Gene Summary

Gene:DLG1; discs large MAGUK scaffold protein 1
Aliases: hdlg, DLGH1, SAP97, SAP-97
Summary:This gene encodes a multi-domain scaffolding protein that is required for normal development. This protein may have a role in septate junction formation, signal transduction, cell proliferation, synaptogenesis and lymphocyte activation. A multitude of transcript variants deriving from alternative splicing and the use of multiple alternate promoter have been observed, including some splice variants that may be specific to brain and other tissues. An upstream uORF may regulate translation at some splice variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2018]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:disks large homolog 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DLG1 (cancer-related)

Rui X, Xu Y, Huang Y, et al.
lncRNA DLG1-AS1 Promotes Cell Proliferation by Competitively Binding with miR-107 and Up-Regulating ZHX1 Expression in Cervical Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(5):1792-1803 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the occurrence and development of various tumors, thereby attracting increasing attention from researchers. The important biological functions of lncRNAs have been recognized gradually, but their mechanism in cervical cancer remains unclear.
METHODS: Differentially expressed lncRNAs in cervical cancer and para-carcinoma tissues were identified by screening using an lncRNA array, and candidate lncRNAs were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A series of bioinformatics and molecular biological methods were adopted to investigate the interactions among lncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), and miRNA target genes in cervical cancer. Cell viability was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay.
RESULTS: DLG1-AS1 was the most significantly up-regulated lncRNA in cervical cancer tissues, and it was confirmed that cervical cancer patients with high DLG1-AS1 expression had a poor prognosis. Down-regulation of DLG1-AS1 expression suppressed the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Further investigation revealed that DLG1-AS1 eliminated the inhibition of miR-107 on the expression of its target gene ZHX1 by competitively binding to miR-107. Moreover, rescue assays proved that the effect of DLG1-AS1 on the proliferation of cervical cancer cells was dependent on miR-107.
CONCLUSION: DLG1-AS1/miR-107/ZHX1 can form a competitive endogenous RNA network that regulates the proliferation of cervical cancer cells, resulting in tumor progression.

Chang YS, Chang CC, Huang HY, et al.
Detection of Molecular Alterations in Taiwanese Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer Using Whole-Exome Sequencing.
Endocr Pathol. 2018; 29(4):324-331 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic and epigenetic alterations are associated with the progression and prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We performed whole-exome sequencing of tumor tissue from seven patients with sporadic MTC using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. We conducted Sanger sequencing to confirm the somatic mutations in both tumor and matched normal tissues. We applied Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional enrichment analysis with the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery and STRING for pathway analysis. We detected new somatic mutations in the BICD2, DLG1, FSD2, IL17RD, KLHL25, PAPPA2, PRDM2, PSEN1, SCRN1, and TTC1 genes. We found a somatic mutation in the PDE4DIP gene that had previously been discovered mutated in other tumors but that had not been characterized in MTC. We investigated pathway deregulation in MTC. Data regarding 1152 MTCs were assembled from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) and seven of our patients. Ontological analysis revealed that most of the variants aggregated in pathways that included the signaling pathways of thyroid cancer, central carbon metabolism, microRNAs in cancer, PI3K-Akt, ErbB, MAPK, mTOR, VEGF, and RAS. In conclusion, we conducted wide-ranging exome-wide analysis of the mutational spectrum of MTC in Taiwan's population and detected novel genes with potential associations with MTC tumorigenesis and irregularities in pathways that resulted in MTC pathogenesis.

Saito Y, Desai RR, Muthuswamy SK
Reinterpreting polarity and cancer: The changing landscape from tumor suppression to tumor promotion.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer. 2018; 1869(2):103-116 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell polarity is a fundamental property used to generate asymmetry and structure in all cells. Cancer is associated with loss of cell and tissue structure. While observations made in model system such as Drosophila, identify polarity regulators as tumor suppressors that cause inappropriate cell division, studies in mammalian epithelia do not always support such a causative contribution. Our analysis of published cancer dataset shows that many polarity genes, including PARD6B, SCRIB, PRKCI, DLG1, DLG2, DLG5 and LLGL2, are frequently amplified in multiple cancers raising the possibility that mammalian epithelia may have evolved to use polarity proteins in multiple ways where they may have tumor promoting functions. In this review, we reinterpret the published results and propose a modified perspective for the role of polarity regulators in cancer biology. In addition to the traditional form of cell polarity, which is involved establishment of maintenance of normal cell structure and asymmetry, we propose that some mammalian polarity proteins also regulate subcellular polarity (intracellular asymmetry), which can improve cellular fitness to carry out functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, stress adaptation, stemness and organelle biology. Here, we define subcellular polarity and discuss evidence that supports a role for subcellular polarity in biology.

