A registered charity in the UK formed in 1987 which provides information and support for people with lymphoma and also supports health professionals. The Association runs a UK telephone helpline, chat rooms and the Website includes information for both patients and health professionals.
A UK registered charity which supports research into the treatment of lymphoma. It makes grants to medical researchers at the Lymphoma Trials Office who organise clinical trials and operate a database containing details of over 19,600 patients.
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PubMed Central search for free-access publications about Hodgkin Lymphoma MeSH term: Hodgkin Disease US National Library of Medicine PubMed has over 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Constantly updated.
Showing publications with corresponding authors from the UK (Source: PubMed).
Afaq A, Fraioli F, Sidhu H, et al. Comparison of PET/MRI With PET/CT in the Evaluation of Disease Status in Lymphoma. Clin Nucl Med. 2017; 42(1):e1-e7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The primary aim was to compare the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI (performed with basic anatomical MRI sequences) in detecting sites of disease in adult patients with lymphoma compared with the current standard of care, PET/CT. Secondary aims were to assess the additional value of diffusion-weighted imaging to PET/MRI in disease detection and to evaluate the relationship between the standardized uptake value on PET/MR and the apparent diffusion coefficient on diffusion-weighted imaging. METHODS: Sixty-eight studies in 66 consecutive patients with histologically proven Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma were prospectively evaluated. Each patient had whole body PET/CT, followed by whole body PET/MR. Two experienced readers independently evaluated the PET/MRI studies, and two other experienced readers independently evaluated PET/CT. Site of lymphoma involvement and SUVmax at all nodal sites more avid than background liver were recorded. Readers provided stage (in baseline cases) and disease status (remission vs active disease). The apparent diffusion coefficient mean value corresponding to the most avid PET site of disease was recorded. RESULTS: Ninety-five nodal and 8 extranodal sites were identified on both PET/CT and PET/MRI. In addition, 3 nodal and 1 extranodal sites were identified on PET/MRI. For positive lesion detection, reader agreement in PET/MR was perfect between the 2 readers and almost perfect between PET/CT and PET/MR (k > 0.978). Intermodality agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI was also near perfect to perfect for staging/disease status k = (0.979-1.000). SUVmax from PET/CT and PET/MRI correlated significantly (Spearman rho correlation coefficient, 0.842; P < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted imaging did not alter lesion detection or staging in any case. A negative correlation was demonstrated between ADC mean and SUVmax (Spearman rho correlation coefficient r, -0.642; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PET/MRI is a reliable alternative to PET/CT in the evaluation of patients with lymphoma. Diffusion-weighted imaging did not alter diagnostic accuracy. With comparable accuracy in detection of disease sites and added benefit of radiation dose reduction, PET/MRI has a potential to become part of routine lymphoma imaging.
BACKGROUND: We tested interim positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) as a measure of early response to chemotherapy in order to guide treatment for patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed advanced classic Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent a baseline PET-CT scan, received two cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) chemotherapy, and then underwent an interim PET-CT scan. Images were centrally reviewed with the use of a 5-point scale for PET findings. Patients with negative PET findings after two cycles were randomly assigned to continue ABVD (ABVD group) or omit bleomycin (AVD group) in cycles 3 through 6. Those with positive PET findings after two cycles received BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone). Radiotherapy was not recommended for patients with negative findings on interim scans. The primary outcome was the difference in the 3-year progression-free survival rate between randomized groups, a noninferiority comparison to exclude a difference of 5 or more percentage points. RESULTS: A total of 1214 patients were registered; 937 of the 1119 patients (83.7%) who underwent an interim PET-CT scan according to protocol had negative findings. With a median follow-up of 41 months, the 3-year progression-free survival rate and overall survival rate in the ABVD group were 85.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.1 to 88.6) and 97.2% (95% CI, 95.1 to 98.4), respectively; the corresponding rates in the AVD group were 84.4% (95% CI, 80.7 to 87.5) and 97.6% (95% CI, 95.6 to 98.7). The absolute difference in the 3-year progression-free survival rate (ABVD minus AVD) was 1.6 percentage points (95% CI, -3.2 to 5.3). Respiratory adverse events were more severe in the ABVD group than in the AVD group. BEACOPP was given to the 172 patients with positive findings on the interim scan, and 74.4% had negative findings on a third PET-CT scan; the 3-year progression-free survival rate was 67.5% and the overall survival rate 87.8%. A total of 62 patients died during the trial (24 from Hodgkin's lymphoma), for a 3-year progression-free survival rate of 82.6% and an overall survival rate of 95.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results fall just short of the specified noninferiority margin, the omission of bleomycin from the ABVD regimen after negative findings on interim PET resulted in a lower incidence of pulmonary toxic effects than with continued ABVD but not significantly lower efficacy. (Funded by Cancer Research UK and Others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00678327.).
