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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 166.6m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 102,100
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 100.1
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:10.4%
People dying from cancer /yr: 71,600
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Nigerian Cancer Organisations
Latest Research Publications related to Nigeria

Nigerian Cancer Organisations (12 links)

Latest Research Publications related to Nigeria

Oluyemi A, Awolola N, Oyedeji O
Clinicopathologic review of polyps biopsied at colonoscopy in Lagos, Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2016; 24:333 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal polyps are known precursors of colorectal cancers. The increase in utilization of colonoscopy in Nigeria has meant a rise in the recently reported incidence of these lesions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological profile of colorectal polyps biopsied during the inaugural 12 month period of colonoscopy from a private endoscopy suite in Nigeria.
METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all the clients who had polyps diagnosed at colonoscopy over a 12 month period (August 2014 -July 2015) at a private endoscopy suite in Lagos, Nigeria. This analysis of prospectively collected data was performed using clinical information from the endoscopy logs and pathology database system of a private endoscopy suite based in Lagos, Nigeria.
RESULTS: A total of 125 colonoscopies were carried out over the stated period. Of these, 14 individuals had a total of 18 polyps- 4 clients (28.6% of the persons with polyps) had two polyps each. The polyp detection rate was 11.2% while the polyp per colonoscopy rate was 14.4%. Of these clients, males were 10 in number; giving a male to female ratio of 2.5:1. Their ages ranged from 37 to 77 years (mean= 57.3 years). The presenting complaint at colonoscopy was hematochezia in 11 (78.6%), new onset constipation in 2 (14.2%) and peri-anal pain in 1 patient (7.1%). The polyps were distributed as follows; 2 (11.1%) in the ascending colon, 1 (5.6%) each in the transverse and descending colons, 8 (44.4%) in the sigmoid colon, 6(33.3%) located in the rectum. Hence, there was left sided (15 of 18= 83.3%) preponderance. Pathologically, tubular (adenomatous) polyp with or without low grade dysplastic changes was diagnosed in 6 of the 18 polyps (giving an adenoma detection rate of 4.8%), 4 (22.2%) were inflammatory polyps, 1 (5.6%) was malignant and another had the rare inflammatory fibroid polyp. Five (27.8%) of the specimens were reported as non-specific colitis.
CONCLUSION: The study supports the present wisdom that polyps are clearly less prevalent in our environment when compared to the Western world. The increased prevalence with advancing age, in male subjects and of left sided lesions, is also in keeping with previous results from our environment. A case is also advanced for the increased deployment of endoscopy as a tool for the detection of these polyps and ultimately, the reduction of colorectal cancer in our population.

Salako O, Robert AA, Okunade KS, et al.
Utilization of Cancer Information System for Breast Cancer Control in Lagos, Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2016; 24:323 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: There is a substantial increase in the incidence of breast cancer in Nigeria usually with the late stage presentations and subsequent poor rates of survival attributed mainly to a low level of cancer awareness and ignorance amongst patients. Cancer information system (CIS) is now assuming an emerging role in this respect.
METHODS: This was a descriptive study carried out over a one year period using a health communications program comprising of 3 breast help lines. An initial period of public awareness was carried out over a 3 months period after which members of the public were encouraged to call the help lines. Breast cancer information was provided and the socio-demographic characteristics and other relevant data of the callers were recorded by the information specialists.
RESULTS: A total of 294 people were reached during the study period. Majority of the callers (82%) sought information for themselves while the remaining 18% called on behalf of a loved one or friend. Majority [248 (84.3%)] of callers had no breast abnormality, 38 (13%) called to report breast abnormalities and required information on what to do and 8 (2.7%) were breast cancer patients who required information on how to live and cope as breast cancer survivors.
CONCLUSION: The rapid growth of mobile phone use in the Nigeria has presented a unique opportunity and promise to improve cancer care. There is evidence to suggest that mHealth can be used to deliver increased health care services to the increasing population of cancer patients in Nigeria.

Adepoju EG, Ilori T, Olowookere SA, Idowu A
Targeting women with free cervical cancer screening: challenges and lessons learnt from Osun state, southwest Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2016; 24:319 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The study was conducted to determine the challenges and suggest solutions to conducting free cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women.
METHODS: Awareness was created among women groups and mass media in Osun State for women to undergo free cervical cancer screening programme. Consenting women had their socio-demographic characteristics, awareness and uptake of HPV vaccine documented and papanicolaou smear procedure done with adequate referral for treatment given where necessary.
RESULTS: A total of 287 women had cervical cancer screening. Mean (SD) age was 51.6 (14.3) years. Most participants were urban based (87.1%), married (63.1%), had secondary education (39%) and were traders (79.1%). None of the women were aware of the preventive HPV vaccine or had been vaccinated against HPV. About 6% were pre-invasive while 0.7% had invasive cervical cancer. The highest proportions of respondents affected were young, married and had lower education. Challenges identified included poor attendance, low risk perception and logistic issues.
CONCLUSION: Most participants were urban based. There is need to decentralize cancer of cervix screening through mobile clinics and establishment of screening centres in the rural areas. Neighbour to neighbour sensitization is essential. Also, HPV vaccine should be available and affordable to all girls before sexual maturity.