Marziali F, Bugnon Valdano M, Brunet Avalos C, et al.
Interference of HTLV-1 Tax Protein with Cell Polarity Regulators: Defining the Subcellular Localization of the Tax-DLG1 Interaction.
Viruses. 2017; 9(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 Tax (Tax) protein is very important in viral replication and cell transformation. Tax localizes in the nucleus and cytoplasm in association with organelles. Some activities of Tax depend on interactions with PDZ (PSD-95/Discs Large/Z0-1) domain-containing proteins such as Discs large protein 1 (DLG1) which is involved in cell polarity and proliferation. The DLG1 interaction results in a cytoplasmic co-localization pattern resembling vesicular aggregates, the nature of which is still unknown. To further explore the role of PDZ proteins in HTLV-1 cell transformation, we deeply investigated the Tax-DLG1 association. By fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we detected, for the first time, the direct binding of Tax to DLG1 within the cell. We showed that the interaction specifically affects the cellular distribution of not only DLG1, but also Tax. After studying different cell structures, we demonstrated that the aggregates distribute into the Golgi apparatus in spatial association with the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). This study contributes to understand the biological significance of Tax-PDZ interactions.

Liu J, Li J, Ren Y, Liu P
DLG5 in cell polarity maintenance and cancer development.
Int J Biol Sci. 2014; 10(5):543-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Failure in establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis. Loss of expression and function of cell polarity proteins is directly related to epithelial cell polarity maintenance. The polarity protein discs large homolog 5 (DLG5) belongs to a family of molecular scaffolding proteins called Membrane Associated Guanylate Kinases (MAGUKs). As the other family members, DLG5 contains the multi-PDZ, SH3 and GUK domains. DLG5 has evolved in the same manner as DLG1 and ZO1, two well-studied MAGUKs proteins. Just like DLG1 and ZO1, DLG5 plays a role in cell migration, cell adhesion, precursor cell division, cell proliferation, epithelial cell polarity maintenance, and transmission of extracellular signals to the membrane and cytoskeleton. Since the roles of DLG5 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Crohn's disease (CD) have been reviewed, here, our review focuses on the roles of DLG5 in epithelial cell polarity maintenance and cancer development.

Kong K, Kumar M, Taruishi M, Javier RT
The human adenovirus E4-ORF1 protein subverts discs large 1 to mediate membrane recruitment and dysregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
PLoS Pathog. 2014; 10(5):e1004102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adenoviruses infect epithelial cells lining mucous membranes to cause acute diseases in people. They are also utilized as vectors for vaccination and for gene and cancer therapy, as well as tools to discover mechanisms of cancer due to their tumorigenic potential in experimental animals. The adenovirus E4-ORF1 gene encodes an oncoprotein that promotes viral replication, cell survival, and transformation by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). While the mechanism of activation is not understood, this function depends on a complex formed between E4-ORF1 and the membrane-associated cellular PDZ protein Discs Large 1 (Dlg1), a common viral target having both tumor suppressor and oncogenic functions. Here, we report that in human epithelial cells, E4-ORF1 interacts with the regulatory and catalytic subunits of PI3K and elevates their levels. Like PI3K activation, PI3K protein elevation by E4-ORF1 requires Dlg1. We further show that Dlg1, E4-ORF1, and PI3K form a ternary complex at the plasma membrane. At this site, Dlg1 also co-localizes with the activated PI3K effector protein Akt, indicating that the ternary complex mediates PI3K signaling. Signifying the functional importance of the ternary complex, the capacity of E4-ORF1 to induce soft agar growth and focus formation in cells is ablated either by a mutation that prevents E4-ORF1 binding to Dlg1 or by a PI3K inhibitor drug. These results demonstrate that E4-ORF1 interacts with Dlg1 and PI3K to assemble a ternary complex where E4-ORF1 hijacks the Dlg1 oncogenic function to relocate cytoplasmic PI3K to the membrane for constitutive activation. This novel mechanism of Dlg1 subversion by adenovirus to dysregulate PI3K could be used by other pathogenic viruses, such as human papillomavirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, and influenza A virus, which also target Dlg1 and activate PI3K in cells.

Szymanowska-Narloch A, Jassem E, Skrzypski M, et al.
Molecular profiles of non-small cell lung cancers in cigarette smoking and never-smoking patients.
Adv Med Sci. 2013; 58(2):196-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Molecular features of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in never-smokers are not well recognized. We assessed the expression of genes potentially related to lung cancer etiology in smoking vs. never-smoking NSCLC patients.
METHODS: We assayed frozen tumor samples from surgically resected 31 never-smoking and 54 clinically pair-matched smoking NSCLC patients, and from corresponding normal lung tissue from 27 and 43 patients, respectively. Expression of 21 genes, including cell membrane kinases, sex hormone receptors, transcription factors, growth factors and others was assessed by reverse transcription - quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Expression of 5 genes was significantly higher in tumors of non-smokers vs. smokers: CSF1R (p<0.0001), RRAD (p<0.0001), PR (p=0.0004), TGFBR2 (p=0.0027) and EPHB6 (p=0.0033). Expression of AKR1B10 (p<0.0001), CDKN2A (p<0.0001), CHRNA6 (p<0.0001), SOX9 (p<0.0001), survivin (p<0.0001) and ER2 (p=0.002) was significantly higher in tumors compared to normal lung tissue. Expression of AR (p<0.0001), EPHB6 (p<0.0001), PR (p<0.0001), TGFBR2 (p<0.0001), TGFBR3 (p<0.0001), ER1 (p=0.0006) and DLG1 (p=0.0016) was significantly lower in tumors than in normal lung tissue. Expression of IGF2 was higher in tumors than in healthy lung tissue in never-smokers (p=0.003), and expression of AHR (p<0.0001), CSF1R (p<0.0001) and RRAD (p<0.0001) was lower in tumors than in healthy lung tissue in smokers.
CONCLUSION: Expression of several genes in NSCLC is strongly related to smoking history. Lower expression of PR and higher expression of ER2 in tumors suggests a possibility of hormonal therapeutic intervention in selected NSCLC patients. Distinct molecular features of NSCLC in never-smokers, e.g. CHRNA6 upregulation, may prompt new treatment strategies.