Kluge R, Chavdarova L, Hoffmann M, et al. Inter-Reader Reliability of Early FDG-PET/CT Response Assessment Using the Deauville Scale after 2 Cycles of Intensive Chemotherapy (OEPA) in Hodgkin's Lymphoma. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0149072 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
PURPOSE: The five point Deauville (D) scale is widely used to assess interim PET metabolic response to chemotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. An International Validation Study reported good concordance among reviewers in ABVD treated advanced stage HL patients for the binary discrimination between score D1,2,3 and score D4,5. Inter-reader reliability of the whole scale is not well characterised. METHODS: Five international expert readers scored 100 interim PET/CT scans from paediatric HL patients. Scans were acquired in 51 European hospitals after two courses of OEPA chemotherapy (according to the EuroNet-PHL-C1 study). Images were interpreted in direct comparison with staging PET/CTs. RESULTS: The probability that two random readers concord on the five point D score of a random case is only 42% (global kappa = 0.24). Aggregating to a three point scale D1,2 vs. D3 vs. D4,5 improves concordance to 60% (kappa = 0.34). Concordance if one of two readers assigns a given score is 70% for score D1,2 only 36% for score D3 and 64% for D4,5. Concordance for the binary decisions D1,2 vs. D3,4,5 is 67% and 86% for D1,2,3 vs D4,5 (kappa = 0.36 resp. 0.56). If one reader assigns D1,2,3 concordance probability is 92%, but only 64% if D4,5 is called. Discrepancies occur mainly in mediastinum, neck and skeleton. CONCLUSION: Inter-reader reliability of the five point D-scale is poor in this interobserver analysis of paediatric patients who underwent OEPA. Inter-reader variability is maximal in cases assigned to D2 or D3. The binary distinction D1,2,3 versus D4,5 is the most reliable criterion for clinical decision making.
Barrington SF, Kirkwood AA, Franceschetto A, et al. PET-CT for staging and early response: results from the Response-Adapted Therapy in Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma study. Blood. 2016; 127(12):1531-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
International guidelines recommend that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) should replace CT in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The aims of this study were to compare PET-CT with CT for staging and measure agreement between expert and local readers, using a 5-point scale (Deauville criteria), to adapt treatment in a clinical trial: Response-Adapted Therapy in Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma (RATHL). Patients were staged using clinical assessment, CT, and bone marrow biopsy (RATHL stage). PET-CT was performed at baseline (PET0) and after 2 chemotherapy cycles (PET2) in a response-adapted design. PET-CT was reported centrally by experts at 5 national core laboratories. Local readers optionally scored PET2 scans. The RATHL and PET-CT stages were compared. Agreement among experts and between expert and local readers was measured. RATHL and PET0 stage were concordant in 938 (80%) patients. PET-CT upstaged 159 (14%) and downstaged 74 (6%) patients. Upstaging by extranodal disease in bone marrow (92), lung (11), or multiple sites (12) on PET-CT accounted for most discrepancies. Follow-up of discrepant findings confirmed the PET characterization of lesions in the vast majority. Five patients were upstaged by marrow biopsy and 7 by contrast-enhanced CT in the bowel and/or liver or spleen. PET2 agreement among experts (140 scans) with a κ (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.76-0.91) was very good and between experts and local readers (300 scans) at 0.77 (0.68-0.86) was good. These results confirm PET-CT as the modern standard for staging HL and that response assessment using Deauville criteria is robust, enabling translation of RATHL results into clinical practice.
Gravanis I, Tzogani K, van Hennik P, et al. The European Medicines Agency Review of Brentuximab Vedotin (Adcetris) for the Treatment of Adult Patients With Relapsed or Refractory CD30+ Hodgkin Lymphoma or Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Summary of the Scientific Assessment of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. Oncologist. 2016; 21(1):102-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
BACKGROUND: On October 25, 2012, a conditional marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union (EU) was issued for brentuximab vedotin for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory CD30+ Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL). For HL, the indication is restricted to treatment after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or after at least two previous therapies when ASCT or multiagent chemotherapy is not a treatment option. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a CD30-directed monoclonal antibody (recombinant chimeric IgG1) that is covalently linked to the antimicrotubule agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE). Binding of the ADC to CD30 on the cell surface initiates internalization of the MMAE-CD30 complex, followed by proteolytic cleavage that releases MMAE. The recommended dose is 1.8 mg/kg administered as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes every 3 weeks. RESULTS: Brentuximab vedotin as a single agent was evaluated in two single-arm studies. Study SG035-003 included 102 patients with relapsed or refractory HL. An objective response was observed in 76 patients (75%), with complete remission in 34 (33%). Study SG035-004 included 58 patients with relapsed or refractory sALCL. An objective response was observed in 50 patients (86%), with complete remission in 34 (59%). The most frequently observed toxicities were peripheral sensory neuropathy, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, neutropenia, vomiting, pyrexia, and upper respiratory tract infection. CONCLUSION: The present report summarizes the scientific review of the application leading to approval in the EU. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information, including the summary of the product characteristics, are available on the European Medicines Agency website (http://www.ema.europa.eu). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Brentuximab vedotin was approved in the European Union for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory CD30+ Hodgkin lymphoma or systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma. For Hodgkin lymphoma, brentuximab vedotin should only be used after autologous stem cell transplantation or following at least two prior therapies when transplantation or multiagent chemotherapy is not a treatment option. In two studies involving 160 patients, partial or complete responses were observed in the majority of patients. Although there was no information on the survival of patients treated in the studies at the time of approval, the responses were considered a clinically relevant benefit.
