Gene Summary

Gene:FABP7; fatty acid binding protein 7
Summary:The gene encodes a small, highly conserved cytoplasmic protein that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. The encoded protein is important in the establishment of the radial glial fiber in the developing brain. Alternative splicing and promoter usage results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on multiple chromosomes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fatty acid-binding protein, brain
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Kidney
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 7
  • Chromosome 6
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Glioblastoma
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Fatty Acids
  • Up-Regulation
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Messenger RNA
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Disease Progression
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Division
  • Breast Cancer
  • Brain Tumours
  • Survival Rate
  • Brain Tumours
  • Transfection
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Movement
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Gene Expression
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Brain Stem Glioma, Childhood
  • Skin Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Software
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Melanoma
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FABP7 (cancer-related)

Nagao K, Shinohara N, Smit F, et al.
Fatty acid binding protein 7 may be a marker and therapeutic targets in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1114 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To identify potential therapeutic target in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), we performed a transcriptome analysis. Our analysis showed that fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7) has the highest mean differential overexpression in ccRCC compared to normal kidney. We aimed to investigate the significance of FABP7 in ccRCC.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for 40 advanced ccRCC cases was performed to investigate correlation between clinicopathological parameters and FABP7. They were composed of 40-83 years old cases with 33 male, 22 cases with pT ≥ 3, 19 cases with M1, and 16 cases with grade 3. The effect of gene knockdown was analysed by a cell viability assay and invasion assay in FABP7-overexpressing cell lines (SKRC7 and SKRC10).
RESULTS: Our immunohistochemical analysis showed that higher FABP7 expression significantly correlated with distant metastasis and poor cancer-specific survival (CSS; both p < 0.05). Functional suppression of FABP7 significantly inhibited SKRC10 cell growth (p < 0.05) and resulted in a significant reduction of the invasive potential (p < 0.01), but did not cause growth inhibition of SKRC7 cells. We found that The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (TCGA) database shows FABP6 and 7 as equally overexpressed in the FABP family. Functional suppression of fatty acid binding protein 6 (FABP6) resulted in significant growth inhibition of SKRC7 cells (p < 0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: Functional suppression of FABP7 significantly reduced cell viability and invasive potential in a ccRCC cell line. FABP7 may play a role in progression in some metastatic ccRCCs. The suppressed function may be compensated by another FABP family member.

Ma R, Wang L, Yuan F, et al.
FABP7 promotes cell proliferation and survival in colon cancer through MEK/ERK signaling pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 108:119-129 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colon cancer (CC), one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies deriving from the digestive system, has greatly threatened human health and life. Fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), an intracellular protein with the tissue-specific expression pattern, has been reported to be implicated in diverse types of human tumors. However, the biological role of FABP7 in CC is still poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate the role of FABP7 in CC and illuminate the potential molecular mechanisms. In this present study, we found that FABP7 was highly expressed in CC tissues and cell lines, suggesting the possible involvement of FABP7 in CC tumorigenesis. Moreover, functional investigations showed that FABP7-overexpression promoted CC cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression and inhibited cell apoptosis; on the contrary, FABP7 knockdown produced an inhibitory effects on CC cell proliferation and survival. Notably, FABP7 knockdown inhibited colon tumor growth in vivo. In addition, mechanistic investigations demonstrated that FABP7 exerted its promoting effects on CC cell proliferation and survival through activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Collectively, our data indicate that FABP7 may be used as a novel diagnostic bio-marker and a potential therapeutic target for CC.

Brun M, Jain S, Monckton EA, Godbout R
Nuclear Factor I Represses the Notch Effector HEY1 in Glioblastoma.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(10):1023-1037 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive brain tumors with a dismal prognosis. Nuclear factor I (NFI) is a family of transcription factors that controls glial cell differentiation in the developing central nervous system. NFIs have previously been shown to regulate the expression of astrocyte markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in both normal brain and GBM cells. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip to identify additional NFI targets in GBM cells. Analysis of our ChIP data revealed ~400 putative NFI target genes including an effector of the Notch signaling pathway, HEY1, implicated in the maintenance of neural stem cells. All four NFIs (NFIA, NFIB, NFIC, and NFIX) bind to NFI recognition sites located within 1 kb upstream of the HEY1 transcription site. We further showed that NFI negatively regulates HEY1 expression, with knockdown of all four NFIs in GBM cells resulting in increased HEY1 RNA levels. HEY1 knockdown in GBM cells decreased cell proliferation, increased cell migration, and decreased neurosphere formation. Finally, we found a general correlation between elevated levels of HEY1 and expression of the brain neural stem/progenitor cell marker B-FABP in GBM cell lines. Knockdown of HEY1 resulted in an increase in the RNA levels of the GFAP astrocyte differentiation marker. Overall, our data indicate that HEY1 is negatively regulated by NFI family members and is associated with increased proliferation, decreased migration, and increased stem cell properties in GBM cells.