Choi M, Lee S, Choi T, Lee C
Roles of the PDZ domain-binding motif of the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 on the immortalization and differentiation of primary human foreskin keratinocytes.
Virus Genes. 2014; 48(2):224-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
A number of PDZ domain-containing proteins have been identified as binding partners for the oncoprotein E6 of the high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These include hDlg, hScrib, MAGI1, MAGI2, and MAGI3, MUPP1, 14-3-3zeta, Na/H exchange regulatory factor 1, PTPN13, TIP-2/GIPC, Tip-1, and PATJ. The PDZ domain-binding motif (-X-T-X-V) at the carboxy terminus of E6 is essential for targeting PDZ proteins for proteasomal degradation. However, contribution of degradation of PDZ proteins by E6 to HPV-induced oncogenesis is still controversial. In order to clarify potential roles of molecular interactions between high-risk HPV E6 and one of best characterized PDZ proteins, hDlg in HPV-induced transformation, we used a retroviral infection system to overexpress HPV16 E7 gene alone or together with either HPV16 E6 wild type or E6 mutant gene lacking the PDZ domain-binding motif and investigated the effect of mutating the PDZ domain-binding motif of E6 on the immortalization and differentiation of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) by the high-risk type HPV E6 and E7. Although the PDZ domain-binding motif of E6 was found to be required for the efficient growth of HFKs, it was not necessary for the E6 and E7-induced immortalization of HFKs. Furthermore, the overexpression of E6 and E7 neither induced degradation nor altered cellular localization of hDlg in undifferentiated or differentiated HFKs. These data indicate that the PDZ domain-binding motif of E6 contributes to the efficient cellular growth through mechanisms other than degradation and changes in the subcellular localizations of hDlg.

Lodewick J, Sampaio C, Boxus M, et al.
Acetylation at lysine 346 controls the transforming activity of the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein in the Rat-1 fibroblast model.
Retrovirology. 2013; 10:75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Transformation by the Tax oncoprotein of the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is governed by actions on cellular regulatory signals, including modulation of specific cellular gene expression via activation of signaling pathways, acceleration of cell cycle progression via stimulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity leading to retinoblastoma protein (pRb) hyperphosphorylation and perturbation of survival signals. These actions control early steps in T cell transformation and development of Adult T cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive malignancy of HTLV-1 infected T lymphocytes. Post-translational modifications of Tax by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and acetylation have been implicated in Tax-mediated activation of the NF-κB pathway, a key function associated with Tax transforming potential.
RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that acetylation at lysine K(346) in the carboxy-terminal domain of Tax is modulated in the Tax nuclear bodies by the acetyltransferase p300 and the deacetylases HDAC5/7 and controls phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor pRb by Tax-cyclin D3-CDK4-p21(CIP) complexes. This property correlates with the inability of the acetylation deficient K(346)R mutant, but not the acetylation mimetic K(346)Q mutant, to promote anchorage-independent growth of Rat-1 fibroblasts. By contrast, acetylation at lysine K(346) had no effects on the ability of Tax carboxy-terminal PDZ-binding domain to interact with the tumor suppressor hDLG.
CONCLUSIONS: The identification of the acetyltransferase p300 and the deacetylase HDAC7 as enzymes modulating Tax acetylation points to new therapeutic targets for the treatment of HTLV-1 infected patients at risk of developing ATL.

Bozóky B, Savchenko A, Csermely P, et al.
Novel signatures of cancer-associated fibroblasts.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(2):286-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence indicates the importance of the tumor microenvironment, in particular cancer-associated fibroblasts, in cancer development and progression. In our study, we developed a novel, visually based method to identify new immunohistochemical signatures of these fibroblasts. The method employed a protein list based on 759 protein products of genes identified by RNA profiling from our previous study, comparing fibroblasts with differential growth-modulating effect on human cancers cells, and their first neighbors in the human protein interactome. These 2,654 proteins were analyzed in the Human Protein Atlas online database by comparing their immunohistochemical expression patterns in normal versus tumor-associated fibroblasts. Twelve new proteins differentially expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts were identified (DLG1, BHLHE40, ROCK2, RAB31, AZI2, PKM2, ARHGAP31, ARHGAP26, ITCH, EGLN1, RNF19A and PLOD2), four of them can be connected to the Rho kinase signaling pathway. They were further analyzed in several additional tumor stromata and revealed that the majority showed congruence among the different tumors. Many of them were also positive in normal myofibroblast-like cells. The new signatures can be useful in immunohistochemical analysis of different tumor stromata and may also give us an insight into the pathways activated in them in their true in vivo context. The method itself could be used for other similar analysis to identify proteins expressed in other cell types in tumors and their surrounding microenvironment.

