Gene Summary

Gene:CDC73; cell division cycle 73
Aliases: HYX, FIHP, HPTJT, HRPT1, HRPT2, C1orf28
Summary:This gene encodes a tumor suppressor that is involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional control pathways. The protein is a component of the the PAF protein complex, which associates with the RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A and with a histone methyltransferase complex. This protein appears to facilitate the association of 3' mRNA processing factors with actively-transcribed chromatin. Mutations in this gene have been linked to hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroid carcinoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary
  • Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
  • Base Sequence
  • Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Cancer DNA
  • Carcinoma
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cyclin D1
  • Fibroma
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Heterozygote
  • CDC73
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Jaw Neoplasms
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Adenoma
  • Mutation
  • DNA Methylation
  • Fibroma, Ossifying
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Genetic Testing
  • Parathyroidectomy
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Pedigree
  • Parathyroid Glands
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Adolescents
  • Parathyroid Cancer
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Chromosome 1
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDC73 (cancer-related)

Chen L, He Q, Liu Y, et al.
PPP3CB Inhibits Migration of G401 Cells via Regulating Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Promotes G401 Cells Growth.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PPP3CB belongs to the phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPPs) group. Although the majority of the PPP family play important roles in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells, little is known about the function of PPP3CB in the EMT process. Here, we found PPP3CB had high expression in kidney mesenchymal-like cells compared with kidney epithelial-like cells. Knock-down of PPP3CB downregulated epithelial marker E-cadherin and upregulated mesenchymal marker Vimentin, promoting the transition of cell states from epithelial to mesenchymal and reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton which contributed to cell migration. Conversely, overexpression of PPP3CB reversed EMT and inhibited migration of tumor cells. Besides, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that the loss of PPP3CB suppressed the tumor growth. However, the deletion of the phosphatase domain of PPP3CB showed no effect on the expression of E-cadherin, migration, and G401 cell proliferation. Together, we demonstrate that PPP3CB inhibits G401 cell migration through regulating EMT and promotes cell proliferation, which are both associated with the phosphatase activity of PPP3CB.

Cetani F, Pardi E, Marcocci C
Parathyroid Carcinoma.
Front Horm Res. 2019; 51:63-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, accounting for <1% of all cases of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and up to 15% in the hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Genomic alterations identified in PC are mostly represented by CDC73 gene mutations, codifying for a loss-of-function protein termed parafibromin. Whole exome sequencing identified mutations in other genes, such as mTOR, KMT2D, CDKN2C, THRAP3, PIK3CA, and EZH2 genes, CCND1 gene amplification. The diagnosis of PC is quite difficult due to the lack of reliable clinical diagnostic criteria, and in the majority of cases is made postoperatively at histological examination. The clinical manifestations of PC are primarily due to the excessive secretion of PTH by the tumor rather than spread to local or distant organs. En bloc resection of the parathyroid tumor represents the initial mainstay treatment of patients with PC. Multiple surgical procedures may be required, although surgical morbidity should be taken into account. A 5- and 10-year survival between 77-100 and 49-91%, respectively, has been reported. When the tumor is no more resectable, medical treatment of hypercalcemia has a pivotal role in the management of these patients.

Mahajan G, Sacerdote A
Previously unreported deletion of CDC73 involving exons 1-13 was detected in a patient with recurrent parathyroid carcinoma.
BMJ Case Rep. 2018; 11(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare malignancy, presenting sporadically or as part of a genetic syndrome. Diagnosis of PC includes the histopathological diagnosis based on capsular, perineural, or vascular invasion or metastasis. High suspicion for malignancy includes hypercalcaemia greater than 14 mg/dL, extremely high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, as well as large masses. Given the rarity of PC, it is challenging to design clinical trials for newer therapy. Currently, complete initial surgical excision of the tumour in high-risk patients offers the best chance of cure and prolonged disease-free survival in PC. In the absence of definite data, non-surgical therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy are not routinely recommended. For early detection of recurrence; long-term clinical follow-up with interval measurements of serum calcium and PTH is recommended. Localising studies of PC are helpful. Early screening for CDC73 mutation and multidisciplinary treatment by an endocrine/ENT/surgical oncology team is recommended.