van Nimwegen FA, Schaapveld M, Cutter DJ, et al. Radiation Dose-Response Relationship for Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34(3):235-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly recognized as late effects of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and to quantify the effects of radiation dose to the heart, chemotherapy, and other cardiovascular risk factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 2,617 5-year HL survivors, treated between 1965 and 1995. Cases were patients diagnosed with CHD as their first cardiovascular event after HL. Detailed treatment information was collected from medical records of 325 cases and 1,204 matched controls. Radiation charts and simulation radiographs were used to estimate in-field heart volume and mean heart dose (MHD). A risk factor questionnaire was sent to patients still alive. RESULTS: The median interval between HL and CHD was 19.0 years. Risk of CHD increased linearly with increasing MHD (excess relative risk [ERR]) per Gray, 7.4%; 95% CI, 3.3% to 14.8%). This results in a 2.5-fold increased risk of CHD for patients receiving a MHD of 20 Gy from mediastinal radiotherapy, compared with patients not treated with mediastinal radiotherapy. ERRs seemed to decrease with each tertile of age at treatment (ERR/Gy(<27.5years), 20.0%; ERR/Gy(27.5-36.4years), 8.8%; ERR/Gy(36.5-50.9years), 4.2%; P(interaction) = .149). Having ≥ 1 classic CHD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or hypercholesterolemia) independently increased CHD risk (rate ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1). A high level of physical activity was associated with decreased CHD risk (rate ratio, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.8). CONCLUSION: The linear radiation dose-response relationship identified can be used to predict CHD risk for future HL patients and survivors. Appropriate early management of CHD risk factors and stimulation of physical activity may reduce CHD risk in HL survivors.
Delahaye-Sourdeix M, Urayama KY, Gaborieau V, et al. A Novel Risk Locus at 6p21.3 for Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Hodgkin Lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015; 24(12):1838-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A proportion of the genetic variants involved in susceptibility to Hodgkin lymphoma differ by the tumor's Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status, particularly within the MHC region. METHODS: We have conducted an SNP imputation study of the MHC region, considering tumor EBV status in 1,200 classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) cases and 5,726 control subjects of European origin. Notable findings were genotyped in an independent study population of 468 cHL cases and 551 controls. RESULTS: We identified and subsequently replicated a novel association between a common genetic variant rs6457715 and cHL. Although strongly associated with EBV-positive cHL [OR, 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.83-2.97; P = 7 × 10(-12)], there was little evidence for association between rs6457715 and the EBV-negative subgroup of cHL (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.92-1.21), indicating that this association was specific to the EBV-positive subgroup (Phet < P = 10(-8)). Furthermore, the association was limited to EBV-positive cHL subgroups within mixed cell (MCHL) and nodular sclerosis subtypes (NSHL), suggesting that the association is independent of histologic subtype of cHL. CONCLUSIONS: rs6457715, located near the HLA-DPB1 gene, is associated with EBV-positive cHL and suggests this region as a novel susceptibility locus for cHL. IMPACT: This expands the number of genetic variants that are associated with cHL and provides additional evidence for a critical and specific role of EBV in the etiology of this disease.
Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been associated with survival in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and other lymphoma types. The maturation and differentiation of tissue macrophages depends upon interactions between colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) and its ligands. There remains, however, a lack of consistent information on CSF1R expression in TAMs. A new monoclonal antibody, FER216, was generated to investigate CSF1R protein distribution in formalin fixed tissue samples from 24 reactive lymphoid tissues and 187 different lymphoma types. We also analysed the distribution of CSF1R+, CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages by double immunostaining, and studied the relationship between CSF1R expression and survival in an independent series of 249 cHL patients. CSF1R+ TAMs were less frequent in B-cell lymphocytic leukaemia and lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma than in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and cHL. HRS cells in cHL and, with the exception of three cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, the neoplastic cells in NHLs, lacked detectable CSF1R protein. A CSF1R+ enriched microenvironment in cHL was associated with shorter survival in an independent series of 249 cHL patients. CSF1R pathway activation was evident in the cHL and inactivation of this pathway could be a potential therapeutic target in cHL cases.
