Gene Summary

Gene:SDHD; succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D
Aliases: PGL, CBT1, CWS3, PGL1, QPs3, SDH4, cybS, CII-4
Summary:This gene encodes a member of complex II of the respiratory chain, which is responsible for the oxidation of succinate. The encoded protein is one of two integral membrane proteins anchoring the complex to the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with the formation of tumors, including hereditary paraganglioma. Transmission of disease occurs almost exclusively through the paternal allele, suggesting that this locus may be maternally imprinted. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, and 18. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrial
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SDHD (cancer-related)

Lemelin A, Lapoirie M, Abeillon J, et al.
Pheochromocytoma, paragangliomas, and pituitary adenoma: An unusual association in a patient with an SDHD mutation. Case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(30):e16594 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: Pituitary adenomas and paragangliomas are both rare endocrine diseases. Paragangliomas (PGL)/pheochromocytomas (PHEO) are part of an inherited syndrome in about 30% to 40% of cases. Among familial cases, mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit genes (succinate dehydrogenase subunit [SDH]B, SDHC, SDHD, succinate dehydrogenase subunit AF2 [SDHAF2] , and SDHA) are the most common cause.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report a 31-year-old patient with a known SDHD mutation whose disease has been revealed by a left PHEO during childhood and who presented at age 29 years a large paraganglioma of the right jugular foramen, a concomitant PHEO of the left adrenal and 2 retroperitoneal paragangliomas. A pituitary incidentaloma was found during investigations on a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) (FDG-PET).
DIAGNOSIS: A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the presence of a 14 mm pituitary macroadenoma. The pituitary function was normal except for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. On examination of the fundus, a diagnosis of Pseudo Foster-Kennedy syndrome was made due to a venous compression of the right jugular vein caused by the paraganglioma (PGL). The pituitary adenoma was not compressive to the optic chiasm.
INTERVENTIONS: A treatment with acetazolamide was started in order to improve intracranial hypertension. The patient couldn't benefit of a surgical approach for the paraganglioma of the right jugular foramen; the patient has been treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (Gamma Knife).
OUTCOMES: The most recent MRI revealed that the right jugular foramen PGL is stable and the latest visual assessment demonstrated stability despite a recent reduction in acetazolamide dosage. A surveillance by MRI of the pituitary adenoma has been planned.
LESSONS: The association of a pituitary adenoma to paragangliomas within a same patient is very uncommon and raises the question of related physiopathological mechanisms.

Ding Y, Feng Y, Wells M, et al.
SDHx gene detection and clinical Phenotypic analysis of multiple paraganglioma in the head and neck.
Laryngoscope. 2019; 129(2):E67-E71 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to detect and explore the mechanisms of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex subunit-related gene mutations in cases of multiple paraganglioma (PGL) in the head and neck.
METHODS: In Beijing Tongren Hospital (Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China) between January 2013 and February 2017, 23 cases of head and neck multiple PGL were evaluated by genetic sequencing. From these cases, four hereditary families and 10 cases with sporadic occurrences were found. Gene mutations, including SDHD, SDHB, SDHC, SDHAF2, VHL and RET in germ cells and somatic cells, were detected by gene capture and high throughput sequencing.
RESULTS: In family 1, 12 instances of SDHD gene mutation were detected, eight of which manifested as bilateral carotid body tumor (CBT) with one bilateral malignant CBT. In family 2, three cases of SDHD mutation were found with one case of bilateral CBT and two cases of unilateral CBT. In family 3, two cases of SDHD gene mutation were found, both characterized by vagus PGL and pheochromocytoma. Of the 10 patients with sporadic manifestations, five cases of SDHD gene mutation and one case of RET gene mutation were detected. Two novel gene mutations, c.387_393del7 mutation of SDHD gene and c.3247A>G mutation of RET gene, were also detected.
CONCLUSION: In patients with multiple PGL in the head and neck, these are accompanied by a genetic mutation of the germ cell. In this case study, this mutation was most commonly a mutation of the SDHD gene.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 129:E67-E71, 2019.

