1, PAX2, SALL1, SIX2, CITED1) using real-time polymerase chain reaction and methylation assays during renal development, regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Although all of the nephric-progenitor genes were shown to be developmentally regulated, analysis of polycomb gene expression during murine nephrogenesis and in an in vitro induction model of the nephrogenic mesenchyme indicated dynamic regulation only for EZH2 in the normal renal progenitor population. In contrast, induction of adult kidney regeneration by ischemia/reperfusion injury resulted primarily in rapid elevation of BMI-1, whereas EZH2 was silenced. Analysis of renal tumorigenesis in stem cell-like tumor xenografts established by serial passage of Wilms' tumor (WT) in immunodeficient mice showed cooperative upregulation of all PcG genes. This was accompanied by upregulation of WT1, PAX2, and SALL1 but downregulation of SIX2. Accordingly, methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated promoter hypomethylation of WT1, PAX2, and SIX2 in primary WT and fetal kidneys, whereas progressive WT xenografts showed hypermethylation of SIX2, possibly leading to loss of renal differentiation. PcG genes vary in expression during renal development, regeneration, and tumorigenesis. We suggest a link between polycomb activation and epigenetic alterations of the renal progenitor population in initiation and progression of renal cancer.

Arora N, Scognamiglio T, Zhu B, Fahey TJ
Do benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential? An evidence-based review.
World J Surg. 2008; 32(7):1237-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Benign thyroid tumors account for most nodular thyroid disease. Determination of whether a thyroid nodule is benign or malignant is a major clinical dilemma and underlies the decision to proceed to surgery in many patients. Although the accuracy of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has reduced the need for surgery over the years, questions regarding how to follow FNA-designated benign nodules remain unresolved. This is true at least in part because of uncertainty over whether some benign nodules harbor malignant potential.
METHODS: An evidence-based review of recent clinical, pathologic, and molecular data is presented. A summary of data and observations from our own experience is also provided.
RESULTS: Review of our recent 10-year experience indicates that 2% of thyroid malignancies arise within a preexisting benign thyroid nodule. In addition, both cytologic and molecular tumor markers, including Gal-3, CITED1, HBME-1, Ras, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPAR gamma, have been identified in some histopathologically classified benign nodules. Gene expression profiling suggests that follicular adenomas and Hürthle cell adenomas have similarities to both benign and malignant tumors, suggesting that some of these tumors are premalignant. In addition, 10% of surgically excised follicular tumors are encapsulated follicular lesions with nuclear atypia, which have been termed "well-differentiated tumors of uncertain malignant potential." The data available suggest that these tumors could be precursors to carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Some benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential. Further molecular testing of these tumors can shed light on the pathogenesis of early malignant transformation.

Dillon RL, Brown ST, Ling C, et al.
An EGR2/CITED1 transcription factor complex and the 14-3-3sigma tumor suppressor are involved in regulating ErbB2 expression in a transgenic-mouse model of human breast cancer.
Mol Cell Biol. 2007; 27(24):8648-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Amplification and elevated expression of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase occurs in 20% of human breast cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis. We have previously demonstrated that mammary tissue-specific expression of activated ErbB2 under the control of its endogenous promoter results in mammary tumor formation. Tumor development was associated with amplification and overexpression of ErbB2 at both the transcript and protein levels. Here we demonstrate that the EGR2/Krox20 transcription factor and its coactivator CITED1 are coordinately upregulated during ErbB2 tumor induction. We have identified an EGR2 binding site in the erbB2 promoter and demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays that EGR2 and CITED1 associate specifically with this region of the promoter. EGR2 and CITED1 were shown to associate, and expression from an erbB2 promoter-reporter construct was stimulated by EGR2 and was further enhanced by CITED1 coexpression. Furthermore, expression of the 14-3-3sigma tumor suppressor led to downregulation of ErbB2 protein levels and relocalization of EGR2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Taken together, these observations suggest that, in addition to an increased gene copy number and upregulation of EGR2 and CITED1, an elevated erbB2 transcript level involves the loss of 14-3-3sigma, which sequesters a key transcriptional regulator of the erbB2 promoter.