Radford J, Illidge T, Counsell N, et al. Results of a trial of PET-directed therapy for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2015; 372(17):1598-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether patients with early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma and negative findings on positron-emission tomography (PET) after three cycles of chemotherapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) require radiotherapy. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed stage IA or stage IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma received three cycles of ABVD and then underwent PET scanning. Patients with negative PET findings were randomly assigned to receive involved-field radiotherapy or no further treatment; patients with positive PET findings received a fourth cycle of ABVD and radiotherapy. This trial assessing the noninferiority of no further treatment was designed to exclude a difference in the 3-year progression-free survival rate of 7 or more percentage points from the assumed 95% progression-free survival rate in the radiotherapy group. RESULTS: A total of 602 patients (53.3% male; median age, 34 years) were recruited, and 571 patients underwent PET scanning. The PET findings were negative in 426 of these patients (74.6%), 420 of whom were randomly assigned to a study group (209 to the radiotherapy group and 211 to no further therapy). At a median of 60 months of follow-up, there had been 8 instances of disease progression in the radiotherapy group, and 8 patients had died (3 with disease progression, 1 of whom died from Hodgkin's lymphoma); there had been 20 instances of disease progression in the group with no further therapy, and 4 patients had died (2 with disease progression and none from Hodgkin's lymphoma). In the radiotherapy group, 5 of the deaths occurred in patients who received no radiotherapy. The 3-year progression-free survival rate was 94.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.5 to 97.7) in the radiotherapy group and 90.8% (95% CI, 86.9 to 94.8) in the group that received no further therapy, with an absolute risk difference of -3.8 percentage points (95% CI, -8.8 to 1.3). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study did not show the noninferiority of the strategy of no further treatment after chemotherapy with regard to progression-free survival. Nevertheless, patients in this study with early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma and negative PET findings after three cycles of ABVD had a very good prognosis either with or without consolidation radiotherapy. (Funded by Leukaemia and Lymphoma Research and others; RAPID ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00943423.).
van Nimwegen FA, Cutter DJ, Schaapveld M, et al. Simple method to estimate mean heart dose from Hodgkin lymphoma radiation therapy according to simulation X-rays. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 92(1):153-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To describe a new method to estimate the mean heart dose for Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated several decades ago, using delineation of the heart on radiation therapy simulation X-rays. Mean heart dose is an important predictor for late cardiovascular complications after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. For patients treated before the era of computed tomography (CT)-based radiotherapy planning, retrospective estimation of radiation dose to the heart can be labor intensive. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients for whom cardiac radiation doses had previously been estimated by reconstruction of individual treatments on representative CT data sets were selected at random from a case-control study of 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (n=289). For 42 patients, cardiac contours were outlined on each patient's simulation X-ray by 4 different raters, and the mean heart dose was estimated as the percentage of the cardiac contour within the radiation field multiplied by the prescribed mediastinal dose and divided by a correction factor obtained by comparison with individual CT-based dosimetry. RESULTS: According to the simulation X-ray method, the medians of the mean heart doses obtained from the cardiac contours outlined by the 4 raters were 30 Gy, 30 Gy, 31 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively, following prescribed mediastinal doses of 25-42 Gy. The absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97), indicating excellent agreement. Mean heart dose was 30.4 Gy with the simulation X-ray method, versus 30.2 Gy with the representative CT-based dosimetry, and the between-method absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.95), indicating good agreement between the two methods. CONCLUSION: Estimating mean heart dose from radiation therapy simulation X-rays is reproducible and fast, takes individual anatomy into account, and yields results comparable to the labor-intensive representative CT-based method. This simpler method may produce a meaningful measure of mean heart dose for use in studies of late cardiac complications.
Eyre TA, Gatter K, Collins GP, et al. Incidence, management, and outcome of high-grade transformation of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: long-term outcomes from a 30-year experience. Am J Hematol. 2015; 90(6):E103-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that typically presents as early stage, indolent disease in young adult males. The relationship between NLPHL and DLBCL is incompletely understood, and there remains a paucity of data with regard the incidence and management of high-grade transformation. We report the largest study to date describing the incidence, management and long-term outcome of 26 cases of high-grade transformation of NLPHL over a 30-year period. We report a transformation incidence of 17.0%. Bone marrow, splenic, and liver infiltration with DLBCL was frequent. Patients with an aa-IPI 2-3 have poorer OS and PFS (P = 0.034 and P = 0.009, respectively). Although the approach to treatment was somewhat variable, typically young, otherwise fit patients received anthracycline-based induction, platinum-based consolidation with stem cell harvesting, followed by autologous SCT with BEAM conditioning. Long-term (5 year) PFS was over 60% with this approach, and comparable to our de novo DLBCL historical age and time period-matched cohort largely treated with CHOP-like chemotherapy alone. The transformation rate of 17.0% highlights the importance of accurate initial diagnosis, long-term follow-up, and re-biopsy at relapse.
Maraldo MV, Dabaja BS, Filippi AR, et al. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 92(1):144-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). METHODS: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. RESULTS: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. CONCLUSIONS: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.