Oudijk L, Gaal J, de Krijger RR
The Role of Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis of Succinate Dehydrogenase in the Diagnosis of Endocrine and Non-Endocrine Tumors and Related Syndromes.
Endocr Pathol. 2019; 30(1):64-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is an enzyme complex, composed of four protein subunits, that plays a role in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. The genes for SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD are located in the nuclear DNA, and mutations in these genes have initially been described in paragangliomas (PGL) and pheochromocytomas (PCC), which are relatively rare tumors derived from the autonomic nervous system and the adrenal medulla, respectively. Patients with SDH mutations, that are almost exclusively in the germline, are frequently affected by multiple PGL and/or PCC. In addition, other tumors have been associated with SDH mutations as well, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors, SDH-deficient renal cell carcinoma, and pituitary adenomas. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB and SDHA has been shown to be a valuable additional tool in the histopathological analysis of these tumors, and can be considered as a surrogate marker for molecular analysis. In addition, SDHB immunohistochemistry is relevant in the decision-making whether a genetic sequence variant represents a pathogenic mutation or not. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge of the physiologic and pathologic role of the SDH enzyme complex and its involvement in endocrine and non-endocrine tumors, with an emphasis on the applicability of immunohistochemistry.

Shulskaya MV, Shadrina MI, Bakilina NA, et al.
The spectrum of SDHD mutations in Russian patients with head and neck paraganglioma.
Int J Neurosci. 2018; 128(12):1174-1179 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM OF THE STUDY: It was found that the mutations in the SDHD gene, encoding one of subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex, lead to the development of head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL). We analyzed this gene in 91 patients with HNPGL from Russia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA was isolated from the whole blood. A screening for mutations was performed by Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: We revealed three missense mutations that have been described previously: p.Pro81Leu, p.His102Arg, p.Tyr114Cys. Moreover, we identified a novel potentially pathogenic variant (p.Trp105*).
CONCLUSIONS: We found that mutations in the SDHD gene were less common in Russian patients compared with the majority of European populations. It was shown that the p.His102Arg mutation is a major mutation in Russia. We confirmed the previous suggestion that a bilateral localization of the tumor and the carotid type represent a marker of the genetically determined form of HNPGL.

von Dobschütz E, Neumann HPH
[Genetics of pheochromocytoma and the relevance in surgery].
Chirurg. 2019; 90(1):15-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromaffin tumors, e.g. pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are caused by germline mutations of several susceptibility genes in 30-40% of the patients. The corresponding syndromes are multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2, RET gene), von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), paraganglioma syndrome types 1-5 (PGL1-5, SDHx gene) and familial pheochromocytoma due to mutations in the MAX and TMEM127 genes. Clinically, screening for such diseases should be carried out by clinical symptoms and mutation analyses. Important indications can be found in the history of patients and their families, young age of manifestation (<30 years), extra-adrenal localization and the presence of metastatic pheochromocytomas. Organ-preserving endoscopic adrenal operations are nowadays standard for hereditary pheochromocytomas. Previous studies have shown that the reoccurrence of tumors in residual tissue is rare and can occur many years later and that metastatic tumors arising from such recurrences are very rare. When a mutation is detected in a susceptibility gene, a multidisciplinary follow-up care tailored to each individual syndrome is essential.

Wang G, Rao P
Succinate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Short Review.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2018; 142(10):1284-1288 [PubMed] Related Publications
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme complex composed of 4 protein subunits (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD). Germ line mutations of the genes encoding these SDH subunits result in hereditary syndromes harboring pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, renal cell carcinomas, and pituitary adenomas. SDH-deficient renal cell carcinomas are rare, with a mean age of 38 to 40 years. Histologically, these tumors show a characteristic appearance that includes a solid, nested, or tubular architecture with variable cysts. Cells are typically cuboidal, have indistinct cell borders and eosinophilic cytoplasm, and show flocculent intracytoplasmic inclusions. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for SDHB is the hallmark of these tumors. Although most SDH-deficient renal cell carcinomas are clinically indolent, some tumors may behave aggressively, particularly those with a high nuclear grade, tumor necrosis, or sarcomatoid differentiation. Accurate classification of these tumors is important for clinical follow-up, screening, and genetic evaluation of the patients and other family members for this hereditary tumor syndrome.