Seto AG, Beatty X, Lynch JM, et al.
Cobomarsen, an oligonucleotide inhibitor of miR-155, co-ordinately regulates multiple survival pathways to reduce cellular proliferation and survival in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 183(3):428-444 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-155, a microRNA associated with poor prognosis in lymphoma and leukaemia, has been implicated in the progression of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). In this study, we developed and tested cobomarsen (MRG-106), a locked nucleic acid-modified oligonucleotide inhibitor of miR-155. In MF and human lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1+) CTCL cell lines in vitro, inhibition of miR-155 with cobomarsen de-repressed direct miR-155 targets, decreased expression of multiple gene pathways associated with cell survival, reduced survival signalling, decreased cell proliferation and activated apoptosis. We identified a set of genes that are significantly regulated by cobomarsen, including direct and downstream targets of miR-155. Using clinical biopsies from MF patients, we demonstrated that expression of these pharmacodynamic biomarkers is dysregulated in MF and associated with miR-155 expression level and MF lesion severity. Further, we demonstrated that miR-155 simultaneously regulates multiple parallel survival pathways (including JAK/STAT, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT) previously associated with the pathogenesis of MF, and that these survival pathways are inhibited by cobomarsen in vitro. A first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial of cobomarsen in patients with CTCL is currently underway, in which the panel of proposed biomarkers will be leveraged to assess pharmacodynamic response to cobomarsen therapy.

Elsherbiny ME, Chen H, Emara M, Godbout R
ω-3 and ω-6 Fatty Acids Modulate Conventional and Atypical Protein Kinase C Activities in a Brain Fatty Acid Binding Protein Dependent Manner in Glioblastoma Multiforme.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative brain cancer with a dismal prognosis. High levels of brain fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP) are associated with increased migration/infiltration in GBM cells, with a high ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) driving B-FABP-mediated migration. Since several protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are overexpressed in GBM and linked to migration, we explored a possible relationship between B-FABP and levels/activity of different PKCs, as a function of AA and DHA supplementation. We report that ectopic expression of B-FABP in U87 cells alters the levels of several PKCs, particularly PKC

Tian W, Shi J, Qin J, et al.
Brain lipid binding protein mediates the proliferation of human glioblastoma cells by regulating ERK1/2 signaling pathway in vitro.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2018; 54(2):156-162 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) is highly expressed in the radial glial cells (RGCs) of the central nervous system (CNS), in glioblastomas, and, in vitro, in U251 cells. In this report, we have demonstrated that increased BLBP expression in glioblastoma is associated with poor survival and used a double-vector CRISPR/Cas9 lentiviral system to deplete endogenous BLBP from U251 cells, we found that loss of BLBP induced cell growth inhibition and S-phase arrest. Moreover, an increase in P53 and a decrease in p-ERK1/2 were observed after BLBP depletion, suggesting a potential mechanism by which loss of BLBP results in growth inhibition.

Xie M, Wu X, Zhang J, et al.
The Prognostic Significance of Notch1 and Fatty Acid Binding Protein 7 (FABP7) Expression in Resected Tracheobronchial Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.
Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 50(4):1064-1073 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the trachea and bronchus is a rare tumor. Although MYB-NFIB oncogene fusion and Notch1 mutation have been identified in ACC, little is known about the expression and clinical significance of Notch1 and its target gene fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7) in tracheobronchial ACC.
Materials and Methods: Primary tracheobronchial ACC that were resected between 1998 and 2014 were identified through the pathology and oncology database from five thoracic oncology centers in China. A tissue array was constructed from the patients' samples and the expressions of Notch1 and FABP7 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The association between the expression of both markers and survival was determined.
RESULTS: Overexpression of Notch1 and FABP7, detected in 37.8% and 38.3% of 368 patients with tracheobronchial ACC, respectively, was an independent prognostic indicator for recurrencefree survival (RFS) by multivariable Cox proportional hazard model (p=0.032 and p=0.048, respectively). Overexpression of Notch1, but not of FABP7, predicted overall survival (OS) (p=0.018). When categorized into four groups according to coexpression of Notch1 and FABP7, patients with overexpression of both Notch1 and FABP7 belonged to the group with the shortest RFS and OS (p=0.01 and p=0.048, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Expression of Notch1 and FABP7, and coexpression of Notch1 and FABP7, is strongly associated with poor survival in resected tracheobronchial ACC. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that poor differentiation of tracheobronchial ACC correlates with the activation of Notch signaling.

Han X, Li H, Zhang Y, et al.
Brain lipid-binding protein promotes proliferation and modulates cell cycle in C6 rat glioma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(5):1439-1448 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors affecting adults. Four grades of gliomas have been identified, namely, grades I-IV. Brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP), which functions in the intracellular transport of fatty acids, is expressed in all grades of human gliomas. The glioma cells that are cultured in vitro are grouped into the BLBP-positive and BLBP-negative cell lines. In the present study, we found that C6 rat glioma cells was a distinct type of BLBP-negative cell line. Our results confirmed that in the C6 cells, the expression of exogenous BLBP increased the proliferation and percentage of cells in the S phase, in the culture medium containing 10 or 1% FBS. Moreover, exogenous BLBP was found to downregulate the tumor suppressors p21 and p16 in the 1% FBS culture medium, but only p21 in the 10% FBS culture medium. The results of the xenograft model assay showed that exogenous BLBP also stimulated tumor formation and downregulated p21 and p16. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that exogenous BLBP promoted proliferation of the C6 cells in vitro and facilitated tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, BLBP expression in glioma cells may promote cell growth by inhibiting the tumor suppressors.