Salcuni AS, Cetani F, Guarnieri V, et al.
Parathyroid carcinoma.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 32(6):877-889 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare disease with an indolent behavior due to the low malignant potential. The etiology is unknown. Somatic mutations of CDC73 gene, the same gene involved in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, can be identified in up to 70% of patients with PC and in one-third of cases the mutations are germline. Therefore, in patients who carry germline CDC73 gene mutations, its finding permits to identify the carriers among relatives and sometimes to early detect a parathyroid lesion in such subjects. The diagnosis of PC is commonly made after surgery, however there are some clinical/biochemical features that should raise the suspicion of PC, namely markedly elevated serum calcium and PTH levels, a large parathyroid lesion with suspected ultrasonographic features of malignancy, the damages of kidney and bones. The best chance of cure is the complete surgical resection with the en-bloc excision at the first operation, however several recurrences are often observed during the follow-up. Since PC is an indolent tumor with long-lasting survival and the death is due to complications of untreatable hypercalcemia, multiple surgical interventions with debulking of tumoral tissues along with medical treatment for reducing hypercalcemia are often needed. Patients with PC should be followed up along their lifetime.

Vocke CD, Ricketts CJ, Ball MW, et al.
CDC73 Germline Mutation in a Family With Mixed Epithelial and Stromal Tumors.
Urology. 2019; 124:91-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe a family in which 3 members presented with mixed epithelial tumor of the kidney (MEST) and were found to possess a germline mutation in CDC73, a gene which is associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood and tumor DNA from three family members who presented with a primary diagnosis of MEST was subjected to targeted gene sequencing to identify potential genetic components.
RESULTS: A germline start codon mutation (p.M1I) in CDC73 was identified in all 3 family members who presented with MEST and 2 tumors from 1 patient demonstrated somatic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Patients presented with no evidence of hyperparathyroidism or jaw tumors, but both female patients had hysterectomies at an early age due to excessive bleeding and numerous fibroids, which is common in HPT-JT. A germline p.M1I mutation has been previously reported in a family with clinical features of HPT-JT.
CONCLUSION: Patients with MEST may be at risk for HPT-JT and CDC73 germline mutation testing of MEST patients should be considered.

Cui M, Hu Y, Bi Y, et al.
Preliminary exploration of potential molecular therapeutic targets in recurrent and metastatic parathyroid carcinomas.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(3):525-532 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare endocrine malignancy. Surgical resection is curative for local lesions, while effective therapies are lacking for recurrent or metastatic PCs. To study whether targeted therapies could be applied in recurrent or metastatic PCs, potential therapeutic targets were identified with next-generation sequencing (NGS). DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections from 19 recurrent or metastatic PC samples. A panel of 560 genes was sequenced with NGS to identify genomic alterations at an average sequencing depth of 581×. In total, 190 genomic alterations were identified. Nine PC samples (47%) harbored at least one potentially actionable genomic alteration including in the after genes: ROS1 (5/19; 26%), PTEN (3/19; 16%), TSC1 (2/19; 11%), PIK3CA (1/19; 5%), AKT1 (1/19; 5%), MTOR (1/19; 5%), ERBB2 (1/19; 5%), NTRK1 (1/19; 5%), IDH1 (1/19; 5%) and FGFR3 (1/19; 5%). CDC73 mutations were detected in 9/19 (47%) PC samples. Additional recurrent genomic alterations were identified in MSH2 (15/19; 79%), AR (9/19; 47%), BCR (8/19; 42%), SLC45A3 (6/19; 32%), MAGI1 (5/19; 26%), ZNF521 (4/19; 21%), KMT2C (4/19; 21%) and NOTCH4 (4/19; 21%). Our study identified a relatively high frequency of potentially actionable genomic alterations in PC patients in a Chinese population for the first time. A series of recurrent mutant genes was detected as well. Our study contributes to both the selection of novel targeted therapies for PC and further molecular understanding of this refractory malignancy.

Kapur A, Singh N, Mete O, et al.
A Young Male with Parafibromin-Deficient Parathyroid Carcinoma Due to a Rare Germline HRPT2/CDC73 Mutation.
Endocr Pathol. 2018; 29(4):374-379 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyperparathyroidism, commonly observed in asymptomatic middle-aged women, with mild hypercalcemia, is usually caused by a benign adenoma. Some cases present with more severe manifestation and greater hypercalcemia. Within this spectrum, several familial/genetic associations have been discovered. While the majority are caused by benign disease, adenomas, or hyperplasia, a small proportion (< 1%) are associated with malignant tumors and present with more severe symptoms. Although usually sporadic, recent reports document various gene mutations that strongly predispose to the development of parathyroid carcinoma. An increasing number of cases of hyperparathyroidism, benign or malignant, require and benefit from genetic analysis. We describe a 25-year-old male with hyperparathyroidism presenting with a pathological fracture, brown tumors, hypercalcemia, and markedly elevated parathyroid hormone levels. There was no family history of hyperparathyroidism or jaw tumors. Surgical removal revealed a single large tumor confirmed to be malignant. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of parafibromin and decreased APC (adenomatosis polyposis coli) expression. Genetic analysis revealed a rare germline nonsense mutation (R76X) in the parafibromin gene, HRPT2/CDC73. Parathyroid carcinoma should be suspected as a cause of hyperparathyroidism when clinical manifestations are severe, particularly in young individuals, < 59 years. Immunohistochemistry may lead to suspicion for a germline mutation as a significant contributor despite absence of a family history. The discovery of a germline mutation in parathyroid carcinoma alters the clinical management of the index case and that of family members. Long-term follow-up studies of such patients are necessary to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines.