Wu K, Zhang Y, Zhang H, et al.
[Germline gene testing of the RET, VHL, SDHD and SDHB genes in patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2018; 50(4):634-639 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the germline variations of genes RET, VHL, SDHD and SDHB in patients with pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma and to evaluate variations of these genes in Chinese patients.
METHODS: Patients who were treated in Peking University First Hospital from September 2012 to March 2014 and diagnosed with pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma by pathologists were included in this study. Twelve patients were included in total, of whom 11 had pheochromocytoma, and 1 had paraganglioma. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from the leukocytes of peripheral blood of the patients. The exons 10, 11, 13-16 of the RET gene, and all exons of VHL, SDHB and SDHD genes and their nearby introns (±20 bp) were amplified with polymerase chain reactions, and the products were sent to a biotechnology company for sequencing. The sequencing results were compared with wildtype sequences of these genes to identify variations. One of the patients was diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. A family analysis was performed in his kindred, and his family members received genetic tests for the related variations.
RESULTS: Three patients were found to have germline gene variations. A c.136C>T (p.R46X) variation of the SDHB gene was found in a patient with malignant pheochromocytoma. A c.1901G>A (C634Y) variation, as well as c.2071G>A (p.G691S) and c.2712C>G (p.S904S) variations of the RET gene were found in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. After a family analysis, five family members of this patient were found to have the same variations. c.2071G>A (p.G691S) and c.2712C>G (p.S904S) variations of the RET gene were also found in a clinical sporadic patient without evidence of malignancy. A patient with congenital single ventricle malformation and pheochromocytoma was included in this study, and no variation with clinical significance was found in the four genes of this patient.
CONCLUSION: 25% (3/12) patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma were found to have missense or nonsense germline gene variations in this study, including the c.136C>T (p.R46X) variation of the SDHB gene, the c.1901G>A (C634Y) variation of the RET gene, and c.2071G>A (p.G691S) and c.2712C>G (p.S904S) variations of the RET gene. The former two variations have already been confirmed to be pathogenic. The existence of these variations in Chinese patients with pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma was validated in this study, which supports the conclusion that genetic testing is necessary to be generally performed in patients with pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma.

Stigliano A, Lardo P, Cerquetti L, et al.
Treatment responses to antiangiogenetic therapy and chemotherapy in nonsecreting paraganglioma (PGL4) of urinary bladder with SDHB mutation: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(30):e10904 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Paraganglioma (PGL) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. Currently, the malignancy is defined as the presence of metastatic spread at presentation or during follow-up. Several gene mutations are listed in the pathogenesis of PGL, among which succinate dehydrogenase (SDHX), particularly the SDHB isoform, is the main gene involved in malignancy. A 55-year-old male without evidence of catecholamine secretion had surgery for PGL of the urinary bladder. After 1 year, he showed a relapse of disease and demonstrated malignant PGL without evidence of catecholamine secretion with a germline heterozygous mutation of succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB). After failure of a second surgery for relapse, he started medical treatment with sunitinib daily but discontinued due to serious side effects. Cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine (CVD) chemotherapeutic regimen stopped the disease progression for 7 months.
CONCLUSION: Malignant PGL is a very rare tumor, and SDHB mutations must be always considered in molecular diagnosis because they represent a critical event in the progression of the oncological disease. Currently, there are few therapeutic protocols, and it is often difficult, as this case demonstrates, to decide on a treatment option according to a reasoned set of choices.

Moog S, Houy S, Chevalier E, et al.
18F-FDOPA PET/CT Uptake Parameters Correlate with Catecholamine Secretion in Human Pheochromocytomas.
Neuroendocrinology. 2018; 107(3):228-236 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 18F-FDOPA positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a sensitive nuclear imaging technology for the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas (PHEO). However, its utility in determining predictive factors for the secretion of catecholamines remains poorly studied.
METHODS: Thirty-nine histologically confirmed PHEO were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients underwent 18F-FDOPA PET/CT before surgery, with an evaluation of several uptake parameters (standardized uptake values [SUVmax and SUVmean] and the metabolic burden [MB] calculated as follows: MB = SUVmean × tumor volume) and measurement of plasma and/or urinary metanephrine (MN), normetanephrine (NM), and chromogranin A. Thirty-five patients were screened for germline mutations in the RET, SDHx, and VHL genes. Once resected, primary cultures of 5 PHEO were used for real-time measurement of catecholamine release by carbon fiber amperometry.
RESULTS: The MB of the PHEO positively correlated with 24-h urinary excretion of NM (r = 0.64, p < 0.0001), MN (r = 0.49, p = 0.002), combined MN and NM (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001), and eventually plasma free levels of NM (r = 0.55, p = 0.006). In the mutated patients (3 SDHD, 2 SDHB, 3 NF1, 1 VHL, and 3 RET), a similar correlation was observed between MB and 24-h urinary combined MN and NM (r = 0.86, p = 0.0012). For the first time, we demonstrate a positive correlation between the PHEO-to-liver SUVmax ratio and the mean number of secretory granule fusion events of the corresponding PHEO cells revealed by amperometric spikes (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: While the 18F-FDOPA PET/CT MB of PHEO strongly correlates with the concentration of MN, amperometric recordings suggest that 18F-FDOPA uptake could be enhanced by overactivity of catecholamine exocytosis.