Johnson PC, McAulay KA, Montgomery D, et al. Modeling HLA associations with EBV-positive and -negative Hodgkin lymphoma suggests distinct mechanisms in disease pathogenesis. Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(5):1066-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
HLA genotyping and genome wide association studies provide strong evidence for associations between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Analysis of these associations is complicated by the extensive linkage disequilibrium within the major histocompatibility region and recent data suggesting that associations with EBV-positive and EBV-negative cHL are largely distinct. To distinguish independent and therefore potentially causal associations from associations confounded by linkage disequilibrium, we applied a variable selection regression modeling procedure to directly typed HLA class I and II genes and selected SNPs from EBV-stratified patient subgroups. In final models, HLA-A*01:01 and B*37:01 were associated with an increased risk of EBV-positive cHL whereas DRB1*15:01 and DPB1*01:01 were associated with decreased risk. Effects were independent of a prior history of infectious mononucleosis. For EBV-negative cHL the class II SNP rs6903608 remained the strongest predictor of disease risk after adjusting for the effects of common HLA alleles. Associations with "all cHL" and differences by case EBV status reflected the subgroup analysis. In conclusion, this study extends previous findings by identifying novel HLA associations with EBV-stratified subgroups of cHL, highlighting those alleles likely to be biologically relevant and strengthening evidence implicating genetic variation associated with the SNP rs6903608.
The development of curative systemic treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma was recently voted one of the top 5 achievements of oncology in the last 50 years (http://cancerprogress.net/top-5-advances-modern-oncology). The high expectation of cure (above 80%) with initial therapy, even for advanced disease, is tempered by the recognition of some important limitations: not all patients are cured, especially those in older age groups, and patients have suffered debilitating or, in some cases, fatal long-term side effects. The challenge for modern treatment approaches is to improve the cure rate and, at the same time, minimize the long-term damage resulting from treatment. After several decades during which we have tested a variety of different ways to combine conventional cytotoxic treatments with or without radiotherapy but have identified no effective new approaches, the field is once again moving forward. The developments that hold the greatest promise in this respect are the application of functional imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to make an early judgment of the success of treatment and the introduction of some highly active new agents such as antibody-drug conjugates.
Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in the malignant Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of a proportion of cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), how the virus contributes to the pathogenesis of this disease remains poorly defined. It is clear from the studies of other EBV-associated cancers that the virus is usually not sufficient for tumor development and that other oncogenic co-factors are required. This article reviews what is known about the contribution of EBV to the pathogenesis of cHL and focuses on emerging evidence implicating chronic inflammation as a potential oncogenic co-factor in this malignancy.
A unique feature of both human herpesvirus 6A and B (HHV-6A and B) among human herpesviruses is their ability to integrate into chromosomal telomeres. In some individuals integrated viral genomes are present in the germ-line and result in the vertical transmission of HHV-6; however, little is known about the disease associations of germ-line transmitted, chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6). Recent publications suggest that HHV-6 is associated with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Here we examine the prevalence of ciHHV-6 in 936 cases of cHL and 563 controls by screening with a duplex TaqMan assay and confirming with droplet digital PCR. ciHHV-6 was detected in 10/563 (1.8%) controls and in all but one individual the virus was HHV-6B. Amongst cases 16/936 (1.7%) harboured ciHHV-6, thus demonstrating no association between ciHHV-6 and risk of cHL.
Kreher S, Bouhlel MA, Cauchy P, et al. Mapping of transcription factor motifs in active chromatin identifies IRF5 as key regulator in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(42):E4513-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
Deregulated transcription factor (TF) activities are commonly observed in hematopoietic malignancies. Understanding tumorigenesis therefore requires determining the function and hierarchical role of individual TFs. To identify TFs central to lymphomagenesis, we identified lymphoma type-specific accessible chromatin by global mapping of DNaseI hypersensitive sites and analyzed enriched TF-binding motifs in these regions. Applying this unbiased approach to classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), a common B-cell-derived lymphoma with a complex pattern of deregulated TFs, we discovered interferon regulatory factor (IRF) sites among the top enriched motifs. High-level expression of the proinflammatory TF IRF5 was specific to HL cells and crucial for their survival. Furthermore, IRF5 initiated a regulatory cascade in human non-Hodgkin B-cell lines and primary murine B cells by inducing the TF AP-1 and cooperating with NF-κB to activate essential characteristic features of HL. Our strategy efficiently identified a lymphoma type-specific key regulator and uncovered a tumor promoting role of IRF5.
Vogel MJ, Xie L, Guan H, et al. FOXO1 repression contributes to block of plasma cell differentiation in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2014; 124(20):3118-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
The survival of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) cells depends on activation of NF-κB, JAK/STAT, and IRF4. Whereas these factors typically induce the master regulator of plasma cell (PC) differentiation PRDM1/BLIMP-1, levels of PRDM1 remain low in cHL. FOXO1, playing a critical role in normal B-cell development, acts as a tumor suppressor in cHL, but has never been associated with induction of PC differentiation. Here we show that FOXO1 directly upregulates the full-length isoform PRDM1α in cHL cell lines. We also observed a positive correlation between FOXO1 and PRDM1 expression levels in primary Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells. Further, we show that PRDM1α acts as a tumor suppressor in cHL at least partially by blocking MYC. Here we provide a link between FOXO1 repression and PRDM1α downregulation in cHL and identify PRDM1α as a tumor suppressor in cHL. The data support a potential role for FOXO transcription factors in normal PC differentiation.
