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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 166.6m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 102,100
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 100.1
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:10.4%
People dying from cancer /yr: 71,600
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Nigerian Cancer Organisations
Latest Research Publications related to Nigeria

Nigerian Cancer Organisations (12 links)

Latest Research Publications related to Nigeria

Soyele OO, Effiom OA, Lawal AO, et al.
A multi-centre evaluation of malignant odontogenic tumours in Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2019; 33:18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: odontogenic tumors originate from neoplastic transformation of the remnants of tooth forming apparatus. There are varying degrees of inductive interactions between odontogenic ectomesenchyme and epithelium during odontogenesis, leading to lesions that vary from benign to malignant. Malignant odontogenic tumours (MOTs) are very rare and are classified according to embryonic tissue of origin. Recently, there has been a few changes to the classification of MOTs according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) classification in 2017. This study aims to evaluate and reclassify MOTs, using a multi-centre approach in some major tertiary dental hospitals in Nigeria.
Methods: this study reviewed the clinicopathological data on 63 cases of MOT diagnosed over 25 years in five major tertiary dental hospitals in Nigeria. All MOT cases were reclassified according to the recent revision to the 2017 WHO classification of odontogenic tumours.
Results: from a total of 10,446 biopsies of oral and jaw lesions seen at the 5 study centres over the 25-year study period, 2199 (21.05%) cases were found to be odontogenic tumours (OTs), of which 63 were MOT. MOTs constituted 0.60% of the total biopsy cases and 2.86% of OTs. Odontogenic carcinomas presented with a mean age higher than odontogenic sarcomas. According to our 2017 WHO reclassification of MOTs, odontogenic carcinomas, ameloblastic carcinomas and primary intraosseous carcinomas were found to be the top three lesions, respectively. Carcinosarcomas were found to be extremely rare.
Conclusion: using a multi-centre approach is a robust way to reduce diagnostic challenges associated with rare maxillofacial lesions such as MOTs.

Osiagwu DD, Azenabor AE, Osijirin AA, et al.
Evaluation of interleukin 8 and interleukin 10 cytokines in liquid based cervical cytology samples.
Pan Afr Med J. 2019; 32:148 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: inflammatory cytokines have been associated with various cancers, including cervical cancers. Interpreting cytokine expression in liquid based cervical samples is quite challenging. This study is aimed at evaluating the levels of interleukin 8 and 10 in liquid based cervical samples.
Methods: this is a descriptive analytical study carried out on eighty five (85) subjects aged between 23 and 68 years. Cervical samples were collected in liquid based medium and smears later examined after staining with Papanicolaou technique. These were categorized into low grade intra-epithelial lesion/malignancy, high grade intraepithelial lesion/malignancy according to the degree of dyskaryosis. Concentrations of interleukin 8 and interleukin 10 in the samples were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: the mean age, standard deviation (SD) of the study subjects were 40.6 (7.8) years. A total number of 79 females (92.9%) were negative for intra-epithelial lesion/malignancy (NILM), while 4 (4.71%) and 2 (2.35%) were positive for low grade intra-epithelial lesion/malignancy (LILM) and high grade intra-epithelial lesion (HILM) respectively. While mean levels of interleukin 8 increased with the degree of malignancy, (107.27 ± 11.88pg/ml) in LILM, (114.80 ± 2.12pg/ml) in HILM when compared with NILM (88.39 ± 18.06pg/ml), (f = 0.700, p = 0.018); the mean levels of interleukin 10 was comparable between these groups (p ≥ 0.05). Pearson correlation coefficient analysis showed a negative association between interleukin 8 and interleukin 10 (r = -1.999, p = 0.000) in LILM.
Conclusion: interleukin 8 cytokines in cervical cancer is associated with the degree of malignancy. Possible anti-inflammatory effect of interleukin 10 was not observed.

Olubodun T, Odukoya OO, Balogun MR
Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer prevention, among women residing in an urban slum in Lagos, South West, Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2019; 32:130 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: cervical cancer is the most common genital tract malignancy among women in Nigeria. Cancer of the cervix is preceded by a curable premalignant stage which can be detected by screening. The disease can also be prevented by Human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization. Women living in slums usually have poor reproductive health knowledge and poor health behaviours. Mostly of low socioeconomic status, these women are at higher risk of cervical cancer. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and preventive practices towards cervical cancer among women living in an urban slum in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methods: this descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 305 women of reproductive age in Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was used to select respondents. Data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Analysis was done with SPSS 20 software.
Results: only 39 (12.8%) had heard about cervical cancer. Knowledge of cervical cancer, screening and Human papilloma virus (HPV) immunization was poor. Most respondents (64.3%) did not consider themselves at risk for cervical cancer. However, majority (88.9%) were willing to undergo screening and 93.8% were willing to take HPV immunization or recommend the vaccine to a friend/relative. Only 2(0.7%) had done a cervical cancer screening test and none had taken HPV vaccine or immunized their eligible daughters.
Conclusion: there is thus the need for increased awareness creation and health education programs on cervical cancer prevention among such population of women.

