CNBP

Gene Summary

Gene:CNBP; CCHC-type zinc finger, nucleic acid binding protein
Aliases: DM2, ZNF9, CNBP1, PROMM, RNF163, ZCCHC22
Location:3q21
Summary:This gene encodes a nucleic-acid binding protein with seven zinc-finger domains. The protein has a preference for binding single stranded DNA and RNA. The protein functions in cap-independent translation of ornithine decarboxylase mRNA, and may also function in sterol-mediated transcriptional regulation. A CCTG expansion in the first intron of this gene results in myotonic dystrophy type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cellular nucleic acid-binding protein
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (15)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Survival
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Fibrosarcoma
  • Nucleic Acids
  • collagen type I, alpha 1 chain
  • CNBP
  • Transcription Factors
  • Chromosome 17
  • Collagen Type I
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Transcription
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Oncogenes
  • Promoter Regions
  • G-Quadruplexes
  • THRAP3
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Translocation
  • Cell Death
  • Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
  • Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal
  • Proteoglycans
  • Chromosome 3
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CNBP (cancer-related)

Qiu J, Chen S, Su L, et al.
Cellular nucleic acid binding protein suppresses tumor cell metastasis and induces tumor cell death by downregulating heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K in fibrosarcoma cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1840(7):2244-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cellular nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP) has been implicated in vertebrate craniofacial development and in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) and sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) human diseases by controlling cell proliferation and survival to mediate neural crest expansion. CNBP has been found to bind single-stranded nucleic acid and promote rearrangements of nucleic acid secondary structure in an ATP-independent manner, acting as a nucleic acid chaperone.
METHODS: A variety of methods were used, including cell viability assays, wound-scratch assays, chemotaxis assays, invasion assays, circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, chromatin immunoprecipitation, expression and purification of recombinant human CNBP, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses, luciferase reporter assay, Western blotting, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC).
RESULTS: Up-regulation of CNBP induced human fibrosarcoma cell death and suppressed fibrosarcoma cell motility and invasiveness. It was found that CNBP transcriptionally down-regulated the expression of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) through its conversion of a G-rich sequence into G-quadruplex in the promoter of hnRNP K. G-quadruplex stabilizing ligand tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (TMPyP4) could interact with and stabilize the G-quadruplex, resulting in downregulation of hnRNP K transcription.
CONCLUSIONS: CNBP overexpression caused increase of cell death and suppression of cell metastasis through its induction of G-quadruplex formation in the promoter of hnRNP K resulting in hnRNP K down-regulation.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The present result provided a new solution for controlling hnRNP K expression, which should shed light on new anticancer drug design and development.

Prokic I, Cowling BS, Laporte J
Amphiphysin 2 (BIN1) in physiology and diseases.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2014; 92(5):453-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amphiphysin 2, also named bridging integrator-1 (BIN1) or SH3P9, has been recently implicated in rare and common diseases affecting different tissues and physiological functions. BIN1 downregulation is linked to cancer progression and also correlates with ventricular cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia preceding heart failure. Increased BIN1 expression is linked to increased susceptibility for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. In addition, altered splicing may account for the muscle component of myotonic dystrophies, while recessive germinal mutations cause centronuclear myopathy. Despite undoubtedly underlining the relevance of BIN1 in human diseases, the molecular and cellular bases leading to such different diseases are unclear at present. BIN1 is a key regulator of endocytosis and membrane recycling, cytoskeleton regulation, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. In light of the recent findings on the molecular, cellular, and physiological roles of BIN1, we discuss potential pathological mechanisms and highlight common disease pathways and also tissue-specific regulation. Next challenges will be to validate BIN1 both as a prognostic marker for the related diseases and as a potential therapeutic target.

Dmitriev P, Kairov U, Robert T, et al.
Cancer-related genes in the transcription signature of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy myoblasts and myotubes.
J Cell Mol Med. 2014; 18(2):208-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Muscular dystrophy is a condition potentially predisposing for cancer; however, currently, only Myotonic dystrophy patients are known to have a higher risk of cancer. Here, we have searched for a link between facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) and cancer by comparing published transcriptome signatures of FSHD and various malignant tumours and have found a significant enrichment of cancer-related genes among the genes differentially expressed in FSHD. The analysis has shown that gene expression profiles of FSHD myoblasts and myotubes resemble that of Ewing's sarcoma more than that of other cancer types tested. This is the first study demonstrating a similarity between FSHD and cancer cell expression profiles, a finding that might indicate the existence of a common step in the pathogenesis of these two diseases.

