Gene Summary

Gene:CAMTA1; calmodulin binding transcription activator 1
Aliases: CANPMR
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:calmodulin-binding transcription activator 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cervical Cancer
  • Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 3
  • Brain Tumours
  • Gene Fusion
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • FISH
  • Gene Deletion
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Chromosome 1
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid
  • Brain Tumours
  • Mutation
  • Tumor Markers
  • Translocation
  • Young Adult
  • Expressed Sequence Tags
  • CAMTA1
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Gene Dosage
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Adolescents
  • Neuroblastoma
  • CD Antigens
  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Proteins
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Cancer DNA
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Gene Expression Profiling
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CAMTA1 (cancer-related)

Puls F, Niblett A, Clarke J, et al.
YAP1-TFE3 epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a case without vasoformation and a new transcript variant.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(4):473-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor of borderline malignancy characterized by recurrent WWTR1-CAMTA1 gene fusions in approximately 90 % of cases. In addition, a recurrent YAP1-TFE3 gene fusion has been identified in WWTR1-CAMTA1 negative epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas. This subset has been reported as having a distinct morphology with more obvious vasoformation, voluminous eosinophilic cytoplasm, and TFE3 positivity on immunohistochemistry. We report a case of a YAP1-TFE3 translocated epithelioid hemangioendothelioma arising in a groin lymph node in a 29-year-old male. Plump spindle cell morphology and absence of vasoformation made correct diagnosis particularly difficult. Immunohistochemistry showed nuclear positivity for both ERG and TFE3, fluorescence in situ hybridization showed break apart for TFE3 and RT-PCR identified a YAP1 exon1 to TFE3 exon 6 transcript, a previously unreported fusion variant. Awareness of this solid morphology and variant fusion will aid in identification of future cases of this rare vascular tumor.

Anderson T, Zhang L, Hameed M, et al.
Thoracic epithelioid malignant vascular tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 52 cases with emphasis on pathologic grading and molecular studies of WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusions.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(1):132-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant thoracic epithelioid vascular tumors are an uncommon and heterogenous group of tumors that include low-grade to intermediate-grade epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) and high-grade epithelioid angiosarcoma (EAS). We examine the morphologic and immunohistochemical features of 52 malignant epithelioid vascular tumors (10 low-grade EHE, 29 intermediate-grade EHE, and 13 EAS) involving the thorax (lung, pleura, mediastinum, heart, great vessels) including cases with exclusively thoracic disease (35) and with multiorgan disease including the thorax (17). Intermediate-grade EHE differs from low-grade EHE by the presence of necrosis, increased mitotic activity, and increased atypia. Morphologic features such as intranuclear inclusions, intracytoplasmic vacuoles, and stromal changes (chondroid, myxoid, or hyalinized stroma) are seen more frequently in EHE, whereas blood lakes, proliferation of slit-like vessels, and prominent nucleoli favor EAS. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed CAMTA1-WWTR1 fusions in 4/7 low-grade and 23/23 intermediate-grade EHE (P<0.001). In EAS, CAMTA1 rearrangement was negative in all cases, whereas a WWTR1 complex abnormality was found in 1/5 cases (P<0.001). This offers an objective means of differentiating intermediate-grade EHE from EAS, especially on limited biopsies. All cases show expression of at least 1 vascular marker, which allows differentiation from primary thoracic epithelial malignancies, although keratin expression is a potential pitfall with 29% of EHE and 25% of EAS showing keratin expression. Survival analysis shows that higher tumor grade for all tumors (P=0.026) as well as lung and pleural tumors only (P=0.010) and the presence of pleural involvement in lung and/or pleural tumors (P=0.042) correlate with poor prognosis.

Yusıflı Z, Kösemehmetoğlu K
CAMTA1 immunostaining is not useful in differentiating epithelioid hemangioendothelioma from its potential mimickers.
Turk Patoloji Derg. 2014; 30(3):159-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare member of vascular tumors of intermediate malignancy. Recently, presence of t(1;3) translocation and WWTR1/CAMTA1 gene fusion, which enhances CAMTA1 expression, are found to be specific to this tumor. We investigated the CAMTA1 immune expression profile of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and its potential mimickers using a commercially available CAMTA1 antibody.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: Standard whole sections from the formalin fixed, paraffin embedded blocks of 12 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, 10 angiosarcomas, 9 epithelioid sarcomas, 8 malignant melanomas, 8 signet ring carcinomas, 7 lobular carcinomas of breast, 2 epithelioid mesotheliomas, 2 rhabdoid tumors and 12 miscellaneous hemangiomas were immunostained for anti-CAMTA1 (ab64119, 1:200; Abcam) after pretreatment with citrate pH 6.0 for 20 minutes using Leica Bond detection kit with DAB chromogen. Strong nuclear CAMTA1 expression was scored for its extent as 'negative' ( < 5% positive), '+1' (5-25% positive), '2+' (25-50% positive) and '3+' ( > 50% positive).
RESULTS: In 60 out of 70 cases (86%) either 2+ or 3+ strong nuclear staining was seen. Eighty-three % of epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, 100% of angiosarcomas, 89% of epithelioid sarcomas, 89% of malignant melanomas, 63% of signet ring carcinomas, 71% of lobular carcinomas of breast, 100% of epithelioid mesotheliomas, 50% of rhabdoid tumors and 100% of hemangiomas were stained. Besides neurons, CAMTA1 expression was also observed in squamous epithelium, skin adnexa, breast lobules, prostate glands, bile ducts, colonic mucosa and gastric pits.
CONCLUSION: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, its potential morphological mimickers and other benign or malignant vascular tumors showed strong and diffuse CAMTA1 expression, nullifying the potential use of CAMTA1 immunohistochemistry as an adjunct in the differential diagnosis.