Nkfusai NC, Cumber SN, Williams T, et al.
Cervical cancer in the Bamenda Regional Hospital, North West Region of Cameroon: a retrospective study.
Pan Afr Med J. 2019; 32:90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: Cervical cancer is ranked the 7
Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of cervical cancer among other types of cancers in the cancer registry of the Bamenda Regional Hospital, North West Region of Cameroon from past records. We reviewed all records from the registry of patients who attended the Bamenda Regional Hospital to screen and/or be operated upon for cervical cancer and other types of cancer. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of cases were captured using a data collection sheet: age, type of cancer, stage of cancer, type of surgery carried out and date of surgery. Data were entered and analysed in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 software.
Results: 59 cancer cases were received in the center between 2012 and 2017. Of these, 31 (52%) had cervical cancer. Most patients who screened positive for cancer of the cervix were of the 50-54 age groups. Most of these patients (47.5%), were received at late stages (stages 3 and 4).
Conclusion: Over half (52%) of the patients receiving cancer care in this center have cervical cancer and generally turn up late for management.

Hamidu A, Mokrish A, Mansor R, et al.
Modified methods of nanoparticles synthesis in pH-sensitive nano-carriers production for doxorubicin delivery on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14:3615-3627 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Ademola-Popoola DS, Opocher E, Reddy MA
Contemporary management of retinoblastoma in the context of a low-resource country.
Niger Postgrad Med J. 2019 Apr-Jun; 26(2):69-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common ocular cancer, and it typically presents before the age of 5 years in over 90% of cases. In high resource countries, RB patients tend to survive and retain their sight. This is not the case in low-resource countries because of late presentation and delayed intervention arising mostly from sociocultural and socioeconomic challenges. RB has no gender or racial predilection; the incidence is estimated as 1:16,000-1:18,000 live-births or 11/1 million children under 5 years. Most of the world's RB cases are found in Asia and Africa while most RB treatment centres are in America and Europe. RB is easy to detect by caregivers as a glowing white 'cat eye reflex' at night or when captured on camera. Health workers at primary care level can detect RB in early life if red reflex test and/or squint (Hirschberg) tests are deployed as part of wellness checks done especially during routine immunisation and well-baby clinics in the first 24 months of life. In most cases of RB, biopsies for histological confirmation are not required for diagnosis and treatment decisions to be made. Clinical information, ophthalmic evaluation and imaging modalities are typically used. There have been significant changes in the management of RB using various treatment modalities such as enucleation with orbital implant, use of chemotherapy delivered through intravenous, intravitreal, periocular and intra-arterial routes and targeted treatment with laser, cryotherapy and brachytherapy. Algorithm for management and development of the national RB program within the context of a low-resource country is presented from review of data extracted from Mendeley library, PubMed library, Google Scholar and One Network; full-text articles were mostly retrieved through the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Salako A, Badmus T, Komolafe A, et al.
Unusual presentation of advanced prostate cancer in a black population of South-Western Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2019; 32:15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There are growing concerns on the varying pattern of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) presentation across the world. We report some of the unusual presentations of PCa at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria. A review of all patients with histologically confirmed PCa who had unusual presentations between January 2014 and December 2015 was done. Unusual presentation was defined as an atypical feature in the absence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), with the diagnosis of PCa only suspected after abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) and/or elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) assay. Thirteen patients had an unusual presentation in OAUTHC during the study period. Five (38.5%) had left supraclavicular swellings while four (30.8%) had haematochyzia and tenesmus. Other unusual presentations include large bowel obstruction requiring emergency colostomy (2;15.4%) and a scalp mass (1;7.7%). All patients had appropriate treatment for stage of PCa and are being followed up in the out-patient clinic. The change in presentations of PCa may suggest the need for DRE and serum PSA assay among all middle-aged and elderly men presenting at health facilities. Large scale studies on PCa across different population groups may also help at identifying related clinical, demographic and epidemiological factors as well as possible validation of some of these unusual presentations.

Okunade KS, Dawodu OO, Salako O, et al.
Comparative analysis of serum trace element levels in women with invasive cervical cancer in Lagos, Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2018; 31:194 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: Trace elements although present in minute quantities in human blood, they play a vital role in many biochemical enzymatic reactions and have been examined critically as a potential key factor in various human diseases including cancers. This study was aimed to determine the association between serum levels of trace elements and invasive cancer of the cervix.
Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study carried out among women seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Fifty histologically diagnosed patients with squamous cells carcinoma of the cervix, who had not had any treatment and 100 cancer-free volunteers were recruited. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect relevant data following which venous blood sample was obtained from each participant. Serum zinc, copper and selenium concentrations were then measured. The associations of serum trace elements and invasive cervical cancer were tested using the independent sample t-test. All significances were reported at P<0.05.
Results: There were significantly low serum levels of zinc and selenium in cervical cancer patients with no significant difference seen in the serum level of copper among cervical cancer patients compared to their cancer-free control counterparts.
Conclusion: These alterations in trace elements levels may be important in the pathogenesis of cervical cancers; however, future robust prospective studies are needed to determine if routine provision of these supplements will result in improved cervical cancer treatment outcomes in Nigerian women.

Ifediora CO
Re-thinking breast and cervical cancer preventive campaigns in developing countries: the case for interventions at high schools.
BMC Public Health. 2019; 19(1):503 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The negative impact of cervical and breast cancers in low and lower-middle income countries are worsening, and, along with other non-communicable diseases, occur disproportionately in these resource-limited economies. Most preventive approaches to these cancers require government funding, but few countries with the most at-risk population can afford government-sponsored universal vaccination, screening, diagnostic and treatment programmes, which, along with socioeconomic issues, contribute to the poor outcomes in these mostly developing countries. An urgent need exists, therefore, to find an effective, affordable, cost-effective, culturally-acceptable and sustainable way of reducing these cancers. This paper advocates a re-thinking in the current preventive campaigns.
MAIN BODY: Using evidence provided by recently-published papers, a case is made for enlightenment campaigns to primarily target teenagers (boys and girls) in high schools of developing countries. Inclusions into the schools' academic curricula are the recommended approach, given that both cancers take hold on populations within that age bracket. This approach, if adopted, may be the only accessible, affordable and realistic approach that gives millions of women in low and lower-middle income countries the chance at survival. Empowering them early instils the self-awareness and confidence necessary for young adults to take charge of their own health. The acquired knowledge, in turn, helps them adopt positive attitudes and preventive behaviours that will, ultimately, prolong their lives.
CONCLUSION: The recommended approach offers governments and concerned stakeholders an evidence-based option that allows them to deliver cost-effective and sustainable life-saving interventions, while hoping to get around the bottlenecks that limit the large scale implementation of other effective but capital-intensive strategies.