Adisa AO, Lawal AO, Effiom OA, et al.
A retrospective review of 61 cases of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour seen in five tertiary health facilities in Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2016; 24:102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign lesion originating from the dental lamina or its remnants. It is a relatively uncommon neoplasm representing about 3% of all odontogenic tumors. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and radiological characteristics of AOTs in five major tertiary centres in Nigeria.
METHODS: Archival hospital-based data stores of five tertiary health facilities in Nigeria were accessed. Case files and biopsy records were retrieved to obtain relevant information. Data was collected according to a proforma for standardization and entered into and analysed using SPSS for Windows (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL).
RESULTS: 61 (4.5%) cases of AOT were documented. The age range was 8-46 years with a mean age of 20.4±9.9 years. Male: Female ratio was 1:1.3. The anterior maxilla had 34 (55.8%) cases and the anterior mandible had 20 (32.8%) cases. 40 (65.6%) follicular cases, 20 (32.8%) extra-follicular cases and 1(1.6%) extra-osseous case were found. 31 cases (61.1%) were associated with impacted teeth and the upper canine was involved in 19 (57.6%) cases.
CONCLUSION: This study showed AOT to be more common in the maxilla, more in females, most often associated with impacted canines, however, the suggestion of AOT being a "Two third tumour" was not observed in this study.

Akinkuolie AA, Etonyeaku AC, Olasehinde O, et al.
Breast cancer patients' presentation for oncological treatment: a single centre study.
Pan Afr Med J. 2016; 24:63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer patients are presenting at advanced stages for oncological treatment in Nigeria and World Health Organization predicted developing countries' breast cancer incidence and mortality to increase by year 2020.
METHODS: Prospective observational hospital based study that enrolled breast cancer patients from catchment area of an oncology service hospital in Nigeria between 2007 and 2013. Patients' demographics, breast cancer burden and health care giver presentation variables were analysed for causal factors of seeking medical help and what determines commencement of effective oncological treatment.
RESULTS: Forty-six patients were enrolled, 19.6% of them presented primarily to oncologist while 80.4% presented secondarily for oncological treatment. There is a significant difference in presentation time for oncological treatment (t = -3.56, df = 42.90, p = 0.001) between primary (M =11.56 ± 5.21 weeks) and secondary presentation (M= 52.56 ± 10.27weeks). Tumor burden of those that presented secondarily were significantly more advanced (U = 78.5, p = 0.011) and, univariate analysis reveals that: patients' matrimonial setting, breast cancer awareness and mode of discovery of breast symptoms are patient related factors that determines their choice of health care providers and, determinant of effective oncological treatment is patient first contact health care provider.
CONCLUSION: Patients' bio-characteristics that determine their choice of health care provider should be incorporated into community breast cancer sensitization drives. Additionally, there is a need for a government agency assign the task of accrediting and defining scope of enterprise of health care institutions and their health care providers in our pluralist health system.

Innocent E, Vandhi KB, Olanrewaju A, et al.
Niger J Med. 2015 Oct-Dec; 24(4):370-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoma is the commonest soft tissue tumour and ubiquitous in distribution. The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for this neoplasm. This 38 years old patient presented to the surgical emergency unit of the Jos University Teaching Hospital with features of intestinal obstruction which was confirmed by plain abdominal X-ray. Patient was resuscitated and had exploratory laparotomy. At surgery, a dilated, oedematous, and pale segment of ileum was seen measuring 56 cm in length and 10 cm short of the ileo-caecal junction, where an obstruction had occurred.The distal segment was collapsed. A limited right hemi-colectomy was done with ileocolic anastomosis. Specimen received atthe Histopathology Laboratory consisted of 45 cm of the ileum, the caecum, appendix, and proximal 25 cm of the colon in continuity. There was stenosis affecting the distal 30 cm of the ileum. The wall of the stenosed part of ileum had intramural fat at the sub-serosal locale. Histology confirmed the presence of sheets of matured adipocytes between the muscularispropria and serosa. Patient condition improved and was discharged seven days after surgery. This case is reported five months after surgery. We recommend that lipoma be at all times considered in the differential diagnosis of intestinal obstruction.

Nnabugwu II, Udeh EI, Ugwumba FO, Ozoemena FO
Predicting Gleason score using the initial serum total prostate-specific antigen in Black men with symptomatic prostate adenocarcinoma in Nigeria.
Clin Interv Aging. 2016; 11:961-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Men of Black African descent are known to have the highest incidence of prostate cancer. The disease is also more aggressive in this group possibly due to biologically more aggressive tumor or late presentation. Currently, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay plays a significant role in making the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, the obtained value of serum PSA may not directly relate with the Gleason score (GS), a measure of tumor aggression in prostate cancer. This study explores the relationship between serum total PSA at presentation (iPSA) and GS.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The iPSA of patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer was compared with the obtained GS of the prostate biopsy specimens. The age of the patients at presentation and the prostate volumes were also analyzed with respect to the iPSA and GS. The data were analyzed retrospectively using IBM SPSS Version 20. Pearson correlation was used for numeric variables, whereas Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables. Significance was set at P≤0.05.
RESULTS: There were 205 patients from January 2010 to November 2013 who satisfied the inclusion criteria. iPSA as well as age at presentation and prostate volume were not found to significantly correlate with the primary Gleason grade, the secondary Gleason grade, or the GS. However, the presence of distant metastasis was identified to significantly correlate positively with GS.
CONCLUSION: GS may not be confidently predicted by the iPSA. Higher iPSA does not correlate with higher GS and vice versa.