Flucke U, Vogels RJ, de Saint Aubain Somerhausen N, et al.
Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma: clinicopathologic, immunhistochemical, and molecular genetic analysis of 39 cases.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:131 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a malignant, often indolent vascular tumor which occurs at various anatomic sites. Based on a reciprocal translocation t (1;3)(p36;q25), a consistent WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion gene has been found. An alternate YAP1-TFE3 fusion has been detected in a small and distinct subset of cases.
METHODS: Thirty-nine tumors, from 24 females and 15 males with an age range 9-85 years, were located in soft tissue (head and neck [8], trunk [5], upper extremities [3], lower extremities [2], mediastinal [1], and paratesticular [1]), lymph node (1), breast (1), skin (2), bone (6), lung (7), and liver (2). The cases were investigated using a panel of immunohistochemical markers. The aforementioned fusion-genes were examined using RT-PCR and/or FISH in order to validate their diagnostic value.
RESULTS: Follow-up available for 17 patients ranged from 3 months to 7 years (median interval 1.5 years). Eleven patients were alive without disease, 2 patients were alive with disease after 1.5 and 2 years, respectively. Four patients died of disease after 4 months (n = 1), 5 months (n = 2), and 1.5 years (n = 1).The size, known for 30 lesions, was >3 cm in 9 of them. Histologically, all lesions had classical features, at least focally. Four tumors counted >3 mitoses/50 HPF. Immunohistochemically, all cases tested stained positive for ERG (21), FLI1 (5) and CD31 (39). CD34 and D2-40 positivity was seen in 81% and 71% of the examined cases, respectively. 11/35 cases expressed pan-keratin and 6/20 cases CK8.18. TFE3 showed a nuclear reaction in 21/24 cases, irrespective of TFE3 rearrangement.Molecular genetically, 35/35 cases revealed one of the fusion genes by FISH and/or RT-PCR with WWTR1-CAMTA1 in 33 cases and YAP1-TFE3 in 2 cases.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the high diagnostic value of FISH and RT-PCR in detecting the fusion genes of EHE. The immunohistochemical utility of TFE3 appears questionable in this study.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:

Ha SY, Choi IH, Han J, et al.
Pleural epithelioid hemangioendothelioma harboring CAMTA1 rearrangement.
Lung Cancer. 2014; 83(3):411-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pleural epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a very rare disease with adverse clinical outcomes. Recently, CAMTA1 rearrangement has been introduced as a consistent genetic abnormality in EHEs of different anatomical locations. We report a 71-year-old man with pleural EHE harboring CAMTA1 rearrangement confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization on paraffin embedded tissue.

Antonescu C
Malignant vascular tumors--an update.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27 Suppl 1:S30-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although benign hemangiomas are among the most common diagnoses amid connective tissue tumors, sarcomas showing endothelial differentiation (ie, angiosarcoma and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma) represent under 1% of all sarcoma diagnoses, and thus it is likely that fewer than 500 people in the United States are affected each year. Differential diagnosis of malignant vascular tumors can be often quite challenging, either at the low end of the spectrum, distinguishing an epithelioid hemangioendothelioma from an epithelioid hemangioma, or at the high-grade end of the spectrum, between an angiosarcoma and a malignant epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. Within this differential diagnosis both clinico-radiological features (ie, size and multifocality) and immunohistochemical markers (ie, expression of endothelial markers) are often similar and cannot distinguish between benign and malignant vascular lesions. Molecular ancillary tests have long been needed for a more objective diagnosis and classification of malignant vascular tumors, particularly within the epithelioid phenotype. As significant advances have been recently made in understanding the genetic signatures of vascular tumors, this review will take the opportunity to provide a detailed update on these findings. Specifically, this article will focus on the following aspects: (1) pathological and molecular features of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, including the more common WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion, as well as the recently described YAP1-TFE3 fusion, identified in a morphological variant of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma; (2) discuss the heterogeneity of angiosarcoma clinical, morphological and genetic spectrum, with particular emphasis of MYC and FLT4 gene amplification in radiation-induced angiosarcoma; and (3) provide a practical guide in the differential diagnosis of epithelioid vascular tumors using molecular testing.

