CDC73; cell division cycle 73 (1q25)

Gene Summary

Gene:CDC73; cell division cycle 73
Aliases: HYX, FIHP, HPTJT, HRPT1, HRPT2, C1orf28
Summary:This gene encodes a tumor suppressor that is involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional control pathways. The protein is a component of the the PAF protein complex, which associates with the RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A and with a histone methyltransferase complex. This protein appears to facilitate the association of 3' mRNA processing factors with actively-transcribed chromatin. Mutations in this gene have been linked to hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroid carcinoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary
  • Messenger RNA
  • Uterine Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Pedigree
  • Adolescents
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Mutation
  • Jaw Neoplasms
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Cancer DNA
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary
  • Parathyroid Glands
  • Promoter Regions
  • CDC73
  • Genetic Testing
  • Chromosome 1
  • Adenoma
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • von Hippel-Lindau Disease
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Parathyroidectomy
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Tumor Markers
  • Carcinoma
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
  • Fibroma, Ossifying
  • Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Parathyroid Cancer
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (3)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Parathyroid CancerCDC73 and Parathyroid Cancer View Publications88
-CDC73 and Jaw Neoplasms View Publications39
Uterine SarcomaCDC73 and Uterine Cancer View Publications4

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: CDC73 (cancer-related)

Pazienza V, la Torre A, Baorda F, et al.
Identification and functional characterization of three NoLS (nucleolar localisation signals) mutations of the CDC73 gene.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82292 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hyperparathyroidism Jaw-Tumour Syndrome (HPT-JT) is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), maxillary/mandible ossifying fibromas and by parathyroid carcinoma in 15% of cases. Inactivating mutations of the tumour suppressor CDC73/HRPT2 gene have been found in HPT-JT patients and also as genetic determinants of sporadic parathyroid carcinoma/atypical adenomas and, rarely, typical adenomas, in familial PHPT. Here we report the genetic and molecular analysis of the CDC73/HRPT2 gene in three patients affected by PHPT due to atypical and typical parathyroid adenomas, in one case belonging to familial PHPT. Flag-tagged WT and mutant CDC73/HRPT2 proteins were transiently transfected in HEK293 cells and functional assays were performed in order to investigate the effect of the variants on the whole protein expression, nuclear localization and cell overgrowth induction. We identified four CDC73/HRPT2 gene mutations, three germline (c.679_680delAG, p.Val85_Val86del and p.Glu81_Pro84del), one somatic (p.Arg77Pro). In three cases the mutation was located within the Nucleolar Localisation Signals (NoLS). The three NoLS variants led to instability either of the corresponding mutated protein or mRNA or both. When transfected in HEK293 cells, NoLS mutated proteins mislocalized with a predeliction for cytoplasmic or nucleo-cytoplasmic localization and, finally, they resulted in overgrowth, consistent with a dominant negative interfering effect in the presence of the endogenous protein.

Rather MI, Swamy S, Gopinath KS, Kumar A
Transcriptional repression of tumor suppressor CDC73, encoding an RNA polymerase II interactor, by Wilms tumor 1 protein (WT1) promotes cell proliferation: implication for cancer therapeutics.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(2):968-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/01/2015 Related Publications
The Wilms tumor 1 gene (WT1) can either repress or induce the expression of genes. Inconsistent with its tumor suppressor role, elevated WT1 levels have been observed in leukemia and solid tumors. WT1 has also been suggested to act as an oncogene by inducing the expression of MYC and BCL-2. However, these are only the correlational studies, and no functional study has been performed to date. Consistent with its tumor suppressor role, CDC73 binds to RNA polymerase II as part of a PAF1 transcriptional regulatory complex and causes transcriptional repression of oncogenes MYC and CCND1. It also represses β-catenin-mediated transcription. Based on the reduced level of CDC73 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) samples in the absence of loss-of-heterozygosity, promoter methylation, and mutations, we speculated that an inhibitory transcription factor is regulating its expression. The bioinformatics analysis predicted WT1 as an inhibitory transcription factor to regulate the CDC73 level. Our results showed that overexpression of WT1 decreased CDC73 levels and promoted proliferation of OSCC cells. ChIP and EMSA results demonstrated binding of WT1 to the CDC73 promoter. The 5-azacytidine treatment of OSCC cells led to an up-regulation of WT1 with a concomitant down-regulation of CDC73, further suggesting regulation of CDC73 by WT1. Exogenous CDC73 attenuated the protumorigenic activity of WT1 by apoptosis induction. An inverse correlation between expression levels of CDC73 and WT1 was observed in OSCC samples. These observations indicated that WT1 functions as an oncogene by repressing the expression of CDC73 in OSCC. We suggest that targeting WT1 could be a therapeutic strategy for cancer, including OSCC.

Related: Oral Cancer WT1

Kruijff S, Sidhu SB, Sywak MS, et al.
Negative parafibromin staining predicts malignant behavior in atypical parathyroid adenomas.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21(2):426-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The histopathological criteria for carcinoma proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) are imperfect predictors of the malignant potential of parathyroid tumors. Negative parafibromin (PF) and positive protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) staining are markers of CDC73 mutation and occur commonly in carcinoma but rarely in adenomas. We investigated whether PF and PGP9.5 staining could be used to predict the behavior of atypical parathyroid adenomas--tumors with atypical features that do not fulfill WHO criteria for malignancy.
METHODS: Long-term outcomes were compared across four groups: group A, WHO-positive criteria/PF-negative staining; group B, WHO(+)/PF(+), group C; WHO(-)/PF(-); and group D, WHO(-)/PF(+).
RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included in the period 1999-2012: group A (n = 13), group B (n = 14), group C (n = 21), and group D (n = 33). Mortality and recurrence rates, respectively, for group A were 15 and 38%, for group B 7 and 36%, for group C 0 and 10%, and for group D 0 and 0%. The PGP9.5(+) ratios for groups A to D were 85, 78, 71, and 12%, further informing prognosis. Five-year disease-free survival for groups A to D were 55, 80, 78, and 100%, respectively. Tumor recurrence was significantly associated with PF (p = 0.048) and PGP9.5 (p = 0.003) staining.
CONCLUSIONS: Although WHO criteria are essential to differentiate parathyroid carcinoma from benign tumors, the presence of negative PF staining in an atypical adenoma predicts outcome better, whereas PF-positive atypical adenomas do not recur and can be considered benign. PF-negative atypical adenomas have a low but real recurrence risk and should be considered tumors of low malignant potential.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer

Costa-Guda J, Arnold A
Genetic and epigenetic changes in sporadic endocrine tumors: parathyroid tumors.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 386(1-2):46-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
Parathyroid neoplasia is most commonly due to benign parathyroid adenoma but rarely can be caused by malignant parathyroid carcinoma. Evidence suggests that parathyroid carcinomas rarely, if ever, evolve through an identifiable benign intermediate, with the notable exception of carcinomas associated with the familial hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Several genes have been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of typical sporadic parathyroid adenoma; somatic mutations in the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene are the most frequent finding, and alterations in the cyclin D1/PRAD1 oncogene are also firmly established molecular drivers of sporadic adenomas. In addition, good evidence supports mutation in the CDKN1B/p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) gene, and in other CDKI genes as contributing to disease pathogenesis in this context. Somatic defects in additional genes, including β-catenin, POT1 and EZH2 may contribute to parathyroid adenoma formation but, for most, their ability to drive parathyroid tumorigenesis remains to be demonstrated experimentally. Further, genetic predisposition to sporadic presentations of parathyroid adenoma appears be conferred by rare, and probably low-penetrance, germline variants in CDKI genes and, perhaps, in other genes such as CASR and AIP. The HRPT2 tumor suppressor gene is commonly mutated in parathyroid carcinoma.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer

Zhao S, Sun HZ, Zhu ST, et al.
Effects of parafibromin expression on the phenotypes and relevant mechanisms in the DLD-1 colon carcinoma cell line.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(7):4249-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Parafibromin is a protein encoded by the HRPT2 (hyperparathyroidism 2) oncosuppressor gene and its down-regulated expression is involved in pathogenesis of parathyroid, breast, gastric and colorectal carcinomas. This study aimed to clarify the effects of parafibromin expression on the phenotypes and relevant mechanisms of DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells.
METHODS: DLD-1 cells transfected with a parafibromin-expressing plasmid were subjected to examination of phenotype, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Phenotype-related proteins were measured by Western blot. Parafibromin and ki-67 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays.
RESULTS: The transfectants showed higher proliferation by CCK-8, better differentiation by electron microscopy and ALP activity and more apoptotic resistance to cisplatin by DNA fragmentation than controls. There was no difference in early apoptosis by annexin V, capase-3 activity, migration and invasion between DLD-1 cells and their transfectants. Ectopic parafibromin expression resulted in down-regulated expression of smad4, MEKK, GRP94, GRP78, GSK3β-ser9, and Caspase-9. However, no difference was detectable in caspase-12 and -8 expression. A positive relationship was noted between parafibromin and ki-67 expression in colorectal carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Parafibromin overexpression could promote cell proliferation, apoptotic resistance, and differentiation of DLD-1 cells.

Related: Apoptosis Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Muntean AG, Chen W, Jones M, et al.
MLL fusion protein-driven AML is selectively inhibited by targeted disruption of the MLL-PAFc interaction.
Blood. 2013; 122(11):1914-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
MLL rearrangements are common in leukemia and considered an adverse risk factor. Through interactions with the polymerase-associated factor complex (PAFc), mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins activate genes critical for blocking differentiation, such as HOXA9. Here we investigate whether the MLL-PAFc interaction can be exploited therapeutically using both genetic and biochemical approaches. We tested the genetic requirement of the PAFc in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a conditional allele of the PAFc subunit, Cdc73. We show that the PAFc is indiscriminately necessary for the proliferation of AML cells through the epigenetic regulation of proleukemogenic target genes, such as MEIS1 and Bcl2. To investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting the MLL-PAFc interaction, we engineered a dominant negative fragment of MLL capable of binding to the PAFc. Disruption of the MLL-PAFc interaction selectively inhibits the proliferation of MLL leukemic cells without affecting cells transformed by an unrelated E2A-HLF fusion protein. Using in vivo hematopoietic reconstitution assays, we demonstrate that disruption of the MLL-PAFc does not alter normal hematopoietic stem cell function. Together, our data show a selective growth inhibition of MLL-associated leukemic cells and tolerance of normal hematopoiesis to disruption of the MLL-PAFc interaction establishing the MLL-PAFc interaction as an attractive therapeutic target.

Related: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) HOXA9 gene

Sulaiman L, Juhlin CC, Nilsson IL, et al.
Global and gene-specific promoter methylation analysis in primary hyperparathyroidism.
Epigenetics. 2013; 8(6):646-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
Epigenetic mechanisms involved in primary hyperparathyroidism are poorly understood as studies are limited. In order to understand the role of aberrant DNA promoter methylation in the pathogenesis of parathyroid tumors, we have quantified the CpG island promoter methylation density of several candidate genes including APC (promoter 1A and 1B), β-catenin (CTNNB1), CASR, CDC73/HRPT2, MEN1, P16 (CDKN2A), PAX1, RASSF1A, SFRP1 and VDR in 72 parathyroid tumors and 3 normal parathyroid references using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Global methylation levels were assessed for LINE-1. We also compared methylation levels with gene expression levels measured by qRT-PCR for genes showing frequent hypermethylation. The adenomas displayed frequent hypermethylation of APC 1A (37/66; 56%), RASSF1A (34/66; 52%) and β-catenin (19/66; 29%). One of the three atypical adenomas was hypermethylated for APC 1A. The three carcinomas were hypermethylated for RASSF1A and SFRP1, and the latter was only observed in this subtype. The global methylation density was similar in tumors (mean 70%) and parathyroid reference samples (mean 70%). In general, hypermethylated genes had reduced expression in the parathyroid adenomas using qRT-PCR. Among the adenomas, methylation of APC 1A correlated with adenoma weight (r = 0.306, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the methylation status of RASSF1A correlated with each of APC 1A (r = 0.289, p < 0.05) and β-catenin (r = 0.315, p < 0.01). Our findings suggest a role for aberrant DNA promoter methylation of APC 1A, β-catenin and RASSF1A in a subset of parathyroid tumors.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer

Abdulla AG, O'Leary EM, Isorena JP, et al.
Recurrent hyperparathyroidism and a novel nonsense mutation in a patient with hyperparathyriodism-jaw tumor syndrome.
Endocr Pract. 2013 Nov-Dec; 19(6):e134-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) patient with a novel nonsense mutation of the CDC73 gene.
METHODS: We present the case of a patient with a history of three prior maxillectomies and two prior parathyroidectomies who presented with recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). We also briefly review the literature pertaining to HPT-JT.
RESULTS: Genetic analysis revealed a novel nonsense mutation (c.85G>T; pGlu29) in exon 1 of CDC73. The patient's son underwent genetic testing for a CDC73 mutation and was found to be negative.
CONCLUSION: HPT-JT is a rare condition characterized by PHPT and benign tumors of the mandible and maxilla. Up to 15% of HPT-JT patients with PHPT have parathyroid carcinoma. HPT-JT is associated with an inactivating mutation of CDC73, a gene that codes for the tumor suppressor protein parafibromin. This report expands our understanding of the genetics underlying this rare disorder and emphasizes the importance of early detection in order to prevent hypercalcemic complications such as parathyroid carcinoma.

Hendy GN, Cole DE
Genetic defects associated with familial and sporadic hyperparathyroidism.
Front Horm Res. 2013; 41:149-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) occurs sporadically, but occasionally it may be a feature of a familial condition, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), MEN2A, or the HPT-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia/neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (FHH/NSHPT). PHPT may also occur as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), and has been observed as a consequence of mutations in the CDKN1B gene (MEN4). Tumorigenesis in these conditions may be the result of protooncogene activation (e.g. RET in MEN2) or two-hit losses of a tumor suppressor (e.g. MEN1, HPT-JT). In patients with MEN1, HPT-JT or FHH/NSHPT, the hyperparathyroidism manifests at a younger age and affects both sexes equally. In MEN1, mutations of the MEN1 gene also cause enteropancreatic and anterior pituitary tumors. In MEN2, activating mutations in the RET protooncogene also cause medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. In HPT-JT, mutations of CDC73/HRPT2 are associated with parathyroid carcinoma, but tumors of the kidneys and uterus are additional features. In some FIHP families, a CASR mutation may be identified. In parathyroid carcinoma, even if sporadic, molecular diagnostics for CDC73/HRPT2 should be considered, as it should be for younger patients. Further exploration of these hereditary syndromes may shed light on the molecular mechanisms giving rise to nonhereditary PHPT.

Related: CDKN1B Parathyroid Cancer RET BCL1 Gene (CCND1) MEN1

Kasaian K, Wiseman SM, Thiessen N, et al.
Complete genomic landscape of a recurring sporadic parathyroid carcinoma.
J Pathol. 2013; 230(3):249-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy with an estimated incidence of less than 1 per million population. Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum calcium level, and the deleterious effects of hypercalcaemia are the clinical manifestations of the disease. Up to 60% of patients develop multiple disease recurrences and although long-term survival is possible with palliative surgery, permanent remission is rarely achieved. Molecular drivers of sporadic parathyroid carcinoma have remained largely unknown. Previous studies, mostly based on familial cases of the disease, suggested potential roles for the tumour suppressor MEN1 and proto-oncogene RET in benign parathyroid tumourigenesis, while the tumour suppressor HRPT2 and proto-oncogene CCND1 may also act as drivers in parathyroid cancer. Here, we report the complete genomic analysis of a sporadic and recurring parathyroid carcinoma. Mutational landscapes of the primary and recurrent tumour specimens were analysed using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Such molecular profiling allowed for identification of somatic mutations never previously identified in this malignancy. These included single nucleotide point mutations in well-characterized cancer genes such as mTOR, MLL2, CDKN2C, and PIK3CA. Comparison of acquired mutations in patient-matched primary and recurrent tumours revealed loss of PIK3CA activating mutation during the evolution of the tumour from the primary to the recurrence. Structural variations leading to gene fusions and regions of copy loss and gain were identified at a single-base resolution. Loss of the short arm of chromosome 1, along with somatic missense and truncating mutations in CDKN2C and THRAP3, respectively, provides new evidence for the potential role of these genes as tumour suppressors in parathyroid cancer. The key somatic mutations identified in this study can serve as novel diagnostic markers as well as therapeutic targets.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer MLL2 gene

de Mesquita Netto AC, Gomez RS, Diniz MG, et al.
Assessing the contribution of HRPT2 to the pathogenesis of jaw fibrous dysplasia, ossifying fibroma, and osteosarcoma.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013; 115(3):359-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate HRPT2 in jaw ossifying fibroma (OF), fibrous dysplasia (FD), and osteosarcoma (OS).
STUDY DESIGN: We combined microsatellite loss of heterozygosity (LOH), HRPT2 sequence alterations at the mRNA level by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cDNA sequencing, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a total of 19 OF, 15 FD, and 9 OS. Because HRPT2 (parafibromin) interacts with cyclin D1, we investigated cyclin D1 expression with the use of qPCR and IHC.
RESULTS: LOH was detected in 3/5 FD, 6/9 OF, and 2/2 OS heterozygous samples. LOH was not associated with decreased mRNA levels or HRPT2 protein expression except for 1 OF which harbored an inactivating mutation. However, this tumor did not display altered transcription or protein levels of HRPT2 nor cyclin compared with the other OF.
CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of HRPT2 inactivation to the pathogenesis of OF, FD, and OS is marginal at best and may be limited to progression rather than tumor initiation.