Waziri PM, Abdullah R, Yeap SK, et al.
Clausenidin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16:256 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clausena excavata Burm.f. is a shrub traditionally used to treat cancer patients in Asia. The main bioactive chemical components of the plant are alkaloids and coumarins. In this study, we isolated clausenidin from the roots of C. excavata to determine its apoptotic effect on the colon cancer (HT-29) cell line.
METHOD: We examined the effect of clausenidin on cell viability, ROS generation, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential in HT-29 cells. Ultrastructural analysis was conducted for morphological evidence of apoptosis in the treated HT-29 cells. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of clausenidin treatment on the expression of caspase 3 and 9 genes and proteins in HT-29 cells.
RESULT: Clausenidin induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 cells with significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell population. The DNA fragmentation assay also showed apoptotic features in the clausenidin-treated HT-29 cells. Clausenidin treatment had caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in the expression of caspase 9 protein and gene in HT-29 cells and mitochondrial ROS and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. The results suggest the involvement of the mitochondria in the caspase-dependent apoptosis in clausenidin-treated colon cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Clausenidin induces a caspase-dependent apoptosis in colon cancers through the stimulation of the mitochondria. The study demonstrates the potential of clausenidin for use in the treatment of colon cancers.

Adesiyun OA, Adeoye PO, Ofoegbu CK, Afolayan EA
Neck trauma: a red-herring to diagnosis of chemodectoma.
Afr J Med Med Sci. 2015; 44(4):361-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemodectoma, a neuroendocrine tumour of the paraganglionic cells in the carotid body remains an uncommon tumour. We report the first case from University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Though with a red herring history of trauma induced swelling, clinical and radiologic features were characteristic of chemodectoma. Histologic features of the excised lesion are presented.

Babatunde TO, Ogunbiyi JO
Pattern of biliary tract carcinoma at the University College Hospital, Ibadan.
Afr J Med Med Sci. 2015; 44(4):329-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Biliary tract carcinomas are uncommon but highly fatal malignancies. Most patients in our environment are diagnosed late and are not candidates for curative resection.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and risk factors of biliary tract carcinoma in Ibadan.
METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective study of histologically confirmed cases of biliary tract carcinoma diagnosed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between January 1971 and December 20 10. Data was obtained from the records of the Ibadan Cancer Registry, surgical day books and post-mortem records of the Department of Pathology. Histological classification based on the 2010 'WHO classification for tumours of the intrahepatic bile duct, gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct' was done.
RESULTS: There were 37 cases of biliary tract carcinoma accounting for 0.18% of cancers seen during the period of study. These comprised of 26 (70.3%) females and 11 (29.7%) males. 20 females and 4 males had gallbladder carcinoma, while 6 females and 7 males had cholangiocarcinoma (P = 0.02). The age range was from 37 years to 75 years (mean = 52.5 ± 9.7 years). The peak occurrences of gallbladder carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma were in the fifth and sixth decades of life respectively. The identified risk factors included female gender (83%), gallstones (33%), and dysplasia (42%).
CONCLUSION: The findings in this study agree with what has been described in the English literature in respect of gender distribution, histological types and some associated risk factors as well as in the fact of its being rare.

Sowunmi AC, Ajekigbe AT, Alabi AO, et al.
Incidence of Hydronephrosis in Cervical Cancer Patients in A Tertiary Hospital Lagog, Nigeria.
Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2015 Jul-Sep; 25(3):171-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is still a global health challenge that affects women of reproductive age group and consequently causes a drawback on the social and economic stability of nations. Developing countries suffer a greater burden of the disease because of several factors such as poverty, multiple sexual partners, unbalanced diet, poor knowledge and attitude to prevention of diseases and late-presentation.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of hydronephrosis in cervical cancer patients in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria for the period of 3 years (2010-2012).
METHOD: This study is a cross sectional study carried out among cervical cancer patients seeking treatment in the Radiotherapy department of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), between the year 2010 and 2012, to find out the incidence of hydronephrosis using abdominopelvic ultrasonography.
RESULTS: The incidence of hydronephrosis during the 3years period studied was 43.7%. A rise in the incidence of hydronephrosis of 5.4% in 2011 and 13.3% in 2012 was noted. The mean age of the patients was 55.5 years. 122 (56.7%) were grand multiparous and 123 (57.2%) had multiple sexual partners. An increase of 8.3% in 2011 and 9.3% in 2012 was noted in the incidence of cervical cancer cases studied. 107 (49.8%) presented at stages III and IV.
CONCLUSION: Late presentation of patients is still a major challenge affecting treatment outcomes. The presence of hydronephrosis was noticed at staging, during or after treatment, resulting in the need to separate this population from current Stage IIIB classification. The presence of hydronephrosis may or may not be related to the disease and so adequate staging is important.