Lee SE, Park HY, Kim S, et al.
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with extensive cystic change and CAMTA1 rearrangement.
Pathol Int. 2013; 63(10):502-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular neoplasm that has the ability to recur locally and metastasize. Thus, it is important to distinguish this tumor from other epithelioid vascular neoplasms. A 47-year-old man presented to our hospital with a pelvic mass with severe ischialgia and weight loss. Surgical resection was performed, and the mass was found to have dark red multiloculated cysts with hemorrhage and calcification. The histopathologic examination showed a central sclerotic, hypocellular zone and a peripheral cellular zone. Only the peripheral portion of the wall revealed nested tumor cells in light blue myxoid stroma. These tumors are typically composed of short strands or cords of bland epithelioid cells with occasional intracytoplasmic lumens embedded in a myxohyalinized stroma. The tumor cells were positive for CD31 and CD34 and negative for factor VIII-related antigen, CK (AE1/AE3) and S-100. The tumor nuclei showed distinct break-apart signals with individual green and/or red signals, indicating the presence of CAMTA1 rearrangement. In this study, we report a case of EHE that was difficult to diagnose based on histology alone. Therefore, we also performed fluorescence in situ hybridization, and found that the tumor harbored a CAMTA1 gene rearrangement, which confirmed the diagnosis.

Bochenek G, Häsler R, El Mokhtari NE, et al.
The large non-coding RNA ANRIL, which is associated with atherosclerosis, periodontitis and several forms of cancer, regulates ADIPOR1, VAMP3 and C11ORF10.
Hum Mol Genet. 2013; 22(22):4516-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
The long non-coding RNA ANRIL is the best replicated genetic risk locus of coronary artery disease (CAD) and periodontitis (PD), and is independently associated with a variety of other immune-mediated and metabolic disorders and several forms of cancer. Recent studies showed a correlation of decreased concentrations of proximal ANRIL transcripts with homozygous carriership of the CAD and PD main risk alleles. To elucidate the relation of these transcripts to disease manifestation, we constructed a short hairpin RNA in a stable inducible knock-down system of T-Rex 293 HEK cell lines, specifically targeting the proximal transcripts EU741058 and DQ485454. By genome-wide expression profiling using Affymetrix HG1.0 ST Arrays, we identified the transcription of ADIPOR1, VAMP3 and C11ORF10 to be correlated with decreased ANRIL expression in a time-dependent manner. We validated these findings on a transcriptional and translational level in different cell types. Exploration of the identified genes for the presence of disease associated variants, using Affymetrix 500K genotyping and Illumina custom genotyping arrays, highlighted a region upstream of VAMP3 within CAMTA1 to be associated with increased risk of CAD [rs10864294 P = 0.015, odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-1.6, 1471 cases, 2737 controls] and aggressive PD (AgP; P = 0.008, OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6, 864 cases, 3664 controls). In silico replication in a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of CAD of the CARDIoGRAM Consortium identified rs2301462, located on the same haplotype block, as associated with P = 0.001 upon adjustment for sex and age. Our results give evidence that specific isoforms of ANRIL regulate key genes of glucose and fatty acid metabolism.

Antonescu CR, Le Loarer F, Mosquera JM, et al.
Novel YAP1-TFE3 fusion defines a distinct subset of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(8):775-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Conventional epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas (EHE) have a distinctive morphologic appearance and are characterized by a recurrent t(1;3) translocation, resulting in a WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion gene. We have recently encountered a fusion-negative subset characterized by a somewhat different morphology, including focally well-formed vasoformative features, which was further investigated for recurrent genetic abnormalities. Based on a case showing strong transcription factor E3 (TFE3) immunoreactivity, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for TFE3 gene rearrangement was applied to the index case as well as to nine additional cases, selected through negative WWTR1-CAMTA1 screening. A control group, including 18 epithelioid hemangiomas, nine pseudomyogenic HE, and three epithelioid angiosarcomas, was also tested. TFE3 gene rearrangement was identified in 10 patients, with equal gender distribution and a mean age of 30 years old. The lesions were located in somatic soft tissue in six cases, lung in three and one in bone. One case with available frozen tissue was tested by RNA sequencing and FusionSeq data analysis to detect novel fusions. A YAP1-TFE3 fusion was thus detected, which was further validated by FISH and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). YAP1 gene rearrangements were then confirmed in seven of the remaining nine TFE3-rearranged EHEs by FISH. No TFE3 structural abnormalities were detected in any of the controls. The TFE3-rearranged EHEs showed similar morphologic features with at least focally, well-formed vascular channels, in addition to a variably solid architecture. All tumors expressed endothelial markers, as well as strong nuclear TFE3. In summary, we are reporting a novel subset of EHE occurring in young adults, showing a distinct phenotype and YAP1-TFE3 fusions.