Kawauchi D, Ogg RJ, Liu L, et al.
Novel MYC-driven medulloblastoma models from multiple embryonic cerebellar cells.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(37):5231-5242 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Group3 medulloblastoma (MB

Takaoka N, Takayama T, Ozono S
Functional analysis of fatty acid binding protein 7 and its effect on fatty acid of renal cell carcinoma cell lines.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):192 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) overexpress fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7). We chose to study the TUHR14TKB cell line, because it expresses higher levels of FABP7 than other cell lines derived from renal carcinomas (OS-RC-2, 786-O, 769-P, Caki-1, and ACHN).
METHODS: FABP7 expression was detected using western blotting and real-time PCR. Cell proliferation was determined using an MTS assay and by directly by counting cells. The cell cycle was assayed using flow cytometry. Cell migration was assayed using wound-healing assays. An FABP7 expression vector was used to transfect RCC cell lines.
RESULTS: The levels of FABP7 expressed by TUHR14TKB cells and their doubling times decreased during passage. High-passage TUHR14TKB cells comprised fewer G0/G1-phase and more S-phase cells than low-passage cells. Cell proliferation differed among subclones isolated from cultures of low-passage TUHR14TKB cells. The proliferation of TUHR14TKB cells decreased when FABP7 was overexpressed, and the cell migration property of TUHR14TKB cells were decreased when FABP7 was overexpressed. High concentrations of docosatetraenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid accumulated in TUHR14TKB cells that overexpressed FABP7, and docosatetraenoic acid enhanced cell proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: The TUHR14TKB cell line represents a heterogeneous population that does not express FABP7 when it rapidly proliferates. The differences in FABP7 function between RCC cell lines suggests that FABP7 affects cell proliferation depending on cell phenotype.

Liu Y, Liu L, Yu T, et al.
Systematic analysis of mRNA expression profiles in NSCLC cell lines to screen metastasis-related genes.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(6):5093-5103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most prevalent cancer in humans and has the lowest survival outcomes due to its high metastatic potential. The aim of the present study was to screen for metastasis‑related genes (MRGs) by investigating the differential expression genes (DEGs) identified by the mRNA expression profiles in SPC‑A‑1sci (highly metastatic) and SPC-A-1 (parental) cells. DEGs were screened using Genespring software. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses of these DEGs were performed. Interaction networks between the proteins encoded by the DEGs were identified using the database BioGRID and were visualized by Cytoscape. Modular analysis of the protein‑protein interaction network was performed in CFinder. Among these DEGs, the expression levels of 18 genes were examined in SPC‑A‑1sci and SPC‑A‑1 cell lines with reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and 10 of the 18 genes were assessed by western blotting to validate the results of the microarray. Furthermore, the role of metallothionein 1X (MT1X) in non‑small cell lung cancer was explored in functional assays and 72 pairs of clinical samples in vitro. Finally, 4,838 DEGs were screened, including 798 upregulated and 4,040 downregulated genes. The significantly enriched functions included gene expression, cytosol and poly‑(A) RNA binding, and the most enriched pathway was biosynthesis of antibiotics. Furthermore, MT1X was revealed to promote the migration and invasion ability in SPC‑A‑1sci and PC‑9 lung cancer cell lines. Therefore, MT1X was identified as a candidate MRG through systematic analysis in the present microarray, which was demonstrated to offer potential reference value in screening MRGs.

Panaccione A, Chang MT, Carbone BE, et al.
NOTCH1 and SOX10 are Essential for Proliferation and Radiation Resistance of Cancer Stem-Like Cells in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(8):2083-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Although the existence of cancer stem cells (CSC) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) has been proposed, lack of assays for their propagation and uncertainty about molecular markers prevented their characterization. Our objective was to isolate CSC from ACC and provide insight into signaling pathways that support their propagation.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To isolate CSC from ACC and characterize them, we used ROCK inhibitor-supplemented cell culture, immunomagnetic cell sorting, andin vitro/in vivoassays for CSC viability and tumorigenicity.
RESULTS: We identified in ACC CD133-positive CSC that expressed NOTCH1 and SOX10, formed spheroids, and initiated tumors in nude mice. CD133(+)ACC cells produced activated NOTCH1 (N1ICD) and generated CD133(-)cells that expressed JAG1 as well as neural differentiation factors NR2F1, NR2F2, and p27Kip1. Knockdowns ofNOTCH1, SOX10, and their common effectorFABP7had negative effects on each other, inhibited spheroidogenesis, and induced cell death pointing at their essential roles in CSC maintenance. Downstream effects ofFABP7knockdown included suppression of a broad spectrum of genes involved in proliferation, ribosome biogenesis, and metabolism. Among proliferation-linked NOTCH1/FABP7 targets, we identified SKP2 and its substrate p27Kip1. A γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT, selectively depleted CD133(+)cells, suppressed N1ICD and SKP2, induced p27Kip1, inhibited ACC growthin vivo, and sensitized CD133(+)cells to radiation.
CONCLUSIONS: These results establish in the majority of ACC the presence of a previously uncharacterized population of CD133(+)cells with neural stem properties, which are driven by SOX10, NOTCH1, and FABP7. Sensitivity of these cells to Notch inhibition and their dependence on SKP2 offer new opportunities for targeted ACC therapies.