Yamanaka M, Shiga K, Fujiwara S, et al.
A Novel SDHB IVS2-2A>C Mutation Is Responsible for Hereditary Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma Syndrome.
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2018; 245(2):99-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors which arise from adrenal medulla, and sympathetic or parasympathetic nerves, respectively. Hereditary cases afflicted by both or either pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have been reported: these are called hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (HPPS). Many cases of HPPS are caused by mutations of one of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes; mainly SDHB and SDHD that encode subunits for the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II. In this study, we investigated mutations of SDH genes in six HPPS patients from four Japanese pedigrees using peripheral blood lymphocytes (from one patient with pheochromocytoma and five patients with neck paraganglioma) and tumor tissues (from two patients with paraganglioma). Results showed that all of these pedigrees harbor germline mutations in one of the SDH genes. In two pedigrees, a novel IVS2-2A>C mutation in SDHB, at the acceptor-site in intron 2, was found, and the tumor RNA of the patient clearly showed frameshift caused by exon skipping. Each of the remaining two pedigrees harbors a reported missense mutation, R242H in SDHB or G106D in SDHD. Importantly, all these mutations are heterozygous in constitutional DNAs, and two-hit mutations were evident in tumor DNAs. We thus conclude that the newly identified IVS2-2A>C mutation in SDHB is responsible for HPPS. The novel mutation revealed by our study may contribute to improvement of clinical management for patients with HPPS.

Defeudis G, Fioriti E, Palermo A, et al.
A case of pheochromocytoma with negative MIBG scintigraphy, PET-CT and genetic tests (VHL included) and a rare case of post-operative erectile dysfunction.
Hormones (Athens). 2018; 17(2):279-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma (Ph) is a rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumour that arises from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Ph usually presents with symptoms including paroxysmal headache, sweating, palpitations, and hypertension.
CLINICAL CASE: During a computed tomography (CT) scan in a normotensive 49-year-old man, an incidentaloma of 4.5 cm was detected. Hypercortisolism was excluded after the dexamethasone suppression test, levels of DHEAS all falling within the normal range. After a 24-h urine collection, normal urinary metanephrines and a 4-fold higher level compared to the normal range of urinary normetanephrines were observed. Cortisoluria levels were within the normal range. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) was also excluded. Before the adrenalectomy,
CONCLUSIONS: This is a case report in which, in a normotensive patient with Ph, both MIBG and FDG PET-CT were negative, as were also genetic exams, including VHL, this underlining the difficulties in diagnosing this condition; furthermore, a rare case of ED occurred after surgery.

Andrade MO, Cunha VSD, Oliveira DC, et al.
What determines mortality in malignant pheochromocytoma? - Report of a case with eighteen-year survival and review of the literature.
Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Mar-Apr; 62(2):264-269 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a tumor derived from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells. Prognosis of malignant PCC is generally poor due to local recurrence or metastasis. We aim to report a case of malignant PCC with 18-year survival and discuss which factors may be related to mortality and long-term survival in malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient, a 45-year-old man, reported sustained arterial hypertension with paroxysmal episodes of tachycardia, associated with head and neck burning sensation, and hand and foot tremors. Diagnosis of PCC was established biochemically and a tumor with infiltration of renal parenchyma was resected. No genetic mutation or copy number variations were identified in SDHB, SDHD, SDHC, MAX and VHL. Over 18 years, tumor progression was managed with 131I-MIBG (iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine) and 177Lutetium-octreotate therapy. Currently, the patient is asymptomatic and presents sustained stable disease, despite the presence of lung, para-aortic lymph nodes and femoral metastases. Adequate response to treatment with control of tumor progression, absence of significant cardiovascular events and other neoplasms, and lack of mutations in the main predisposing genes reported so far may be factors possibly associated with the prolonged survival in this case. Early diagnosis and life-long follow-up in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma are known to be crucial in improving survival.

Zhang YJ, Cheng YH, Guo LX, et al.
[Expression of succinate dehydrogenase subunit protein in succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2018; 47(4):252-257 [PubMed] Related Publications

Enríquez-Vega ME, Muñoz-Paredes JG, Cossío-Zazueta A, et al.
SDHD gene mutation in Mexican population whit carotid body tumor.
Cir Cir. 2018; 86(1):38-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Introduction: Among the U.S. population, the p81L SDHD (11q23) gene mutation is present in 6-36% of patients with sporadic carotid body tumor (CBT), but in familial cases is high as 80%. That is why the P81L mutation is used as a screening method for carotid body tumor in the U.S.
Methods: We included 25 patients who underwent resection of a CBT from January 2010 to June 2015. After informed consent, a blood sample was taken for genetic testing on real-time polymerase chain reaction, in order to identify p81L mutation in the SDHD gene. The information was analyzed with descriptive statistics, using central tendency and description measures.
Results: In our group, 92% were females, a mean age of 55.5 years, and 52% were Shamblin type II. The most common place of residence was Mexico City, 8% of the patients had family history, about 20% of the patients had a contralateral tumor and 16% had antecedent of another kind of tumor, 4 (16%) p81L SDHD gene mutations were detected, all of them were heterozygous.
Conclusions: The p81L mutation in the SDHD gene was found in the Mexican population in higher grade that in the U.S. population, which explain the high incidence of this pathology in our country, but we need more studies about this subject.