Baronchelli S, Bentivegna A, Redaelli S, et al.
Delineating the cytogenomic and epigenomic landscapes of glioma stem cell lines.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e57462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and malignant type of glioma, is characterized by a poor prognosis and the lack of an effective treatment, which are due to a small sub-population of cells with stem-like properties, termed glioma stem cells (GSCs). The term "multiforme" describes the histological features of this tumor, that is, the cellular and morphological heterogeneity. At the molecular level multiple layers of alterations may reflect this heterogeneity providing together the driving force for tumor initiation and development. In order to decipher the common "signature" of the ancestral GSC population, we examined six already characterized GSC lines evaluating their cytogenomic and epigenomic profiles through a multilevel approach (conventional cytogenetic, FISH, aCGH, MeDIP-Chip and functional bioinformatic analysis). We found several canonical cytogenetic alterations associated with GBM and a common minimal deleted region (MDR) at 1p36.31, including CAMTA1 gene, a putative tumor suppressor gene, specific for the GSC population. Therefore, on one hand our data confirm a role of driver mutations for copy number alterations (CNAs) included in the GBM genomic-signature (gain of chromosome 7- EGFR gene, loss of chromosome 13- RB1 gene, loss of chromosome 10-PTEN gene); on the other, it is not obvious that the new identified CNAs are passenger mutations, as they may be necessary for tumor progression specific for the individual patient. Through our approach, we were able to demonstrate that not only individual genes into a pathway can be perturbed through multiple mechanisms and at different levels, but also that different combinations of perturbed genes can incapacitate functional modules within a cellular networks. Therefore, beyond the differences that can create apparent heterogeneity of alterations among GSC lines, there's a sort of selective force acting on them in order to converge towards the impairment of cell development and differentiation processes. This new overview could have a huge importance in therapy.

Henrich KO, Schwab M, Westermann F
1p36 tumor suppression--a matter of dosage?
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(23):6079-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
A broad range of human malignancies is associated with nonrandom 1p36 deletions, suggesting the existence of tumor suppressors encoded in this region. Evidence for tumor-specific inactivation of 1p36 genes in the classic "two-hit" manner is scarce; however, many tumor suppressors do not require complete inactivation but contribute to tumorigenesis by partial impairment. We discuss recent data derived from both human tumors and functional cancer models indicating that the 1p36 genes CHD5, CAMTA1, KIF1B, CASZ1, and miR-34a contribute to cancer development when reduced in dosage by genomic copy number loss or other mechanisms. We explore potential interactions among these candidates and propose a model where heterozygous 1p36 deletion impairs oncosuppressive pathways via simultaneous downregulation of several dosage-dependent tumor suppressor genes.

Asgharzadeh S, Salo JA, Ji L, et al.
Clinical significance of tumor-associated inflammatory cells in metastatic neuroblastoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(28):3525-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Children diagnosed at age ≥ 18 months with metastatic MYCN-nonamplified neuroblastoma (NBL-NA) are at high risk for disease relapse, whereas those diagnosed at age < 18 months are nearly always cured. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that expression of genes related to tumor-associated inflammatory cells correlates with the observed differences in survival by age at diagnosis and contributes to a prognostic signature.
METHODS: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in localized and metastatic neuroblastomas (n = 71) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of 44 genes representing tumor and inflammatory cells was quantified in 133 metastatic NBL-NAs to assess age-dependent expression and to develop a logistic regression model to provide low- and high-risk scores for predicting progression-free survival (PFS). Tumors from high-risk patients enrolled onto two additional studies (n = 91) served as independent validation cohorts.
RESULTS: Metastatic neuroblastomas had higher infiltration of TAMs than locoregional tumors, and metastatic tumors diagnosed in patients at age ≥ 18 months had higher expression of inflammation-related genes than those in patients diagnosed at age < 18 months. Expression of genes representing TAMs (CD33/CD16/IL6R/IL10/FCGR3) contributed to 25% of the accuracy of a novel 14-gene tumor classification score. PFS at 5 years for children diagnosed at age ≥ 18 months with NBL-NA with a low- versus high-risk score was 47% versus 12%, 57% versus 8%, and 50% versus 20% in three independent clinical trials, respectively.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that interactions between tumor and inflammatory cells may contribute to the clinical metastatic neuroblastoma phenotype, improve prognostication, and reveal novel therapeutic targets.