Foukakis T, Gusnanto A, Au AY, et al.
A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007; 14(2):381-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in the absence of metastasis can only be established postoperatively. Moreover, high-risk FTCs are often not identifiable at the time of diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to identify transcriptional markers of malignancy and high-risk disease in follicular thyroid tumors. The expression levels of 26 potential markers of malignancy were determined in a panel of 75 follicular thyroid tumors by a TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR approach. Logistic regression analysis (LRA) was used for gene selection and generation of diagnostic and prognostic algorithms. An algorithm based on the expression levels of five genes (TERT, TFF3, PPARgamma, CITED1, and EGR2) could effectively predict high-risk disease with a specificity of 98.5%. The metastatic potential could be predicted in all four cases with apparently benign or minimally invasive (MI) disease at the time of diagnosis, but poor long-term outcome. In addition, a second model was produced by implementing two genes (TERT and TFF3), which was able to distinguish adenomas from de facto carcinomas. When this model was tested in an independent series of atypical adenomas (AFTA) and MI-FTCs, 16 out of 17 AFTAs were classified as 'benign', while MI-FTCs with vascular invasion (sometimes referred to as 'moderately invasive') and/or large tumor size tended to classify in the 'malignant' group. The reported models can be the foundation for the development of reliable preoperative diagnostic and prognostic tests that can guide the therapeutic approach of follicular thyroid neoplasms with indeterminate cytology.

Ryu B, Kim DS, Deluca AM, Alani RM
Comprehensive expression profiling of tumor cell lines identifies molecular signatures of melanoma progression.
PLoS One. 2007; 2(7):e594 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiling has revolutionized our ability to molecularly classify primary human tumors and significantly enhanced the development of novel tumor markers and therapies; however, progress in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma over the past 3 decades has been limited, and there is currently no approved therapy that significantly extends lifespan in patients with advanced disease. Profiling studies of melanoma to date have been inconsistent due to the heterogeneous nature of this malignancy and the limited availability of informative tissue specimens from early stages of disease.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In order to gain an improved understanding of the molecular basis of melanoma progression, we have compared gene expression profiles from a series of melanoma cell lines representing discrete stages of malignant progression that recapitulate critical characteristics of the primary lesions from which they were derived. Here we describe the unsupervised hierarchical clustering of profiling data from melanoma cell lines and melanocytes. This clustering identifies two distinctive molecular subclasses of melanoma segregating aggressive metastatic tumor cell lines from less-aggressive primary tumor cell lines. Further analysis of expression signatures associated with melanoma progression using functional annotations categorized these transcripts into three classes of genes: 1) Upregulation of activators of cell cycle progression, DNA replication and repair (CDCA2, NCAPH, NCAPG, NCAPG2, PBK, NUSAP1, BIRC5, ESCO2, HELLS, MELK, GINS1, GINS4, RAD54L, TYMS, and DHFR), 2) Loss of genes associated with cellular adhesion and melanocyte differentiation (CDH3, CDH1, c-KIT, PAX3, CITED1/MSG-1, TYR, MELANA, MC1R, and OCA2), 3) Upregulation of genes associated with resistance to apoptosis (BIRC5/survivin). While these broad classes of transcripts have previously been implicated in the progression of melanoma and other malignancies, the specific genes identified within each class of transcripts are novel. In addition, the transcription factor NF-KB was specifically identified as being a potential "master regulator" of melanoma invasion since NF-KB binding sites were identified as consistent consensus sequences within promoters of progression-associated genes.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that tumor cell lines are a valuable resource for the early identification of gene signatures associated with malignant progression in tumors with significant heterogeneity like melanoma. We further conclude that the development of novel data reduction algorithms for analysis of microarray studies is critical to allow for optimized mining of important, clinically-relevant datasets. It is expected that subsequent validation studies in primary human tissues using such an approach will lead to more rapid translation of such studies to the identification of novel tumor biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

McBryan J, Howlin J, Kenny PA, et al.
ERalpha-CITED1 co-regulated genes expressed during pubertal mammary gland development: implications for breast cancer prognosis.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(44):6406-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression microarray analysis identified over 930 genes regulated during puberty in the mouse mammary gland. Most prominent were genes whose expression increased in parallel with pubertal development and remained high thereafter. Members of the Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta and oestrogen-signalling pathways were significantly overrepresented. Comparison to expression data from CITED1 knockout mice identified a subset of oestrogen-responsive genes displaying altered expression in the absence of CITED1. Included in this subset are stanniocalcin2 (Stc2) and amphiregulin (Areg). Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that ERalpha binds to oestrogen response elements in both the Stc2 and Areg genes in the mammary gland during puberty. Additionally, CITED1 and ERalpha localize to the same epithelial cells of the pubertal mammary gland, supporting a role for interaction of these two proteins during normal development. In a human breast cancer data set, expression of Stc2, Areg and CITED1 parallel that of ERalpha. Similar to ERalpha, CITED1 expression correlates with good outcome in breast cancer, implying that potential maintenance of the ERalpha-CITED1 co-regulated signalling pathway in breast tumours can indicate good prognosis.