Zuo Y, Li X, Wu X, et al.
Multifocal Paraganglioma and Pheochromocytoma Due to Truncated SDHD Mutation.
Urology. 2018; 116:63-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare autosomal dominant disorders derived from the neural crest chromaffin tissues of the autonomic nervous system. The succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D (SDHD) gene has been implicated as one of the pathogenic genes. Although more than 100 SDHD mutations have been reported, the phenotype-genotype association remains unclear.
METHODS: We reported a case of a patient who presented with multifocal PPGLs and with a rare SDHD mutation, and reviewed the phenotype-genotype association of SDHD.
RESULTS: We identified a pathogenic variant of SDHD (c.170-1G>T, NM_003002.3), which caused the complete deletion of exon 3 in the transcript and resulted in a shorter and unstable SDHD mRNA. And truncated SDHD mutations were prone to cause multifocal PPGL, whereas missense SDHD mutations usually caused unifocal lesions.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report linking the c.170-1G>T variant to multifocal tumors. We recommend whole-body imaging examinations and close, regular follow-up for these patients, given the risk of multifocal tumor development.

Snezhkina AV, Lukyanova EN, Kalinin DV, et al.
Exome analysis of carotid body tumor.
BMC Med Genomics. 2018; 11(Suppl 1):17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carotid body tumor (CBT) is a form of head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) arising at the bifurcation of carotid arteries. Paragangliomas are commonly associated with germline and somatic mutations involving at least one of more than thirty causative genes. However, the specific functionality of a number of these genes involved in the formation of paragangliomas has not yet been fully investigated.
METHODS: Exome library preparation was carried out using Nextera® Rapid Capture Exome Kit (Illumina, USA). Sequencing was performed on NextSeq 500 System (Illumina).
RESULTS: Exome analysis of 52 CBTs revealed potential driver mutations (PDMs) in 21 genes: ARNT, BAP1, BRAF, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDKN2A, CSDE1, FGFR3, IDH1, KIF1B, KMT2D, MEN1, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SETD2, TP53BP1, TP53BP2, and TP53I13. In many samples, more than one PDM was identified. There are also 41% of samples in which we did not identify any PDM; in these cases, the formation of CBT was probably caused by the cumulative effect of several not highly pathogenic mutations. Estimation of average mutation load demonstrated 6-8 mutations per megabase (Mb). Genes with the highest mutation rate were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Exome analysis of 52 CBTs for the first time revealed the average mutation load for these tumors and also identified potential driver mutations as well as their frequencies and co-occurrence with the other PDMs.

Schaefer IM, Hornick JL, Bovée JVMG
The role of metabolic enzymes in mesenchymal tumors and tumor syndromes: genetics, pathology, and molecular mechanisms.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(4):414-426 [PubMed] Related Publications
The discovery of mutations in genes encoding the metabolic enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and fumarate hydratase (FH) has expanded our understanding not only of altered metabolic pathways but also epigenetic dysregulation in cancer. IDH1/2 mutations occur in enchondromas and chondrosarcomas in patients with the non-hereditary enchondromatosis syndromes Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome and in sporadic tumors. IDH1/2 mutations result in excess production of the oncometabolite (D)-2-hydroxyglutarate. In contrast, SDH and FH act as tumor suppressors and genomic inactivation results in succinate and fumarate accumulation, respectively. SDH deficiency may result from germline SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, or SDHD mutations and is found in autosomal-dominant familial paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma and Carney-Stratakis syndrome, describing the combination of paraganglioma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). In contrast, patients with the non-hereditary Carney triad, including paraganglioma, GIST, and pulmonary chondroma, usually lack germline SDH mutations and instead show epigenetic SDH complex inactivation through SDHC promoter methylation. Inactivating FH germline mutations are found in patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome comprising benign cutaneous/uterine leiomyomas and renal cell carcinoma. Mutant IDH, SDH, and FH share common inhibition of α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenases such as the TET family of 5-methylcytosine hydroxylases preventing DNA demethylation, and Jumonji domain histone demethylases increasing histone methylation, which together inhibit cell differentiation. Ongoing studies aim to better characterize these complex alterations in cancer, the different clinical phenotypes, and variable penetrance of inherited and sporadic cancer predisposition syndromes. A better understanding of the roles of metabolic enzymes in cancer may foster the development of therapies that specifically target functional alterations in tumor cells in the future. Here, the physiologic functions of these metabolic enzymes, the mutational spectrum, and associated functional alterations will be discussed, with a focus on mesenchymal tumor predisposition syndromes.