Errani C, Zhang L, Panicek DM, et al.
Epithelioid hemangioma of bone and soft tissue: a reappraisal of a controversial entity.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012; 470(5):1498-506 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The controversy surrounding diagnosis of an epithelioid hemangioma (EH), particularly when arising in skeletal locations, stems not only from its overlapping features with other malignant vascular neoplasms, but also from its somewhat aggressive clinical characteristics, including multifocal presentation and occasional lymph node involvement. Specifically, the distinction from epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) has been controversial. The recurrent t(1;3)(p36;q25) chromosomal translocation, resulting in WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion, recently identified in EHE of various anatomic sites, but not in EH or other epithelioid vascular neoplasms, suggests distinct pathogeneses.
QUESTION/PURPOSES: We investigated the clinicopathologic and radiologic characteristics of bone and soft tissue EHs in patients treated at our institution with available tissue for molecular testing.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients were selected after confirming the pathologic diagnosis and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for the WWTR1 and/or CAMTA1 rearrangements. Four patients had multifocal presentation. Most patients with EH of bone were treated by intralesional curettage. None of the patients died of disease and only four patients had a local recurrence.
RESULTS: Our results, using molecular testing to support the pathologic diagnosis of EH, reinforce prior data that EH is a benign lesion characterized by an indolent clinical course with an occasional multifocal presentation and rare metastatic potential to locoregional lymph nodes.
CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing EH from other malignant epithelioid vascular tumors as a result of differences in their management and clinical outcome.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Tanas MR, Sboner A, Oliveira AM, et al.
Identification of a disease-defining gene fusion in epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.
Sci Transl Med. 2011; 3(98):98ra82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Integrating transcriptomic sequencing with conventional cytogenetics, we identified WWTR1 (WW domain-containing transcription regulator 1) (3q25) and CAMTA1 (calmodulin-binding transcription activator 1) (1p36) as the two genes involved in the t(1;3)(p36;q25) chromosomal translocation that is characteristic of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), a vascular sarcoma. This WWTR1/CAMTA1 gene fusion is under the transcriptional control of the WWTR1 promoter and encodes a putative chimeric transcription factor that joins the amino terminus of WWTR1, a protein that is highly expressed in endothelial cells, in-frame to the carboxyl terminus of CAMTA1, a protein that is normally expressed only in brain. Thus, CAMTA1 expression is activated inappropriately through a promoter-switch mechanism. The gene fusion is present in virtually all EHEs tested but is absent from all other vascular neoplasms, demonstrating it to be a disease-defining genetic alteration. A sensitive and specific break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization assay was also developed to detect the translocation and will assist in the evaluation of this diagnostically challenging neoplasm. The chimeric WWTR1/CAMTA1 transcription factor may represent a therapeutic target for EHE and offers the opportunity to shed light on the functions of two poorly characterized proteins.

Schraivogel D, Weinmann L, Beier D, et al.
CAMTA1 is a novel tumour suppressor regulated by miR-9/9* in glioblastoma stem cells.
EMBO J. 2011; 30(20):4309-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer stem cells or cancer initiating cells are believed to contribute to cancer recurrence after therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules with fundamental roles in gene regulation. The role of miRNAs in cancer stem cells is only poorly understood. Here, we report miRNA expression profiles of glioblastoma stem cell-containing CD133(+) cell populations. We find that miR-9, miR-9(*) (referred to as miR-9/9(*)), miR-17 and miR-106b are highly abundant in CD133(+) cells. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-9/9(*) or miR-17 leads to reduced neurosphere formation and stimulates cell differentiation. Calmodulin-binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1) is a putative transcription factor, which induces the expression of the anti-proliferative cardiac hormone natriuretic peptide A (NPPA). We identify CAMTA1 as an miR-9/9(*) and miR-17 target. CAMTA1 expression leads to reduced neurosphere formation and tumour growth in nude mice, suggesting that CAMTA1 can function as tumour suppressor. Consistently, CAMTA1 and NPPA expression correlate with patient survival. Our findings could provide a basis for novel strategies of glioblastoma therapy.

Errani C, Zhang L, Sung YS, et al.
A novel WWTR1-CAMTA1 gene fusion is a consistent abnormality in epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of different anatomic sites.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011; 50(8):644-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The classification of epithelioid vascular tumors remains challenging, as there is considerable morphological overlap between tumor subtypes, across the spectrum from benign to malignant categories. A t(1;3)(p36.3;q25) translocation was reported in two cases of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), however, no follow-up studies have been performed to identify the gene fusion or to assess its prevalence in a larger cohort of patients. We undertook a systematic molecular analysis of 17 EHE, characterized by classic morphological and immunophenotypic features, from various anatomical locations and with different malignant potential. For comparison, we analyzed 13 epithelioid hemangiomas, five epithelioid angiosarcomas, and four epithelioid sarcoma-like EHE. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) positional cloning strategy, spanning the cytogenetically defined regions on chromosomes 1p36.3 and 3q25, confirmed rearrangements in two candidate genes from these loci in all EHE cases tested. None of the other benign or malignant epithelioid vascular tumors examined demonstrated these abnormalities. Subsequent reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed in three EHE the WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion product. CAMTA1 and WWTR1 have been previously shown to play important roles in oncogenesis. Our results demonstrate the presence of a WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion in all EHE tested from bone, soft tissue, and visceral location (liver, lung) in keeping with a unique and specific pathological entity. Thus, FISH or RT-PCR analysis for the presence of WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion may serve as a useful molecular diagnostic tool in challenging diagnoses.

Henrich KO, Bauer T, Schulte J, et al.
CAMTA1, a 1p36 tumor suppressor candidate, inhibits growth and activates differentiation programs in neuroblastoma cells.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(8):3142-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
A distal portion of human chromosome 1p is often deleted in neuroblastomas and other cancers and it is generally assumed that this region harbors one or more tumor suppressor genes. In neuroblastoma, a 261 kb region at 1p36.3 that encompasses the smallest region of consistent deletion pinpoints the locus for calmodulin binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1). Low CAMTA1 expression is an independent predictor of poor outcome in multivariate survival analysis, but its potential functionality in neuroblastoma has not been explored. In this study, we used inducible cell models to analyze the impact of CAMTA1 on neuroblastoma biology. In neuroblastoma cells that expressed little endogenous CAMTA1, its ectopic expression slowed cell proliferation, increasing the relative proportion of cells in G(1)/G(0) phases of the cell cycle, inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation, and suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts. CAMTA1 also induced neurite-like processes and markers of neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma cells. Further, retinoic acid and other differentiation- inducing stimuli upregulated CAMTA1 expression in neuroblastoma cells. Transciptome analysis revealed 683 genes regulated on CAMTA1 induction and gene ontology analysis identified genes consistent with CAMTA1-induced phenotypes, with a significant enrichment for genes involved in neuronal function and differentiation. Our findings define properties of CAMTA1 in growth suppression and neuronal differentiation that support its assignment as a 1p36 tumor suppressor gene in neuroblastoma.