Kennedy NT, Ikechukwu D, Goddy B
Risk factors and distribution of oncogenic strains of human papilloma virus in women presenting for cervical cancer screening in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2016; 23:85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Human papilloma virus(HPV) accounts for most cases of cervical cancer with high risk HPV(hrHPV) genotypes largely responsible. The objective is to ascertain the distribution of oncogenic strains of human papilloma virus genotypes and predisposing risk factors in women presenting for cervical cancer screening in Nigeria.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 80 women who presented for cervical cancer screening. The biodata of the participants, the presence of risk factors to HPV were recorded and hrHPV were identified using PCR technique. The information obtained was processed using the SPSS version 20 software. Results were presented in tables, test of significance and association done using student's t-test and Odds ratio, with P value < 0.05 as significant.
RESULTS: The age range of patients was 19-62 years with prevalence of hrHPV of 10%. HrHPV are more in patients with more than one life time sexual partner (OR 1.26,95%CI 0.13-29.99), multiple sexual partners (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.28-8.70), early coitarche (OR 1.57, 95% CI 0.14-15.00) and previous STI (OR 150, 95%CI 9.53-1979. 62). Four hrHPV genotypes: 16, 18, 31 and 35 were detected.
CONCLUSION: HPV genotype 18 was predominant in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. High risk sexual behaviours are associated with acquisition of hrHPV.

Olaofe OO, Sabageh D, Komolafe AO
A review of the clinicopathologic characteristics of intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosal biopsies.
Pan Afr Med J. 2016; 23:77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Although it is a well recognized premalignant lesion of the stomach, there is a dearth of information on the clinicopathologic features of gastric intestinal metaplasia in Nigerians. It is, therefore, necessary to study these features and their possible contribution to the development of gastric carcinoma in Nigerians.
METHODS: All gastric biopsies with the histo-morphologic features of intestinal metaplasia diagnosed at the department of morbid anatomy and forensic medicine, Obafemi Awolowo university teaching hospitals complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January 2006 and December 2010 were used for the study.
RESULTS: A total of 165 biopsies (21.3% of all gastric biopsies within the study period) with background chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were reviewed. The mean age of patients with intestinal metaplasia was 50.3 years ± 17 standard deviation (SD) while the ages of the patients ranged from 10-100 years. There were 83 males (50.3%) with a mean age of 48.1 ± 18.2 SD years and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 44.1-52.1 years. There were, however, 82 females (49.6%) with a mean age of 52.5 (± 15.8 SD) years and a 95% CI of 49.0-56.0 years. There was no significant association between the histologic type of intestinal metaplasia and the patients' sex, age groups, severity of chronic gastritis, disease activity or degree of gastric glandular atrophy.
CONCLUSION: There are no statistically significant differences in the clinicopathologic characteristics of the subtypes of intestinal metaplasia. In majority of patients, progression from intestinal metaplasia to gastric adenocarcinoma probably takes an average of about 7 years.

Olagunju AT, Sarimiye FO, Olagunju TO, et al.
Child's symptom burden and depressive symptoms among caregivers of children with cancers: an argument for early integration of pediatric palliative care.
Ann Palliat Med. 2016; 5(3):157-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancers evoke various emotional reactions in caregivers which can impair their well-being and roles. Little is known about caregiving and which cancer-associated factors are related to caregiver's depression in resource-restricted settings. We sought to investigate if child's symptom burden is related to depressive symptoms in caregivers.
METHODS: Seventy-two caregivers and children with cancers were administered questionnaires to elicit socio-demographic and disease-related data. Subsequently, the child's symptoms were profiled with Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS 7-12); while screening for depressive symptoms in caregivers was done using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CES-DR).
RESULTS: All the caregivers were parents, and largely mothers (83.7%). The mean ages of caregivers and children were 39±2 and 10±2 years respectively. Majority of caregivers (90.3%) were either ignorant or attributed spiritual causation to the cancers. The common symptoms with prevalence >50% in the children included pain, nausea, worry, and lack of energy (LE); symptoms' prevalence ranged from LE (68%) to itching (32%). Approximately, one-third each of the children reported hair and weight loss which were considered 'unusual' in the design of MSAS 7-12. The symptoms showed variability in distress, frequency and intensity. In particular, pain, lack of appetite (LA) and feeling sad (FS) were reported as most burdensome in >50% of the children. More than one-third of caregivers (38.2%) screened positive for significant depressive symptoms. The global symptom burden (r=0.58) and individual symptom correlated positively with depressive symptoms in caregivers (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the need for improved awareness creation on childhood cancers to obviate late presentations and poor access to care. Again, early integration of pediatric palliative care in childhood cancer care to ensure symptom management as well as its extended benefits on caregivers' wellbeing is desirable. The pattern of certain "unusual" symptoms in children with cancer in our work suggests the need to put into consideration 'novel' symptoms which were not captured in existing instruments. Future research on supportive care in pediatric cancers is indicated.

Ekanem IO, Parkin DM
Five year cancer incidence in Calabar, Nigeria (2009-2013).
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 42:167-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer incidence rates are presented for the Calabar Cancer Registry, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR) covering the population of two Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Calabar the capital of Cross-River State, Nigeria. (375,196 inhabitants in 2006). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 719 new cases were registered comprising 320 men (an age standardised incidence rate (ASR) of 78.8 per 100,000) and 399 women (ASR of 86.9 per 100,000). Breast and cervical cancers account for 60.4% of all cancers in women, with breast cancer (ASR 35 per 100,000) almost twice as common as cervix cancer (ASR 21 per 100,000) and occurring in rather younger women. Prostate cancer was the most common cancer in men (ASR 50.8 per 100,000). Hodgkin's lymphoma was common in both sexes, and there were moderate numbers of HIV-related cancers recorded (Kaposi sarcoma, non Hodgkin lymphoma, and squamous cell carcinomas of conjunctiva).