Berstein LM, Iyevleva AG, Vasilyev D, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms potentially associated with response to metformin in postmenopausal diabetics suffering and not suffering with cancer.
Cell Cycle. 2013; 12(23):3681-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metformin is a well-known antidiabetic medication, which, besides diabetes, may be involved into modulation of other age-related pathologies, including cancer. The study concerns 12 gene polymorphisms divided into 2 groups consisting of 6 genes each. The first group was composed from so-called "standard" (S) polymorphisms, for which the connection with metabolic response to metformin is already established. The second group included polymorphisms of genes encoding proteins possibly connected with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), impaired glucose tolerance or cancer and entitled here as "associated" (A). A total of 156 postmenopausal women (average age 60.7 ± 0.7) were included, 37 of them healthy, 64 with type DM2 and concurrent treatment-naïve cancer (mostly breast, endometrial or colorectal cancer), 32 with DM2 without cancer, and 23 with treatment-naïve cancer and normal glucose tolerance. The leading metformin response S-marker in combined group of DM2 patients was the CC variant of OCT1-R61C polymorphism of organic cation transporter protein 1 gene. In cancer patients without DM2, this position belonged to AC and AA genotypes of OCT1_rs622342 polymorphism. Among the A-polymorphisms, GA variant of sex hormone-binding globulin gene SHBG_D356N was less frequently observed in DM2 patients with or without cancer. Besides, in diabetics, the same polymorphic variant of SHBG as well as GC genotype of oxidized lipoprotein receptor OLR1_G501C and GG genotype of locus rs11065987 near BRAP gene were carried rather often in combination with "metformin-positive" variant of OCT1_R61C. In addition, carriers of OCT1_R61C and OCT1_rs622342 polymorphisms with potentially positive reaction to metformin had higher insulin resistance score (HOMA-IR) values. Received data lead to the conclusion that postmenopausal diabetics, both with and without cancer, differ in genetic stigmata of potential response to metformin less than they differ from cancer patients without DM2. As genetic polymorphisms associated with metabolic and anticancer metformin (and, possibly, phenformin) effects may be different, this subject requires further investigation.

Michalova E, Vojtesek B, Hrstka R
Impaired pre-mRNA processing and altered architecture of 3' untranslated regions contribute to the development of human disorders.
Int J Mol Sci. 2013; 14(8):15681-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The biological fate of each mRNA and consequently, the protein to be synthesised, is highly dependent on the nature of the 3' untranslated region. Despite its non-coding character, the 3' UTR may affect the final mRNA stability, the localisation, the export from the nucleus and the translation efficiency. The conserved regulatory sequences within 3' UTRs and the specific elements binding to them enable gene expression control at the posttranscriptional level and all these processes reflect the actual state of the cell including proliferation, differentiation, cellular stress or tumourigenesis. Through this article, we briefly outline how the alterations in the establishment and final architecture of 3' UTRs may contribute to the development of various disorders in humans.

Li CH, Chen Y
Targeting long non-coding RNAs in cancers: progress and prospects.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 45(8):1895-910 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pervasive transcription occurs in the human genome to generate thousands of RNA transcripts, and accumulating evidence suggested that the RNA molecules, without protein coding ability, have important roles in diverse biological functions. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), with size larger than 200 nt, is a new class of the non-coding RNA that contributes to cancer development and progression. Roles for several lncRNAs in cancers have been characterized and strategies targeting them have inhibitory effects to malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings point to the potential of lncRNAs as prospective novel therapeutic targets in cancers. Recent advance in biological drugs, led by nucleic acid drugs (i.e. siRNAs, antisense oligonucleotides), suggest directions for the development of cancer therapies targeting lncRNAs. Here, we discuss the characteristics of lncRNAs regarding their synthesis, stability and functional role in cells, and emphasize their unique properties that determine their molecular functions. We then discuss the association of lncRNAs with cancers, and illustrate the anticancer effects induced upon modulating the level and function of lncRNAs. We also revisit established methods for targeting RNA molecules and discuss new agents and strategies to attenuate lncRNAs in cancer.