Related: Chromosome 1 Osteosarcoma BCL1 Gene (CCND1)

Costa-Guda J, Imanishi Y, Palanisamy N, et al.
Allelic imbalance in sporadic parathyroid carcinoma and evidence for its de novo origins.
Endocrine. 2013; 44(2):489-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
Parathyroid cancer is a rare, clinically aggressive cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, and whether these malignancies generally evolve from pre-existing benign adenomas or arise de novo is unclear. Furthermore, while inactivation of the CDC73 (HRPT2) tumor suppressor gene, encoding parafibromin, is a major contributor, other genes essential to parathyroid carcinogenesis remain unknown. We sought to identify genomic regions potentially harboring such oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, and to gain insight into the origins and molecular relationship of malignant versus benign parathyroid tumors. We performed genome-wide copy-number and loss of heterozygosity analysis using Affymetrix 50K SNP mapping arrays and/or comparative genomic hybridization on 16 primary parathyroid carcinomas, local recurrences or distant metastases, and matched normal controls, from 10 individuals. Recurrent regions of allelic loss were observed on chromosomes 1p, 3, and 13q suggesting that key parathyroid tumor suppressor genes are located in these chromosomal locations. Recurrent allelic gains were seen on chromosomes 1q and 16, suggesting the presence of parathyroid oncogenes on these chromosomes. Importantly, the most common alteration in benign parathyroid adenomas, loss of 11q, was not found as a recurrent change in the malignant parathyroid tissues. Molecular allelotyping using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers provided further confirmation that the prevalence of 11q loss is markedly and significantly lower in carcinomas as compared with adenomas. Our observations provide molecular support for the concept that sporadic parathyroid cancer usually arises de novo, rather than evolving from a pre-existing typical benign adenoma. Furthermore, these results help direct future investigation to ultimately determine which of the candidate genes in these chromosomal locations make significant contributions to the molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid cancer.

Related: CGH Parathyroid Cancer

Cui C, Lal P, Master S, et al.
Expression of parafibromin in major renal cell tumors.
Eur J Histochem. 2012; 56(4):e39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
Parafibromin, encoded by HRPT2 gene, is a recently identified tumor suppressor. Complete and partial loss of its expression have been observed in hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), parathyroid carcinoma, breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma, gastric and colorectal carcinoma. However, little has been known about its expression in renal tumors. In order to study the expression of parafibromin in a series of the 4 major renal cell tumors - clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC), chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and oncocytoma. One hundred thirty nine renal tumors including 61 ccRCCs, 37 pRCCs, 22 chRCCs and 19 oncocytomas were retrieved and used for the construction of renal tissue microarrays (TMAs). The expression of parafibromin was detected by immunohistochemical method on the constructed TMAs. Positive parafibromin stains are seen in 4 out of 61 ccRCCs (7%), 7 out of 37 pRCCs (19%), 12 out of 23 chRCCs (52%) and all 19 oncocytomas (100%). Parafibromin expression varies significantly (P< 8.8 x10-16) among the four major renal cell tumors and were correlated closely with tumor types. No correlation of parafibromin expression with tumor staging in ccRCCs, pRCCs and chRCCs, and Fuhrman nuclear grading in ccRCCs and pRCCs. In summary, parafibromin expression was strongly correlated with tumor types, which may suggest that it plays a role in the tumorigenesis in renal cell tumors.

Related: Kidney Cancer

Bricaire L, Odou MF, Cardot-Bauters C, et al.
Frequent large germline HRPT2 deletions in a French National cohort of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(2):E403-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with incomplete penetrance that can associate in a single patient parathyroid adenoma or carcinoma, fibro-osseous jaw tumor, cystic kidney lesion, and uterine tumor. Germline mutations of the HRPT2 gene (CDC73) coding for parafibromin are identified in approximately 50%-75% of HPT-JT cases and in approximately 14% of familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. A whole deletion of this gene has recently been reported in 1 sporadic case and in a family presenting with HPT-JT.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to report molecular abnormalities of the HRPT2 gene in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in a French National cohort from the Groupe d'Étude des Tumeurs Endocrines.
METHODS: Patients' genomic DNA was screened by PCR-based sequencing for point mutations affecting HRPT2 and real-time quantitative PCR analysis for gross deletions.
RESULTS: We report 20 index patients with a germinal HRPT2 abnormality. Median age at diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was 23 years (range 14-65 years). Median serum total calcium level at diagnosis was 3.19 mmol/L (range 2.8-4.3 mmol/L). Thirteen different mutations were identified by routine sequencing, including 7 mutations never reported. Seven patients (35%) carried a gross deletion of this gene (3 complete and 4 partial deletions). No genotype-phenotype correlation could be identified. A gross deletion of the HRPT2 gene was identified in 7% of patients for whom a routine screening by direct sequencing came up as negative.
CONCLUSION: Gross deletion analysis of the HRPT2 gene is indicated for all patients negative for mutation, presenting with HPT-JT or familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid carcinoma, or in patients with apparently sporadic parathyroid adenoma diagnosed at a young age, having a severe hypercalcemia.

