|Gene:||PRIM1; primase, DNA, polypeptide 1 (49kDa)|
|Aliases: || p49 |
|Summary:||The replication of DNA in eukaryotic cells is carried out by a complex chromosomal replication apparatus, in which DNA polymerase alpha and primase are two key enzymatic components. Primase, which is a heterodimer of a small subunit and a large subunit, synthesizes small RNA primers for the Okazaki fragments made during discontinuous DNA replication. The protein encoded by this gene is the small, 49 kDa primase subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]|
|Databases:||OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||DNA primase small subunit|
|Updated:||15 December, 2014|
What does this gene/protein do?
What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- DNA polymerase
- Purine metabolism
- Pyrimidine metabolism
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP
Graph generated 15 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 15 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: PRIM1 (cancer-related)
Activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt contributes to the formation, maintenance, and therapeutic resistance of cancer, which is driving development of compounds that inhibit Akt. Phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogues (PIA) are analogues of the products of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) that inhibit Akt activation, translocation, and the proliferation of a broad spectrum of cancer cell types. To gain insight into the mechanism of PIAs, time-dependent transcriptional profiling of five active PIAs and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (LY) was conducted in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes involved in apoptosis, wounding response, and angiogenesis were upregulated by PIAs, whereas genes involved in DNA replication, repair, and mitosis were suppressed. Genes that exhibited early differential expression were partitioned into three groups; those induced by PIAs only (DUSP1, KLF6, CENTD2, BHLHB2, and PREX1), those commonly induced by PIAs and LY (TRIB1, KLF2, RHOB, and CDKN1A), and those commonly suppressed by PIAs and LY (IGFBP3, PCNA, PRIM1, MCM3, and HSPA1B). Increased expression of the tumor suppressors RHOB (RhoB), KLF6 (COPEB), and CDKN1A (p21Cip1/Waf1) was validated as an Akt-independent effect that contributed to PIA-induced cytotoxicity. Despite some overlap with LY, active PIAs have a distinct expression signature that contributes to their enhanced cytotoxicity.Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer AKT1
Nishi H, Neta G, Nishi KH, et al.Analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor promoter: the effect of nuclear factor-kappaB.
Int J Mol Med. 2003; 11(1):49-55 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The epidermal growth factor receptor gene is highly regulated and responsive to extracellular stimuli that control cell growth. We have identified five putative nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding sites within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promoter region by sequence analysis. We have analyzed the potential role of NF-kappaB family members in the regulation of the EGFR transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis demonstrated that the p50 and p49, subunit proteins of the NF-kappaB, bound to the EGFR promoter at four out of five of these sites. However, it was found that NF-kappaB could not transactivate the EGFR by cotransfection experiments with each NF-kappaB subunit, using p50, p65 and c-Rel and an EGFR promoter luciferase reporter. Treatment of cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, which could degrade the I-kappaB and then result in translocation of NF-kappaB to nucleus, did not enhance EGFR promoter reporter gene transcription. Also, TNF-alpha did not induce EGFR expression at the protein level. These results indicate that even though purified NF-kappaB can bind to the putative sites, there is no evidence that NF-kappaB transactivates the EGFR promoter region.Related: Breast Cancer
Yotov WV, Hamel H, Rivard GE, et al.Amplifications of DNA primase 1 (PRIM1) in human osteosarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999; 26(1):62-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Fong TC, Wu Y, Kipps TJIdentification of a promoter element that regulates tissue-specific expression of the human CD80 (B7.1) gene.