Wei Z, Sun B, Wang ZP, et al.
Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Novel Recurrent Somatic Mutations in Sporadic Parathyroid Adenomas.
Endocrinology. 2018; 159(8):3061-3068 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism is commonly caused by excess production of parathyroid hormone from sporadic parathyroid adenomas. However, the genetic architecture of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism remains largely uncharacterized, especially in the Chinese population. To identify genetic abnormalities that may be involved in the etiology of sporadic parathyroid adenomas and to determine the mutation frequency of previously identified genes in the Chinese population, we performed whole-exome sequencing of 22 blood-tumor pairs from sporadic parathyroid adenomas. The most important finding is the recurrently mutated gene, ASXL3, which has never been reported in parathyroid tumors before. Moreover, we identified two different somatic mutations in the CDC73 gene and one somatic mutation in the EZH2 gene. The Y54X mutation in the CDC73 gene was previously identified in parathyroid carcinomas, which proved that parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas might possess similar molecular signatures. No mutations in the MEN1 or CCND1 genes were observed in our study. Thus, our data provide insights into the genetic pathogenesis of sporadic parathyroid adenomas and are valuable for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

Kumar MS, Adki KM
Marine natural products for multi-targeted cancer treatment: A future insight.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 105:233-245 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is world's second largest alarming disease, which involves abnormal cell growth and have potential to spread to other parts of the body. Most of the available anticancer drugs are designed to act on specific targets by altering the activity of involved transporters and genes. As cancer cells exhibit complex cellular machinery, the regeneration of cancer tissues and chemo resistance towards the therapy has been the main obstacle in cancer treatment. This fact encourages the researchers to explore the multitargeted use of existing medicines to overcome the shortcomings of chemotherapy for alternative and safer treatment strategies. Recent developments in genomics-proteomics and an understanding of the molecular pharmacology of cancer have also challenged researchers to come up with target-based drugs. The literature supports the evidence of natural compounds exhibiting antioxidant, antimitotic, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic as well as anticancer activity. In this review, we have selected marine sponges as a prolific source of bioactive compounds which can be explored for their possible use in cancer and have tried to link their role in cancer pathway. To prove this, we revisited the literature for the selection of cancer genes for the multitargeted use of existing drugs and natural products. We used Cytoscape network analysis and Search tool for retrieval of interacting genes/ proteins (STRING) to study the possible interactions to show the links between the antioxidants, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and antimitotic agents and their targets for their possible use in cancer. We included total 78 pathways, their genes and natural compounds from the above four pharmacological classes used in cancer treatment for multitargeted approach. Based on the Cytoscape network analysis results, we shortlist 22 genes based on their average shortest path length connecting one node to all other nodes in a network. These selected genes are CDKN2A, FH, VHL, STK11, SUFU, RB1, MEN1, HRPT2, EXT1, 2, CDK4, p14, p16, TSC1, 2, AXIN2, SDBH C, D, NF1, 2, BHD, PTCH, GPC3, CYLD and WT1. The selected genes were analysed using STRING for their protein-protein interactions. Based on the above findings, we propose the selected genes to be considered as major targets and are suggested to be studied for discovering marine natural products as drug lead in cancer treatment.