Related: France Parathyroid Cancer

Bano G, Siedel V, Beharry N, et al.
A complex endocrine conundrum.
Fam Cancer. 2013; 12(3):577-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe a case of recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism, manifested as 3 metachronous parathyroid adenomata, in a 50 year-old woman who also had Hashimoto hypothyroidism, gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), cysts in liver and kidneys, 5 intestinal polyps (one of these a villous adenoma), diverticulitis and telangiectasia of lips. She did not have medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Genetic analysis of the CDC73 gene [for Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT)], MEN1 for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type1, CDKN1B for MEN4, SDHB and SDHD for Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma susceptibility, VHL for von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome, BMPR1A and SMAD4 for Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS) (sequencing and MLPA), karyotype and array CGH (44 K) were all normal. She was found to be homozygous for a synonomous germline variant in exon 14 (p. Ser836Ser) of the RET oncogene. This RET variant is of unclear clinical significance, and has been previously reported both in normal individuals and in individuals with MTC. It is unlikely that homozygosity for the RET variant has been casual in the multiple pathologies that our patient has developed.

Related: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Parathyroid Cancer

Rather MI, Nagashri MN, Swamy SS, et al.
Oncogenic microRNA-155 down-regulates tumor suppressor CDC73 and promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation: implications for cancer therapeutics.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(1):608-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
The CDC73 gene is mutationally inactivated in hereditary and sporadic parathyroid tumors. It negatively regulates β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-MYC. Down-regulation of CDC73 has been reported in breast, renal, and gastric carcinomas. However, the reports regarding the role of CDC73 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are lacking. In this study we show that CDC73 is down-regulated in a majority of OSCC samples. We further show that oncogenic microRNA-155 (miR-155) negatively regulates CDC73 expression. Our experiments show that the dramatic up-regulation of miR-155 is an exclusive mechanism for down-regulation of CDC73 in a panel of human cell lines and a subset of OSCC patient samples in the absence of loss of heterozygosity, mutations, and promoter methylation. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in HEK293 cells dramatically reduced CDC73 levels, enhanced cell viability, and decreased apoptosis. Conversely, the delivery of a miR-155 antagonist (antagomir-155) to KB cells overexpressing miR-155 resulted in increased CDC73 levels, decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis, and marked regression of xenografts in nude mice. Cotransfection of miR-155 with CDC73 in HEK293 cells abrogated its pro-oncogenic effect. Reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of KB cells were dependent on the presence or absence of the 3'-UTR in CDC73. In summary, knockdown of CDC73 expression due to overexpression of miR-155 not only adds a novelty to the list of mechanisms responsible for its down-regulation in different tumors, but the restoration of CDC73 levels by the use of antagomir-155 may also have an important role in therapeutic intervention of cancers, including OSCC.

Related: Oral Cancer Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Spinelli C, Liserre J, Pucci V, et al.
Primary hyperparathyroidism: fifth parathyroid intrathymic adenoma in a young patient.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 25(7-8):781-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The clinical case described in this paper deals with a young female patient affected by primary hyperparathyroidism caused by an ectopic parathyroid adenoma of a supernumerary intrathymic parathyroid. The patient had hypercalcemia, in association with increased levels of parathormone, but was otherwise asymptomatic. Genetics tests for mutation of the MEN1, HRPT2, and CaSR genes were negative. She therefore underwent laboratory and instrumental tests but localization results in the neck were negative--only an intrathymic nodule was visualized. The complete surgical ablation of the thymus was conducted, which highlighted a nodule that, at histological examination, was shown to be an adenoma of a fifth parathyroid gland. The existence of a fifth, hyperfunctioning, intrathoracic parathyroid appears to be a rare cause of primary juvenile sporadic hyperparathyroidism. This peculiar clinical case could be of interest in similar cases evaluated by other surgeons.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer

Cui C, Ziober A, Bing Z
Expression of parafibromin in clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2013; 21(4):322-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a low-grade renal cell neoplasm. In this study, we investigated the expression of parafibromin, CK7, and RCC marker (RCC-Ma) in this tumor by immunohistochemistry in a group of CCPRCC. Twenty cases of CCPRCC were stained for parafibromin and showed diffuse and strong nuclear positivity for this marker. In addition the cases of CCPRCC were stained for CK7 and RCC-Ma, respectively, and the majority of tumors were positive for cytoplasmic staining of CK7 and negative for RCC-Ma. This unique staining pattern can be useful in the differential diagnosis from conventional clear cell renal cell carcinomas, which have a higher positivity rate for RCC-Ma, but largely negative for CK7 and parafibromin, and papillary renal cell carcinomas, which are usually positive for CK7 and RCC-Ma but are largely negative for parafibromin.

Related: Kidney Cancer

Sulaiman L, Haglund F, Hashemi J, et al.
Genome-wide and locus specific alterations in CDC73/HRPT2-mutated parathyroid tumors.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e46325 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
Mutations in the hyperparathyroidism type 2 (HRPT2/CDC73) gene and alterations in the parafibromin protein have been established in the majority of parathyroid carcinomas and in subsets of parathyroid adenomas. While it is known that CDC73-mutated parathyroid tumors display specific gene expression changes compared to CDC73 wild-type cases, the molecular cytogenetic profile in CDC73-mutated cases compared to unselected adenomas (with an expected very low frequency of CDC73 mutations) remains unknown. For this purpose, nine parathyroid tumors with established CDC73 gene inactivating mutations (three carcinomas, one atypical adenoma and five adenomas) were analyzed for copy number alterations and loss of heterozygosity using array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays, respectively. Furthermore, CDC73 gene promoter methylation levels were assessed using bisulfite Pyrosequencing. The panel included seven tumors with single mutation and three with double mutations of the CDC73 gene. The carcinomas displayed copy number alterations in agreement with previous studies, whereas the CDC73-mutated adenomas did not display the same pattern of alterations at loci frequently deleted in unselected parathyroid tumors. Furthermore, gross losses of chromosomal material at 1p and 13 were significantly (p = 0.012) associated with parathyroid carcinomas as opposed to adenomas. Quantitative PCR-based copy number loss regarding CDC73 was observed in three adenomas, while all the carcinomas were diploid or showed copy number gain for CDC73 gene. Hypermethylation of the CDC73 gene promoter was not observed. Our data could suggest that CDC73-mutated parathyroid adenomas exhibit a partly unique cytogenetic profile in addition to that of carcinomas and unselected adenomas. Furthermore, CDC73-mutated carcinomas displayed losses at 1p and 13 which are not seen in CDC73-mutated adenomas, making these regions of interest for further studies regarding malignant properties in tumors from CDC73-mutated cases. However, due to the small sample size, validation of the results in a larger cohort is warranted.