Yasumoto Y, Miyazaki H, Vaidyan LK, et al.
Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase Decreases Expression of Stemness Markers in Glioma Stem Cells.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0147717 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cellular metabolic changes, especially to lipid metabolism, have recently been recognized as a hallmark of various cancer cells. However, little is known about the significance of cellular lipid metabolism in the regulation of biological activity of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we examined the expression and role of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme, in GSCs. In the de novo lipid synthesis assay, GSCs exhibited higher lipogenesis than differentiated non-GSCs. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses revealed that FASN is strongly expressed in multiple lines of patient-derived GSCs (G144 and Y10), but its expression was markedly reduced upon differentiation. When GSCs were treated with 20 μM cerulenin, a pharmacological inhibitor of FASN, their proliferation and migration were significantly suppressed and de novo lipogenesis decreased. Furthermore, following cerulenin treatment, expression of the GSC markers nestin, Sox2 and fatty acid binding protein (FABP7), markers of GCSs, decreased while that of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression increased. Taken together, our results indicate that FASN plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of GSC stemness, and FASN-mediated de novo lipid biosynthesis is closely associated with tumor growth and invasion in glioblastoma.

Li H, Zhao X, Yan X, et al.
Runx1 contributes to neurofibromatosis type 1 neurofibroma formation.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(11):1468-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients are predisposed to neurofibromas but the driver(s) that contribute to neurofibroma formation are not fully understood. By cross comparison of microarray gene lists on human neurofibroma-initiating cells and developed neurofibroma Schwann cells (SCs) we identified RUNX1 overexpression in human neurofibroma initiation cells, suggesting RUNX1 might relate to neurofibroma formation. Immunostaining confirmed RUNX1 protein overexpression in human plexiform neurofibromas. Runx1 overexpression was confirmed in mouse Schwann cell progenitors (SCPs) and mouse neurofibromas at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Genetic inhibition of Runx1 expression by small hairpin RNA or pharmacological inhibition of Runx1 function by a Runx1/Cbfβ interaction inhibitor, Ro5-3335, decreased mouse neurofibroma sphere number in vitro. Targeted genetic deletion of Runx1 in SCs and SCPs delayed mouse neurofibroma formation in vivo. Mechanistically, loss of Nf1 increased embryonic day 12.5 Runx1(+)/Blbp(+) progenitors that enable tumor formation. These results suggest that Runx1 has an important role in Nf1 neurofibroma initiation, and inhibition of RUNX1 function might provide a novel potential therapeutic treatment strategy for neurofibroma patients.

Zhou J, Yong WP, Yap CS, et al.
An integrative approach identified genes associated with drug response in gastric cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(4):441-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of global cancer mortality worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its carcinogenesis and drug resistance is not well understood. To identify novel functionally important genes that were differentially expressed due to combinations of genetic and epigenetic changes, we analyzed datasets containing genome-wide mRNA expression, DNA copy number alterations and DNA methylation status from 154 primary GC samples and 47 matched non-neoplastic mucosa tissues from Asian patients. We used concepts of 'within' and 'between' statistical analysis to compare the difference between tumors and controls within each platform, and assessed the correlations between platforms. This 'multi-regulated gene (MRG)' analysis identified 126 differentially expressed genes that underwent a combination of copy number and DNA methylation changes. Most genes were located at genomic loci associated with GC. Statistical enrichment analysis showed that MRGs were enriched for cancer, GC and drug response. We analysed several MRGs that previously had not been associated with GC. Knockdown of DDX27, TH1L or IDH3G sensitized cells to epirubicin or cisplatin, and knockdown of RAI14 reduced cell proliferation. Further studies showed that overexpression of DDX27 reduced epirubicin-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. Levels of DDX27 mRNA and protein were increased in early-stage gastric tumors, and may be a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for GC. In summary, we used an integrative bioinformatics strategy to identify novel genes that are altered in GC and regulate resistance of GC cells to drugs in vitro.

Wee S, Niklasson M, Marinescu VD, et al.
Selective calcium sensitivity in immature glioma cancer stem cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e115698 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-initiating cells are a subpopulation in aggressive cancers that exhibit traits shared with stem cells, including the ability to self-renew and differentiate, commonly referred to as stemness. In addition, such cells are resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy posing a therapeutic challenge. To uncover stemness-associated functions in glioma-initiating cells (GICs), transcriptome profiles were compared to neural stem cells (NSCs) and gene ontology analysis identified an enrichment of Ca2+ signaling genes in NSCs and the more stem-like (NSC-proximal) GICs. Functional analysis in a set of different GIC lines regarding sensitivity to disturbed homeostasis using A23187 and Thapsigargin, revealed that NSC-proximal GICs were more sensitive, corroborating the transcriptome data. Furthermore, Ca2+ drug sensitivity was reduced in GICs after differentiation, with most potent effect in the NSC-proximal GIC, supporting a stemness-associated Ca2+ sensitivity. NSCs and the NSC-proximal GIC line expressed a larger number of ion channels permeable to potassium, sodium and Ca2+. Conversely, a higher number of and higher expression levels of Ca2+ binding genes that may buffer Ca2+, were expressed in NSC-distal GICs. In particular, expression of the AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GRIA1, was found to associate with Ca2+ sensitive NSC-proximal GICs, and decreased as GICs differentiated along with reduced Ca2+ drug sensitivity. The correlation between high expression of Ca2+ channels (such as GRIA1) and sensitivity to Ca2+ drugs was confirmed in an additional nine novel GIC lines. Calcium drug sensitivity also correlated with expression of the NSC markers nestin (NES) and FABP7 (BLBP, brain lipid-binding protein) in this extended analysis. In summary, NSC-associated NES+/FABP7+/GRIA1+ GICs were selectively sensitive to disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, providing a potential target mechanism for eradication of an immature population of malignant cells.