Isidor B, Le Cunff M, Boceno M, et al.
Complex constitutional subtelomeric 1p36.3 deletion/duplication in a mentally retarded child with neonatal neuroblastoma.
Eur J Med Genet. 2008 Nov-Dec; 51(6):679-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monosomy 1p36 is one of the most frequent subtelomeric microdeletion syndromes characterized by distinct craniofacial features and developmental delay/mental retardation. Other common symptoms include hypotonia, seizures, brain abnormalities, visual, auditory and heart defects. Neuroblastoma is a rare feature since to our knowledge only two patients with "pure" 1p36 deletion have been described. We report on a child with developmental delay and facial dysmorphy who developed neuroblastoma at 1 month of age. No primary site outside of the liver could be demonstrated and the tumour regressed spontaneously. Standard karyotyping was normal while subtelomeric screening using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) method revealed a constitutional de novo subtelomeric 1p36 deletion. Subsequent Agilent 244K oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed a complex 1p36.3 deletion/duplication rearrangement. Among the best candidate genes predisposing to the development of neuroblastoma located in 1p36, the AJAP1 gene is the only gene present in the duplication while CHD5, TNFRSF25 and CAMTA1 are located outside of the rearrangement. Therefore, a gene-dosage effect involving a gene located in the duplication including AJAP1 might explain the neuroblastoma observed in our patient. The rearrangement might equally interfere with the expression of a gene located outside of it (including CHD5 located 1Mb away from the rearrangement) playing a role in the tumorigenesis. In conclusion, this study illustrates the complexity of such rearrangement characterized by array CGH and strengthens that constitutional 1p36.3 rearrangement predisposes to the development of neuroblastoma.

Okawa ER, Gotoh T, Manne J, et al.
Expression and sequence analysis of candidates for the 1p36.31 tumor suppressor gene deleted in neuroblastomas.
Oncogene. 2008; 27(6):803-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroblastomas are characterized by 1p deletions, suggesting that a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) resides in this region. We have mapped the smallest region of deletion (SRD) to a 2 Mb region of 1p36.31 using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms. We have identified 23 genes in this region, and we have analysed these genes for mutations and RNA expression patterns to identify candidate TSGs. We sequenced the coding exons of these genes in 30 neuroblastoma cell lines. Although rare mutations were found in 10 of the 23 genes, none showed a pattern of genetic change consistent with homozygous inactivation. We examined the expression of these 23 genes in 20 neuroblastoma cell lines, and most showed readily detectable expression, and no correlation with 1p deletion. However, 7 genes showed uniformly low expression in the lines, and 2 genes (CHD5, RNF207) had virtually absent expression, consistent with the expected pattern for a TSG. Our mutation and expression analysis in neuroblastoma cell lines, combined with expression analysis in normal tissues, putative function and prior implication in neuroblastoma pathogenesis, suggests that the most promising TSG deleted from the 1p36 SRD is CHD5, but TNFRSF25, CAMTA1 and AJAP1 are also viable candidates.

Gong P, Han J, Reddig K, Li HS
A potential dimerization region of dCAMTA is critical for termination of fly visual response.
J Biol Chem. 2007; 282(29):21253-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CAMTAs are a group of Ca(2+)/calmodulin binding transcription activators that are implicated in brain tumor suppression, cardiac hypertrophy, and plant sensory responses. The sole fly CAMTA, dCAMTA, stimulates expression of an F-box gene, dFbxl4, to potentiate rhodopsin deactivation, which enables rapid termination of fly visual responses. Here we report that a dCAMTA fragment associated with a full-length protein in co-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The interaction site was mapped to a region within the DNA-binding CG-1 domain. With this potential dimerization site mutated, the full-length dCAMTA had defective nuclear localization. In transgenic flies, this mutant dCAMTA variant failed to stimulate expression of dFbxl4 and rescue the slow termination of light response phenotype of a dCAMTA null mutant fly. Our data suggest that dCAMTA may function as a dimer during fly visual regulation and that the CG-1 domain may mediate dimerization of CAMTA transcription factors.