Related: CGH Parathyroid Cancer

Wang O, Wang C, Nie M, et al.
Novel HRPT2/CDC73 gene mutations and loss of expression of parafibromin in Chinese patients with clinically sporadic parathyroid carcinomas.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e45567 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: It is widely recognized that the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is often difficult because of the overlap of characteristics between malignant and benign parathyroid tumors, especially at an early stage. Based on the identification of tumor suppressor gene HRPT2/CDC73 and its association with hereditary and sporadic PC, screening of gene mutations and detection of parafibromin immunoreactivity have been suggested as diagnostic instruments of PC in Whites. There is little information about HRPT2/CDC73 mutations and its corresponding protein expression in patients with sporadic PC in Chinese population, and the long-term follow-up data is scarce.
METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissues were obtained from 13 patients with PC, 13 patients with parathyroid adenoma (PA) and 7 patients with parathyroid hyperplasia(PH), and 6 normal parathyroid (NP) tissues as controls. Peripheral blood from 11 patients with PC was collected. PCR products using Genomic DNA extracted from tumor tissues or blood as template was sequenced for HRPT2/CDC73 gene. Expression of parafibromin in tumor tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis.
RESULTS: Six mutations in 6 of 13 patients with PC were identified, with three being novel. Four of them were germ-line mutations. Patients with mutations were susceptible to recurrence of the PC. Complete (8/13, 61.5%) or partial (5/13, 38.5%) loss of parafibromin expression was observed in PC tissues. All of tissue samples from normal parathyroid or benign parathyroid tumors displayed positive immunostaining of parafibromin except one adenoma.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study supplies information on the mutations and protein expression of HRPT2/CDC73 gene and phenotypes of parathyroid carcinoma in Chinese population. And the expanded mutation database of this gene may benefit patients in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer

Guarnieri V, Battista C, Muscarella LA, et al.
CDC73 mutations and parafibromin immunohistochemistry in parathyroid tumors: clinical correlations in a single-centre patient cohort.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2012; 35(6):411-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine if molecular and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of the HRPT2/CDC73 gene and its product, parafibromin, predict the natural history of parathyroid malignancy, particularly atypical adenoma, as seen in a single-centre patient cohort.
METHODS: Matched tumor and non-tumor tissues were obtained from 46 patients with parathyroid carcinoma (CA) (n = 15), atypical adenoma (AA) (n = 14) and typical adenoma (TA) (n = 17), as defined by standardized histopathological criteria. Exons and exon-intron boundaries of the CDC73 gene were sequenced to identify germline or somatic mutations. IHC staining for parafibromin was performed and scored as positive if nuclear staining was at least partially IHC-positive.
RESULTS: Mutations of CDC73 were observed in 9/15 (60 %) CA, 2/14 (14 %) AA, and 1/17 (6 %) TA tumors. A recurrent two basepair mutation in exon 7 -- c.679_680delAG -- accounted for half of all identified mutations. Absence of parafibromin nuclear staining was noted in 8/12 (67 %) CA, 2/13 (15 %) AA, and 3/17 (18 %) TA tumors. Median follow up times were 88 months for CA, 76 months for AA, and 104 months for TA patients. One patient, a member of a previously reported multiplex family with a germline CDC73 mutation was found to have a second adenoma after removal of an atypical adenoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular screening and IHC are both useful tools in the differential diagnosis of parathyroid tumors, but both have limited sensitivity and specificity. CDC73 mutations and negative immunostaining were common in atypical adenomas, but no local recurrence was observed in any case with successful surgical removal after follow-up periods of 27 to 210 months.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer

Wang O, Wang CY, Shi J, et al.
Expression of Ki-67, galectin-3, fragile histidine triad, and parafibromin in malignant and benign parathyroid tumors.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2012; 125(16):2895-901 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is widely recognized that the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is often difficult because of the overlap of characteristics between malignant and benign parathyroid tumors, especially at an early stage. Our study aimed to investigate the differential expression of Ki-67, galectin-3, fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene, and parafibromin in PC, parathyroid adenoma (PA), parathyroid hyperplasia (PH), and normal parathyroid (NP) tissues; then to assess these expression values for use in differential diagnosis of malignant and benign parathyroid tumors.
METHODS: Data of 15 cases with PC, 19 PAs, and 8 PHs were retrospectively analyzed for their clinical characteristics. The expression of Ki-67, galectin-3, FHIT, and parafibromin were detected via immunohistochemistry in the above-mentioned specimens and 6 NPs as control.
RESULTS: Complete loss of parafibromin expression was seen in 9 of 15 (60%) carcinomas, and all normal parathyroid tissues and parathyroid benign tumors stained positive for parafibromin except for one (4%) adenoma. Galectin-3 staining was positive in 11 of 15 (73%) carcinomas, 5 of 19 (26%) adenomas, 1 of 8 (12%) hyperplasias, and 0 of 6 normal tissues. The Ki-67 proliferative index was high in 4 of 15 (27%) carcinomas, 1 of 19 (5%) adenomas, and none of the hyperplasia or normal tissues. FHIT expression did not differ appreciably among the tumor types. The combination of overexpression of galectin-3 or loss of parafibromin increased sensitivity for PC to 87%, while the specificity of both positive galectin-3 and positive Ki-67 could reach 100%.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that loss of parafibromin and overexpression of galectin-3 and Ki-67 might help to distinguish parathyroid carcinoma from other parathyroid tumors. And the combination of two or three of these markers might produce better sensitivity and/or specificity for the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma.