J Immunol. 1996; 157(10):4442-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We isolated the promoter region of the gene encoding human CD80 to examine for elements responsible for the regulated expression of this important costimulatory molecule. Using CAT reporter constructs containing a heterologous general enhancer, we demonstrate that the CD80 promoter is active in CD80-expressing Raji cells, but has no significant activity in Jurkat cells that are CD80 negative. Transcriptional activity in Raji increases as the promoter is truncated from nucleotide position -906 to -84. However, truncation of this promoter to -41 significantly decreases its activity. Within this region is one stretch of DNA that is protected in DNase I footprint analysis and that shows some sequence similarity to the NF-kappaB element. Site-specific mutation of the 5' purine-rich portion of this element (B7-RE, or B7 regulatory element) abrogates expression. Nuclear extracts prepared from Raji, or from leukemic cells induced to express CD80, form a distinct complex(es) with B7-RE in electromobility shift assays. Moreover, a consensus NF-kappaB oligonucleotide can compete with B7-RE for nuclear extract binding. However, no super-shifted bands are observed when extracts are preincubated with Abs to p50, p65, or other Rel proteins. Moreover, we find that recombinant p49 (RelB), p50, p65 (RelA), or p49/p65 heterodimers do not bind B7-RE in vitro. These data indicate that B7-RE may help govern expression of genes independent of a tissue-specific enhancer and that this element is bound by nuclear factor(s) other than those that commonly bind NF-kappaB.Related: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) CLL - Molecular Biology
Okamoto S, Mukaida N, Yasumoto K, et al.The interleukin-8 AP-1 and kappa B-like sites are genetic end targets of FK506-sensitive pathway accompanied by calcium mobilization.
J Biol Chem. 1994; 269(11):8582-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
FK506, an immunosuppressant, inhibits the production of several cytokines in T lymphocytes. We observed that FK506 suppressed the transcription of a chemotactic cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8) in a human T cell line, Jurkat cells, activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium (Ca2+) ionophore (ionomycin). By deleted and mutated analysis of the IL-8 promoters, the AP-1 and kappa B-like sites were identified as the responsive elements for PMA and ionomycin. FK506 suppressed the transcriptions through the AP-1 or kappa B-like sites induced by PMA plus Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents, but not those induced by Ca(2+)-independent stimuli. In gel retardation analysis, FK506 had little effect on the binding to the AP-1 site of PMA/ionomycin-induced nuclear factors, which were recognized with anti-JunD or c-Fos antibody. In contrast, FK506 or EGTA (Ca2+ chelator) similarly affected the formation of kappa B-like site binding complexes, which were not recognized by any antibodies against the human Rel family proteins (c-Rel, p65, p50, and p49). Furthermore, we confirmed the previous report that FK506 suppressed the PMA/ionomycin-induced activation through authentic kappa B site of immunoglobulin (Ig) gene, to which NF-kappa B binding was also decreased by FK506, indicating that both IL-8 kappa B-like site and Ig kappa B site are FK506-sensitive in spite of the difference of binding factors. Our results indicate that not only the reported IL-2 NF-AT and NFIL-2A sites and Ig kappa B site, but also the IL-8 AP-1 and kappa B-like sites are terminals of FK506-sensitive pathway involving Ca2+ mobilization.
Liptay S, Schmid RM, Perkins ND, et al.Related subunits of NF-kappa B map to two distinct loci associated with translocations in leukemia, NFKB1 and NFKB2.
Genomics. 1992; 13(2):287-92 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The PLC/PRF/5 cell line derived from a human hepatoma produces hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 22-nm particles of the same buoyant density as those found in the serum of infected patients. The HBsAg particles from this cell line were labeled with [35S]methionine and purified, and the polypeptides were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with those of serum-derived particles. The two major polypeptides of serum-derived HBsAg particles (p20 and p23) were found in the same relative amounts in the particles from the cell line. The three smallest of the five minor components observed in HBsAg particles from serum were present in particles from the cell line. These polypeptides (p31, p36, and p43), as well as p20 and p23, were precipitated with anti-HBs-containing serum. The two largest polypeptides of serum particles (p49 and p66) were not detected in particles from these cells. When the PLC/PRF/5 HBsAg particles were radiolabeled with tritiated sugars, p23, and not p20, was found to contain radioactivity, indicating that the pattern of polypeptide glycosylation is similar to that of serum HBsAg. None of the other possible gene products of hepatitis B virus was detected in the PLC/PRF/5-derived HBsAg particles, in the cells, or in the cell supernatants.Related: Liver Cancer