Henrich KO, Claas A, Praml C, et al.
Allelic variants of CAMTA1 and FLJ10737 within a commonly deleted region at 1p36 in neuroblastoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2007; 43(3):607-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletion of a distal portion of 1p is seen in a wide range of human malignancies, including neuroblastoma. Here, a 1p36.3 commonly deleted region of 216 kb has been defined encompassing two genes, CAMTA1 and FLJ10737. Low expression of CAMTA1 has been recently shown to be an independent predictor of poor outcome in neuroblastoma patients. The present study surveys CAMTA1 and FLJ10737 for genetic alterations by fluorescence-based single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) using a panel of DNAs from 88 neuroblastomas, their matching blood samples and 97 unaffected individuals. Nucleotide variants encoding amino acid substitutions were found in both genes. One CAMTA1 variant (T1336I) was not detected in 97 unaffected individuals, another (N1177K) resides in a conserved domain of the CAMTA1 protein and was found hemizygous in six neuroblastomas. We found no evidence for somatic mutations in FLJ10737 or CAMTA1. Further investigations are needed to address the functional impact of the identified variants and their possible significance for neuroblastoma.

Kim MY, Yim SH, Kwon MS, et al.
Recurrent genomic alterations with impact on survival in colorectal cancer identified by genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization.
Gastroenterology. 2006; 131(6):1913-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although genetic aspects of tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC) have been well studied, reliable biomarkers predicting prognosis are scarce. We aimed to identify recurrently altered genomic regions (RAR) in CRC with high resolution, to investigate their implications on survival and to explore novel cancer-related genes in prognosis-associated RARs.
METHODS: A 1-Mb resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was applied to 59 CRCs. RARs, defined as genomic alterations, detected in more than 10 cases were identified and analyzed for their association with survival. Expression levels of genes in prognosis-associated RARs were examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Twenty-seven RARs were identified. Eleven high-level amplifications and 2 homozygous deletions also were detected, but they were not as common as RARs. Multivariate analysis revealed RAR-L1 (loss on 1p36; hazard ratio = 8.15, P = .002) and RAR-L20 (loss on 21q22; hazard ratio = 3.53, P = .034) are independent indicators of poor prognosis. Expression of CAMTA1, located in RAR-L1, was reduced frequently in CRCs, and low CAMTA1 expression was associated significantly with poor prognosis, which indicates that CAMTA1 may play a role as a tumor suppressor in CRC. Five pairs of RARs were correlated significantly to each other and 3 pairs share genes involved in the same biological functions, suggesting possible collaborative roles in tumorigenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified recurrent genomic changes in 59 CRCs. RARs could be more important in sporadic tumors where the effect of genomic changes on tumorigenesis is relatively smaller than in familial cancer. Our results and analysis strategy will be helpful to elucidate pathogenesis of CRCs or to develop biomarkers for predicting prognosis.

Henrich KO, Fischer M, Mertens D, et al.
Reduced expression of CAMTA1 correlates with adverse outcome in neuroblastoma patients.
Clin Cancer Res. 2006; 12(1):131-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A distal portion of 1p is frequently deleted in human neuroblastomas, and it is generally assumed that this region harbors at least one gene relevant for neuroblastoma development. A 1p36.3 commonly deleted region, bordered by D1S2731 and D1S214 has been defined. The present study surveys whether expression of genes mapping to this region is associated with tumor behavior.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Candidate genes localized within the deleted region were identified by sequence data analysis. Their expression was assessed in a cohort of 49 primary neuroblastomas using cDNA microarray analysis. Gene expression patterns associated with known prognostic markers and patient outcome were further evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in a cohort of 102 neuroblastomas.
RESULTS: The commonly deleted region spans 261 kb and encompasses two genes, FLJ10737 and CAMTA1. We found no evidence for an association of FLJ10737 expression with established prognostic variables or outcome. In contrast, low CAMTA1 expression characterized tumors with 1p deletion, MYCN amplification, and advanced tumor stages 3 and 4. Moreover, low CAMTA1 expression was significantly associated with poor outcome (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis of event-free survival, the prognostic information of low CAMTA1 expression was independent of 1p status, MYCN status, tumor stage, and age of the patient at diagnosis (hazard ratio, 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-10.28; P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that assessment of CAMTA1 expression may improve the prognostic models for neuroblastoma and that it will be important to define the biological function of CAMTA1 in this disease.