Toriello HV
Approach to the genetic evaluation of the child with autism.
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2012; 59(1):113-28, xi [PubMed] Related Publications
Autism is a heterogeneous entity that clearly has a substantial genetic component to its cause. There is likely enough evidence to suggest that there are common genetic mechanisms that predispose to various psychiatric disorders. More recent studies have attempted to identify the specific genes involved in predisposition to autism. In general, such conditions can be subdivided into metabolic, mitochondrial, chromosomal, and monogenic (ie, caused by mutation in a single gene). This article examines what conditions should be considered in the child who does not appear to have a syndromic cause as the reason for the autistic phenotype.

Yagi Y, Machida A, Toru S, et al.
Myotonic dystrophy and lipoma: a new association.
Neurol Sci. 2012; 33(6):1477-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 58-year-old man developed muscle weakness and had more than 1,000 CTG repeats in the myotonin protein kinase gene. He was diagnosed as having myotonic dystrophy. At the time of diagnosis, a large tumor was detected in his abdominal cavity on CT scan examination. He died from pneumonia 6 years later. At autopsy, the abdominal tumor was diagnosed as a lipoma. Several types of tumor have been reported to be associated with myotonic dystrophy type 1; however, this is the first detailed clinical case demonstrating the possible relationship between myotonic dystrophy and lipoma.

Trufant J, Kurz W, Frankel A, et al.
Familial multiple pilomatrixomas as a presentation of attenuated adenomatosis polyposis coli.
J Cutan Pathol. 2012; 39(4):440-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pilomatrixomas are benign follicular tumors that occur most commonly in children. Rare multiple or familial pilomatrixomas have been associated with myotonic dystrophy and other disorders. Although sporadic pilomatrixomas and hybrid cutaneous cysts with pilomatrixoma-like features have been observed in some kindreds with Gardner syndrome, an autosomal dominant form of familial adenomatous polyposis, no definitive association has been made with multiple or familial pilomatrixomas. Here we describe two siblings with multiple pilomatrixomas who were also found to have a family history of colonic adenocarcinoma. Genetic testing revealed a mutation in the 5' portion of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, in a region associated with an attenuated APC phenotype. These findings show that multiple pilomatrixomas may be the presenting symptom of patients with APC gene mutations.

Nakamori M, Gourdon G, Thornton CA
Stabilization of expanded (CTG)•(CAG) repeats by antisense oligonucleotides.
Mol Ther. 2011; 19(12):2222-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by expansion of a CTG repeat in the gene DMPK. The expansion is highly unstable in somatic cells, a feature that may contribute to disease progression. The RNA expressed from the mutant allele exerts a toxic gain of function, due to the presence of an expanded CUG repeat (CUG(exp)). This RNA dominant mechanism is amenable to therapeutic intervention with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). For example, CAG-repeat ASOs that bind CUG(exp) RNA are beneficial in DM1 models by altering the protein interactions or metabolism of the toxic RNA. Because CUG(exp) RNA has been shown to aggravate instability of expanded CTG repeats, we studied whether CAG-repeat ASOs may also affect this aspect of DM1. In human cells the instability of (CTG)(800) was suppressed by addition of CAG-repeat ASOs to the culture media. In mice that carry a DMPK transgene the somatic instability of (CTG)(800) was suppressed by direct injection of CAG-repeat ASOs into muscle tissue. These results raise the possibility that early intervention with ASOs to reduce RNA or protein toxicity may have the additional benefit of stabilizing CTG:CAG repeats at subpathogenic lengths.