Makokha GN, Takahashi M, Higuchi M, et al.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein interacts with and mislocalizes the PDZ domain protein MAGI-1.
Cancer Sci. 2013; 104(3):313-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 encodes the oncoprotein Tax1, which is essential for immortalization of human T-cells and persistent HTLV-1 infection in vivo. Tax1 has a PDZ binding motif (PBM) at its C-terminus. This motif is crucial for the transforming activity of Tax1 to a T-cell line and persistent HTLV-1 infection. Tax1 through the PBM interacts with PDZ domain proteins such as Dlg1 and Scribble, but it has not been determined yet, which cellular PDZ proteins mediate the functions of Tax1 PBM. Here we demonstrate that Tax1 interacts with the PDZ domain protein MAGI-1 in a PBM-dependent manner, and the interaction mislocalizes MAGI-1 from the detergent-soluble to the detergent-insoluble cellular fraction in 293T cells and in HTLV-1-infected T-cells. In addition, Tax1-transformation of a T-cell line from interleukin (IL)-2-dependent to IL-2-independent growth selects cells with irreversibly reduced expression of MAGI-1 at mRNA level. These findings imply that Tax1, like other viral oncoproteins, targets MAGI-1 as a mechanism to suppress its anti-tumor functions in HTLV-1-infected cells to contribute to the transforming activity of T-cells and persistent HTLV-1 infection.

Enomoto M, Igaki T
Deciphering tumor-suppressor signaling in flies: genetic link between Scribble/Dlg/Lgl and the Hippo pathways.
J Genet Genomics. 2011; 38(10):461-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of apico-basal polarity is one of the crucial factors that drives epithelial tumor progression. scribble/discs large/lethal giant larvae (scrib/dlg/lgl), a group of apico-basal polarity genes, were initially identified as members of "neoplastic" tumor-suppressors in flies. The components of the Hippo signaling pathway, which is crucial for organ size control and cancer development, were also identified through Drosophila genetic screens as members of "hyperplastic" tumor-suppressors. Accumulating evidence in recent studies implies that these two tumor-suppressor signaling pathways are not mutually exclusive but rather cooperatively act to give rise to highly malignant tumors. The interaction of these tumor-suppressor pathways could include deregulations of actin cytoskeleton, cell-cell contact, and apical-domain size of the epithelial cell.

Schulz WA, Ingenwerth M, Djuidje CE, et al.
Changes in cortical cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix gene expression in prostate cancer are related to oncogenic ERG deregulation.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:505 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cortical cytoskeleton network connects the actin cytoskeleton to various membrane proteins, influencing cell adhesion, polarity, migration and response to extracellular signals. Previous studies have suggested changes in the expression of specific components in prostate cancer, especially of 4.1 proteins (encoded by EPB41 genes) which form nodes in this network.
METHODS: Expression of EPB41L1, EPB41L2, EPB41L3 (protein: 4.1B), EPB41L4B (EHM2), EPB41L5, EPB49 (dematin), VIL2 (ezrin), and DLG1 (summarized as "cortical cytoskeleton" genes) as well as ERG was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in a well-characterized set of 45 M0 prostate adenocarcinoma and 13 benign tissues. Hypermethylation of EPB41L3 and GSTP1 was compared in 93 cancer tissues by methylation-specific PCR. Expression of 4.1B was further studied by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: EPB41L1 and EPB41L3 were significantly downregulated and EPB41L4B was upregulated in cancer tissues. Low EPB41L1 or high EPB41L4B expression were associated with earlier biochemical recurrence. None of the other cortical cytoskeleton genes displayed expression changes, in particular EPB49 and VIL2, despite hints from previous studies. EPB41L3 downregulation was significantly associated with hypermethylation of its promoter and strongly correlated with GSTP1 hypermethylation. Protein 4.1B was detected most strongly in the basal cells of normal prostate epithelia. Its expression in carcinoma cells was similar to the weaker one in normal luminal cells. EPB41L3 downregulation and EPB41L4B upregulation were essentially restricted to the 22 cases with ERG overexpression. Expression changes in EPB41L3 and EPB41L4B closely paralleled those previously observed for the extracellular matrix genes FBLN1 and SPOCK1, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Specific changes in the cortical cytoskeleton were observed during prostate cancer progression. They parallel changes in the expression of extracellular matrix components and all together appear to be associated with oncogenic ERG overexpression. We hypothesize that these alterations may contribute to the increased invasivity conferred to prostate cancer cells by ERG deregulation.