Fhu CW, Graham AM, Yap CT, et al. Reed-Sternberg cell-derived lymphotoxin-α activates endothelial cells to enhance T-cell recruitment in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2014; 124(19):2973-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is known that cells within the inflammatory background in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) provide signals essential for the continual survival of the neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the recruitment of this inflammatory infiltrate into the involved lymph nodes are less well understood. In this study, we show in vitro that HRS cells secrete lymphotoxin-α (LTα) which acts on endothelial cells to upregulate the expression of adhesion molecules that are important for T cell recruitment. LTα also enhances the expression of hyaluronan which preferentially contributes to the recruitment of CD4(+) CD45RA(+) naïve T cells under in vitro defined flow conditions. Enhanced expression of LTα in HRS cells and tissue stroma; and hyaluronan on endothelial cells are readily detected in involved lymph nodes from cHL patients. Our study also shows that although NF-κB and AP-1 are involved, the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway is the dominant regulator of LTα production in HRS cells. Using pharmacological inhibitors, our data suggest that activity of COX1, but not of COX2, directly regulates the expression of nuclear c-Fos in HRS cells. Our findings suggest that HRS cell-derived LTα is an important mediator that contributes to T cell recruitment into lesional lymph nodes in cHL.
It has been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage are involved in lymphomagenesis. Increased copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a compensatory mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction previously has been associated with B-cell lymphomas, in particular chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, current evidence is limited and based on a relatively small number of cases. Using a nested case-control study, we extended these findings with a focus on subtype-specific analyses. Relative mtDNA copy number was measured in the buffy coat of prospectively collected blood of 469 lymphoma cases and 469 matched controls. The association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of developing lymphoma and histologic subtypes was examined using logistic regression models. We found no overall association between mtDNA and risk of lymphoma. Subtype analyses revealed significant increased risks of CLL (n = 102) with increasing mtDNA copy number (odds ratio = 1.34, 1.44, and 1.80 for quartiles 2-4, respectively; P trend = .001). mtDNA copy number was not associated with follow-up time, suggesting that this observation is not strongly influenced by indolent disease status. This study substantially strengthens the evidence that mtDNA copy number is related to risk of CLL and supports the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction as a possible mechanistic pathway in CLL ontogenesis.
Gupta RK, Marks M, Edwards SG, et al. A declining CD4 count and diagnosis of HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma: do prior clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities aid diagnosis? PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e87442 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) among HIV-infected individuals remains unchanged since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Recent epidemiological data suggest that CD4 count decline over a year is associated with subsequent diagnosis of HL. In an era of economic austerity monitoring the efficacy of cART by CD4 counts may no longer be required where CD4 count>350 cells/µl and viral load is suppressed (<50 copies/ml). METHODS: We sought to establish among our HIV outpatient cohort whether a CD4 count decline prior to diagnosis of HL, whether any decline was greater than in patients without the diagnosis, and also whether other clinical or biochemical indices were reliably associated with the diagnosis. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients with a diagnosis of HL were identified. Among 15 individuals on cART with viral load <50 copies/ml the change in CD4 over 12 months preceding diagnosis of HL was -82 cells/µl (95% CI -163 to -3; p = 0.04). Among 18 matched controls the mean change was +5 cells/µl, 95% CI -70 to 80, p = 0.89). The decline in CD4 over the previous 6-12 months was somewhat greater in cases than controls (mean difference in change -55 cells/µl, 95% CI -151 to 39; p = 0.25). In 26 (90%) patients B symptoms had been present for a median of three months (range one-12) before diagnosis of HL. CONCLUSIONS: The CD4 count decline in the 12 months prior to diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma among HIV-infected individuals with VL<50 copies/ml on cART was not significantly different from that seen in other fully virologically suppressed individuals in receipt of cART and who did not develop HL. All those who developed HL had B symptoms and/or new palpable lymphadenopathy, suggesting that CD4 count monitoring if performed less frequently, or not at all, among those virologically suppressed individuals with CD4 counts >350 may not have delayed diagnosis.
Johnson PW Management of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: is there still a role for radiation? Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2013; 2013:400-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although radiotherapy is highly effective for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma, the realization of its potential long-term toxicity and the demonstration of excellent results from combination chemotherapy have led to a retreat from its use in early-stage disease. Recent trials using functional imaging may allow better identification of those patients for whom radiotherapy may be safely omitted without compromising cure rates and this review examines the evidence for this.