Jia Q, Nie H, Wan X, et al.
Down-regulation of cancer-associated gene CDC73 contributes to cellular senescence.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 499(4):809-814 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulated gene expression is another important contributor in explaining cancer-related phenotypes in addition to mutations. Cellular senescence is a mechanism for the prevention of cancer and thus it is important to understand the regulation of gene expression in senescence due to its potential in anti-cancer therapy. Here, we found that CDC73, which encodes the cell division cycle 73 and acts as a tumor suppressor, was unexpectedly up-regulated in several cancer types but down-regulated in a variety of senescent cells. Importantly, depletion of CDC73 could induce senescence-associated phenotypes in both normal and cancer cells, with an increase in p21 expression. In terms of molecular mechanism, alternative polyadenylation (APA)-mediated 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) lengthening explained, at least in part, the decreased CDC73 expression in senescent cells because longer 3' UTR had a higher rate of RNA degradation compared to the shorter one. Our work discovered that post-transcriptional down-regulation of CDC73 contributed to cellular senescence.

Bricaire L, Richard C, Gauthé M, et al.
False-Positive Results in 18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT for a Thymoma in Workup of a Hereditary Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Clin Nucl Med. 2018; 43(5):e151-e153 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present the case of a severe familial primary hyperparathyroidism related to a germline deletion in the HRPT2 (CDC73) gene. Morphological explorations revealed 2 potential hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands: a left cervical lesion on the neck ultrasound, and an ectopic mediastinal lesion on the parathyroid scintigraphy using Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile and on F-fluorocholine PET/CT. Surgery removal and histopathological examination determined that the mediastinal mass corresponded to a thymoma and the cervical lesion to a parathyroid adenoma. Those interesting images illustrate that a thymoma can produce false-positive results both on Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintigraphy and F-fluorocholine PET/CT.

Koikawa K, Okada Y, Mori H, et al.
Hyperparathyroidism-jaw Tumor Syndrome Confirmed by Preoperative Genetic Testing.
Intern Med. 2018; 57(6):841-844 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
We herein report the case of a young woman who was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism and in whom genetic testing confirmed a diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Familial hyperparathyroidism was suspected based on the patient's young age at the onset of the disease. Thus, genetic testing was performed. It showed a germline mutation in the HRPT2/CDC73 gene and confirmed the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Total parathyroidectomy was performed to prevent recurrence. In patients with early-onset hyperparathyroidism, genetic testing should be considered to facilitate the selection of a proper surgical procedure based on the consideration of future life expectancy.

Sun W, Kuang XL, Liu YP, et al.
Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human CDC73 and its implications for the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):15638 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
CDC73/Parafibromin is a critical component of the Paf1 complex (PAF1C), which is involved in transcriptional elongation and histone modifications. Mutations of the human CDC73/HRPT2 gene are associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder. CDC73/parafibromin was initially recognized as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation via repression of cyclin D1 and c-myc genes. In recent years, it has also shown oncogenic features by activating the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. Here, through limited proteolysis analysis, we demonstrate that the evolutionarily conserved human CDC73 N-terminal 111 residues form a globularly folded domain (hCDC73-NTD). We have determined a crystal structure of hCDC73-NTD at 1.02 Å resolution, which reveals a novel protein fold. CDC73-NTD contains an extended hydrophobic groove on its surface that may be important for its function. Most pathogenic CDC73 missense mutations associated with the HPT-JT syndrome are located in the region encoding CDC73-NTD. Our crystal and biochemical data indicate that most CDC73 missense mutations disrupt the folding of the hydrophobic core of hCDC73-NTD, while others such as the K34Q mutant reduce its thermostability. Overall, our results provide a solid structural basis for understanding the structure and function of CDC73 and its association with the HPT-JT syndrome and other diseases.

Cetani F, Pardi E, Marcocci C
Parathyroid carcinoma: a clinical and genetic perspective.
Minerva Endocrinol. 2018; 43(2):144-155 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare neoplasia difficult to diagnose preoperatively. It mainly occurs as a sporadic disease but also as part of familial PHPT. At variance with patients with the benign counterpart, the phenotype of these patients is characterized by a severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The clinical features are mostly due to the effects of the excessive secretion of PTH by the functioning tumor and hypercalcemia rather than to the tumor burden. The prognosis is poor and unmanageable hypercalcemia accounts for death in the majority of cases. The best chance of cure is surgery, although persistent or recurrent disease occurs in about 50% of patients. Somatic loss-of-function mutations of CDC73 gene, encoding parafibromin, are the most frequent genetic alterations occurring in PCs. Mutations of the PRUNE2 gene, alterations of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and amplification of the CCND1 gene have been recently detected in PCs. Alteration of microRNA profile and methylation pattern have been identified in PCs. The recent studies have better defined the genomic landscape of PCs and represent major progress toward a full molecular characterization of this neoplasia and development of novel therapeutic options.