Livadas S, Voutetakis A, Bourhis JC, et al.
Severe hyperinsulinemia, decreased GLUT3 and GLUT4 expression, and increased retinol binding protein 4 in a patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease post bone marrow transplantation.
Pediatr Transplant. 2012; 16(6):E221-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyperinsulinemia with or without DM2 is a frequent long-term sequela of BMT, especially following cGvHD. In this report, an extensive evaluation of a patient with cGvHD is described: glucose and insulin during OGTT, markers of inflammation, adiponectin and RBP4, body composition analysis, and the kinetics of GLUT3 and GLUT4 in circulating monocytes were evaluated. Hyperinsulinemia, associated with partial lipodystrophy, elevated RBP4, low adiponectin levels, and decreased expression of GLUT3 and GLUT4 were detected. The defects disclosed in this particular patient possibly explain, at least in part, the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in patients undergoing BMT. It is not clear whether insulin resistance was caused by the drugs, the process itself, or the residual damage to the muscles and/or adipose tissue.

Zemtsov A
Association between basal, squamous cell carcinomas, dysplastic nevi and myotonic muscular dystrophy indicates an important role of RNA-binding proteins in development of human skin cancer.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2010; 302(3):169-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) is caused by an abnormal function of RNA-binding proteins (RBP) resulting in DNA spliceopathy. A case of a patient, with MMD multiple basal and squamous cell carcinomas and dysplastic nevi, is described. The association between MMD and non-melanoma skin cancer has been reported before; however, this association was described before the genetic defect of myotonic dystrophy has been fully elucidated. The author proposes a genetic mechanism on how abnormal function of RBP can result or contribute to the development of human skin cancer and propose an explanation for this association between MMD and cutaneous carcinogenesis.

Belfiore A, Frasca F, Pandini G, et al.
Insulin receptor isoforms and insulin receptor/insulin-like growth factor receptor hybrids in physiology and disease.
Endocr Rev. 2009; 30(6):586-623 [PubMed] Related Publications
In mammals, the insulin receptor (IR) gene has acquired an additional exon, exon 11. This exon may be skipped in a developmental and tissue-specific manner. The IR, therefore, occurs in two isoforms (exon 11 minus IR-A and exon 11 plus IR-B). The most relevant functional difference between these two isoforms is the high affinity of IR-A for IGF-II. IR-A is predominantly expressed during prenatal life. It enhances the effects of IGF-II during embryogenesis and fetal development. It is also significantly expressed in adult tissues, especially in the brain. Conversely, IR-B is predominantly expressed in adult, well-differentiated tissues, including the liver, where it enhances the metabolic effects of insulin. Dysregulation of IR splicing in insulin target tissues may occur in patients with insulin resistance; however, its role in type 2 diabetes is unclear. IR-A is often aberrantly expressed in cancer cells, thus increasing their responsiveness to IGF-II and to insulin and explaining the cancer-promoting effect of hyperinsulinemia observed in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. Aberrant IR-A expression may favor cancer resistance to both conventional and targeted therapies by a variety of mechanisms. Finally, IR isoforms form heterodimers, IR-A/IR-B, and hybrid IR/IGF-IR receptors (HR-A and HR-B). The functional characteristics of such hybrid receptors and their role in physiology, in diabetes, and in malignant cells are not yet fully understood. These receptors seem to enhance cell responsiveness to IGFs.

Mueller CM, Hilbert JE, Martens W, et al.
Hypothesis: neoplasms in myotonic dystrophy.
Cancer Causes Control. 2009; 20(10):2009-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumorigenesis is a multi-step process due to an accumulation of genetic mutations in multiple genes in diverse pathways which ultimately lead to loss of control over cell growth. It is well known that inheritance of rare germline mutations in genes involved in tumorigenesis pathways confer high lifetime risk of neoplasia in affected individuals. Furthermore, a substantial number of multiple malformation syndromes include cancer susceptibility in their phenotype. Studies of the mechanisms underlying these inherited syndromes have added to the understanding of both normal development and the pathophysiology of carcinogenesis. Myotonic dystrophy (DM) represents a group of autosomal dominant, multisystemic diseases that share the clinical features of myotonia, muscle weakness, and early-onset cataracts. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) result from unstable nucleotide repeat expansions in their respective genes. There have been multiple reports of tumors in individuals with DM, most commonly benign calcifying cutaneous tumors known as pilomatricomas. We provide a summary of the tumors reported in DM and a hypothesis for a possible mechanism of tumorigenesis. We hope to stimulate further study into the potential role of DM genes in tumorigenesis, and help define DM pathogenesis, and facilitate developing novel treatment modalities.