Cader FZ, Vockerodt M, Bose S, et al. The EBV oncogene LMP1 protects lymphoma cells from cell death through the collagen-mediated activation of DDR1. Blood. 2013; 122(26):4237-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma are surrounded by a tumor microenvironment that is composed of a variety of cell types, as well as noncellular components such as collagen. Although HRS cells harbor oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in approximately 50% of cases, it is not known if the tumor microenvironment contributes to EBV-driven lymphomagenesis. We show that expression of the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) in primary human germinal center B cells, the presumed progenitors of HRS cells, upregulates discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by collagen. We also show that HRS cells intimately associated with collagen frequently overexpress DDR1 and that short-term exposure to collagen is sufficient to activate DDR1 in Hodgkin lymphoma-derived cell lines. The ectopic expression of DDR1 significantly increased the survival of collagen-treated DG75 Burkitt lymphoma cells, following etoposide treatment. Conversely, knockdown of DDR1 significantly decreased the survival of collagen-treated L428 Hodgkin lymphoma cells in the absence of specific apoptotic stimulus, suggesting that DDR1 also influences baseline survival. Our results identify a hitherto unknown function for collagen in protecting Hodgkin lymphoma cells from apoptosis and suggest an important contribution of the tumor microenvironment in promoting the oncogenic effects of EBV.
CD4(+) T-helper cells (THs) dominate the classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) microenvironment, but their role is poorly understood. Advances in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry permit more detailed investigation of this aspect of CHL pathophysiology. To address the hypothesis that the TH-infiltrate, rather than being TH2-enriched, senescent and hypofunctional, is TH1 and activation marker-rich, cytokine-secretory and proliferative, we applied comprehensive flow cytometric immunophenotyping and functional assays of cytokine secretion/proliferation to TH cells from 18 CHL-derived single-cell suspensions (SCSs) compared to reactive lymph nodes (RLNs). CHL-derived TH cells express TH1-associated CXCR3/CCR5 and TNFα/IFNγ/interleukin-2 (IL-2) and less TH2-associated CCR3/CCR4, with no IL-4/IL-13. They lack exhaustion-/suppression-associated PD1, CD57 and terminally differentiated effector memory cells, with more central memory cells, activation-associated partners of Hodgkin Reed Sternberg (HRS) cell-expressed CD30/OX40-L/ICOS-L, and other activation markers. TH cell lines established from CHL and RLN-derived SCSs remain cytokine-secretory. We confirmed and extended these studies using tissue microarray immunohistochemistry (TMA-IHC) from a large CHL tissue bank (n = 122) and demonstrate TH1-associated TBET is abundant in CHL, and TH2-associated CMAF/GATA3 and exhaustion-associated PD1 expressed at significantly lower levels. These molecular insights into the CHL-associated TH offer potential diagnostic, prognostic and pharmacologically modifiable therapeutic targets and do not support the established view of a TH2-enriched, senescent/exhausted, hypofunctional, hypoproliferative infiltrate.
Ali H, Naresh K, Aqel NM Primary nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma of the palate: a rare incidence which was also associated with progressive transformation of germinal centres of cervical lymph node. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2013; 25(3):161-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary manifestation of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma in oral cavity is very rare. We are describing such a case which was associated with progressive transformation of germinal centres in a cervical lymph node.
Specht L, Yahalom J, Illidge T, et al. Modern radiation therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma: field and dose guidelines from the international lymphoma radiation oncology group (ILROG). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014; 89(4):854-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced by the use of limited volumes, based solely on detectable nodal (and extranodal extension) involvement at presentation, using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of these techniques. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented when their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control. The highly conformal involved node radiation therapy (INRT), recently introduced for patients for whom optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than necessary for disease control in this era of combined modality therapy. The use of INRT and of lower doses in early-stage HL is supported by available data. Although the use of ISRT has not yet been validated in a formal study, it is more conservative than INRT, accounting for suboptimal information and appropriately designed for safe local disease control. The goal of modern smaller field radiation therapy is to reduce both treatment volume and treatment dose while maintaining efficacy and minimizing acute and late sequelae. This review is a consensus of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) Steering Committee regarding the modern approach to RT in the treatment of HL, outlining a new concept of ISRT in which reduced treatment volumes are planned for the effective control of involved sites of HL. Nodal and extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are covered separately by ILROG guidelines.