Steiner J, Davis J, McClellan J, et al.
Dose-dependent benefits of quercetin on tumorigenesis in the C3(1)/SV40Tag transgenic mouse model of breast cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(11):1456-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in women. Quercetin is a flavonol shown to have anti-carcinogenic actions. However, few studies have investigated the dose-dependent effects of quercetin on tumorigenesis and none have used the C3(1)/SV40 Tag breast cancer mouse model. At 4 weeks of age female C3(1)/SV40 Tag mice were randomized to one of four dietary treatments (n = 15-16/group): control (no quercetin), low-dose quercetin (0.02% diet), moderate-dose quercetin (0.2% diet), or high-dose quercetin (2% diet). Tumor number and volume was assessed twice a week and at sacrifice (20 wks). Results showed an inverted 'U' dose-dependent effect of dietary quercetin on tumor number and volume; at sacrifice the moderate dose was most efficacious and reduced tumor number 20% and tumor volume 78% compared to control mice (C3-Con: 9.0 ± 0.9; C3-0.2%: 7.3 ± 0.9) and (C3-Con: 2061.8 ± 977.0 mm(3); and C3-0.2%: 462.9 ± 75.9 mm(3)). Tumor volume at sacrifice was also reduced by the moderate dose compared to the high and low doses (C3-2%: 1163.2 ± 305.9 mm(3); C3-0.02%: 1401.5 ± 555.6 mm(3)), as was tumor number (C3-2%: 10.7 ± 1.3 mm(3); C3-0.02%: 8.1 ± 1.1 mm(3)). Gene expression microarray analysis performed on mammary glands from C3-Con and C3-0.2% mice determined that 31 genes were down-regulated and 9 genes were up-regulated more than 2-fold (P < 0.05) by quercetin treatment. We report the novel finding that there is a distinct dose-dependent effect of quercetin on tumor number and volume in a transgenic mouse model of human breast cancer, which is associated with a specific gene expression signature related to quercetin treatment.

Gromov P, Espinoza JA, Talman ML, et al.
FABP7 and HMGCS2 are novel protein markers for apocrine differentiation categorizing apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e112024 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a distinctive malignancy with unique morphological and molecular features, generally characterized by being negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and thus not electable for endocrine therapy. Despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from other breast lesions, no standard molecular criteria are currently available for their diagnosis. Using gel-based proteomics in combination with mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry we have identified two novel markers, HMGCS2 and FABP7 that categorize the entire breast apocrine differentiation spectrum from benign metaplasia and cysts to invasive stages. Expression of HMGCS2 and FABP7 is strongly associated with apocrine differentiation; their expression is retained by most invasive apocrine carcinomas (IAC) showing positive immunoreactivity in 100% and 78% of apocrine carcinomas, respectively, as compared to non-apocrine tumors (16.7% and 6.8%). The nuclear localization of FABP7 in tumor cells was shown to be associated with more aggressive stages of apocrine carcinomas. In addition, when added to the panel of apocrine biomarkers previously reported by our group: 15-PGDH, HMGCR and ACSM1, together they provide a signature that may represent a golden molecular standard for defining the apocrine phenotype in the breast. Moreover, we show that combining HMGCS2 to the steroidal profile (HMGCS2+/Androgen Receptor (AR)+/Estrogen Receptor(ER)-/Progesteron Receptor (PR)- identifies IACs with a greater sensitivity (79%) as compared with the steroidal profile (AR+/ER-/PR-) alone (54%). We have also presented a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of breast apocrine lesions with a panel of antibodies against proteins which correspond to 10 genes selected from published transcriptomic signatures that currently characterize molecular apocrine subtype and shown that except for melanophilin that is overexpressed in benign apocrine lesions, these proteins were not specific for morphological apocrine differentiation in breast.

Bensaad K, Favaro E, Lewis CA, et al.
Fatty acid uptake and lipid storage induced by HIF-1α contribute to cell growth and survival after hypoxia-reoxygenation.
Cell Rep. 2014; 9(1):349-365 [PubMed] Related Publications
An in vivo model of antiangiogenic therapy allowed us to identify genes upregulated by bevacizumab treatment, including Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 (FABP3) and FABP7, both of which are involved in fatty acid uptake. In vitro, both were induced by hypoxia in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. There was a significant lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in hypoxia that was time and O2 concentration dependent. Knockdown of endogenous expression of FABP3, FABP7, or Adipophilin (an essential LD structural component) significantly impaired LD formation under hypoxia. We showed that LD accumulation is due to FABP3/7-dependent fatty acid uptake while de novo fatty acid synthesis is repressed in hypoxia. We also showed that ATP production occurs via β-oxidation or glycogen degradation in a cell-type-dependent manner in hypoxia-reoxygenation. Finally, inhibition of lipid storage reduced protection against reactive oxygen species toxicity, decreased the survival of cells subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation in vitro, and strongly impaired tumorigenesis in vivo.