Musah-Eroje A, Watson S
Adaptive Changes of Glioblastoma Cells Following Exposure to Hypoxic (1% Oxygen) Tumour Microenvironment.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive and malignant primary brain tumour, with a median survival rate of between 15 to 17 months. Heterogeneous regions occur in glioblastoma as a result of oxygen gradients which ranges from 0.1% to 10% in vivo. Emerging evidence suggests that tumour hypoxia leads to increased aggressiveness and chemo/radio resistance. Yet, few in vitro studies have been performed in hypoxia. Using three glioblastoma cell-lines (U87, U251, and SNB19), the adaptation of glioblastoma cells in a 1% (hypoxia) and 20% (normoxia) oxygen microenvironment on proliferation, metabolism, migration, neurosphere formation, CD133 and VEGF expression was investigated. Compared to cells maintained in normoxia (20% oxygen), glioblastoma cells adapted to 1% oxygen tension by reducing proliferation and enhancing metabolism. Both migratory tendency and neurosphere formation ability were greatly limited. In addition, hypoxic-mediated gene upregulation (CD133 and VEGF) was reversed when cells were removed from the hypoxic environment. Collectively, our results reveal that hypoxia plays a pivotal role in changing the behaviour of glioblastoma cells. We have also shown that genetic modulation can be reversed, supporting the concept of reversibility. Thus, understanding the degree of oxygen gradient in glioblastoma will be crucial in personalising treatment for glioblastoma patients.

Bello JO, Olanipekun OO, Babata AL
Prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in castration resistant prostate cancer: Single-centre study of Nigerian men.
Niger J Clin Pract. 2019; 22(4):511-515 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been suggested to be a useful prognosticator of overall survival (OS) in several cancers including castration resistant prostate cancer. However, its utility in black populations known to have benign ethnic neutropenia is unknown. We evaluated the prognostic value of NLR in Nigerian men with CRPC in terms of OS.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analysed 58 patients with castration resistant prostate cancer who received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and docetaxel chemotherapy at our institution. Baseline NLR was calculated from available complete blood counts. NLR cut-off point value was determined based on receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for mortality. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the association between NLR and OS.
Results: Based on the ROC curves, the NLR (AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97, P = 0.0001) cut-off point was determined to be 1.8. This cut-off point has a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 70%. Median OS was 20 months (95% CI 14-27 months); the median OS in patients with NLR <1.8 and those with NLR of ≥1.8 was 40 months and 12 months respectively. Kaplan-Meier plots showed that a higher NLR of ≥1.8 correlated significantly with an increased risk of mortality, Log rank P = 0.001. Multivariate Cox regression analyses confirmed NLR as an independent prognostic biomarker for OS (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.18-1.87).
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that NLR is a useful prognostic biomarker in Nigerian men with CRPC and that elevated baseline NLR ≥1.8 is associated with poorer OS.

Raihan J, Ahmad U, Yong YK, et al.
Regression of solid breast tumours in mice by Newcastle disease virus is associated with production of apoptosis related-cytokines.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):315 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Different strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) worldwide proved to have tumouricidal activity in several types of cancer cells. However, the possible anti-cancer activity of Malaysian NDV AF2240 strain and its mechanism of action remains unknown. The ability of cytokine-related apoptosis-inducing NDV AF2240 to treat breast cancer was investigated in the current study.
METHODS: A total of 90 mice were used and divided into 15 groups, each group comprising of 6 mice. Tumour, body weight and mortality of the mice were determined throughout the experiment, to observe the effect of NDV and NDV + tamoxifen treatments on the mice. In addition, the toxic effect of the treatments was determined through liver function test. In order to elucidate the involvement of cytokine production induced by NDV, a total of six cytokines, i.e. IL-6, IFN-γ, MCP-1, IL-10, IL12p70 and TNF-α were measured using cytometric bead array assay (plasma) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (isolated splenocytes).
RESULTS: The results demonstrated that 4 T1 breast cancer cells in allotransplanted mice treated with AF2240 showed a noticeable inhibition of tumour growth and induce apoptotic-related cytokines.
CONCLUSIONS: NDV AF2240 suppression of breast tumour growth is associated with induction of apoptotic-related cytokines. It would be important to further investigate the molecular mechanism underlaying cytokines production by Newcastle disease virus.

Ngulde SI, Sandabe UK, Abounader R, et al.
Ethanol Extract of
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:9826590 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Incidence of cancer is estimated to be on the increase and current anticancer drugs are characterized by narrow margin of safety and side effects. There is the need to explore new drugs especially from plants since plants serve as major source of drugs.