Chen HY, Kathirvel P, Yee WC, Lai PS
Correction of dystrophia myotonica type 1 pre-mRNA transcripts by artificial trans-splicing.
Gene Ther. 2009; 16(2):211-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dystrophia myotonica type 1 (DM1), the most common muscular dystrophy in adults, results from expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3'-untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase gene (DMPK). Correction of the mutant DMPK transcript is a potential therapeutic strategy in DM1. We investigated the efficacy of artificial trans-splicing molecules (ATMs) to target and correct DMPK transcripts. ATMs designed to target intron 14 of DMPK pre-mRNA transcripts were tested for their ability to trans-splice the transcripts of a DMPK mini-gene construct and the endogenous DMPK transcripts of human myosarcoma cells (CCL-136). On agarose gel electrophoresis analysis, six of eight ATMs showed trans-splicing efficacy when applied to DMPK mini-gene construct transcripts, of which three were able to trans-splice endogenous DMPK pre-mRNA transcripts in myosarcoma cells, with trans-splicing efficiency ranging from 1.81 to 7.41%. These findings confirm that artificial trans-splicing can repair DMPK pre-mRNA and provide proof-of-principle evidence for this approach as potential therapeutic strategy for DM1.

Sherrod QJ, Chiu MW, Gutierrez M
Multiple pilomatricomas: cutaneous marker for myotonic dystrophy.
Dermatol Online J. 2008; 14(7):22 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report an interesting case of multiple pilomatricomas (MPs) in a patient with myotonic dystrophy. Pilomatricoma (calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe) is a benign tumor of hair matrix derivation. It usually occurs as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic nodule on the face, neck, or proximal upper extremity. Most pilomatricomas have activating mutations in the ss-catenin gene (encoded by CTNNB1), leading to involvement of the WNT signaling pathway. The resulting gene product activates transcription leading to tumorigenesis [1]. Since the onset of MPs may precede the signs of myotonic dystrophy, they can serve as potential early cutaneous markers for this systemic disease.

Feyma T, Carter GT, Weiss MD
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 coexisting with myasthenia gravis and thymoma.
Muscle Nerve. 2008; 38(1):916-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal-dominant multisystemic disorder that may rarely be associated with benign and malignant neoplasms. Cases of both thymoma and myasthenia gravis in association with DM1 are extremely rare. A literature review revealed only three prior reports. We present a 51-year-old man with a family history of DM1 and fluctuating diplopia and ptosis, who was found to have acetylcholine receptor-binding antibodies, thymoma, and a clinical presentation compatible with ocular myasthenia gravis as well as positive genetic testing for DM1. Needle electromyographic (EMG) study demonstrated diffuse runs of myotonic discharges in multiple muscles, consistent with the diagnosis of DM1. Single-fiber EMG showed both increased jitter and blocking. Due to somatic instability, which has been shown previously in DM1, the myotonin protein kinase (DMPK) gene appears to act as a tumor suppressor. Therefore, abnormal CTG repeat expansions in the gene could lead to the development of thymoma and myasthenia gravis.

Akiyama M, Yuza Y, Yokokawa Y, et al.
Differences in CTG triplet repeat expansion in leukemic cells and normal lymphocytes from a 14-year-old female with congenital myotonic dystrophy.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008; 51(4):563-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe a rare case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a 14-year-old female with congenital myotonic dystrophy manifested as mental retardation, extensive contractures of multiple joints of the lower extremities, and severe scoliosis. Because of the potential toxicity of chemotherapy and the patient's poor performance status, a modified chemotherapy regimen was administered. Analysis of the greatly expanded number of CTG repeats at the 3' untranslated region of DMPK gene showed that the number of repeats was 233 greater in leukemic cells than in normal lymphocytes; this elongation may have occurred during the cellular proliferation of leukemic clones.