Zhou J, Deng Z, Chen Y, et al.
Overexpression of FABP7 promotes cell growth and predicts poor prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Urol Oncol. 2015; 33(3):113.e9-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urologic malignancies; however, the molecular events supporting RCC carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the differential expression of genes between normal kidney and clear cell RCC (ccRCC) samples and investigate the biological function of the most frequently altered gene in RCC cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The gene expression profiles of 60 ccRCC and matched normal kidney samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed. The altered genes were subjected to functional annotation clustering and integrative pathway analysis. The expression of one of the most frequently altered gene, fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 7, in ccRCC and matched normal kidney samples was verified by immunohistochemistry and the association between FABP7 level and patient survival was investigated. Furthermore, FABP7 DNA copy number alteration, methylation, and mutation status in ccRCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed. Finally, FABP7-overexpressing RCC cells were generated to determine the function of FABP7 in cell growth and the potential mechanisms of action.
RESULTS: FABP7 was significantly up-regulated in ccRCC, and the expression of FABP7 positively correlated with advanced clinical stage and poor survival of patients with ccRCC. FABP7 DNA copy number alteration was not frequently detected in ccRCC, and no mutation of FABP7 was found. FABP7 messenger RNA expression inversely correlated with its DNA methylation. Overexpression of FABP7 in RCC cells enhanced cell growth, clonogenicity, cell cycle progression and activated both extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling.
CONCLUSION: FABP7 is overexpressed in ccRCC and promotes cell growth by the activation of ERK and Stat3 signaling pathways. Evidence from the clinical observations and experimental data suggests that FABP7 is a novel prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target for ccRCC.

Lock FE, Rebollo R, Miceli-Royer K, et al.
Distinct isoform of FABP7 revealed by screening for retroelement-activated genes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(34):E3534-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Remnants of ancient transposable elements (TEs) are abundant in mammalian genomes. These sequences harbor multiple regulatory motifs and hence are capable of influencing expression of host genes. In response to environmental changes, TEs are known to be released from epigenetic repression and to become transcriptionally active. Such activation could also lead to lineage-inappropriate activation of oncogenes, as one study described in Hodgkin lymphoma. However, little further evidence for this mechanism in other cancers has been reported. Here, we reanalyzed whole transcriptome data from a large cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) compared with normal B-cell centroblasts to detect genes ectopically expressed through activation of TE promoters. We have identified 98 such TE-gene chimeric transcripts that were exclusively expressed in primary DLBCL cases and confirmed several in DLBCL-derived cell lines. We further characterized a TE-gene chimeric transcript involving a fatty acid-binding protein gene (LTR2-FABP7), normally expressed in brain, that was ectopically expressed in a subset of DLBCL patients through the use of an endogenous retroviral LTR promoter of the LTR2 family. The LTR2-FABP7 chimeric transcript encodes a novel chimeric isoform of the protein with characteristics distinct from native FABP7. In vitro studies reveal a dependency for DLBCL cell line proliferation and growth on LTR2-FABP7 chimeric protein expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate the significance of TEs as regulators of aberrant gene expression in cancer and suggest that LTR2-FABP7 may contribute to the pathogenesis of DLBCL in a subgroup of patients.

Schnell A, Chappuis S, Schmutz I, et al.
The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα regulates Fabp7 and modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e99883 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The function of the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα (Nr1d1) in the brain is, apart from its role in the circadian clock mechanism, unknown. Therefore, we compared gene expression profiles in the brain between wild-type and Rev-erbα knock-out (KO) animals. We identified fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, Blbp) as a direct target of repression by REV-ERBα. Loss of Rev-erbα manifested in memory and mood related behavioral phenotypes and led to overexpression of Fabp7 in various brain areas including the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus, where neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) can initiate adult neurogenesis. We found increased proliferation of hippocampal neurons and loss of its diurnal pattern in Rev-erbα KO mice. In vitro, proliferation and migration of glioblastoma cells were affected by manipulating either Fabp7 expression or REV-ERBα activity. These results suggest an important role of Rev-erbα and Fabp7 in adult neurogenesis, which may open new avenues for treatment of gliomas as well as neurological diseases such as depression and Alzheimer.

Pöschl J, Stark S, Neumann P, et al.
Genomic and transcriptomic analyses match medulloblastoma mouse models to their human counterparts.
Acta Neuropathol. 2014; 128(1):123-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is a malignant embryonal brain tumor with highly variable outcome. In order to study the biology of this tumor and to perform preclinical treatment studies, a lot of effort has been put into the generation of appropriate mouse models. The usage of these models, however, has become debatable with the advances in human medulloblastoma subgrouping. This study brings together multiple relevant mouse models and matches genetic alterations and gene expression data of 140 murine tumors with 423 human medulloblastomas in a global way. Using AGDEX analysis and k-means clustering, we show that the Blbp-cre::Ctnnb1(ex3)(Fl/+)Trp53 (Fl/Fl) mouse model fits well to human WNT medulloblastoma, and that, among various Myc- or Mycn-based mouse medulloblastomas, tumors in Glt1-tTA::TRE-MYCN/Luc mice proved to be most specific for human group 3 medulloblastoma. None of the analyzed models displayed a significant match to group 4 tumors. Intriguingly, mice with Ptch1 or Smo mutations selectively modeled SHH medulloblastomas of adulthood, although such mutations occur in all human age groups. We therefore suggest that the infantile or adult gene expression pattern of SHH MBs are not solely determined by specific mutations. This is supported by the observation that human medulloblastomas with PTCH1 mutations displayed more similarities to PTCH1 wild-type tumors of the same age group than to PTCH1-mutated tumors of the other age group. Together, we provide novel insights into previously unrecognized specificity of distinct models and suggest these findings as a solid basis to choose the appropriate model for preclinical studies on medulloblastoma.