Emmanuel I, Ochigbo A, Philip A, Nyam EY
Adenomyosis:A Clinico-pathological Study.
West Afr J Med. 2019 Jan-Apr; 36(1):88-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adenomyosis is defined by the presence within the myometrium of benign endometrial glands and stroma. Several theories have evolved to explain the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. A third of adenomyosis cases are asymptomatic. Symptoms are however non-specific and are generally related to abnormal vaginal bleeding, pain, infertility, and feeling of pelvic mass. Adenomyosis do coexist with other pathological entities. Diagnosis is achieved through imaging and histology. Treatment could be medical, surgical or a combination of both. The objective of this study was to analyze diagnosed st stcases of adenomyosis, between 1 January 2007, and 31 December 2013 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital in relation to patient's age, common symptoms, and coexisting utero-cervical pathologies.
METHODOLOGY: The data from the Medical Records department, Radiology department, and Histopathology department at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, were mobilized. The information retrieved for each case included: age, symptoms, and coexisting utero-cervical lesions. Archival slides were reviewed to histologically confirm the diagnosis of adenomyosis. In cases with missing slides, archival tissue blocks were retrieved, sectioned into 5µm slides, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and reviewed microscopically to confirm the diagnosis of adenomyosis.
RESULTS: One hundred and fifty seven (157) cases of adenomyosis were diagnosed at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. All cases were histologically diagnosed retrospectively after hysterectomy. The cases were divided into two broad groups: 107(68.2%) cases with adenomyosis only (A), and 50(31.8%) with coexistence of adenomyosis and leiomyoma (AL). The mean age for the general study population was 43.57+8.56, while those for A and AL groups were 44.37+9.12, and 41.86+6.99 respectively. The age group 41-50 years had the highest number of cases in both the A and AL groups: 53(49.5%) and 21(42.0%) cases respectively. The most frequent symptom was menorrhagia, occurring in 87(81.3%), 43(86.0%), and 130(82.8%) cases in the A, AL, and general population respectively.
CONCLUSION: Adenomyosis is commoner in the fourth decade of life. It commonly coexists with leiomyoma with menorrhagia being the most frequent symptom. Retrospective histology after a hysterectomy is the diagnostic tool for the disease in our center.

Balogun OS, Osinowo AO, Afolayan MO, Lawal AO
Laparoscopic Transgastric Sutured Cystogastrostomy for Post-traumatic Pancreatic Pseudocyst in a Low Resource Setting: Case Report and Literature Review.
West Afr J Med. 2019 Jan-Apr; 36(1):80-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic pseudocyst (PPC) complicating blunt and penetrating abdominal injury is well documented in paediatric age groups. In adults, PPC is often one of the sequelae of acute pancreatitis rather than trauma. Blunt abdominal trauma accounts for most documented cases of post-traumatic PPC. To the best of our knowledge, PPC following penetrating abdominal gunshot injury is a rare event. Laparoscopic drainage of PPC is fast gaining acceptance as the procedure of choice amongst experts as it offers many advantages and benefits of minimal access surgery to the patient. We report our experience and challenges with our first case of laparoscopic cystogastrostomy for a large post-traumatic PPC in a 24-yearold man who was diagnosed 8 months after laparotomy for a penetrating thoraco-abdominal gunshot wound. We also conduct a review of the literature on laparoscopic management of Pancreatic pseudocyst.

Grema BA, Aliyu I, Michael GC, Mafala MB
Diagnosing Premalignant Lesions of Uterine Cervix in A ResourceConstraint Setting: A Narrative Review.
West Afr J Med. 2019 Jan-Apr; 36(1):48-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is an important public health problem whose prevention should be integrated in all existing primary health care and women's health programmes in Nigeria and other developing countries. Cervical cancer is the second most common female malignancy in the world and it is the leading cause of cancer related deaths among women in developing countries. Furthermore, developing countries account for 80% of global deaths from cervical cancer. Early cancer detection remains a vital strategy for disease treatment and prevention; therefore the need for routine cervical screening cannot be overemphasized. Given the scope of the cervical dysplasia problem in our country, coupled with the difficulties that have been encountered in many of our health centres when attempting to implement cytology-based screening and colposcopy/biopsy programmes which remains the gold standard, there is the need to find an alternative, low-resource screening option. In most developing countries, patients often present late with advanced cancer of the cervix. Given the difficulty of ensuring high quality cytology-based services in many settings coupled with the absence of colposcopy, visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid (VIA) is a promising option in the new approach to screening for precancerous lesion, especially for low-resource settings. The front line doctor (family physician) and other para-medical staff, including nurses and midwives, require easily implemented procedures and protocols to be able to identify early cervical dysplasia and allow measures to be undertaken to prevent progression to carcinoma.

Effiom OA, Olojede ACO, Akinde OR, et al.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: clinicopathologic presentation in Nigerians.
Pan Afr Med J. 2018; 31:25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberance (DFSP) is in general a rare low grade malignant sarcoma and possesses a tendency for local recurrence. It has a site predilection for the trunk. Occurrence in the facial area is extremely rare. Ample knowledge of its clinical, histological and biologic characteristics is vital for accurate and prompt recognition.
Methods: Over 13 years, clinicohistologic information of cases was retrieved. Histological and immunohistochemical re-evaluation were performed to re-confirm diagnosis. Data collected and analyzed with SPSS Statistics version 20 were presented as frequency tables, charts and proportions as appropriate.
Results: Of 191 soft tissue sarcomas, a total of 28 cases were diagnosed as DFSP (14.7%). Facial types occurred in 3 cases (1.6%). Tumour had age and site predilections for the 4
Conclusion: Facial DFSP is rare among Nigerians. Its clinical appearance may mimic other common benign lesions of the head and neck region often resulting in misdiagnoses. A comprehensive knowledge of its clinical and histologic presentations and biologic behavior, combined with its identification with the aid of advanced histologic and radiographic techniques results in prompt confirmatory diagnosis. Appropriate treatment should include adequate surgical excision techniques combined with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