Related: MKI67 Parathyroid Cancer

Chen H, Shi N, Gao Y, et al.
Crystallographic analysis of the conserved C-terminal domain of transcription factor Cdc73 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a GTPase-like fold.
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2012; 68(Pt 8):953-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The yeast Paf1 complex (Paf1C), which is composed of the proteins Paf1, Cdc73, Ctr9, Leo1 and Rtf1, accompanies RNA polymerase II from the promoter to the 3'-end formation site of mRNA- and snoRNA-encoding genes. As one of the first identified subunits of Paf1C, yeast Cdc73 (yCdc73) takes part in many transcription-related processes, including binding to RNA polymerase II, recruitment and activation of histone-modification factors and communication with other transcriptional activators. The human homologue of yCdc73, parafibromin, has been identified as a tumour suppressor linked to breast, renal and gastric cancers. However, the functional mechanism of yCdc73 has until recently been unclear. Here, a 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the highly conserved C-terminal region of yCdc73 is reported. It revealed that yCdc73 appears to have a GTPase-like fold. However, no GTPase activity was observed. The crystal structure of yCdc73 will shed new light on the modes of function of Cdc73 and Paf1C.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Ghemigian A, Ghemigian M, Popescu I, et al.
Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism due to HRPT2 mutation.
Hormones (Athens). 2013 Jul-Sep; 12(3):454-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder that is mostly caused by solitary tumors within the parathyroid glands. Characterized by early debut and higher frequency of multiple parathyroid masses, familial forms of primary hyperparathyroidism are caused by the already known mutations of: menin (MEN1 syndrome), RET proto-oncogene (MEN2 syndrome), HRPT2-parafibromin (hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome), calcium sensing receptor gene (familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia). A specific mutation in FIHP has not been identified in the majority of affected families. Recent studies revealed menin, HRPT2 and calcium-sensing receptor mutations in patients with FIHP. Whether FIHP is a variant or an early stage of MEN1 syndrome or hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome is yet to be established. We present three siblings with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism due to solitary parathyroid adenoma and favorable evolution post-parathyroidectomy. Genetic tests revealed HRPT2 mutation.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer

Sulaiman L, Nilsson IL, Juhlin CC, et al.
Genetic characterization of large parathyroid adenomas.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012; 19(3):389-407 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
In this study, we genetically characterized parathyroid adenomas with large glandular weights, for which independent observations suggest pronounced clinical manifestations. Large parathyroid adenomas (LPTAs) were defined as the 5% largest sporadic parathyroid adenomas identified among the 590 cases operated in our institution during 2005-2009. The LPTA group showed a higher relative number of male cases and significantly higher levels of total plasma and ionized serum calcium (P<0.001). Further analysis of 21 LPTAs revealed low MIB1 proliferation index (0.1-1.5%), MEN1 mutations in five cases, and one HRPT2 (CDC73) mutation. Total or partial loss of parafibromin expression was observed in ten tumors, two of which also showed loss of APC expression. Using array CGH, we demonstrated recurrent copy number alterations most frequently involving loss in 1p (29%), gain in 5 (38%), and loss in 11q (33%). Totally, 21 minimal overlapping regions were defined for losses in 1p, 7q, 9p, 11, and 15q and gains in 3q, 5, 7p, 8p, 16q, 17p, and 19q. In addition, 12 tumors showed gross alterations of entire or almost entire chromosomes most frequently gain of 5 and loss of chromosome 11. While gain of 5 was the most frequent alteration observed in LPTAs, it was only detected in a small proportion (4/58 cases, 7%) of parathyroid adenomas. A significant positive correlation was observed between parathyroid hormone level and total copy number gain (r=0.48, P=0.031). These results support that LPTAs represent a group of patients with pronounced parathyroid hyperfunction and associated with specific genomic features.

Related: CGH Parathyroid Cancer MEN1

Andreasson A, Sulaiman L, do Vale S, et al.
Molecular characterization of parathyroid tumors from two patients with hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes.
Fam Cancer. 2012; 11(3):355-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has recently been implicated in parathyroid development. We here report clinical, histopathological and molecular investigations in parathyroid tumors arising in two patients; one familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome patient carrying a constitutional APC mutation, and one Lynch syndrome patient demonstrating a germline MLH1 mutation as well as a non-classified, missense alteration of the APC gene. We sequenced the entire APC gene in tumor and constitutional DNA from both cases, assessed the levels of APC promoter 1A and 1B methylation by bisulfite Pyrosequencing analysis and performed immunohistochemistry for APC and parafibromin. In addition, copy number analysis regarding the APC gene on chromosome 5q21-22 was performed using qRT-PCR. Histopathological workup confirmed both tumors as parathyroid adenomas without signs of malignancy or atypia. No somatic mutations or copy number changes for the APC gene were discovered in the tumors; however, in both cases, the APC promoter 1A was hypermethylated while the APC promoter 1B was unmethylated. APC promoter 1B-specific mRNA and total APC mRNA levels were higher than in normal parathyroid samples. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed strong APC protein immunoreactivity and positive parafibromin expression in both parathyroid tumors. Absence of additional somatic APC mutations and copy number changes in addition to the positive APC immunoreactivity obtained suggest that the tumors arose without biallelic inactivation of the APC tumor suppressor gene. The finding of an unmethylated APC promoter 1B and high APC 1B mRNA levels could explain the maintained APC protein expression. Moreover, the findings of positive parafibromin and APC immunoreactivity as well as a low MIB-1 proliferation index and absence of histopathological features of malignancy/atypical adenoma indicate that the parathyroid adenomas arising in these patients did not harbor malignant potential.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer MLH1