Feng JY, Diao XW, Fan MQ, et al.
Screening of feature genes of the renal cell carcinoma with DNA microarray.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013; 17(22):2994-3001 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by using the microarray expression profiles of normal kidney and RCC tissue for early diagnosis and treatment of RCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The gene expression profile of GES781 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including including nine tissue samples of RCC tissues removed from nine patients and eight adjacent normal renal tissue samples. We identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by Multtest package in R software. The screened DEGs were further analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Firstly, the comparison of the DEGs expression degree was performed by cluster analysis. Secondly, DAVID was used to perform functional analysis of up- and down- regulated genes and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed by prePPI. Finally, the pathways of genes in PPI networks were discovered by WebGestalt.
RESULTS: Compared with the control, we screened 648 down-regulated and 681 up-regulated DEGs. And the down- and up-regulated DEGs with maximum expression degree were UMOD (uromodulin) and FABP7 (fatty acid binding protein 7), respectively. There was significant difference in the gene expression between the normal kidney and RCC tissue. The up-regulated DEGs in RCC tissue were significantly related to the immune responses and the down-regulated DEGs were significantly related to the oxidation reduction. The most significant pathway in the PPI network of UMOD was cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction.
CONCLUSIONS: The screened DEGs have the potential to become candidate target molecules to monitor, diagnose and treat the RCC, and might be beneficial for the early diagnosis and medication control of RCC.

Morihiro Y, Yasumoto Y, Vaidyan LK, et al.
Fatty acid binding protein 7 as a marker of glioma stem cells.
Pathol Int. 2013; 63(11):546-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastomas are the most aggressive brain tumors. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are thought to be responsible for the recurrence, chemoresistance, and poor prognosis of glioblastoma. Fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), which is a cellular chaperone for a variety of omega-3 fatty acids, is a known marker for neural stem cells. In this study, using a newly developed anti-FABP7 antibody and patient-derived GSC lines, we evaluated the expression of FABP7 in GSCs. Using immunocytochemistry, Western blotting, and qPCR analyses, FABP7 was found to be highly enriched in GSCs and its localization was found in cytosol and nuclei. FABP7 expression was significantly downregulated in differentiated GSCs induced by the addition of serum. In the glioma surgical specimens, FABP7 was highly expressed in the majority of glioblastoma. Double immunostaining for FABP7 and Sox2 showed that FABP7(+) Sox2(+) tumor cells were significantly increased in glioblastoma (grade IV) compared with diffuse astrocytoma (grade II) and anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III). Our data introduces FABP7 as a marker for GSCs and further highlights its possible significance for glioma diagnosis and treatment.

Grupenmacher AT, Halpern AL, Bonaldo Mde F, et al.
Study of the gene expression and microRNA expression profiles of malignant rhabdoid tumors originated in the brain (AT/RT) and in the kidney (RTK).
Childs Nerv Syst. 2013; 29(11):1977-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) can occur in a variety of anatomical sites. The most frequent locations are the brain, where they are named atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT), and the kidney, where they are named rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (RTK). MRTs at all sites are recognized as the same entity due to their similar morphology, aggressive behavior, and a common genetic abnormality, an inactivating mutation of the SMARCB1/INI-1/hSNF5/BAF47 gene. We aim to investigate potential molecular differences between AT/RT and RTK.
METHODS: We analyzed the microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression (GE) profiles of 10 RTK, 13 AT/RT, and 2 human MRT cell lines (G401-RTK and MON-AT/RT). Illumina V2 MicroRNA Chips (Illumina, Inc., CA, USA) were used for miRNA analysis, and Illumina HT-12 whole genome expression arrays were used for GE analysis.
RESULTS: The distribution of p values from GE showed a significant difference between RTK and AT/RT, with 20 % of the genes having p values ≤0.05 and the principal component analysis of the GE data showed separation between RTK and AT/RT. However, the miRNA expression failed to identify the different tumor groups. Among the 122 genes significantly differentially expressed between AT/RT and RTK, we found both genes related to brain development (i.e., FABP7, 22-fold increase in AT/RT) and genes related to kidney development (i.e., TCF21, sixfold increase in RTK).
CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we hypothesized that although MRT are indeed the same tumor, independent of the site of origin, the GE differences reflect the influence of microenvironment over tumor development.