Adeniran AS, Ocheke AN, Nwachukwu D, et al.
Non-obstetric causes of severe maternal complications: a secondary analysis of the Nigeria Near-miss and Maternal Death Survey.
BJOG. 2019; 126 Suppl 3:41-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the burden, causes and outcomes of severe non-obstetric maternal complications in Nigerian public tertiary hospitals.
DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Forty-two tertiary health facilities.
POPULATION: Women admitted with complications during pregnancy, childbirth or puerperium.
METHODS: All cases of severe maternal outcome (SMO: maternal near-miss or maternal death) due to non-obstetric causes were prospectively identified over a 1-year period. Maternal near-miss was defined using organ-system dysfunction (WHO), clinical, or management-based criteria.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Causes and contributions of non-obstetric complications to SMO; fetal and neonatal outcomes; health service events associated with non-obstetric complications; and mortality index (% of maternal death/SMO).
RESULTS: Of 100 107 women admitted with complications, 9401 (9.4%) were for non-obstetric causes; and 4.0% (375/9401) suffered severe non-obstetric complications. Of the 375 cases of severe non-obstetric complications, 48.8% (183/375) were near-misses and 51.2% (192/375) were maternal deaths. Severe anaemia unrelated to haemorrhage contributed 61.2% of near-misses and 32.8% of maternal deaths. The highest mortality indices were observed for cancer (91.7%), hepatic diseases (81.8%) and HIV/AIDS/HIV wasting syndrome (80.4%). Fatality was significantly high with extremes of age and no formal education. Regarding organ dysfunctions, neurological (77.1%) and cardiovascular (75.0%) dysfunctions had the highest mortality indices. Perinatal mortality was 65.9%. Time from diagnosis of severe non-obstetric complications to review by senior medical personnel, and to definitive intervention was <30 minutes in 30.2% and 29.8% of women with SMO, respectively. However, over 240 minutes elapsed between diagnosis and definitive intervention in more than one-third of women with SMO.
CONCLUSION: Non-obstetric complications are associated with poorer pregnancy outcomes and deserve attention similar to that accorded obstetric complications.
FUNDING: The original research that generated the data for this secondary analysis and the publication of this secondary analysis were funded by the UNDP-UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), a co-sponsored programme executed by the World Health Organization (WHO).
TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Non-obstetric causes are important contributors to maternal deaths and life-threatening morbidities in Nigerian hospitals.

Eleje GU, Eke AC, Igberase GO, et al.
Palliative interventions for controlling vaginal bleeding in advanced cervical cancer.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019; 3:CD011000 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 5, 2015.Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide, with estimated 569,847 new diagnoses and 311,365 deaths per year. However, incidence and stage at diagnosis vary greatly between geographic areas and are largely dependent on the availability of a robust population screening programme. For example, in Nigeria, advanced-stage disease at presentation is common (86% to 89.3% of new cases), whereas in the UK, only 21.9% of women present with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage II+ disease. Women with advanced cancer of the cervix often need palliation for distressing symptoms, such as vaginal bleeding. Vaginal bleeding can be life threatening in advanced disease, with an incidence ranging from 0.7% to 100%. Bleeding is the immediate cause of death in 6% of women with cervical cancer and its management often poses a challenge.Thus, vaginal bleeding remains a common consequence of advanced cervical cancer. Currently, there is no systematic review that addresses palliative interventions for controlling vaginal bleeding caused by advanced cervical cancer. A systematic evaluation of the available palliative interventions is needed to inform decision-making.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid, vaginal packing (with or without formalin-soaked packs), interventional radiology or other interventions compared with radiotherapy for palliative treatment of vaginal bleeding in women with advanced cervical cancer.
SEARCH METHODS: The search for the original review was run in 23 March 2015, and subsequent searches for this update were run 21 March 2018. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE via Ovid to March week 2, 2018; and Embase via Ovid to March week 12, 2018. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings and reference lists of review articles, and contacted experts in the field. We handsearched citation lists of relevant studies.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for randomised and non-randomised comparative studies that evaluated the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid, vaginal packing (with or without formalin-soaked packs), interventional radiology or other interventions compared with radiotherapy techniques for palliative treatment of vaginal bleeding in women with advanced cervical cancer (with or without metastasis), irrespective of publication status, year of publication or language in the review.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. We found no studies for inclusion and, therefore, we analysed no data.
MAIN RESULTS: The search strategy identified 1522 unique references of which we excluded 1330 on the basis of title and abstract. We retrieved the remaining 22 articles in full, but none satisfied the inclusion criteria. We identified only observational data from single-arm studies of women treated with formalin-soaked packs, interventional radiology or radiotherapy techniques for palliative control of vaginal bleeding in women with cervical cancer.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Since the last version of this review we found no new studies. There is no evidence from controlled trials to support or refute the use of any of the proposed interventions compared with radiotherapy. Therefore, the choice of intervention will be based on local resources. Radiotherapy techniques for managing vaginal bleeding are not readily available in resource-poor settings, where advanced cases of cervical cancer are predominant. Thus, this systematic review identified the need for a randomised controlled trial assessing the benefits and risks of palliative treatments for vaginal bleeding in women with advanced cervical cancer.