Aoyagi T, Takahashi M, Higuchi M, et al.
The PDZ domain binding motif (PBM) of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax can be substituted by heterologous PBMs from viral oncoproteins during T-cell transformation.
Virus Genes. 2010; 40(2):193-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several tumor viruses, such as human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human adenovirus, have high-oncogenic and low-oncogenic subtypes, and such subtype-specific oncogenesis is associated with the PDZ-domain binding motif (PBM) in their transforming proteins. HTLV-1, the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia, encodes Tax1 with PBM as a transforming protein. The Tax1 PBM was substituted with those from other oncoviruses, and the transforming activity was examined. Tax1 mutants with PBM from either HPV-16 E6 or adenovirus type 9 E4ORF1 are fully active in the transformation of a mouse T-cell line from interleukin-2-dependent growth into independent growth. Interestingly, one such Tax1 PBM mutant had an extra amino acid insertion derived from E6 between PBM and the rest of Tax1, thus suggesting that the amino acid sequences of the peptides between PBM and the rest of Tax1 and the numbers only slightly affect the function of PBM in the transformation. Tax1 and Tax1 PBM mutants interacted with tumor suppressors Dlg1 and Scribble with PDZ-domains. Unlike E6, Tax1 PBM mutants as well as Tax1 did not or minimally induced the degradations of Dlg1 and Scribble, but instead induced their subcellular translocation from the detergent-soluble fraction into the insoluble fraction, thus suggesting that the inactivation mechanism of these tumor suppressor proteins is distinct. The present results suggest that PBMs of high-risk oncoviruses have a common function(s) required for these three tumor viruses to transform cells, which is likely associated with the subtype-specific oncogenesis of these tumor viruses.

Muench P, Hiller T, Probst S, et al.
Binding of PDZ proteins to HPV E6 proteins does neither correlate with epidemiological risk classification nor with the immortalization of foreskin keratinocytes.
Virology. 2009; 387(2):380-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is compelling evidence that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) can cause cervical cancer. Strikingly, HPV16 and 18 account for approximately 70% of all cervical cancers, whereas phylogenetically related types are found at much lower frequencies. Most likely, differences in the activities of the viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins account for the in vivo carcinogenicity. We demonstrate here that E6 proteins from low-risk HPV70 and possibly high-risk HPV82 interact and degrade PDZ proteins hDlg and Magi1 identical to HPV16E6 and HPV18E6. In contrast high-risk HPV66E6 did not bind or degrade hDlg or Magi1. We also show that low-risk HPV70 E6/E7 immortalizes normal human keratinocytes. Together with our previous analysis concerning p53 degradation, this shows that neither binding of E6 to p53, to E6AP, to Magi1 and hDlg, the degradation of hDlg and Magi1, nor immortalization of normal human keratinocytes seems to be a reliable predictor for carcinogenic behavior of HPV in the cervix.

Javier RT
Cell polarity proteins: common targets for tumorigenic human viruses.
Oncogene. 2008; 27(55):7031-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Loss of polarity and disruption of cell junctions are common features of epithelial-derived cancer cells, and mounting evidence indicates that such defects have a direct function in the pathology of cancer. Supporting this idea, results with several different human tumor viruses indicate that their oncogenic potential depends in part on a common ability to inactivate key cell polarity proteins. For example, adenovirus (Ad) type 9 is unique among human Ads by causing exclusively estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in experimental animals and in having E4 region-encoded open reading frame 1 (E4-ORF1) as its primary oncogenic determinant. The 125-residue E4-ORF1 protein consists of two separate protein-interaction elements, one of which defines a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) required for E4-ORF1 to induce both cellular transformation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Most notably, the E4-ORF1 PBM mediates interactions with a selected group of cellular PDZ proteins, three of which include the cell polarity proteins Dlg1, PATJ and ZO-2. Data further indicate that these interactions promote disruption of cell junctions and a loss of cell polarity. In addition, one or more of the E4-ORF1-interacting cell polarity proteins, as well as the cell polarity protein Scribble, are common targets for the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoproteins. Underscoring the significance of these observations, in humans, high-risk HPV and HTLV-1 are causative agents for cervical cancer and adult T-cell leukemia, respectively. Consequently, human tumor viruses should serve as powerful tools for deciphering mechanisms whereby disruption of cell junctions and loss of cell polarity contribute to the development of many human cancers. This review article discusses evidence supporting this hypothesis, with an emphasis on the human Ad E4-ORF1 oncoprotein.

Ishioka K, Higuchi M, Takahashi M, et al.
Inactivation of tumor suppressor Dlg1 augments transformation of a T-cell line induced by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein.
Retrovirology. 2006; 3:71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The interaction of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax1 protein with the tumor suppressor Dlg1 is correlated with cellular transformation.
RESULTS: Here, we show that Dlg1 knockdown by RNA interference increases the ability of Tax1 to transform a mouse T-cell line (CTLL-2), as measured interleukin (IL)-2-independent growth. A Tax1 mutant defective for the Dlg1 interaction showed reduced transformation of CTLL-2 compared to wild type Tax1, but the transformation was minimally affected by Dlg1 reduction. The few Tax1DeltaC-transduced CTLL-2 cells that became transformed expressed less Dlg1 than parental cells, suggesting that Dlg1-low cells were selectively transformed by Tax1DeltaC. Moreover, all human T-cell lines immortalized by HTLV-1, including the recombinant HTLV-1-containing Tax1DeltaC, expressed less Dlg1 than control T-cell lines.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that inactivation of Dlg1 augments Tax1-mediated transformation of CTLL-2, and PDZ protein(s) other than Dlg1 are critically involved in the transformation.