Alex-Okoro J, Orji FT, Umedum NG, Akpeh JO
The comparison of the pathological data of oropharyngeal masses between HIV and non-HIV patients.
Acta Otolaryngol. 2016; 136(9):969-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONCLUSION: Although this study did not show higher risk of oropharyngeal malignancy in HIV patients overall, they still had much higher prevalence of NHL as well as HL than HIV negative patients. Presence of cervical lymphadenopathy is unreliable in differentiating malignant oropharyngeal tumours from benign lymphoid hyperplasia in HIV patients.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the histology of oropharyngeal masses between HIV positive and negative patients.
METHODS: A retrospective review of 119 patients who underwent oropharyngeal biopsies in a tertiary institution between 2007-2014 and whose HIV status was known (HIV positives =47; negatives =72).
RESULTS: Malignancies occurred in 63.8% of HIV patients and 65% of the negative group (p = 0.87). While non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constituted 40%, 27%, and 17% of malignancies in HIV patients, respectively; in the HIV-negative group, it was 53%, 13%, and 2% for SCC, NHL, and HL, respectively (p = 0.039, 0.017, and 0.035, respectively). Reactive lymphoid proliferation accounted for 82.4% of the benign masses in the HIV positive group. Malignant tumours were recorded more in younger patient in the HIV positive than the negative group (p = 0.001).

Adeloye D, David RA, Aderemi AV, et al.
An Estimate of the Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153496 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is rated the second most common cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer deaths among men globally. Reports show that African men suffer disproportionately from PCa compared to men from other parts of the world. It is still quite difficult to accurately describe the burden of PCa in Africa due to poor cancer registration systems. We systematically reviewed the literature on prostate cancer in Africa and provided a continent-wide incidence rate of PCa based on available data in the region.
METHODS: A systematic literature search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health from January 1980 to June 2015 was conducted, with additional search of Google Scholar, International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR), International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and WHO African region websites, for studies that estimated incidence rate of PCa in any African location. Having assessed quality and consistency across selected studies, we extracted incidence rates of PCa and conducted a random effects meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Our search returned 9766 records, with 40 studies spreading across 16 African countries meeting our selection criteria. We estimated a pooled PCa incidence rate of 22.0 (95% CI: 19.93-23.97) per 100,000 population, and also reported a median incidence rate of 19.5 per 100,000 population. We observed an increasing trend in PCa incidence with advancing age, and over the main years covered.
CONCLUSION: Effective cancer registration and extensive research are vital to appropriately quantifying PCa burden in Africa. We hope our findings may further assist at identifying relevant gaps, and contribute to improving knowledge, research, and interventions targeted at prostate cancer in Africa.

Oga EA, Schumaker LM, Alabi BS, et al.
Paucity of HPV-Related Head and Neck Cancers (HNC) in Nigeria.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0152828 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The burden of HPV-related Head and Neck Cancers (HNC) has been rising in the U.S. and other developed countries but this trend has not been reported in Africa. Objective of study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection in HNC cancer cases seen between 1990 and 2011 at the tertiary health care institutions in Nigeria.
METHODS: We retrieved 149 head and neck cancer formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tumor specimens diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 from four teaching hospitals in Nigeria. One hundred and twenty-three blocks (83%) contained appropriate HNC for analysis while DNA extraction was successful in 60% (90/149). PCR amplification was successful in 33% (49/149) and Linear Array genotyping for HPV was successful in 11% (17/149) of these cases. These were in tumors from the larynx (6), cervical lymph nodes (3), nasal cavity (2), parotid (1), palate (1), maxillary sinus (1) and mandible (1). Two cases were non-specific and none were from the oropharynx. Histologically, 41% (7/17) of the successfully genotyped blocks were squamous cell carcinomas (larynx 6, maxillary sinus 1).
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We were unable to detect HPV in any of the HNC samples in our study. Our result may suggest that there is a low prevalence of HPV-related HNC among the adult population in Nigeria. Our results provide a benchmark to compare future incidence of HPV -related HNC in this community in future. We had significant analytical challenges from possible poor tissue processing and urge that future studies should prospectively collect samples and ensure high quality sample processing.

Husain RS, Ramakrishnan V
Global Variation of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Selected Genes Involved in Cervical Malignancies.
Ann Glob Health. 2015 Sep-Oct; 81(5):675-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the cervix is ranked second among the top 5 cancers affecting women globally. Parallel to other cancers, it is also a complex disease involving numerous factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection followed by the activity of oncogenes and environmental factors. The incidence rate of the disease remains high in developing countries due to lack of awareness, followed by mass screening programs, various socioeconomic issues, and low usage of preventive vaccines. Over the past 3 decades, extensive research has taken place in cervical malignancy to elucidate the role of host genes in the pathogenesis of the disease, yet it remains one of the most prevalent diseases. It is imperative that recent genome-wide techniques be used to determine whether carcinogenesis of oncogenes is associated with cervical cancer at the molecular level and to translate that knowledge into developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to discuss HPV predominance with their genotype distribution worldwide, and in India, as well as to discuss the newly identified oncogenes related to cervical cancer in current scenario.
FINDINGS: Using data from various databases and robust technologies, oncogenes associated with cervical malignancies were identified and are explained in concise manner.
CONCLUSION: Due to the advent of recent technologies, new candidate genes are explored and can be used as precise biomarkers for screening and developing drug targets.