Nelson PT, Keller JN
RNA in brain disease: no longer just "the messenger in the middle".
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2007; 66(6):461-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
RNA research has made great progress in recent years. A variety of unforeseen complexities have been identified, many with relevance to human brain disease. For example, neurologic illnesses may arise because of perturbations in distinct but interrelated tiers of RNA-based genetic regulation: pre-mRNA splicing; nonsplicing RNA modifications; and mRNA translational regulation. Furthermore, there is poor correlation between mRNA levels and protein levels in mammalian cells, due partly to complicated post-transcriptional regulation by hitherto unknown noncoding RNAs. Some noncoding RNAs have been shown to be involved in human brain diseases. Diseases potentially mediated by alterations in RNA processes include tauopathies, myotonic dystrophy, Alzheimer disease, brain cancer, and many others. Here we present an overview of new research highlighting functions for RNA that far surpass the "messenger in the middle" role and that identify RNA molecules as important agents in the human brain in health and in disease states.

Leroy O, Dhaenens CM, Schraen-Maschke S, et al.
ETR-3 represses Tau exons 2/3 inclusion, a splicing event abnormally enhanced in myotonic dystrophy type I.
J Neurosci Res. 2006; 84(4):852-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Altered splicing of transcripts, including the insulin receptor (IR) and the cardiac troponin (cTNT), is a key feature of myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1). CELF and MBNL splicing factor members regulate the splicing of those transcripts. We have previously described an alteration of Tau exon 2 splicing in DM1 brain, resulting in the favored exclusion of exon 2. However, the factors required for alternative splicing of Tau exon 2 remain undetermined. Here we report a decreased expression of CELF family member and MBNL transcripts in DM1 brains as assessed by RT-PCR. By using cellular models with a control- or DM1-like splicing pattern of Tau transcripts, we demonstrate that ETR-3 promotes selectively the exclusion of Tau exon 2. These results together with the analysis of Tau exon 6 and IR exon 11 splicing in brain, muscle, and cell models suggest that DM1 splicing alteration of several transcripts involves various factors.

Majem M, Cascallo M, Bayo-Puxan N, et al.
Control of E1A under an E2F-1 promoter insulated with the myotonic dystrophy locus insulator reduces the toxicity of oncolytic adenovirus Ad-Delta24RGD.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2006; 13(7):696-705 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously described Ad-Delta24RGD as an enhanced-infectivity oncolytic adenovirus that targets tumors with an impaired RB pathway. The common alteration of this pathway in cancer eliminates the interaction of pRB with E2F and releases free E2F to activate E2F-responsive promoters, including the E2F-1 promoter. To improve the selectivity towards RB pathway-defective tumors and reduce the toxicity of Ad-Delta24RGD we aimed to control E1A-Delta24 expression under the E2F-1 promoter. A polyA signal was inserted upstream of the E2F-1 promoter to stop transcription initiated at the adenovirus ITR and packaging signal. The human myotonic dystropy locus insulator (DM-1) was also located between the E1a enhancers and the E2F-1 promoter to further insulate the promoter. The Ad-Delta24RGD derivative containing these insulation sequences expressed less E1a-Delta24 in normal cells and resulted less toxic while maintaining the potent oncolytic activity of the parental virus. These results demonstrate that the human DM-1 inslulator can function in an adenovirus context to maintain heterologous promoter selectivity. The new oncolytic adenovirus presented here may represent a valuable therapeutic option for a broad range of tumors with a deregulated E2F/pRB pathway.

Oliveira AM, Perez-Atayde AR, Dal Cin P, et al.
Aneurysmal bone cyst variant translocations upregulate USP6 transcription by promoter swapping with the ZNF9, COL1A1, TRAP150, and OMD genes.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(21):3419-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are locally aggressive bone tumors that often feature chromosome 17p13 rearrangements. One of the ABC 17p13 rearrangements--t(16;17)(q22;p13)--was recently shown to create a CDH11-USP6 fusion in which the USP6/TRE17 oncogene is overexpressed through juxtaposition with the CDH11 promoter. Herein, we characterize four different ABC translocations involving 17p13, and we show that each is associated with a novel USP6 fusion oncogene. Specifically, we demonstrate that t(1;17), t(3;17), t(9;17), and t(17;17) result in USP6 fusions with TRAP150 (thyroid receptor-associated protein 150), ZNF9 (ZiNc Finger 9), Osteomodulin, and COL1A1 (Collagen 1A1), respectively. The oncogenic mechanism in these fusion genes is akin to CDH11-USP6, with the USP6 coding sequences juxtaposed to the promoter regions in each of the four novel translocation partners. The novel fusion partners appear well suited to drive USP6 transcription in the bone/mesenchymal context: osteomodulin is expressed strongly in osteoblastic lineages, and the COL1A1 promoter has an oncogenic role in the mesenchymal cancer dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. In summary, these studies show that USP6 oncogenic activation results from heterogeneous genomic mechanisms involving USP6 transcriptional upregulation by juxtaposition with ectopic promoters.