Gabriel IO, Mayers PM
Effects of a psychosocial intervention on the quality of life of primary caregivers of women with breast cancer.
Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2019; 38:85-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the leading form of cancer among women in Nigeria. The care of such patients has shifted from hospital-based care to home and community care, with the resultant increase in responsibility and burden on caregivers. The study aimed to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a psychosocial intervention programme on the quality of life (QOL) and caregiver burden of the primary caregivers of women with breast cancer.
METHOD: This was a quasi-experimental study with 108 primary caregivers (54 in both intervention and control groups). The intervention comprised six 90-min educational sessions, held weekly. Topics included information about breast cancer, the emotional aspect of caring, adjustment to the role of caregiver and communication strategies. The intervention group received the psychosocial intervention programme in addition to routine care, and the control group received routine care. Primary outcome (caregiver burden) and caregiver QOL were measured using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) and Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) at baseline, week six and week 12.
RESULTS: The psychosocial intervention reduced caregiver burden at both T1 and T2 (p = 0.000, p = 0.018 respectively) and improved the caregiver QOL (p = 0.000, p = 0.020 respectively) in the intervention group compared to the control group.
CONCLUSION: The psychosocial intervention programme had a positive effect on caregiver burden and QOL. Issues such as sustainability of such programmes and advocacy relating to caregiver burden need further research.

Uzoma IC, Taiwo IA, Nna EO, et al.
Detection of
Niger J Clin Pract. 2019; 22(1):51-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: The presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene resulting from a t(9; 22) reciprocal chromosome translocation is the molecular hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the diagnosis and treatment of CML, peripheral blood or bone marrow samples are usually taken for analysis. However, both methods are invasive sample collection methods, thus a noninvasive saliva sample method for the detection of the fusion gene transcripts (BCR-ABL) was investigated in some Nigerians with CML.
Materials and Methods: Real-time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to detect BCR-ABL1 fusion gene in the saliva and blood of 42 Nigerian CML patients. RNA was extracted using RNeasy kit and reverse transcribed by random hexamer priming using murine Moloney reverse transcriptase. BCR-ABL1 transcript types were first detected by multiplex PCR and then quantified by a duplex RT-PCR-TaqMan chemistry with MGB probe and Black Hole Quencher.
Results: Of the 42 subjects, transcript types were detected in 36 (85.7%) samples, e13a2 fusion transcript sub-type was detected in 9 (21.4%), whereas e14a2 subtype was found in 27 (67.3%); six (14.3%) of the samples did not reveal any of the fusion transcript subtypes. The median BCR-ABL1 messenger RNA values were 9.38 × 10
Conclusion: Saliva may offer an alternative easy-to-collect, readily available, and noninvasive sample for the diagnosis and treatment of CML.

Ugboaja JO, Oguejiofor CB, Igwegbe AO, Oranu EO
Abnormal hysteroscopy findings among a cross section of infertile Nigerian women.
Niger J Clin Pract. 2019; 22(1):9-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Intrauterine lesions are important causes of infertility. This study aims to evaluate the abnormal findings at hysteroscopy among infertile women seen in 2 new Fertility/Gynaecological Endoscopy units in Nigeria.
Methods: A prospective study of 159 infertile women who had diagnostic hysteroscopy in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching hospital Nnewi and Holy Rosary Specialist Hospital, Onitsha to evaluate the intrauterine lesions seen. Data analysis was done with STATA software, version 12.0 SE (Stata Corporation, TX, USA).
Results: Secondary infertility was the major type of infertility seen in 56.6% (n = 91) of cases and the mean duration of infertility was 4.3+/- 2.8 years. The indication for hysteroscopy was routine evaluation for infertility in 83.6% cases (n = 133). One hundred and twelve (70.4%) of the women had abnormal findings at hysteroscopy. The lesions detected were intrauterine adhesions (47.8%; n = 76), endometrial polyps (17.6%; n = 28), submucous fibroids (11.9%; n = 19) and mullerian duct abnormalities (10.7%; n = 17). Other findings were lost intrauterine copper devices (IUCD; 6.3%, n = 10), embedded fetal bone (2.5%; n = 4) and incarcerated omentum (1.9%; n = 3). Intrauterine adhesions were mainly moderate (40.8%; n = 31) and mild (34.2, n = 26) in severity while the submucous fibroids were mostly of type 0 (63.2%; n = 12). The commonest Mullerian abnormality seen was arcuate uterus (41.2%; n = 7).
Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of abnormal findings on hysteroscopy among the studied women mostly intrauterine adhesions, endometrial polyps and submucous fibroids. These findings indicate a need to incorporate hysteroscopy in the routine evaluation of female infertility in the region.