Ekpo EU, Ujong UP, Mello-Thoms C, McEntee MF
Assessment of Interradiologist Agreement Regarding Mammographic Breast Density Classification Using the Fifth Edition of the BI-RADS Atlas.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016; 206(5):1119-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to assess interradiologist agreement regarding mammographic breast density assessment performed using the rating scale outlined in the fifth edition of the BI-RADS atlas of the American College of Radiology.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast density assessments of 1000 cases were conducted by five radiologists from the same institution who together had recently undergone retraining in mammographic breast density classification based on the fifth edition of BI-RADS. The readers assigned breast density grades (A-D) on the basis of the BI-RADS classification scheme. Repeat assessment of 100 cases was performed by all readers 1 month after the initial assessment. A weighted kappa was used to calculate intrareader and interreader agreement.
RESULTS: Intrareader agreement ranged from a kappa value of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.77-0.93) to 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.95) on a four-category scale (categories A-D) and from 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86-0.92) to 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.97) on a two-category scale (category A-B vs category C-D). Interreader agreement ranged from substantial (κ = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.73-0.78) to almost perfect (κ = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.86-0.89) on a four-category scale, and the overall weighted kappa value was substantial (0.79; 95% CI, 0.78-0.83). Interreader agreement on a two-category scale ranged from a kappa value of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.83-0.86) to 0.91 (95% CI, 0.90-0.92), and the overall weighted kappa was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.87-0.89).
CONCLUSION: Overall, with regard to mammographic breast density classification, radiologists had substantial interreader agreement when a four-category scale was used and almost perfect interreader agreement when a dichotomous scale was used.

Desalu OO, Fawibe AE, Sanya EO, et al.
Lung cancer awareness and anticipated delay before seeking medical help in the middle-belt population of Nigeria.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016; 20(4):560-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
SETTING: Ilorin metropolis in the middle-belt region of Nigeria.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the awareness about warning signs and risk factors for lung cancer and the anticipated delay before seeking medical care in the middle-belt population of Nigeria.
DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study performed among 1125 adults. Lung cancer awareness measure (Lung CAM) was administered face to face by trained interviewers.
RESULTS: The respondents' Lung CAM score was low for warning signs and risk factors for lung cancer. Apart from tobacco smoking (69.9%) and air pollution (56.4%), other risk factors were poorly recognised by respondents. Higher education and income and having a relative or friends who had previously had lung cancer were significantly associated with awareness about warning signs and risk factors. The majority (66.8%) would seek help before 2 weeks if they noticed a warning sign. Anticipated delay was associated with non-recognition of any warning sign (OR 3.09, 95%CI 2.26-4.22), lower education (OR 1.90, 95%CI 1.40-2.57), lower income (OR 1.86, 95%CI 1.26-2.75) and males (OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.15-1.97).
CONCLUSION: The awareness of lung cancer warning signs and risk factors are not satisfactory in Nigeria. There is a need to increase awareness about the condition to prevent delays in seeking medical help.

Yakubu M, Ahmadu BU, Yerima TS, et al.
Prevalence and clinical manifestation of lymphomas in North Eastern Nigeria.
Indian J Cancer. 2015 Oct-Dec; 52(4):551-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lymphomas are one of the commonest childhood malignancies. Due to varied clinical features many patients are misdiagnosed and treated for other diseases. It is imperative to keep health workers informed about the current trend of lymphomas in northeastern Nigeria to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of lymphomas at presentation and to define the pattern of presentation in relation to gender and site.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases of lymphomas over a 15 year period was conducted. Structured questionnaires were used to document demographic characteristics and clinical features. The non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) cases were categorized using standard classification schemes. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16, Illinois, Chicago, USA. Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test were applied where appropriate. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS: Fifty cases of lymphoma, 10 (20%) belong to HL and 40 (80%) belong to NHL. Lymphoma is common in male, though the male to female preponderance was not significant in both the cases (P = 0.107 and 0.320, respectively). Maxilla was the commonest site of primary malignancy (36%) and late presentation of patients were observed. New trend was noticed, the NHL patients present commonly with severe symptoms than HL (P = 0.038). HL was dominated by lymphocytic predominant type, while NHL was dominated by the small non cleaved cells (Burkitt's) lymphoma (70%).
CONCLUSION: Childhood lymphoma in northeastern Nigeria has a slight shift in varied clinical presentation in favor of NHL. Patients in this study had late presentation.

Gabriel U, Joseph U, Bassey IA, et al.
Plasmacytoma of the Breast: A Report of a Rare Disease.
Ethiop J Health Sci. 2015; 25(4):373-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extramedullary plasma cells tumours are rare. Much more rarer is their occurance in the breast tissue. Our aim is to report a single case of this very rare lesion (at least from an African perspective) that we incidentally diagnosed histopathologically as a primary extramedullary lesion in a 53 year old woman.
CASE DETAILS: Clinical records of a 53 year old postmenopausal woman was referred from a secondary health centre to our clinic with a three weeks' history of right breast lump were reviewed. There was no associated pain, nipple discharge, weight loss or systemic symptoms nor was there a previous history of trauma or surgery to the breast. On examination: two discrete lumps measuring 3x2 and 2 x 1.5cm in the upper medial quadrant of the right breast were identified. The lumps were firm, irregular in shape, not attached to the skin or underlying tissues. Tentative diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the breast was made, with a differential as fat necrosis. A wide excision biopsy was done four days later for histology, after an inconclusive cytological examination of smear of which the result revealed plasmacytosis. The liver function test, Plasma proteins electrophoresis, electrolytes, urea, creatinine, bicarbonate and pelvic X-rays, and abdomino-pelvic ultrasonography were normal. Bence Jones proteins were negative in urine. Histology of bone marrow aspirate revealed scanty plasma cells.
RESULTS: She received 20mg dexamethasone, 20mg adramycin, and 2mg vincristine intravenously and 200mg of alloperinol daily by mouth for three days before leaving by the 4th treatment day against medical advice for personal reasons.
CONCLUSION: This rare lesion should sometimes be considered as a differential diagnosis of a breast lump, as it does not differ from the common lesions clinically, especially in older women.