Zhang JH, Seigneur EM, Pandey M, et al.
The EIF4EBP3 translational repressor is a marker of CDC73 tumor suppressor haploinsufficiency in a parathyroid cancer syndrome.
Cell Death Dis. 2012; 3:266 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
Germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene CDC73 confers susceptibility to the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome associated with a high risk of parathyroid malignancy. Inactivating CDC73 mutations have also been implicated in sporadic parathyroid cancer, but are rare in sporadic benign parathyroid tumors. The molecular pathways that distinguish malignant from benign parathyroid transformation remain elusive. We previously showed that a hypomorphic allele of hyrax (hyx), the Drosophila homolog of CDC73, rescues the loss-of-ventral-eye phenotype of lobe, encoding the fly homolog of Akt1s1/ PRAS40. We report now an interaction between hyx and Tor, a central regulator of cell growth and autophagy, and show that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (EIF4EBP), a translational repressor and effector of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is a conserved target of hyx/CDC73. Flies heterozygous for Tor and hyx, but not Mnn1, the homolog of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) tumor suppressor associated with benign parathyroid tumors, are starvation resistant with reduced basal levels of Thor/4E-BP. Human peripheral blood cell levels of EIF4EBP3 were reduced in patients with CDC73, but not MEN1, heterozygosity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated occupancy of EIF4EBP3 by endogenous parafibromin. These results show that EIF4EBP3 is a peripheral marker of CDC73 function distinct from MEN1-regulated pathways, and suggest a model whereby starvation resistance and/or translational de-repression contributes to parathyroid malignant transformation.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer Signal Transduction MEN1

Cetani F, Pardi E, Borsari S, Marcocci C
Molecular pathogenesis of primary hyperparathyroidism.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2011; 34(7 Suppl):35-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinopathy, mostly caused by a monoclonal parathyroid adenoma. The hereditary syndromes include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 (MEN 1) and 2A (MEN 2A), hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPTJT), familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT). Mutations of MEN1 and CDKN1B genes are responsible for MEN 1 in 70-80% and about 2% of cases, respectively. MEN1 and CDKN1B genes have also a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic parathyroid adenomas. HRPT2/CDC73 gene mutations are responsible for HPT-JT and sporadic parathyroid carcinoma. MEN1 and HRPT2/CDC73 genes mutations have also been found in a subset of FIHP families. FHH and NSHPT represent the mildest and severest variants of PHPT, caused by heterozygous and homozygous mutations in the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene, respectively.

Related: CDKN1B Parathyroid Cancer MEN1

Cascón A, Huarte-Mendicoa CV, Javier Leandro-García L, et al.
Detection of the first gross CDC73 germline deletion in an HPT-JT syndrome family.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011; 50(11):922-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hereditary primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) may develop as a solitary endocrinopathy (FIHP) or as part of multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2A, or hereditary HPT-jaw tumor syndrome. Inactivating germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene CDC73 account for 14 and 50% of all FIHP and HPT-JT patients, respectively, and have also been found in almost 20% of apparently sporadic parathyroid carcinoma patients. Although more than 60 independent germline mutations have been described, to date no rearrangement affecting the CDC73 locus has been identified. By means of multiplex-PCR we found a large germline deletion affecting the whole gene in a two-generation HPT-JT family. Subsequently array-CGH and specific PCR analysis determined that the mutation spanned ∼ 547 kb, and included four additional genes: TROVE2, GLRX2, B3GALT2, and UCHL5. Although no clear mutation-specific phenotype was found associated to the presence of the mutation, further studies are needed to assess whether the loss of the neighboring genes could modify the phenotype of carriers. There was complete absence of nuclear staining in the two HPT-JT-related tumors available. The finding of the first rearrangement affecting the CDC73 gene warrants screening for this tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanism not only in high-risk CDC73 point mutation-negative HPT-JT families, but also in FIHP patients.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer

Shimazu S, Nagamura Y, Yaguchi H, et al.
Correlation of mutant menin stability with clinical expression of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and its incomplete forms.
Cancer Sci. 2011; 102(11):2097-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene MEN1 are found not only in typical multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) but also in its incomplete forms such as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) and apparently sporadic parathyroid tumor (ASPT). No definitive genotype-phenotype correlation has been established between these clinical forms and MEN1 gene mutations. We previously demonstrated that mutant menin proteins associated with MEN1 are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. To examine whether the intracellular stability of mutant menin is correlated with clinical phenotypes, we developed a method of evaluating menin stability and examined 20 mutants associated with typical MEN1 (17 missense, two in-frame deletion, one nonsense) and 21 mutants associated with FIHP or ASPT (19 missense, two in-frame deletion). All tested mutants associated with typical MEN1 showed reduced stability. Some missense and in-frame deletion mutants (G28A, R171W, T197I, E255K, E274A, Y353del and E366D) associated with FIHP or ASPT were almost as stable as or only slightly less stable than wild-type menin, while others were as unstable as those associated with typical MEN1. Some stable mutants exhibited substantial biological activities when tested by JunD-dependent transactivation assay. These findings suggest that certain missense and in-frame mutations are fairly stable and retain intrinsic biological activity, and might be specifically associated with incomplete clinical phenotypes. The menin stability test will provide useful information for the management of patients carrying germline MEN1 mutations especially when they have missense or in-frame variants of ambiguous clinical significance.

Related: Parathyroid Cancer JUND MEN1


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