Kim JM, Sohn HY, Yoon SY, et al.
Identification of gastric cancer-related genes using a cDNA microarray containing novel expressed sequence tags expressed in gastric cancer cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11(2 Pt 1):473-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gastric cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in the world, especially in Korea and Japan. To understand the molecular mechanism associated with gastric carcinogenesis, we attempted to identify novel gastric cancer-related genes using a novel 2K cDNA microarray.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A 2K cDNA microarray was fabricated from 1,995 novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs) showing no hits or a low homology with ESTs in public databases from our 143,452 ESTs collected from gastric cancer cell lines and tissues. An analysis of the gene expression for human gastric cancer cell lines to a normal cell line was done using this cDNA microarray. Data for the different expressed genes were verified using semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining in the gastric cell lines and tissues.
RESULTS: Forty genes were identified as either up-regulated or down-regulated genes in human gastric cancer cells. Among these, genes such as SKB1, NT5C3, ZNF9, p30, CDC20, and FEN1, were confirmed to be up-regulated genes in nine gastric cell lines and in 25 pairs of tissue samples from patients by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR. On the other hand, genes such as MT2A and CXX1 were identified as down-regulated genes. In particular, the SKB1, CDC20, and FEN1 genes were overexpressed in > or =68% of tissues and the MT2A gene was down-expressed in 72% of the tissues. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses for CDC20 and SKB1 showed overexpression and localization changes of the corresponding protein in human gastric cancer tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Novel genes that are related to human gastric cancer were identified using cDNA microarray developed in our laboratory. In particular, CDC20 and MT2A represent a potential biomarker of human gastric cancer. These newly identified genes should provide a valuable resource for understanding the molecular mechanism associated with tumorigenesis of gastric carcinogenesis and for the discovery of potential diagnostic markers of gastric cancer.

Weeber EJ, Levenson JM, Sweatt JD
Molecular genetics of human cognition.
Mol Interv. 2002; 2(6):376-91, 339 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of human cognition has been greatly aided by the convergent synergy of clinical, genetic, and signaling research. By identifying the mutated genes that give rise to syndromes of mental retardation or cognitive defects in patients, and by placing the associated gene products within signaling networks, researchers are piecing together how learning occurs and how memories are formed and sustained.

Bañuls J, Botella R, Palau F, et al.
Tissue and tumor mosaicism of the myotonin protein kinase gene trinucleotide repeat in a patient with multiple basal cell carcinomas associated with myotonic dystrophy.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004; 50(2 Suppl):S1-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe the third case (to our knowledge) of multiple basal cell carcinoma associated with myotonic dystrophy and carry out a genetic study of the tumor comparing it with healthy skin. We consider that our results show that this association might be not a purely random phenomenon and that the particular genetic characteristics of this disorder might have a role in the pathogenesis of the tumor.

Harper JC, Wells D, Piyamongkol W, et al.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for single gene disorders: experience with five single gene disorders.
Prenat Diagn. 2002; 22(6):525-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report our experience of 14 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cycles in eight couples carrying five different single gene disorders, during the last 18 months. Diagnoses were performed for myotonic dystrophy (DM), cystic fibrosis (CF) [Delta F508 and exon 4 (621+1 G>T)], fragile X and CF simultaneously, and two disorders for which PGD had not been previously attempted, namely neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and Crouzon syndrome. Diagnoses for single gene disorders were carried out on ideally two blastomeres biopsied from Day 3 embryos. A highly polymorphic marker was included in each diagnosis to control against contamination. For the dominant disorders, where possible, linked polymorphisms provided an additional means of determining the genotype of the embryo hence reducing the risk of misdiagnosis due to allele dropout (ADO). Multiplex fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (F-PCR) was used in all cases, followed by fragment analysis and/or single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) for genotyping. Embryo transfer was performed in 13 cycles resulting in one biochemical pregnancy for CF, three normal deliveries (a twin and a singleton) and one early miscarriage for DM and a singleton for Crouzon syndrome. In each case the untransferred embryos were used to confirm the diagnoses performed on the biopsied cells. The results were concordant in all cases. The inclusion of a polymorphic marker allowed the detection of extraneous DNA contamination in two cells from one case. Knowing the genotype of the contaminating DNA allowed its origin to be traced. All five pregnancies were obtained from embryos in which two blastomeres were biopsied for the diagnosis. Our data demonstrate the successful strategy of using multiplex PCR to simultaneously amplify the mutation site and a polymorphic locus, fluorescent PCR technology to achieve greater sensitivity, and two-cell biopsy to increase the efficiency and success of diagnoses.