Lovvorn HN, Boyle S, Shi G, et al.
Wilms' tumorigenesis is altered by misexpression of the transcriptional co-activator, CITED1.
J Pediatr Surg. 2007; 42(3):474-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Wilms' tumors arise from arrested differentiation of renal progenitor cells. CITED1 is a transcriptional regulator that blocks the metanephric mesenchymal-to-epithelial conversion and is expressed in the blastema of both the developing kidney and Wilms' tumors. We hypothesized that alterations of CITED1-dependent signaling promote persistence of blastema and thereby subject these pluripotent cells to future oncogenic events.
METHODS: We used a retroviral delivery system to overexpress the full-length CITED1 (F/L) protein and 2 deletion mutants lacking either of its known functional domains, deltaSID (Smad-4 Interacting Domain) and deltaCR2 (Conserved Region 2; the CITED1 transactivation domain), in a human Wilms' tumor cell line that endogenously expresses CITED1. In vitro effects on cellular proliferation and apoptosis were assayed. In vivo effects on tumorigenesis, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined after heterotransplantation into immunodeficient mice (n = 15 per cell line).
RESULTS: In vitro, overexpression of CITED1-F/L significantly increased, whereas overexpression of the functionally inactivating mutant, CITED1-deltaCR2, significantly reduced cellular proliferation relative to the other lines (P < .0001). In vivo, Wilms' tumor incidence was significantly reduced in animals injected with cells overexpressing the mutant CITED1-deltaCR2 (7%) compared with CITED1-F/L (40%, P = .03) and CITED1-deltaSID (60%, P < .002). Similarly, mean tumor volume was least in the CITED1-deltaCR2 animals when compared with CITED1-F/L (P = .03) and CITED1-deltaSID animals (P < .005). Furthermore, the CITED1-deltaCR2 tumor showed the least cellular proliferation. Misexpression of CITED1 did not affect apoptosis either in vitro or in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of CITED1 in a human Wilms' tumor cell line significantly increases proliferation in vitro, whereas mutation of its functionally critical transactivation domain (deltaCR2) significantly reduces proliferation. This mutation further perturbs tumorigenesis and tumor growth after heterotransplantation into immunodeficient mice. We speculate that overexpression of CITED1 promotes expansion of a rapidly proliferating population of blastema and thereby induces an unstable environment highly susceptible to future oncogenic events.

Fluge Ø, Bruland O, Akslen LA, et al.
Gene expression in poorly differentiated papillary thyroid carcinomas.
Thyroid. 2006; 16(2):161-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
We used cDNA microarrays to study gene expression in fresh frozen papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) specimens. Seven clinically aggressive carcinomas were included, comprising poorly differentiated PTC and tumors with extensive local invasion or synchronous distant metastases. Ten differentiated (classic) papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and non-neoplastic thyroid tissues were also investigated. TaqMan quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry verified the differential gene expression. The B-Raf gene was mutated with a T-->A transversion at nucleotide 1799 (V600E) in 8 of 10 differentiated PTC, and in 4 of 7 aggressive carcinomas. Among genes markedly and equally over-expressed in carcinomas of both the aggressive and classic PtC groups, compared to normal thyroid tissue, were CBP/p300 transactivator (CItED1), fibronectin, growth/differentiation factor 15, potassium inwardly rectifying channel KCNJ2, glutaminyl peptide cyclotransferase, WNT7A, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV. A marked upregulation in carcinomas of P-cadherin mRNA and protein concomitant with E-cadherin downregulation, indicates a possible P-E cadherin "switch" in PTC. The growth factor homologue Nel-like 2, dual specificity phosphatase 5, the serine protease kallikrein 10, and also the tight junction genes claudin 1 and claudin 16, were upregulated in classic PTC but not in aggressive tumors, which may be consistent with altered cell polarity in the dedifferentiated PtC. The aggressive, poorly differentiated PtC group was specifically characterized by marked upregulation of several genes related to cell proliferation such as cell division cycle 2 (CDC2), CDC7, kinesin-like 5, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2C, and topoisomerase IIalpha, and by upregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins such as seprase, extracellular matrix protein 1, and several collagens. These aggressive tumors were also characterized by overexpression of the integrin ligand periostin, and in some biopsies also of osteopontin and of the upstream Rac-regulator dedicator of cytokinesis 10 (DOCK10). These data are interpreted to be consistent with altered cell motility, extracellular matrix remodeling and increased cell proliferation, as important processes in PTC tumor progression.