Serio J, Ropa J, Chen W, et al.
The PAF complex regulation of Prmt5 facilitates the progression and maintenance of MLL fusion leukemia.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(4):450-460 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease associated with epigenetic dysregulation. 11q23 translocations involving the H3K4 methyltransferase MLL1 (KMT2A) generate oncogenic fusion proteins with deregulated transcriptional potential. The polymerase-associated factor complex (PAFc) is an epigenetic co-activator complex that makes direct contact with MLL fusion proteins and is involved in AML, however, its functions are not well understood. Here, we explored the transcriptional targets regulated by the PAFc that facilitate leukemia by performing RNA-sequencing after conditional loss of the PAFc subunit Cdc73. We found Cdc73 promotes expression of an early hematopoietic progenitor gene program that prevents differentiation. Among the target genes, we confirmed the protein arginine methyltransferase Prmt5 is a direct target that is positively regulated by a transcriptional unit that includes the PAFc, MLL1, HOXA9 and STAT5 in leukemic cells. We observed reduced PRMT5-mediated H4R3me2s following excision of Cdc73 placing this histone modification downstream of the PAFc and revealing a novel mechanism between the PAFc and Prmt5. Knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of Prmt5 causes a G1 arrest and reduced proliferation resulting in extended leukemic disease latency in vivo. Overall, we demonstrate the PAFc regulates Prmt5 to facilitate leukemic progression and is a potential therapeutic target for AMLs.

Cardoso L, Stevenson M, Thakker RV
Molecular genetics of syndromic and non-syndromic forms of parathyroid carcinoma.
Hum Mutat. 2017; 38(12):1621-1648 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) may occur as part of a complex hereditary syndrome or an isolated (i.e., non-syndromic) non-hereditary (i.e., sporadic) endocrinopathy. Studies of hereditary and syndromic forms of PC, which include the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and MEN2), and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), have revealed some genetic mechanisms underlying PC. Thus, cell division cycle 73 (CDC73) germline mutations cause HPT-JT, and CDC73 mutations occur in 70% of sporadic PC, but in only ∼2% of parathyroid adenomas. Moreover, CDC73 germline mutations occur in 20%-40% of patients with sporadic PC and may reveal unrecognized HPT-JT. This indicates that CDC73 mutations are major driver mutations in the etiology of PCs. However, there is no genotype-phenotype correlation and some CDC73 mutations (e.g., c.679_680insAG) have been reported in patients with sporadic PC, HPT-JT, or FIHP. Other genes involved in sporadic PC include germline MEN1 and rearranged during transfection (RET) mutations and somatic alterations of the retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) and tumor protein P53 (TP53) genes, as well as epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation and histone modifications, and microRNA misregulation. This review summarizes the genetics and epigenetics of the familial syndromic and non-syndromic (sporadic) forms of PC.

Guerin C, Romanet P, Taieb D, et al.
Looking beyond the thyroid: advances in the understanding of pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism phenotypes in MEN2 and of non-MEN2 familial forms.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2018; 25(2):T15-T28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over the last years, the knowledge of MEN2 and non-MEN2 familial forms of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) has increased. In MEN2, PHEO is the second most frequent disease: the penetrance and age at diagnosis depend on the mutation of

Guarnieri V, Seaberg RM, Kelly C, et al.
Large intragenic deletion of CDC73 (exons 4-10) in a three-generation hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome family.
BMC Med Genet. 2017; 18(1):83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inactivating mutations of CDC73 cause Hyperparathyroidism-Jaw Tumour syndrome (HPT-JT), Familial Isolated Hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) and sporadic parathyroid carcinoma. We conducted CDC73 mutation analysis in an HPT-JT family and confirm carrier status of the proband's daughter.
METHODS: The proband had primary hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid carcinoma) and uterine leiomyomata. Her father and daughter had hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid adenoma) but no other manifestations of HPT-JT. CDC73 mutation analysis (sequencing of all 17 exons) and whole-genome copy number variation (CNV) analysis was done on leukocyte DNA of the three affecteds as well as the proband's unaffected sister.
RESULTS: A novel deletion of exons 4 to 10 of CDC73 was detected by CNV analysis in the three affecteds. A novel insertion in the 5'UTR (c.-4_-11insG) that co-segregated with the deletion was identified. By in vitro assay the 5'UTR insertion was shown to significantly impair the expression of the parafibromin protein. Screening for the mutated CDC73 confirmed carrier status in the proband's daughter and the biochemistry and ultrasonography led to pre-emptive surgery and resolution of the hyperparathyroidism.
CONCLUSIONS: A novel gross deletion mutation in CDC73 was identified in a three-generation HPT-JT family emphasizing the importance of including screening for large deletions in the molecular diagnostic protocol.