Kinoshita M, Osanai R, Kikkawa M, et al.
A patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1) accompanied by laryngeal and renal cell carcinomas had a small CTG triplet repeat expansion but no somatic instability in normal tissues.
Intern Med. 2002; 41(4):312-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We examined (CTG)n lengths in various tissues from a 70-year-old man with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1) who had a small 60-70 (CTG), expansion in his leukocytes. He died of renal cell carcinoma 5 years after a total laryngectomy for laryngeal carcinoma. Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses were done on tissues obtained at autopsy. In the various normal tissues, (CTG). lengths were almost all the same size, whereas the renal cell carcinoma and metastatic tissues had longer lengths. When compared with the lengths in leukocytes about 5 years previously, (CTG)n lengths in the normal tissues were the same size. These findings suggest that both somatic instability and age-dependent (CTG). expansion in DM 1 patients with a small expansion may be less dominant than in patients with large expansions.

Nishie W, Iitoyo M, Miyazawa H
Follicular cyst in a patient with myotonic dystrophy: a case of cyst with differentiation toward follicular infundibulum, isthmus, inner root sheath, and hair.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2001; 23(6):521-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of follicular cyst, which developed in a patient with myotonic dystrophy (MyD). Histopathologically, the cyst showed infundibular and trichilemmal keratinization, inner root sheath differentiation, aggregation of basaloid cells, and pilomatricoma-like changes in the pericystic connective tissue. These findings have been reported in follicular cysts with Gardner's syndrome (GS). Interestingly, pilomatricoma is known as one of the skin diseases associated with MyD, though there have been no reported cases of cyst formation with differentiation toward portions of hair follicle in a MyD patient. In our case, we hypothesized that the cyst might be derived from embryonic follicular germinative cells or follicular stem cells under the genetic influence of the MyD gene, as observed in follicular cysts in patients with GS.

Osanai R, Kinoshita M, Hirose K, et al.
CTG triplet repeat expansion in a laryngeal carcinoma from a patient with myotonic dystrophy.
Muscle Nerve. 2000; 23(5):804-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 66-year-old Japanese man with myotonic dystrophy (DM) underwent total laryngectomy for laryngeal carcinoma. The size of the expanded DNA fragment (EF) from the leukocytes and normal laryngeal tissues of this patient was only slightly longer than that in normal subjects. EF, however, was markedly longer in the laryngeal carcinoma. These findings support the hypothesis that elongation of the CTG repeat in the DM kinase gene occurs during acquired cell proliferation.

Jinnai K, Sugio T, Mitani M, et al.
Elongation of (CTG)n repeats in myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene in tumors associated with myotonic dystrophy patients.
Muscle Nerve. 1999; 22(9):1271-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Length of (CTG)n triplet repeats in myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene (DMPK) was estimated in tumors, normal tissues of the same organs, muscles, and leukocytes from three myotonic dystrophy (DM) patients and a non-DM patient. Using cDNA 25 as a probe, a Southern blot analysis of EcoRI- and BglI-digested DNA from these tissues demonstrated the longest expansion of the repeats in the tumors of DM patients. In all tissues from a non-DM patient, the repeat length was confirmed to be stable by PCR analysis. Our data suggest that expanded (CTG)n repeat in tumor tissues may have increased the instability. This study emphasizes the importance of a long-term prospective study on the incidence of tumors in DM to clarify the pathological interrelation between the two entities.

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