Olayide A, Samuel O, Ganiyu R, et al.
How Effective is the Treatment of Locally Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer in Developing Centres?: A Retrospective Review.
Ethiop J Health Sci. 2015; 25(4):337-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The use of chemotherapy in advanced metastatic breast cancer remains a subject of controversy. The thought of MicKinnon et al (early 1950s) that the course of breast cancer was unaffected by chemotherapy has been refuted by results of treatment in the developed countries. The poor result of treatment in developing centres still compares with prechemotherapy era. Consequently, The McKinnon's thought may still lurk. We compared the survival of chemotherapy treated with chemotherapy untreated cancer of breast patients.
METHOD: Records of breast cancer patients who presented and died between January 2010 and May 2014 were reviewed. The primary outcome was overall survival. Records of patients that received chemotherapy with or without other tumor directed specific therapy were compared with records of patients who did not receive any tumor directed therapy.
RESULT: Thirty-one patients received chemotherapy while 25 patients did not. All were females, more than 90% were of the patients had advanced or metastatic disease. Treatments were not biologically directed and treatment plans were largely compromised and suboptimal. The overall mean survival was 19.2 ±9.2 months, and the median duration was 17.5 months(range 6-44months). The overall survival was not statistically different between the two groups (p= 0.230, unequal variance assumed). The objective of using neoadjuvant chemotherapy for fungating lesions was not achieved.
CONCLUSION: In advanced and metastatic breast cancer, outcomes of patients who receive suboptimal regimen of cytotoxic chemotherapy do not differ from chemotherapy untreated patients.

Oluwasola AG, Adeoye AO, Afolabi AO, et al.
Diagnostic accuracy of tru-cut biopsy of breast lumps at University College Hospital, Ibadan.
Afr J Med Med Sci. 2015; 44(2):157-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tru-cut needle biopsies form an integral part of Triple assessment of breast cancer and include clinical assessment, mammography and core needle biopsy. No study has been done to evaluate the validity of the procedure in our environment. This study was done to evaluate the validity of core needle biopsies in our centre.
METHOD: A retrospective study of patients with tru-cut needle biopsies of breast lumps and follow-up excisional biopsy or mastectomy done in the Department of Surgery, University College Hospital, Ibadan over a ten year period was done. Fifty one patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria had their records obtained from the Department of Pathology. The diagnosis was classified into benign and malignant with the excisional biopsy or mastectomy diagnosis used as the gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated and kappa was also done to evaluate the degree of agreement.
RESULTS: A total of 51 cases were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 47 ± 13 years with a range from 19 to 81 years. Thirty of the biopsies (59%) had a definitive diagnosis of malignancy while twenty one (41%) were benign. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 86%, 71% and 80.4% respectively. The specificity of malignant biopsies was 68% while benign was 35%. The level of agreement for malignant biopsies was higher than benign biopsies with a kappa of 0.39 for malignant diagnosis as against 0.29 for benign.
CONCLUSION: Tru-cut needle biopsies have a comparable sensitivity and specificity to excisional biopsies. Diagnostic accuracy can be further enhanced with the adoption of image guided biopsies.

Oluyemi A, Keshinro S, Jimoh A, Oshun P
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal wall in a Nigerian.
Pan Afr Med J. 2015; 22:161 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Documented reports of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are relatively few in the sub-Saharan continent. The body of evidence points towards anal wall involvement being a rarity indeed. In this article we document a 61 year old Nigerian man who presented with bleeding per rectum and in whom the histological features (including immunohistochemistry) of the biopsied anal lesion was GIST.

Awojoyogbe BO, Dada MO, Onwu SO, et al.
Computational Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based on Time-Dependent Bloch NMR Flow Equation and Bessel Functions.
J Med Syst. 2016; 40(4):106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field along with radio waves and a computer to produce highly detailed "slice-by-slice" pictures of virtually all internal structures of matter. The results enable physicians to examine parts of the body in minute detail and identify diseases in ways that are not possible with other techniques. For example, MRI is one of the few imaging tools that can see through bones, making it an excellent tool for examining the brain and other soft tissues. Pulsed-field gradient experiments provide a straightforward means of obtaining information on the translational motion of nuclear spins. However, the interpretation of the data is complicated by the effects of restricting geometries as in the case of most cancerous tissues and the mathematical concept required to account for this becomes very difficult. Most diffusion magnetic resonance techniques are based on the Stejskal-Tanner formulation usually derived from the Bloch-Torrey partial differential equation by including additional terms to accommodate the diffusion effect. Despite the early success of this technique, it has been shown that it has important limitations, the most of which occurs when there is orientation heterogeneity of the fibers in the voxel of interest (VOI). Overcoming this difficulty requires the specification of diffusion coefficients as function of spatial coordinate(s) and such a phenomenon is an indication of non-uniform compartmental conditions which can be analyzed accurately by solving the time-dependent Bloch NMR flow equation analytically. In this study, a mathematical formulation of magnetic resonance flow sequence in restricted geometry is developed based on a general second order partial differential equation derived directly from the fundamental Bloch NMR flow equations. The NMR signal is obtained completely in terms of NMR experimental parameters. The process is described based on Bessel functions and properties that can make it possible to distinguish cancerous cells from normal cells. A typical example of liver distinguished from gray matter, white matter and kidney is demonstrated. Bessel functions and properties are specifically needed to show the direct effect of the instantaneous velocity on the NMR signal originating from normal and abnormal tissues.