Frese KK, Latorre IJ, Chung SH, et al.
Oncogenic function for the Dlg1 mammalian homolog of the Drosophila discs-large tumor suppressor.
EMBO J. 2006; 25(6):1406-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The fact that several different human virus oncoproteins, including adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1, evolved to target the Dlg1 mammalian homolog of the membrane-associated Drosophila discs-large tumor suppressor has implicated this cellular factor in human cancer. Despite a general belief that such interactions function solely to inactivate this suspected human tumor suppressor protein, we demonstrate here that E4-ORF1 specifically requires endogenous Dlg1 to provoke oncogenic activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in cells. Based on our results, we propose a model wherein E4-ORF1 binding to Dlg1 triggers the resulting complex to translocate to the plasma membrane and, at this site, to promote Ras-mediated PI3K activation. These findings establish the first known function for Dlg1 in virus-mediated cellular transformation and also surprisingly expose a previously unrecognized oncogenic activity encoded by this suspected cellular tumor suppressor gene.

Cavatorta AL, Fumero G, Chouhy D, et al.
Differential expression of the human homologue of drosophila discs large oncosuppressor in histologic samples from human papillomavirus-associated lesions as a marker for progression to malignancy.
Int J Cancer. 2004; 111(3):373-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-risk HPVs play a causal role in the development of cervical cancer, and their E6 oncoproteins target h-Dlg for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. The h-Dlg oncosuppressor is associated with cell-cell interactions, and deregulation of these structures leads to defective cell adhesion, loss of cell polarity and unregulated proliferation. We evaluated the contribution of this E6 activity in the progression to malignancy in HPV infections by analyzing h-Dlg expression in HPV-associated lesions. We analyzed h-Dlg in cervical, laryngeal, vulvar, colon and kidney histologic samples by Dlg immunohistochemistry. HPV association was ascertained by a PCR-colorimetric method. Although Dlg was certainly expressed in intraepithelial cervical, vulvar and laryngeal HPV-associated lesions, its cellular and tissue distribution patterns were altered compared to normal tissue. However, marked reduction in Dlg levels was observed in HPV-positive invasive cervical carcinomas. To elucidate whether the loss of Dlg was significant for carcinogenesis in general, we investigated Dlg expression in tumors not associated with HPV. In colon and kidney carcinomas, Dlg was expressed, albeit with a different pattern of distribution with respect to the normal tissue. The loss of Dlg may be considered a late-stage marker in cervical carcinogenesis, but alterations in its expression and localization take place during the different dysplastic stages. Dlg downregulation and/or alterations in its localization may contribute to transformation and may explain some of the characteristics of the malignant cells, such as loss of polarity and high migration ability.

Szafranski P, Goode S
A Fasciclin 2 morphogenetic switch organizes epithelial cell cluster polarity and motility.
Development. 2004; 131(9):2023-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Little is known about how intercellular communication is regulated in epithelial cell clusters to control delamination and migration. We investigate this problem using Drosophila border cells as a model. We find that just preceding cell cluster delamination, expression of transmembrane immunoglobulin superfamily member, Fasciclin 2, is lost in outer border cells, but not in inner polar cells of the cluster. Loss of Fasciclin 2 expression in outer border cells permits a switch in Fasciclin 2 polarity in the inner polar cells. This polarity switch, which is organized in collaboration with neoplastic tumor suppressors Discs large and Lethal-giant-larvae, directs cluster asymmetry essential for timing delamination from the epithelium. Fas2-mediated communication between polar and border cells maintains localization of Discs large and Lethal-giant-larvae in border cells to inhibit the rate of cluster migration. These findings are the first to show how a switch in cell adhesion molecule polarity regulates asymmetry and delamination of an epithelial cell cluster. The finding that Discs large and Lethal-giant-larvae inhibit the rate of normal cell cluster movement suggests that their loss in metastatic tumors may directly contribute to tumor motility. Furthermore, our results provide novel insight into the intimate link between epithelial polarity and acquisition of motile polarity that has important implications for development of invasive carcinomas.

Fuja T, Hou S, Bryant P
A multiplex microsphere bead assay for comparative RNA expression analysis using flow cytometry.
J Biotechnol. 2004; 108(3):193-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Comparative gene-expression profiling is an important tool in understanding molecular signatures of complex diseases as well as the responses of cells and tissues to external factors. With increasing microarray data, disease-specific molecular patterns are emerging but the acquisition of these data is expensive, difficult to customize and not well standardized. Once genome-wide scans identify differentially expressed genes in a given disease, cheaper, more easily customized methods will be needed for evaluating the expression of these genes in large population samples. Here we describe a novel multiplex microsphere bead assay (MBA) to compare gene expression levels. To test this assay we evaluated the expression levels of four transcripts (BRCA1, MGB1, DLG1 and ACT1) in normal and cancerous mammary tissue. The results were consistent with those generated by quantitative real-time PCR.

Hirata A, Higuchi M, Niinuma A, et al.
PDZ domain-binding motif of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein augments the transforming activity in a rat fibroblast cell line.
Virology. 2004; 318(1):327-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
While human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-2 has not been reported to be associated with such malignant leukemias. HTLV-1 Tax1 oncoprotein transforms a rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-1) to form multiple large colonies in soft agar, and this activity is much greater than that of HTLV-2 Tax2. We have demonstrated here that the increased number of transformed colonies induced by Tax1 relative to Tax2 was mediated by a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) in Tax1, which is absent in Tax2. Tax1 PBM mediated the interaction of Tax1 with the discs large (Dlg) tumor suppressor containing PDZ domains, and the interaction correlated well with the transforming activities of Tax1 and the mutants. Through this interaction, Tax1 altered the subcellular localization of Dlg from the detergent-soluble to the detergent-insoluble fraction in a fibroblast cell line as well as in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. These results suggest that the interaction of Tax1 with PDZ domain protein(s) is critically involved in the transforming activity of Tax1, the activity of which may be a crucial factor in malignant transformation of HTLV-1-infected cells in vivo.