Kaul A, Chen YH, Emnett RJ, et al.
Conditional KIAA1549:BRAF mice reveal brain region- and cell type-specific effects.
Genesis. 2013; 51(10):708-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Low-grade brain tumors (pilocytic astrocytomas) that result from a genomic rearrangement in which the BRAF kinase domain is fused to the amino terminal of the KIAA1549 gene (KIAA1549:BRAF fusion; f-BRAF) commonly arise in the cerebellum of young children. To model this temporal and spatial specificity in mice, we generated conditional KIAA1549:BRAF strains that coexpresses green fluorescent protein (GFP). Although both primary astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSCs) from these mice express f-BRAF and GFP as well as exhibit increased MEK activity, only f-BRAF-expressing NSCs exhibit increased proliferation in vitro. Using Cre driver lines in which KIAA1549:BRAF expression was directed to NSCs (f-BRAF; BLBP-Cre mice), astrocytes (f-BRAF; GFAP-Cre mice), and NG2 progenitor cells (f-BRAF; NG2-Cre mice), increased glial cell numbers were observed only in the cerebellum of f-BRAF; BLBP-Cre mice in vivo. The availability of this unique KIAA1549:BRAF conditional transgenic mouse strain will enable future mechanistic studies aimed at defining the developmentally-regulated temporal and spatial determinants that underlie low-grade astrocytoma formation in children.

Brun M, Glubrecht DD, Baksh S, Godbout R
Calcineurin regulates nuclear factor I dephosphorylation and activity in malignant glioma cell lines.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(33):24104-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant gliomas (MG), including grades III and IV astrocytomas, are the most common adult brain tumors. These tumors are highly aggressive with a median survival of less than 2 years. Nuclear factor I (NFI) is a family of transcription factors that regulates the expression of glial genes in the developing brain. We have previously shown that regulation of the brain fatty acid-binding protein (B-FABP; FABP7) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) genes in MG cells is dependent on the phosphorylation state of NFI, with hypophosphorylation of NFI correlating with GFAP and B-FABP expression. Importantly, NFI phosphorylation is dependent on phosphatase activity that is enriched in GFAP/B-FABP+ve cells. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that NFI occupies the GFAP and B-FABP promoters in NFI-hypophosphorylated GFAP/B-FABP+ve MG cells. NFI occupancy, NFI-dependent transcriptional activity, and NFI phosphorylation are all modulated by the serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin. Importantly, a cleaved form of calcineurin, associated with increased phosphatase activity, is specifically expressed in NFI-hypophosphorylated GFAP/B-FABP+ve MG cells. Calcineurin in GFAP/B-FABP+ve MG cells localizes to the nucleus. In contrast, calcineurin is primarily found in the cytoplasm of GFAP/B-FABP-ve cells, suggesting a dual mechanism for calcineurin activation in MG. Finally, our results demonstrate that calcineurin expression is up-regulated in areas of high infiltration/migration in grade IV astrocytoma tumor tissue. Our data suggest a critical role for calcineurin in NFI transcriptional regulation and in the determination of MG infiltrative properties.

De Rosa A, Pellegatta S, Rossi M, et al.
A radial glia gene marker, fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), is involved in proliferation and invasion of glioblastoma cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52113 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most deadly cancers. A number of studies suggest that a fraction of tumor cells with stem cell features (Glioma Stem-like Cells, GSC) might be responsible for GBM recurrence and aggressiveness. GSC similarly to normal neural stem cells, can form neurospheres (NS) in vitro, and seem to mirror the genetic features of the original tumor better than glioma cells growing adherently in the presence of serum. Using cDNA microarray analysis we identified a number of relevant genes for glioma biology that are differentially expressed in adherent cells and neurospheres derived from the same tumor. Fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) was identified as one of the most highly expressed genes in NS compared to their adherent counterpart. We found that down-regulation of FABP7 expression in NS by small interfering RNAs significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration. We also evaluated the potential involvement of FABP7 in response to radiotherapy, as this treatment may cause increased tumor infiltration. Migration of irradiated NS was associated to increased expression of FABP7. In agreement with this, in vivo reduced tumorigenicity of GBM cells with down-regulated expression of FABP7 was associated to decreased expression of the migration marker doublecortin. Notably, we observed that PPAR antagonists affect FABP7 expression and decrease the migration capability of NS after irradiation. As a whole, the data emphasize the role of FABP7 expression in GBM migration and provide translational hints on the timing of treatment with anti-FABP7 agents like PPAR antagonists during GBM evolution.

Liu RZ, Monckton EA, Godbout R
Regulation of the FABP7 gene by PAX6 in malignant glioma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 422(3):482-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain fatty acid-binding protein (FABP7) and PAX6 are both expressed in radial glial cells and have been implicated in neurogenesis and glial cell differentiation. FABP7 and PAX6 have also been postulated to play a role in malignant glioma cell growth and invasion. Here, we address the role of PAX6 in regulating FABP7 gene expression in malignant glioma cells. We report that PAX6 and FABP7 RNA are generally co-expressed in malignant glioma cell lines, tumors and tumor neurospheres. Using the CAT reporter gene assay, we show that FABP7 promoter activity is upregulated by PAX6. Sequential deletion analysis of the FABP7 promoter, combined with gel shift and supershift assays demonstrate the presence of a PAX6 responsive region located upstream of the FABP7 gene, at -862 to -1033 bp. Inclusion of sequences between -1.2 and -1.8 kb reduced CAT activity, suggesting the presence of a repressor element within this region. While PAX6 overexpression did not induce endogenous FABP7 expression in FABP7-negative cells, knock-down of PAX6 in PAX6-positive malignant glioma cells resulted in reduced FABP7 levels. These data provide the first evidence of direct transactivation of the FABP7 proximal promoter by PAX6 and suggest a synergistic mechanism for PAX6 and other co-factor(s) in regulating FABP7 expression in malignant glioma.

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