Wasserman JD, Tomlinson GE, Druker H, et al.
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia and Hyperparathyroid-Jaw Tumor Syndromes: Clinical Features, Genetics, and Surveillance Recommendations in Childhood.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(13):e123-e132 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Children and adolescents who present with neuroendocrine tumors are at extremely high likelihood of having an underlying germline predisposition for the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes, including MEN1, MEN2A and MEN2B, MEN4, and hyperparathyroid-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndromes. Each of these autosomal dominant syndromes results from a specific germline mutation in unique genes: MEN1 is due to pathogenic

Simonds WF
Genetics of Hyperparathyroidism, Including Parathyroid Cancer.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2017; 46(2):405-418 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a metabolic disease caused by the excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone from 1 or more neoplastic parathyroid glands. HPT is largely sporadic, but it can be associated with a familial syndrome. The study of such families led to the discovery of tumor suppressor genes whose loss of function is now recognized to underlie the development of many sporadic parathyroid tumors. Heritable and acquired oncogenes causing parathyroid neoplasia are also known. Studies of somatic changes in parathyroid tumor DNA and investigation of kindreds with unexplained familial HPT promise to unmask more genes relevant to parathyroid neoplasia.

Pandya C, Uzilov AV, Bellizzi J, et al.
Genomic profiling reveals mutational landscape in parathyroid carcinomas.
JCI Insight. 2017; 2(6):e92061 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is an extremely rare malignancy lacking effective therapeutic intervention. We generated and analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from 17 patients to identify somatic and germline genetic alterations. A panel of selected genes was sequenced in a 7-tumor expansion cohort. We show that 47% (8 of 17) of the tumors harbor somatic mutations in the

Zheng HC, Liu JJ, Li J, et al.
The in vitro and vivo effects of nuclear and cytosolic parafibromin expression on the aggressive phenotypes of colorectal cancer cells: a search of potential gene therapy target.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(14):23603-23612 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Down-regulated parafibromin is positively linked to the pathogenesis of parathyroid, lung, breast, ovarian, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we found that wild-type (WT) parafibromin overexpression suppressed proliferation, tumor growth, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells (p<0.05), but it was the converse for mutant-type (MT, mutation in nucleus localization sequence) parafibromin (p<0.05). Both WT and MT transfectants inhibited migration and invasion, and caused better differentiation (p<0.05) of cancer cells. WT parafibromin transfectants showed the overexpression of Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, p38, p53, and AIF in HCT-15 and HCT-116 cells, while MT parafibromin only up-regulated p38 expression. There was lower mRNA expression of bcl-2 in parafibromin transfectants than the control and mock, while higher expression of c-myc, Cyclin D1, mTOR, and Raptor. According to transcriptomic analysis, WT parafibromin suppressed PI3K-Akt and FoxO signaling pathways, while MT one promoted PI3K-Akt pathway, focal adhesion, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Parafibromin was less expressed in colorectal cancer than paired mucosa (p<0.05), and inversely correlated with its differentiation at both mRNA and protein levels (p<0.05). These findings indicated that WT parafibromin might reverse the aggressive phenotypes of colorectal cancer cells and be employed as a target for gene therapy. Down-regulated parafibromin expression might be closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and cancer differentiation.

Verdelli C, Corbetta S
Epigenetic Alterations in Parathyroid Cancers.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(2) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Parathyroid cancers (PCas) are rare malignancies representing approximately 0.005% of all cancers. PCas are a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, which is the third most common endocrine disease, mainly related to parathyroid benign tumors. About 90% of PCas are hormonally active hypersecreting parathormone (PTH); consequently patients present with complications of severe hypercalcemia. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult due to clinical features shared with benign parathyroid lesions. Surgery provides the current best chance of cure, though persistent or recurrent disease occurs in about 50% of patients with PCas. Somatic inactivating mutations of CDC73/HRPT2 gene, encoding parafibromin, are the most frequent genetic anomalies occurring in PCas. Recently, the aberrant DNA methylation signature and microRNA expression profile have been identified in PCas, providing evidence that parathyroid malignancies are distinct entities from parathyroid benign lesions, showing an epigenetic signature resembling some embryonic aspects. The present paper reviews data about epigenetic alterations in PCas, up to now limited to DNA methylation, chromatin regulators and microRNA profile.