Ifediora CO, Azuike EC
Sustainable and cost-effective teenage breast awareness campaigns: Insights from a Nigerian high school intervention study.
J Eval Clin Pract. 2019; 25(2):312-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: With limited government-sponsored breast screening programmes in developing countries, breast awareness remains the only realistic survival hope for millions. Poor levels of knowledge and preventive practices remain in these countries, and early enlightenment to empower teenage high school girls has been advocated for, recently. This study evaluates ways to ensure sustainability for such an approach.
METHOD: A 6-month longitudinal, interventional cohort study of 432 high school female students in South-eastern Nigeria. The efficacies of a video-assisted face-to-face intervention, as well as the use of printed handouts, were evaluated.
RESULTS: A total of 317 (73.4%) and 301 (69.7%) valid responses were received from the pre-intervention (16.8 ± 1.5 years) and post-intervention (17.2 ± 1.6 years) surveys, respectively. Logistic regression revealed that participants who were "engaged" with the campaigns, either through symposium attendance or by reading handouts, showed significant improvements on most aspects of knowledge regarding the cancer's early symptoms and risk factors, as well as breast self-examination (BSE). However, the monthly practice of BSE was not significantly increased (Attendees: OR = 1.44, P = 0.18; Handout-readers: OR = 1.52; P = 0.17). Also, when "engagement" to the respective empowerment activities was disregarded, a chi-squared analysis comparing the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups showed significant improvements on specific knowledge regarding risk factors and early symptoms of breast cancer, as well as BSE techniques and regular monthly practice: χ
CONCLUSION: Face-to-face and handout were both effective and of similar impact. However, sustained impact on monthly BSE is doubtful. To surmount this, strategies to ensure ongoing engagements are vital. Perhaps adjusting existing high school curricula to allow repeated yearly teachings on breast cancer and BSE, along with in-built-in evaluation systems like examinations and quizzes, are ways of ensuring engagement.

Muhammad AS, Mungadi IA, Ndodu ED, Kalayi GD
Performance of urinary survivin as a non-invasive molecular marker of bladdercarcinoma in a schistosomiasis endemic area.
Ghana Med J. 2018; 52(2):74-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: To compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of urinary survivin and that of urine cytology in the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma in a schistosoma endemic area.
Design and setting: This is a 12-month prospective study of patients with features of bladder carcinoma as study group and patients with other urologic conditions and healthy volunteers as control group.
Participants: Patients with features of bladder carcinoma formed the study group, while patients with other urological conditions and healthy volunteers formed the control group.
Results: There were 52 patients in study group and 36 patients in control group. The mean ages of patients in the study and control groups were 47.17 ± 17.00 and 44.19 ± 18.89 years respectively. There were 48 males and 4 females in the study group, giving a male: female ratio of 12:1. Thirty-one (60 %) of the patients were farmers and 44 patients (85%) had history suggestive of schistosomiasis at childhood. The sensitivity of urine cytology and survivin in the study were 29.1% and 100.0% respectively. The specificity of urine cytology and survivin were 100.0% and 100.0% respectively (p= 0.05). The marker was associated with false positive (FP) results in patients with prostate cancer.
Conclusion: Urinary survivin is highly sensitive, specific and predictive of bladder carcinoma in our environment. The marker is associated with false positive results in patients with prostate cancer.
Funding: By authors.

Ifediora CO, Azuike EC
Tackling breast cancer in developing countries: insights from the knowledge, attitudes and practices on breast cancer and its prevention among Nigerian teenagers in secondary schools.
J Prev Med Hyg. 2018; 59(4):E282-E300 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Breast cancer occurrences in developing countries are gradually matching caucasian levels. Since early detection is linked to reductions in morbidities and mortality, affordable screening techniques like breast self-examination (BSE) becomes imperative in these resource-limited economies. Ascertaining the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) of breast cancers and BSE among young adult females will help provide baseline information for early and targeted interventions.
Method: A cross sectional survey involving 432 female senior secondary school students in Otuocha Educational Zone of Anambra State, Nigeria.
Results: A total of 321 (74.3%) valid questionnaires were returned. Mean age was 16.79 ± 1.48 years. Even though 84.6% and 55.2% had respectively heard about breast cancer and BSE, and the 'General Knowledge' of breast cancer was high (75.2%), specifics on 'Risk Factors' (41.5%) and 'Symptoms' (46.1%) were poor.Knowledge on correct BSE 'Techniques' was 52.9%, but few know when to commence (43.1%), the right frequency (31.5%), or the right timing (24.6%). A large majority (73.6%) had positive attitudes, but only 6.1% practice it monthly, while 55.3% had never done it at all. No significant predictors of Knowledge and Practice of BSE was identified.
Conclusion: Health campaigns on BSE and breast cancers should provide specific details on techniques, risk factors and symptoms, while emphasizing on the right methods, timing and frequency. The positive attitudes identified raise optimism that health interventions would be effective and can have long term benefits. If possible, BSE and breast cancer teachings should be included in the secondary school academic curricula of resource-limited countries.

Olasehinde O, Alatise OI, Arowolo OA, et al.
Barriers to mammography screening in Nigeria: A survey of two communities with different access to screening facilities.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2019; 28(2):e12986 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Delayed presentation of breast cancer is a common theme in most low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluates barriers to mammography screening in two Nigerian communities with different geographic access to screening facilities. A 35 item questionnaire was administered to women, 40 years and older, 1,169 (52.6%) in Ife Central Local Government where mammography services are offered and 1,053 (47.4%) in Iwo Local Government where there are no mammography units. Information on breast cancer screening practices and barriers to mammography screening were compared between the two communities. Most women had heard of breast cancer (Ife 94%, Iwo 97%), but few were aware of mammography (Ife 11.8%, Iwo 11.4%). Mammography uptake in Ife Central was 2.8% and 1.8% in Iwo, despite the former offering mammography services. Knowledge and practice of mammography were not statistically different between the two communities (p = 0.74, 0.1). Lack of awareness was the commonest reason cited for not having mammography in both communities. Others include lack of perceived need and cost. Awareness creation to ensure optimal utilisation of existing facilities, as well as innovative measures to address the barrier of cost, is required to improve breast cancer screening uptake in Nigeria.