de Vos B, Rijken JA, Adank MA, et al.
A novel succinate dehydrogenase subunit B germline variant associated with head and neck paraganglioma in a Dutch kindred: A family-based study.
Clin Otolaryngol. 2018; 43(3):841-845 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In the Netherlands, the majority of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGL) are caused by germline variants in the succinate dehydrogenase genes (SDHD, SDHB, SDHAF2). Here, we evaluate a four-generation family linked to a novel SDHB gene variant with the manifestation of a HNPGL.
DESIGN: A family-based study.
SETTING: The VU University Medical Center (VUmc) Amsterdam, a tertiary clinic for Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The index patients presented with an embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma and a non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) revealed a novel deletion of exon 1-3 in the SDHB gene, suspected to predispose to paraganglioma (PGL)/pheochromocytoma (PHEO) syndrome type 4. Subsequently, genetic counselling and DNA testing were offered to all family members at risk. Individuals that tested positive for this novel SDHB gene variant were counselled and additional clinical evaluation was offered for the identification of HNPGL and/or PHEO.
RESULTS: The DNA of 18 family members was tested, resulting in the identification of 10 carriers of the exon 1-3 deletion in the SDHB gene. One carrier was diagnosed with a carotid body PGL and serum catecholamine excess, which was surgically excised. Negative SDHB immunostaining of the carotid body tumour confirmed that it was caused by the SDHB variant. The remaining 9 carriers showed no evidence of PGL/PHEO.
CONCLUSION: Deletion of exon 1-3 in the SDHB gene is a novel germline variant associated with the formation of hereditary HNPGL.

Turchini J, Cheung VKY, Tischler AS, et al.
Pathology and genetics of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
Histopathology. 2018; 72(1):97-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) are rare tumours with an estimated annual incidence of 3 per million. Advances in molecular understanding have led to the recognition that at least 30-40% arise in the setting of hereditary disease. Germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase genes SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and SDHAF2 are the most prevalent of the more than 19 hereditary genetic abnormalities which have been reported. It is therefore recommended that, depending on local resources and availability, at least some degree of genetic testing should be offered to all PHEO/PGL patients, including those with clinically sporadic disease. It is now accepted that that all PHEO/PGL have some metastatic potential; therefore, concepts of benign and malignant PHEO/PGL have no meaning and have been replaced by a risk stratification approach. Although there is broad acceptance that certain features, including high proliferative activity, invasive growth, increased cellularity, large tumour nests and comedonecrosis, are associated with an increased risk of metastasis, it remains difficult to predict the clinical behaviour of individual tumours and no single risk stratification scheme is endorsed or in widespread use. In this review, we provide an update on advances in the pathology and genetics of PHEO/PGL with an emphasis on the changes introduced in the WHO 2017 classification of endocrine neoplasia relevant to practising surgical pathologists.

Aldera AP, Govender D
Gene of the month: SDH.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(2):95-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein complex which plays a role in the citric acid cycle and the electron transfer chain. Germline mutations in

Otani N, Sugano K, Inami S, et al.
Cardiac paraganglioma with a novel germline mutation of succinate dehydrogenase gene D.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2017; 47(12):1193-1197 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 58-year-old woman with a past medical history of a carotid body tumor, resected 4 months prior to presentation, was admitted to our hospital for treatment of a cardiac tumor that was identified on post-operative echocardiography and chest computed tomography. The cardiac tumor was surgically removed and identified pathologically as a paraganglioma, similarly to the carotid body tumor. Genetic analysis of both tumors identified a non-synonymous mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) gene D, Exon4, c.320T>C, p.Leu107Pro showing co-segregation with paternal transmission and maternal imprinting among family members. This novel mutation appears to be the cause of familial paraganglioma in this patient.