Ozolins A, Narbuts Z, Vanags A, et al.
Evaluation of malignant parathyroid tumours in two European cohorts of patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.
Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2016; 401(7):943-951 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is remarkable for its rare occurrence and challenging diagnostics. PC accounts for 0.1-5 % cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The differentiation from benign tumours is difficult even by morphological criteria. To address these issues, we assessed the PC frequency in two separate European PHPT cohorts and evaluated the demographic, clinical, morphological and molecular background.
METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out, using continuously maintained database (2005-2014) of PHPT patients from two tertiary referral university hospitals in Europe. The demographic, clinical data and frequency of PC among surgically treated PHPT was detected. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect parafibromin, representing protein product of HRPT2 gene and proliferation marker Ki-67.
RESULTS: Both PHPT cohorts were characterised by close mean age values (58.6 and 58.0 years) and female predominance. The frequency of PC differed significantly between the cohorts: 2.1 vs. 0.3 %; p = 0.004. PC was characterised by invariable complete loss of parafibromin contrasting with parathyroid adenomas. The proliferation fraction was similar in both PC cohorts (10.6 and 11.0 %). PC showed significantly higher proliferation fraction than typical parathyroid adenomas (1.6 %), atypical adenomas (1.6 %) or adenomas featuring focal loss of parafibromin (2.2 %).
CONCLUSIONS: PC frequency can range significantly between the two European cohorts. The differences can be attributable to selection bias of patients referred for surgery and are not caused by discordant definition of malignant parathyroid histology. Diffuse loss of parafibromin and increased proliferation fraction by Ki-67 are valuable adjuncts in PC diagnostics due to significant differences with various clinical and morphological subtypes of adenoma.

Guan B, Welch JM, Sapp JC, et al.
GCM2-Activating Mutations in Familial Isolated Hyperparathyroidism.
Am J Hum Genet. 2016; 99(5):1034-1044 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disease characterized by parathyroid hormone excess and hypercalcemia and caused by hypersecreting parathyroid glands. Familial PHPT occurs in an isolated nonsyndromal form, termed familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), or as part of a syndrome, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. The specific genetic or other cause(s) of FIHP are unknown. We performed exome sequencing on germline DNA of eight index-case individuals from eight unrelated kindreds with FIHP. Selected rare variants were assessed for co-segregation in affected family members and screened for in an additional 32 kindreds with FIHP. In eight kindreds with FIHP, we identified three rare missense variants in GCM2, a gene encoding a transcription factor required for parathyroid development. Functional characterization of the GCM2 variants and deletion analyses revealed a small C-terminal conserved inhibitory domain (CCID) in GCM2. Two of the three rare variants were recurrent, located in the GCM2 CCID, and found in seven of the 40 (18%) kindreds with FIHP. These two rare variants acted as gain-of-function mutations that increased the transcriptional activity of GCM2, suggesting that GCM2 is a parathyroid proto-oncogene. Our results demonstrate that germline-activating mutations affecting the CCID of GCM2 can cause FIHP.

Mathews JW, Winchester R, Alsaygh N, et al.
Hyperparathyroidism-jaw Tumor Syndrome: An Overlooked Cause of Severe Hypercalcemia.
Am J Med Sci. 2016; 352(3):302-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ossifying fibromas of the maxillofacial bones are an uncommon form of benign neoplasm usually treated by surgical excision. Up to 30% of patients with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, a rare form of multiple endocrine neoplasia resulting from autosomal dominant inactivating mutation of the Hrpt2 tumor suppressor gene, initially present with ossifying fibromas. Coincident hypercalcemia because of the presence of parathyroid adenoma is common in these patients, of whom 15% may have or may develop parathyroid carcinoma. The authors present a case of severe postsurgical hypercalcemia after removal of a large maxillary ossifying fibroma in a patient with previously unrecognized hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor AU3 syndrome.

Serrano-Gonzalez M, Shay S, Austin J, et al.
A germline mutation of HRPT2/CDC73 (70 G>T) in an adolescent female with parathyroid carcinoma: first case report and a review of the literature.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016; 29(9):1005-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism amongst children, with only nine previously reported cases. The objective of the study was to present the first pediatric case with a germline CDC73 (formerly known as HRPT2) mutation, and to review the literature. A 14-year-old girl presented with pathologic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The patient was noted to have an elevated calcium level of 3.4 mmol/L (13.4 mg/dL), a parathyroid hormone (PTH) level of 1013 ng/L (1013 pg/mL), and a 3-cm palpable neck mass. Ultrasound and 99mTc-Sestamibi confirmed the suspicion of a parathyroid mass. Intraoperative findings and pathology confirmed the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma. Post-operative PTH decreased to 14 ng/L (14 pg/mL). Genetic testing showed a germline 70 G>T HRPT2/CDC73 mutation. This is the first case documenting a germline 70 G>T HRPT2/CDC73 gene mutation in a pediatric parathyroid carcinoma. Patients with sporadic parathyroid carcinoma may benefit from HRPT2/CDC73 gene mutation screening.