Greaves P, Clear A, Coutinho R, et al. Expression of FOXP3, CD68, and CD20 at diagnosis in the microenvironment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma is predictive of outcome. J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(2):256-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The immune microenvironment is key to the pathophysiology of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). Twenty percent of patients experience failure of their initial treatment, and others receive excessively toxic treatment. Prognostic scores and biomarkers have yet to influence outcomes significantly. Previous biomarker studies have been limited by the extent of tissue analyzed, statistical inconsistencies, and failure to validate findings. We aimed to overcome these limitations by validating recently identified microenvironment biomarkers (CD68, FOXP3, and CD20) in a new patient cohort with a greater extent of tissue and by using rigorous statistical methodology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Diagnostic tissue from 122 patients with CHL was microarrayed and stained, and positive cells were counted across 10 to 20 high-powered fields per patient by using an automated system. Two statistical analyses were performed: a categorical analysis with test/validation set-defined cut points and Kaplan-Meier estimated outcome measures of 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and freedom from first-line treatment failure (FFTF) and an independent multivariate analysis of absolute uncategorized counts. RESULTS: Increased CD20 expression confers superior OS. Increased FOXP3 expression confers superior OS, and increased CD68 confers inferior FFTF and OS. FOXP3 varies independently of CD68 expression and retains significance when analyzed as a continuous variable in multivariate analysis. A simple score combining FOXP3 and CD68 discriminates three groups: FFTF 93%, 62%, and 47% (P < .001), DSS 93%, 82%, and 63% (P = .03), and OS 93%, 82%, and 59% (P = .002). CONCLUSION: We have independently validated CD68, FOXP3, and CD20 as prognostic biomarkers in CHL, and we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that combining FOXP3 and CD68 may further improve prognostic stratification.
Montoto S, Shaw K, Okosun J, et al. HIV status does not influence outcome in patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma treated with chemotherapy using doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(33):4111-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The prognosis of HIV-infected patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era approaches that of the general population when they are treated with the same protocols. We analyzed the outcome of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) in the HAART era according to HIV serostatus to establish whether this also holds true for HL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2010, 224 patients newly diagnosed with HL, of whom 93 were HIV positive, were consecutively treated with ABVD chemotherapy. HIV-positive patients had more high-risk disease according to the International Prognostic Score (IPS) than HIV-negative patients (IPS≥3: 68% v 26%, respectively; P<.001). Forty-seven HIV-positive patients had a CD4 count less than 200/μL, and 92 patients received HAART during chemotherapy. RESULTS: The complete response rate was 74% for HIV-positive patients and 79% for HIV-negative patients (P=not significant). After a median follow-up of 60 months (range, 8 to 174 months), 23 patients (16 HIV-negative and seven HIV-positive patients) have experienced relapse at a median time of 6 months (range, 1 to 106 months). Five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 59% (95% CI, 47% to 70%) for HIV-positive patients and 66% (95% CI, 57% to 74%) for HIV-negative patients (P=not significant). Five-year overall survival (OS) was 81% (95% CI, 69% to 89%) and 88% (95% CI, 80% to 93%) for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, respectively (P=not significant). HIV status did not predict OS or EFS on multivariate analysis including IPS and HIV status. CONCLUSION: This mature study demonstrates that HIV-positive patients with HL have more extensive disease with more adverse prognostic factors than HIV-negative patients, but when treated with ABVD, HIV infection does not adversely affect OS or EFS.
Yeoh KW, Mikhaeel NG Are we ready for positron emission tomography/computed tomography-based target volume definition in lymphoma radiation therapy? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013; 85(1):14-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has become indispensable for the clinical management of lymphomas. With consistent evidence that it is more accurate than anatomic imaging in the staging and response assessment of many lymphoma subtypes, its utility continues to increase. There have therefore been efforts to incorporate PET/CT data into radiation therapy decision making and in the planning process. Further, there have also been studies investigating target volume definition for radiation therapy using PET/CT data. This article will critically review the literature and ongoing studies on the above topics, examining the value and methods of adding PET/CT data to the radiation therapy treatment algorithm. We will also discuss the various challenges and the areas where more evidence is required.
Proctor SJ, Wilkinson J, Jones G, et al. Evaluation of treatment outcome in 175 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma aged 60 years or over: the SHIELD study. Blood. 2012; 119(25):6005-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
The SHIELD program for Hodgkin lymphoma in patients 60 years of age or older, prospectively evaluated clinical features and outcome in a large patient cohort (n = 175). The central element was a phase 2 study of VEPEMB chemotherapy (n = 103, median age 73 years) incorporating comorbidity assessment. A total of 72 other patients were treated off-study but registered prospectively and treated concurrently with: ABVD (n = 35); CLVPP (n = 19), or other (n = 18). Of VEPEMB patients, 31 had early-stage disease (stage 1A/2A) and received VEPEMB 3 times plus radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 36 months. Complete remission (CR) rate (intention-to-treat) was 74% and 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 81% and 74%, respectively. A total of 72 patients had advanced-stage disease (stage 1B/2B/3 or 4) and received VEPEMB 6 times. CR rate was 61% with 3-year OS and PFS of 66% and 58%, respectively. Of patients achieving CR, 13% with early-stage and 5% with advanced-stage disease progressed. Overall treatment-related mortality was 7%. In patients treated with curative intent with VEPEMB, ABVD, and CLVPP (n = 157), CR linked to several factors in univariate analysis. In a Cox regression model only, obtaining CR remained significant for OS and CR plus comorbidity and age for PFS. RS-EBV status had no significant effect on outcome.