Casey RT, Warren AY, Martin JE, et al.
Clinical and Molecular Features of Renal and Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma Tumor Association Syndrome (RAPTAS): Case Series and Literature Review.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017; 102(11):4013-4022 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Context: The co-occurrence of pheochromocytoma (PC) and renal tumors was linked to the inherited familial cancer syndrome von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease more than six decades ago. Subsequently, other shared genetic causes of predisposition to renal tumors and to PC, paraganglioma (PGL), or head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL) have been described, but case series of non-VHL-related cases of renal tumor and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma tumor association syndrome (RAPTAS) are rare.
Objective: To determine the clinical and molecular features of non-VHL RAPTAS by literature review and characterization of a case series.
Design: A review of the literature was performed and a retrospective study of referrals for investigation of genetic causes of RAPTAS.
Results: Literature review revealed evidence of an association, in addition to VHL disease, between germline mutations in SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, TMEM127, and MAX genes and RAPTAS [defined here as the co-occurrence of tumors from both classes (PC/PGL/HNPGL and renal tumors) in the same individual or in first-degree relatives]. In both the literature review and our case series of 22 probands with non-VHL RAPTAS, SDHB mutations were the most frequent cause of non-VHL RAPTAS. A genetic cause was identified in 36.3% (8/22) of kindreds.
Conclusion: Renal tumors and PC/PGL/HNPGL tumors share common molecular features and their co-occurrence in an individual or family should prompt genetic investigations. We report a case of MAX-associated renal cell carcinoma and confirm the role of TMEM127 mutations with renal cell carcinoma predisposition.

Fiala L, Kocáková I, Šimůnek R, et al.
[Carney triad].
Rozhl Chir. Summer 2017; 96(6):267-272 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carney triad is a synchronous or metachronous association of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), pulmonary chondroma and extra-adrenal paraganglioma. The majority of patients have only one or two components of the triad, all three tumors being found in only about 2% of the patients at the time of the first diagnosis. The most common combination is gastric and pulmonary tumors. We report a case of Carney triad which was diagnosed at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute. A 57-year-old female patient with a history of gastric resection for leiomyosarcoma at the age of 14 and with an unclear pulmonary lesion evident on chest X-ray since as early as 2003. She was referred to our Clinic of Comprehensive Cancer Care after being diagnosed with unspecified tumors of the stomach, the left retroperitoneum and two liver metastases. Biopsy of the retroperitoneal mass was performed and histological examination showed pheochromocytoma. The patient underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor and wedge resection of the gastric tumor, left hemihepatectomy and left adrenalectomy (in two separate operations). The excised gastric tumor was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with a low risk of malignancy. Analysis of a liver specimen, however, showed two GIST metastases. No pathology was found in the left adrenal gland and the retroperitoneal tumor was positive for chromogranin A. Paraganglioma was thus diagnosed. Subsequently, mutational analysis of genes coding for succinate dehydrogenase subunits B, C and D (SDHB, SDHC, SDHD) and analysis of DNA methylation at the gene locus of SDHC was made. Carney triad was thus confirmed and the unclear pulmonary lesion could be described as benign chondroma. This report demonstrates the difficulty in distinguishing between Carney triad and Carney-Stratakis syndrome. Molecular information should improve the diagnosis of Carney triad.Key words: Carney triad - GIST pulmonary chondroma extraadrenal paragangliomaCarney-Stratakis syndrome.

Ashtekar A, Huk D, Magner A, et al.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017; 24(11):579-591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in genes encoding enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, also known as the Krebs cycle) have been implicated as causative genetic lesions in a number of human cancers, including renal cell cancers, glioblastomas and pheochromocytomas. In recent studies, missense mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex have also been proposed to cause differentiated thyroid cancer. In order to gain mechanistic insight into this process, we generated mice lacking the SDH subunit D (Sdhd) in the thyroid. We report that these mice develop enlarged thyroid glands with follicle hypercellularity and increased proliferation.

Mannelli M, Canu L, Ercolino T, et al.
DIAGNOSIS of ENDOCRINE DISEASE: SDHx mutations: beyond pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2018; 178(1):R11-R17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in one of the five genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase (

Yim SY, Moncayo VM, Pasquel FJ, Halkar RK
Multimodality Radionuclide Imaging in a Patient With Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome.
Clin Nucl Med. 2017; 42(12):964-965 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hereditary paraganglioma (PGL)-pheochromocytoma (PCC) syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation of the tumor suppressor gene SDHD that results in a predisposition for head and neck PGLs and PCCs. We present a case of a 33-year-old woman where F-FDG PET/CT showed areas of increased uptake in both the adrenal and cervical regions, consistent with PCCs and PGLs, respectively. Further imaging revealed that PCCs were I-MIBG avid, whereas the PGLs were In-octreotide avid. This demonstrates the varying sensitivities of different imaging modalities in regard to neuroendocrine tumors and the potential for treatment using multiple targeted therapies.