Jibrin P, Ibebuike K, Ado-Wanka AN
Histo-pathological pattern of intracranial tumours in the National Hospital, Abuja.
Afr Health Sci. 2018; 18(2):281-286 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Background/aims: Intracranial tumours demonstrate characteristic diagnostic histopathological features. Our aims were to look at the histo-pathological pattern of intracranial tumours in our environment including their age and sex distribution.
Methods: The histology request forms and slides of all intracranial specimens submitted to the histo-pathology department of National Hospital, Abuja, over an 11 year period (2005 and 2015) were retrospectively reviewed.
Results: Intracranial specimens and intracranial tumours accounted for 0.6% and 0.5% respectively of all samples submitted. Meningiomas accounted for the most frequent diagnosis for all intracranial specimens and intracranial tumours at 35% and 41% respectively followed by pituitary adenoma at 19% and 22%, and astrocytoma at 13% and 20%. The male female ratio for all diagnoses was 1:1. The mean age at diagnosis was 35 ± 17.1 years. The frequency of intracranial tumours in children was 11.8% with a mean age of 8.3 ± 4.4 years and an equal sex distribution. In children, glioma and embryonal tumours were the most frequent diagnosis at 25%.
Conclusion: The histo-pathological pattern of intracranial tumours in our environment showed that meningioma is the most common intracranial tumour in adults, while glioma and embryonal tumours are the most common intracranial tumours in children.

Adewale AO, Mofoluwake LA, Olamide OT, Yussuf SA
Two case reports on Mandibular metastases.
Ghana Med J. 2018; 52(3):168-172 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Metastatic tumours of the oral cavity are not common. The most common site for bone metastases in the head and neck region is the mandible. Metastatic lesion of the mandible most commonly originate from the lungs in men and breast in women, and these lesions (or tumours) usually are carcinomas rather than sarcomas. We report two cases of metastatic lesions in the mandible: (1) A 19year old male with right mandibular swelling and a nodular swelling in the distal two-third of the right tibia. Radiograghs revealed sclerotic lesion with a sunburst appearance in both the jaw and tibia. Histology of the jaw lesion confirmed a metastatic osteosarcoma of the mandible. (2) A 51year old female with a right mandibular swelling with associated swelling in the anterior neck, right shoulder and right parietal region of the skull. Computerised tomography scan (CT) of the jaws showed an osteolytic lesion of the right mandible. CT scan of the brain also showed a large lytic lesion seen in the posterior aspect of the right parietal bone. Histology of the jaw mass confirmed a metastatic follicular carcinoma from the thyroid. Mandibular metastasis may be the first presenting feature of underlying occult malignancy of another primary site. Therefore, clinicians should maintain a high level of suspicion while evaluating patients with a history of cancer presenting with oral lesions.

Baraya YS, Wong KK, Yaacob NS
Strobilanthes crispus inhibits migration, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2019; 233:13-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Strobilanthes crispus (L.) Blume, locally known in Malaysia as "Pecah kaca" or "Jin batu", has been traditionally used for treatment of various ailments including cancer. We previously demonstrated that a standardized bioactive subfraction of S. crispus, termed as F3, possessed potent anticancer effects in both in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the potential of F3 from S. crispus to prevent metastasis in breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antimetastatic effects of F3 were first investigated on murine 4T1 and human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell (BCC) lines using cell proliferation, wound healing and invasion assays. A 4T1-induced mouse mammary carcinoma model was then used to determine the expression of metastasis tumor markers, epithelial (E)-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, mucin (MUC)-1, nonepithelial (N)-cadherin, Twist, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vimentin, using immunohistochemistry, following oral treatment with F3 for 30 days.
RESULTS: Significant growth arrest was observed with F3 IC

Adesina OM, Soyele OO, Oyetola EO, Fatusi OA
Review of 109 cases of primary malignant orofacial lesions seen at a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital.
Niger Postgrad Med J. 2018 Oct-Dec; 25(4):246-251 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Orofacial malignancy is a growing health issue common in developing regions of the world. Presentation patterns are myriad with geographic variations. Advanced stage owing to late presentation constitutes a significant public health burden. The site and type of the lesions are valuable in diagnosis and patient management.
Aim: This study aims to review cases of primary orofacial malignancies at the OAUTHC Dental Hospital.
Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of histologically diagnosed orofacial malignancies, the relative frequencies, types and site of distribution.
Materials and Methods: Records of patients with orofacial malignancies at the OAUTHC, Dental Hospital over a period of 10 years (January 2008-December 2017) were reviewed, demographic data (age, gender and site), history of tobacco use were retrieved and entered into a pro forma. The data obtained were analysed with STATA 11. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results: Of 375, 109 cases of neoplasms seen were primary malignant tumours, with prevalence rate of 29.1%. There were 71 (65.1%) males and 38 (34.9%) females (male:female ratio of 1.87:1), mean age (48.7 ± 19.3 years) and range (4-94 years). Affected sites were mandible (41, 37.6%), maxilla (39, 35.8%), palate (17, 15.6%) and others. Lesions were mainly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC: 46, 42.2%), salivary gland adenocarcinomas (SGAs, 25, 22.9%) including 8 (32%) cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Others were odontogenic carcinoma (18, 16.5%) and lymphoma (8, 7.3%). Most specimen analysed were hard tissues (n = 63, 57.8%). Thirty-four (73.9%) cases of SCC and 66 (60.6%) cases of primary malignancies were in the 5
Conclusion: SCC was more prevalent than salivary and odontogenic carcinomas. ACC and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were two most common SGAs. Metastatic tumours to the jaws are rare.

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