Fuja TJ, Lin F, Osann KE, Bryant PJ
Somatic mutations and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressors CSNK1 epsilon, DLG1, and EDD/hHYD in mammary ductal carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2004; 64(3):942-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report somatic mutations in three genes (CSNK1 epsilon, encoding the Ser/Thr kinase casein kinase I epsilon; DLG1, encoding a membrane-associated putative scaffolding protein; and EDD/hHYD, encoding a progestin induced putative ubiquitin-protein ligase) in mammary ductal carcinoma. These genes were suspected of playing a role in cancer because loss-of-function mutations in their Drosophila homologues cause excess tissue growth. Using DNA from 82 laser-microdissected tumor samples, followed by microsatellite analysis, denaturing HPLC and direct sequencing, we found multiple somatic point mutations in all three genes, and these mutations showed significant association with loss of heterozygosity of closely linked polymorphic microsatellite markers. For CSNK1 epsilon and DLG1, most of the mutations affected highly conserved residues, some were found repetitively in different patients, and no synonymous mutations were found, indicating that the observed mutations were selected in tumors and may be functionally significant. Immunohistochemical reactivity of each protein was reduced in poorly differentiated tumors, and there was a positive association between altered protein reactivity, loss of heterozygosity, and somatic mutations. There was a statistically significant association of hDlg staining with p53 and Ki67 reactivity, whereas CSK1 epsilon and EDD/hHYD staining levels were associated with progesterone receptor status. The results provide strong indications for a role of all three genes in mammary ductal carcinoma. They also justify additional studies of the functional significance of the changes, as well as a search for additional changes in these and other genes identified from studies on model systems.

Massimi P, Gardiol D, Roberts S, Banks L
Redistribution of the discs large tumor suppressor protein during mitosis.
Exp Cell Res. 2003; 290(2):265-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drosophila discs large (Dlg) has been shown to be an essential regulator of cell polarity and attachment, and is classified as a potential tumour suppressor in higher eukaryotes. Human Dlg is expressed in epithelial cells at sites of cell-cell contact and acts as a negative regulator of cell growth. Although hDlg has been shown to be phosphorylated during mitosis, little is known about its activity during this stage of the cell cycle. To investigate this further we have analysed in detail the pattern of hDlg expression during mitotic cell division. In early mitosis there is a marked increase in membrane-bound hDlg which is then retained throughout mitosis, while during cytokinesis, there is a specific concentration of hDlg at the midbody. Using mutants of Dlg we show that this is mediated by sequences in the carboxy terminal region of Dlg, but it does not require the SH3 or PDZ domains, and is independent of binding to protein 4.1. Finally, using a mutant of Dlg that consists of just this carboxy terminal region of the protein, we show that it can compete with endogenous hDlg for midbody accumulation, and this mutant also gives rise to altered cell growth. We conclude that localisation of Dlg to the midbody indicates a role for Dlg at this critical point in cytokinesis.

Nguyen ML, Nguyen MM, Lee D, et al.
The PDZ ligand domain of the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 protein is required for E6's induction of epithelial hyperplasia in vivo.
J Virol. 2003; 77(12):6957-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agent of warts. Infections with high-risk HPVs are associated with anogenital and head and neck cancers. One of the viral genes responsible for HPV's oncogenic activity is E6. Mice expressing the HPV-16 E6 protein in their epidermis (K14E6(WT)) develop epithelial hyperplasia and squamous carcinomas. Numerous cellular proteins interact with E6, some of which can be grouped based on common amino acid motifs in their E6-binding domains. One such group, the PDZ partners, including hDLG, hSCRIBBLE, MUPP1, and MAGI, bind to the carboxy-terminal four amino acids of E6 through their PDZ domains. E6's interaction with the PDZ partners leads to their degradation. Additionally, E6's binding to PDZ proteins has been correlated with its ability to transform baby rat kidney cells in tissue culture and to confer tumorigenicity onto cells in xenograft experiments. To address whether the ability of E6 to bind PDZ domain partners is necessary for E6 to confer epithelial hyperproliferation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that express in stratified squamous epithelia a mutant of E6 lacking the last six amino acids at its carboxyl terminus, E6(Delta 146-151), from the human keratin 14 (K14) promoter. The K14E6(Delta 146-151) mice exhibit a radiation response similar to that of the K14E6(WT) mice, demonstrating that this protein, as predicted, retains an ability to inactivate p53. However, the K14E6(Delta 146-151) mice fail to display epithelial hyperplasia. These results indicate that an interaction of E6 with PDZ partners is necessary for its induction of epithelial hyperplasia.