Thakker RV
Genetics of parathyroid tumours.
J Intern Med. 2016; 280(6):574-583 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), due to parathyroid tumours, may occur as part of a complex syndrome or as an isolated (nonsyndromic) disorder, and both forms can occur as familial (i.e. hereditary) or nonfamilial (i.e. sporadic) disease. Syndromic PHPT includes multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 1 to 4 (MEN1 to MEN4) and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome. Syndromic and hereditary PHPT are often associated with multiple parathyroid tumours, in contrast to sporadic PHPT, in which single parathyroid adenomas are more common. In addition, parathyroid carcinomas may occur in ~15% of patients with the HPT-JT syndrome. MEN1 is caused by abnormalities of the MEN1 gene which encodes a tumour suppressor; MEN2 and MEN3 are due to mutations of the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene, which encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor; MEN4 is due to mutations of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDNK1B); and HPT-JT is due to mutations of cell division cycle 73 (CDC73), which encodes parafibromin. Nonsyndromic PHPT, which may be hereditary and referred to as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, may also be due to MEN1, CDC73 or calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) mutations. In addition, ~10% of patients presenting below the age of 45 years with nonsyndromic, sporadic PHPT may have MEN1, CDC73 or CASR mutations, and overall more than 10% of patients with PHPT will have a mutation in one of 11 genes. Genetic testing is available and of value in the clinical setting, as it helps in making the correct diagnosis and planning the management of these complex disorders associated with parathyroid tumours.

Niramitmahapanya S, Deerochanawong C, Sarinnapakorn V, et al.
Somatic HRPT2 Mutation (Arg234X) of Parathyroid Carcinoma Associated with Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: A First Case Report.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2016; 99 Suppl 2:S201-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 14-year-old boy was admitted to the orthopedic clinic of Rajavithi Hospital complaining of pain in the left hip. A year earlier, pain had developed in his left joint and had gradually increased in intensity in both hips. A month before he was referred, radiographs obtained at another hospital showed bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The patient's biochemical laboratory data showed hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and a high level of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) compatible with primary hyperparathyroidism. HRPT2 gene analysis found heterozygosity for c. 700 C > T mutation (Arg234X) of HRPT2 gene at exon 7. This is the first report in the literature about somatic mutation of the HRPT2 gene of parathyroid carcinoma associated with slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

Westin G
Molecular genetics and epigenetics of nonfamilial (sporadic) parathyroid tumours.
J Intern Med. 2016; 280(6):551-558 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common endocrine disease characterized by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone and an increased level of serum calcium. Overall, 80-85% of pHPT cases are due to a benign, single parathyroid adenoma (PA), and 15% to multiglandular disease (multiple adenomas/hyperplasia). Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is rare, accounting for <0.5-1% of pHPT cases. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is a complication of renal failure, with the development of parathyroid tumours and hypercalcaemia. Recurrent mutations in the MEN1 gene have been confirmed by the whole-exome sequencing in 35% of PAs, suggesting that non-protein-coding genes, regulatory elements or epigenetic derangements may also have roles in the majority of PAs. DNA translocations with cyclin D1 overexpression occur in PAs (8%). In PCs, mutations in CDC73/HRPT2 are common. Activation of the WNT/β-catenin signalling pathway (accumulation of nonphosphorylated β-catenin) by an aberrantly truncated LRP5 receptor has been seen for the majority of investigated PAs and sHPT tumours, and possibly by APC inactivation through promoter methylation in PCs. Promoter methylation of several other genes and repressive histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation by EZH2 of the HIC1 gene may also contribute to parathyroid tumorigenesis. It is possible that a common pathway exists for parathyroid tumour development. CCND1 (cyclin D1) and EZH2 overexpression, accumulation of nonphosphorylated β-catenin and repression of HIC1 have all been observed to occur in PAs, PCs and sHPT tumours. In addition, hypermethylation has been observed for the same genes in PAs and PCs (e.g. SFRP1, CDKN2A and WT1). Whether β-catenin represents a 'hub' in parathyroid tumour development will be discussed.

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