Else T, Lerario AM, Everett J, et al.
Adrenocortical carcinoma and succinate dehydrogenase gene mutations: an observational case series.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2017; 177(5):439-444 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Germline loss-of-function mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (
PATIENTS AND RESULTS: We report four unrelated patients with ACC and
CONCLUSIONS: We observed truncating mutations in

Belinsky MG, Cai KQ, Zhou Y, et al.
Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency in a PDGFRA mutated GIST.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):512 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) harbor mutually exclusive gain of function mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) KIT (70-80%) or in the related receptor PDGFRA (~10%). These GISTs generally respond well to therapy with the RTK inhibitor imatinib mesylate (IM), although initial response is genotype-dependent. An alternate mechanism leading to GIST oncogenesis is deficiency in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme complex resulting from genetic or epigenetic inactivation of one of the four SDH subunit genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, collectively referred to as SDHX). SDH loss of function is generally seen only in GIST lacking RTK mutations, and SDH-deficient GIST respond poorly to imatinib therapy.
METHODS: Tumor and normal DNA from a GIST case carrying the IM-resistant PDGFRA D842V mutation was analyzed by whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify additional potential targets for therapy. The tumors analyzed were separate recurrences following progression on imatinib, sunitinib, and the experimental PDGFRA inhibitor crenolanib. Tumor sections from the GIST case and a panel of ~75 additional GISTs were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the SDHB subunit.
RESULTS: Surprisingly, a somatic, loss of function mutation in exon 4 of the SDHB subunit gene (c.291_292delCT, p.I97Mfs*21) was identified in both tumors. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of this inactivating mutation, and IHC for the SDHB subunit demonstrated that these tumors were SDH-deficient. IHC for the SDHB subunit across a panel of ~75 GIST cases failed to detect SDH deficiency in other GISTs with RTK mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of a PDGFRA mutant GIST exhibiting SDH-deficiency. A brief discussion of the relevant GIST literature is included.

Settas N, Faucz FR, Stratakis CA
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency, Carney triad and the epigenome.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018; 469:107-111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this report, we review the relationship between succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency and the epigenome, especially with regards to two clinical conditions. Carney triad (CT) is a very rare disease with synchronous or metachronous occurrence of at least three different tumor entities; gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), paraganglioma (PGL), and pulmonary chondroma. This condition affects mostly females and it is never inherited. Another disease that shares two of the tumor components of CT, namely GIST and PGL is the Carney-Stratakis syndrome (CSS) or dyad. CSS affects both genders during childhood and adolescence. We review herein the main clinical features and molecular mechanisms behind those two syndromes that share quite a bit of similarities, but one is non-hereditary (CT) whereas the other shows an autosomal-dominant, with incomplete penetrance, inheritance pattern (CSS). Both CT and CSS are caused by the deficiency of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme. The key difference between the two syndromes is the molecular mechanism that causes the SDH deficiency. Most cases of CT show down-regulation of SDH through site-specific hyper-methylation of the SDHC gene, whereas CSS cases carry inactivating germline mutations within one of the genes coding for the SDH subunits A, B, C, or D (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD). There is only partial overlap between the two conditions (there are a few patients with CT that have SDH subunit mutations) but both lead to increased methylation of the entire genome in the tumors associated with them. Other tumors (outside CT and CSS) that have SDH deficiency are associated with increased methylation of the entire genome, but only in CT there is site-specific methylation of the SDHC gene. These findings have implications for diagnostics and the treatment of patients with these, often metastatic tumors.

Sinha P, Yuen SN, Chernock RD, Haughey BH
Mandibular Lytic Lesion in Familial Paraganglioma Syndrome Type I: A Clinical Conundrum.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2017; 126(8):615-618 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The entity of primary mandibular paraganglioma (PGL) is not well accepted within the head and neck. Mandibular PGLs hitherto reported in literature are malignant metastatic lesions, mostly from a pheochromocytoma.
METHODS: We report a case of mandibular lytic lesion in a young female with multifocal PGLs but no family history of PGLs. We also performed a literature search to identify published cases of mandibular PGL.
RESULTS: Lack of established criteria for malignancy in a PGL made diagnosis and treatment challenging. Testing was negative for a pheochromocytoma and positive for mutation of succinate dehydrogenase gene encoding subunit D (SDHD), thus rendering a diagnosis of familial PGL syndrome type I. Due to the absence of prior published reports of nonmalignant, primary mandibular PGL, patient was treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Our literature search revealed 4 published cases of mandibular PGL, all of which had an osteoblastic appearance and were malignant.
CONCLUSIONS: Isolated mandibular PGL does not always indicate a malignant metastatic lesion. Genetic testing is recommended in patients with early onset of PGL and/or multifocality even without a positive family history. Surgical resection alone with surveillance can be offered for such isolated lesions in the presence of familial PGL syndrome type I.

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