Humbert P, Russell S, Richardson H
Dlg, Scribble and Lgl in cell polarity, cell proliferation and cancer.
Bioessays. 2003; 25(6):542-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dlg (Discs large), Scrib (Scribble) and Lgl (Lethal giant larvae) are evolutionarily conserved components of a common genetic pathway that link the seemingly disparate functions of cell polarity and cell proliferation in epithelial cells. dlg, scrib and lgl have been identified as tumour suppressor genes in Drosophila, mutations of which cause similar phenotypes, involving disruption of cell polarity and neoplastic overgrowth of tissues. The molecular mechanisms by which Dlg, Scrib and Lgl proteins regulate cell proliferation are not clear, but there is some evidence that epithelial polarisation is required for this regulation. Dlg, Scrib and Lgl are highly conserved between human and Drosophila, and we discuss evidence that these proteins also play a role in cancer progression in humans.

Huang JH, Rajkovic A, Szafranski P, et al.
Expression of Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor genes discslarge, scribble, and lethal giant larvae in the mammalian ovary.
Gene Expr Patterns. 2003; 3(1):3-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The similarities and differences in molecular mechanisms regulating invertebrate and mammalian folliculogenesis are starting to be deciphered. In Drosophila, the neoplastic tumor suppressor gene discslarge is crucial for suppressing proliferation and movement of follicle cells relative to the growing oocyte. Lethal giant larvae and scribble play similar roles and have been suggested to collaborate intimately with discslarge. We have identified and determined the expression pattern of murine homologs of these Drosophila genes. In situ data shows that murine discslarge-1, discslarge-3, discslarge-4, lethal giant larvae, and scribble are expressed in both overlapping and distinct patterns in oocytes and granulosa cells in maturing follicles. Disclarge-4 is expressed in the surface epithelium and is lost in mouse carcinogenic surface epithelial cells. All of these genes, as well as discslarge-2 and discslarge-5, are expressed in human ovaries. Our data suggests that as in Drosophila, these tumor suppressors may cooperate during mammalian folliculogenesis, but also have distinct functions.

Watson RA, Rollason TP, Reynolds GM, et al.
Changes in expression of the human homologue of the Drosophila discs large tumour suppressor protein in high-grade premalignant cervical neoplasias.
Carcinogenesis. 2002; 23(11):1791-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Drosophila tumour suppressor discs large (Dlg) is a cell-junction localized protein that is required for the maintenance of epithelial cyto-architecture and the negative control of cell proliferation. The mammalian homologue is likely to have a similar mode of action, and therefore functional perturbation of this protein may be linked to the development of epithelial-derived cancers. The finding that several unrelated viral oncoproteins, including the E6 protein of oncogenic human papillomaviruses, bind to the human homologue of Dlg (hDlg) supports this proposition. Employing immunohistochemistry, we show that in uterine cervical squamous epithelia, prominent localization of hDlg at sites of intercellular contact occurs in cells that have left the proliferating basal cell layers and begun maturation. The presence of hDlg at sites of cell:cell contact diminishes, whilst intracellular cytoplasmic levels increase significantly in high-grade, but not low-grade, cervical neoplasias. In invasive squamous cell carcinomas, total cellular hDlg levels are greatly reduced. Our data suggest that loss of hDlg at sites of intercellular contact may be an important step in the development of epithelial cancers.

Mantovani F, Massimi P, Banks L
Proteasome-mediated regulation of the hDlg tumour suppressor protein.
J Cell Sci. 2001; 114(Pt 23):4285-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Dlg tumour suppressor protein is intimately involved in the control of cell contact and polarity. Previous studies have shown that hDlg is a target for a number of viral transforming proteins. In particular, the high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins target hDlg for proteasome-mediated degradation, an activity that appears to contribute to HPV-induced malignancy. However, little information is available concerning the normal regulation of hDlg. In this study we have investigated the role of the proteasome in the regulation of endogenous hDlg protein levels in epithelial cell lines. We demonstrate that hDlg is, indeed, degraded via the proteasome both in the presence and absence of HPV, in a fashion that is dependent on the ability of the cells to form cell junctions. By western blot and immunofluorescence analysis we show that hDlg is efficiently degraded in isolated cells; however, upon cell-cell contact, hDlg is both hyper-phosphorylated and stabilised. Strikingly, in both transformed rodent cells and undifferentiated cervical cancer cells, this ability to stabilise Dlg upon increased cell density is lost. These results demonstrate a complex pattern of hDlg regulation by phosphorylation and proteasome degradation in response to cell contact. Loss of this regulation probably represents a significant step in the development of malignancy.

Bassal S, Nomura N, Venter D, et al.
Characterization of a novel human cell-cycle-regulated homologue of Drosophila dlg1.
Genomics. 2001; 77(1-2):5-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell cycle defects have been associated with the process of carcinogenesis in many studies. Here we report the cloning and analysis of the novel gene KIAA0008 (GenBank acc. no. D13633). Chromosomal localization experiments assigned the gene to chromosome 14q22-q23. The mRNA transcript was found to be cell cycle regulated, expressed at S-phase, and maintained at both G2-and M-phases. In situ hybridization showed expression in proliferating colon and breast (tumor) tissues. Structurally, KIAA0008 shares homology with the Drosophila melanogaster discs large-1 (dlg1) tumor suppressor gene and membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family members. The potential involvement of KIAA0008 in cell proliferation is discussed, along with its sequence identity and tissue distribution.

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