Fryknäs M, Wickenberg-Bolin U, Göransson H, et al.
Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
Tumour Biol. 2006; 27(4):211-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify molecular markers useful for the diagnostic discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
METHODS: A panel of thyroid tumors was characterized with expression profiling using cDNA microarrays. A robust algorithm for gene selection was developed to identify molecular markers useful for the classification of heterogeneous tumor classes. The study included tumor tissue specimens from 10 patients with benign follicular adenomas and from 10 with malignant tumors. The malignant tumors mainly consisted of clinically relevant minimally invasive follicular carcinomas. The mRNA expression level of a candidate gene, FHL1, was evaluated in an independent series of 61 tumors.
RESULTS: 22 gene expression markers were identified as differentially expressed. Several of the identified genes, for example DIO1, CITED1, CA12 and FN1, have previously been observed as differentially expressed in various thyroid tumors. FHL1 was significantly underexpressed in carcinomas compared to adenomas in the independent panel of tumors. The results indicate that a small number of genes can be useful to distinguish follicular adenomas from follicular carcinomas.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly corroborate previous studies and identify novel candidate molecular markers. These genes have the potential for molecular classification of follicular thyroid tumors and for providing improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid malignancies.

Sedghizadeh PP, Williams JD, Allen CM, Prasad ML
MSG-1 expression in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions of cutaneous and mucosal epithelium.
Med Sci Monit. 2005; 11(7):BR189-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A more recently characterized melanocyte-specific gene, MSG-1, has been suggested as having a role in embryogenesis, melanogenesis and melanoma progression. Studies involving MSG-1 have involved cutaneous melanocytic lesions, which are different than non-cutaneous melanocytic lesions in certain pathogenetic aspects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MSG-1 protein expression in cutaneous and mucosal melanocytic lesions, with the aim to explore its association with pigment production, malignant potential and UV light exposure.
MATERIAL/METHODS: Benign and malignant melanocytic lesions of cutaneous and mucosal epithelium were selected from our pathology registry (n=48). Immunohistochemistry was performed using polyclonal anti-MSG-1 antibody and standard streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase techniques. The staining pattern of MSG-1 was evaluated by three pathologists independently.
RESULTS: MSG-1 protein demonstrated immunoreactivity in only one mucosal melanoma (1/20, 5%), arising in the lower lip, and showing histopathologic evidence of sun-induced tissue damage. MSG-1 also showed positivity in five cutaneous melanomas (5/14, 36%), one of which was a metastatic lesion. All mucosal and cutaneous nevi failed to express MSG-1. Melanin pigmentation, seen in 18/34 melanoma and 13/14 nevi, did not correlate with MSG-1 expression. All cases but one showing MSG-1 immunoreactivity were located in sun-exposed sites.
CONCLUSIONS: The finding of MSG-1 expression in some cases of malignant melanoma, and its absence in all benign nevi, may indicate an association with melanoma progression, particularly UV-induced lesions. Its infrequent expression in melanocytic lesions limits its diagnostic value as an immunohistochemical marker in routine pathology practice.

Aldred MA, Huang Y, Liyanarachchi S, et al.
Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas show distinctly different microarray expression profiles and can be distinguished by a minimum of five genes.
J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22(17):3531-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We have previously conducted independent microarray expression analyses of the two most common types of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma, namely papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). In this study, we sought to combine our data sets to shed light on the similarities and differences between these tumor types.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microarray data from six PTCs, nine FTCs, and 13 normal thyroid samples were normalized to remove interlaboratory variability and then analyzed by unsupervised clustering, t test, and by comparison of absolute and change calls. Expression changes in four genes not previously implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis were verified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on these same samples, together with eight additional FTC tumors.
RESULTS: PTCs showed two distinct groups of genes that were either over- or underexpressed compared with normal thyroid, whereas the predominant changes in FTCs were of decreased expression. Five genes could collectively distinguish the two tumor types. PTCs showed overexpression of CITED1, claudin-10 (CLDN10), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6) but showed no change in expression of caveolin-1 (CAV1) or -2 (CAV2); conversely, FTCs did not express CLDN10 and had decreased expression of IGFBP6 and/or CAV1 and CAV2.
CONCLUSION: PTC and FTC show distinctive microarray expression profiles, suggesting that either they have different molecular origins or they diverge distinctly from a common origin. Furthermore, if verified in a larger series of tumors, these genes could, in combination with known tumor-specific chromosome translocations, form the basis of a valuable diagnostic tool.

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