Ekpo EU, McEntee MF, Rickard M, et al.
Quantra™ should be considered a tool for two-grade scale mammographic breast density classification.
Br J Radiol. 2016; 89(1060):20151057 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the agreement between Quantra™ (Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA) and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS(®)) and the performance of Quantra at reproducing BI-RADS mammographic breast density (MBD) assessment.
METHODS: MBD assessment was performed using Quantra and BI-RADS. BI-RADS assessment was performed in two phases (1314 and 292 cases, respectively). Kappa was used to assess the interreader agreement and the agreement between Quantra and BI-RADS, and receiver-operating characteristics analysis was used to assess the performance of Quantra at reproducing BI-RADS rating.
RESULTS: Agreement (weighted kappa) between BI-RADS and Quantra in Phase 1 was 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.78] and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80-0.90) on four- and two-grade scales, respectively. The corresponding agreement in Phase 2 was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.75-0.84) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.79-0.87) using the majority report. In Phase 1, Quantra demonstrated 93.2% sensitivity and 86.1% specificity for BI-RADS on a two-grade scale (1-2 vs 3-4). In Phase 2, it demonstrated 91.3% sensitivity and 83.6% specificity on a two-grade scale.
CONCLUSION: Quantra is limited in reproducing BI-RADS rating on a four-grade scale; however, it highly reproduces BI-RADS assessment on a two-grade scale.
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Quantra (v. 2.0) is a poor predictor of BI-RADS assessment on a four-grade scale, but well reproduces BI-RADS rating on a two-grade scale. Therefore, it should be considered a tool for two-grade scale MBD classification.

Bwatanglang IB, Mohammad F, Yusof NA, et al.
Folic acid targeted Mn:ZnS quantum dots for theranostic applications of cancer cell imaging and therapy.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2016; 11:413-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
In this study, we synthesized a multifunctional nanoparticulate system with specific targeting, imaging, and drug delivering functionalities by following a three-step protocol that operates at room temperature and solely in aqueous media. The synthesis involves the encapsulation of luminescent Mn:ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with chitosan not only as a stabilizer in biological environment, but also to further provide active binding sites for the conjugation of other biomolecules. Folic acid was incorporated as targeting agent for the specific targeting of the nanocarrier toward the cells overexpressing folate receptors. Thus, the formed composite emits orange-red fluorescence around 600 nm and investigated to the highest intensity at Mn(2+) doping concentration of 15 at.% and relatively more stable at low acidic and low alkaline pH levels. The structural characteristics and optical properties were thoroughly analyzed by using Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, ultraviolet-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Further characterization was conducted using thermogravimetric analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The cell viability and proliferation studies by means of MTT assay have demonstrated that the as-synthesized composites do not exhibit any toxicity toward the human breast cell line MCF-10 (noncancer) and the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) up to a 500 µg/mL concentration. The cellular uptake of the nanocomposites was assayed by confocal laser scanning microscope by taking advantage of the conjugated Mn:ZnS QDs as fluorescence makers. The result showed that the functionalization of the chitosan-encapsulated QDs with folic acid enhanced the internalization and binding affinity of the nanocarrier toward folate receptor-overexpressed cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that due to the nontoxic nature of the composite, the as-synthesized nanoparticulate system can be used as a promising candidate for theranostic applications, especially for a simultaneous targeted drug delivery and cellular imaging.

Freeman E, Semeere A, Wenger M, et al.
Pitfalls of practicing cancer epidemiology in resource-limited settings: the case of survival and loss to follow-up after a diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma in five countries across sub-Saharan Africa.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Survival after diagnosis is a fundamental concern in cancer epidemiology. In resource-rich settings, ambient clinical databases, municipal data and cancer registries make survival estimation in real-world populations relatively straightforward. In resource-poor settings, given the deficiencies in a variety of health-related data systems, it is less clear how well we can determine cancer survival from ambient data.
METHODS: We addressed this issue in sub-Saharan Africa for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a cancer for which incidence has exploded with the HIV epidemic but for which survival in the region may be changing with the recent advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). From 33 primary care HIV Clinics in Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Nigeria and Cameroon participating in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortia in 2009-2012, we identified 1328 adults with newly diagnosed KS. Patients were evaluated from KS diagnosis until death, transfer to another facility or database closure.
RESULTS: Nominally, 22% of patients were estimated to be dead by 2 years, but this estimate was clouded by 45% cumulative lost to follow-up with unknown vital status by 2 years. After adjustment for site and CD4 count, age <30 years and male sex were independently associated with becoming lost.
CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based sample of patients diagnosed with KS in sub-Saharan Africa, almost half became lost to follow-up by 2 years. This precluded accurate estimation of survival. Until we either generally strengthen data systems or implement cancer-specific enhancements (e.g., tracking of the lost) in the region, insights from cancer epidemiology will be limited.

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