Barbashina V, Salazar P, Holland EC, et al.
Allelic losses at 1p36 and 19q13 in gliomas: correlation with histologic classification, definition of a 150-kb minimal deleted region on 1p36, and evaluation of CAMTA1 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene.
Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11(3):1119-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Allelic loss at 1p is seen in 70% to 85% of oligodendrogliomas (typically in association with 19q allelic loss) and 20-30% of astrocytomas. Because most 1p deletions in gliomas involve almost the entire chromosome arm, narrowing the region of the putative tumor suppressor gene has been difficult. To better define the histologic correlates of different patterns of 1p and 19q loss, we evaluated 1p/19q status in a large group of gliomas. This also allowed us to define a very small minimal deleted region (MDR) on 1p36.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Among 205 consecutive cases of glioma studied for 1p loss of heterozygosity (LOH), 112 tumors were evaluated for both 1p and 19q LOH using at least three polymorphic markers on 1p and 19q each. The latter group included both low-grade tumors (oligodendroglioma, diffuse astrocytoma, and "oligoastrocytoma") and high-grade tumors (anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligoastrocytomas). Tumors with small segmental 1p losses (defined as LOH at some loci with retention of heterozygosity at other loci) were studied using a more extensive panel of markers to define the 1p MDR. The candidate gene was screened for mutations and its expression was studied by qualitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and Northern blotting.
RESULTS: Allelic losses on 1p and 19q, either separately or combined, were more common in classic oligodendrogliomas than in either astrocytomas or oligoastrocytomas (P < 0.0001). Classic oligodendrogliomas showed 1p loss in 35 of 42 (83%) cases, 19q loss in 28 of 39 (72%), and these were combined in 27 of 39 (69%) cases. There was no significant difference in 1p/19q LOH status between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. In contrast, no astrocytomas and only 6 of 30 (20%) oligoastrocytic tumors had combined 1p/19q loss. Although rare, 1p deletions were more often segmental in astrocytomas (5 of 6, 83%) than in oligodendrogliomas (3 of 35, 9%; P = 0.006). Eleven tumors (6 oligodendrogliomas or having oligodendroglial components, 5 purely astrocytic) with small segmental 1p losses underwent further detailed LOH mapping. All informative tumors in the oligodendroglial group and 2 of 3 informative astrocytomas showed LOH at 1p36.23, with a 150-kb MDR located between D1S2694 and D1S2666, entirely within the CAMTA1 transcription factor gene. Mutation analysis of the exons encoding conserved regions of CAMTA1 showed no somatic mutations in 10 gliomas, including 6 cases with and 4 cases without 1p LOH. CAMTA1 is normally expressed predominantly in non-neoplastic adult brain tissue. Relative to the latter, the expression level of CAMTA1 was low in oligodendroglial tumors and was further halved in cases with 1p deletion compared with those without 1p deletion (Mann-Whitney, P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the strong association of combined 1p/19q loss with classic oligodendroglioma histology and identify a very small segment of 1p36 located within CAMTA1 that was deleted in all oligodendroglial tumors with 1p LOH. This MDR also overlaps the neuroblastoma 1p36 MDR. CAMTA1 shows no evidence of inactivation by somatic mutations but its expression is reduced by half in cases with 1p LOH, suggesting that the functional effects of CAMTA1 haploinsufficiency warrant further investigation.

Nakatani K, Nishioka J, Itakura T, et al.
Cell cycle-dependent transcriptional regulation of calmodulin-binding transcription activator 1 in neuroblastoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2004; 24(6):1407-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
A deletion of the short arm on human chromosome 1 is a common genetic abnormality in neuroblastoma, which is a highly malignant tumor in young childhood. Recently, calmodulin-binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1) gene was identified at 1p36 and considered as a candidate tumor suppressor of neuroblastoma. In the present study, we demonstrate that the expression levels of CAMTA1 mRNA were high in N-type neuroblastoma cell lines but low in S-type neuroblastoma cell lines. This result suggested that CAMTA1 could associate with the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Moreover, we examined the relationship between the expression of CAMTA1 and cell cycle progression in N-type neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. During cell cycle synchronization, cell cycle phases were checked by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis of cell cycle-related proteins. Then, the expression of CAMTA1 mRNA was determined by RT-PCR in each phase of the cell cycle. CAMTA1 mRNA showed a cell cycle-dependent expression, resulting in high levels of expression in S and M phases. Moreover, microscopic analysis revealed that the cell cycle-dependent expression of CAMTA1 protein is in agreement with mRNA expression. Taken together, CAMTA1 is expressed in S and M phases and decreased in post-mitosis. These results suggest that CAMTA1 may participate in induction of cell differentiation and cell cycle regulation.

Katoh M, Katoh M
Identification and characterization of FLJ10737 and CAMTA1 genes on the commonly deleted region of neuroblastoma at human chromosome 1p36.31-p36.23.
Int J Oncol. 2003; 23(4):1219-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor suppressor genes of neuroblastoma are located at human chromosome 1p36, 4p16, 11q23.3, and 14q32. We have previously cloned and characterized MFRP and RNF26 genes at 11q23.3. Here, we searched for genes within the 1p36.31-p36.23 commonly deleted region between microsatellite markers D1S2731 and D1S2666 by using bioinformatics. D1S2731 was located within FLJ10737 gene, consisting of 16 exons. D1S2666 was located within CAMTA1 gene, consisting of 23 exons. FLJ10737 and CAMTA1 genes were located in the head-to-head manner with an interval of about 83 kb. Exons 1-10 of FLJ10737 gene as well as exons 1-5 of CAMTA1 gene were located within the 1p36.31-p36.23 commonly deleted region. FLJ10737 (559 aa) was found to consist of the DnaJ domain, bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS), FADH domain, and FEMCA domain. Mouse E030019A03, zebrafish MGC55845, Drosophila CG8531 and Arabidopsis At2g35720 were homologs of human FLJ10737. FADH domain was conserved among vertebrate FLJ10737 orthologs as well as human AD-015, mouse Histocompatibility 47, and rat Ratsg2. KIAA0833 was the representative human CAMTA1 cDNA. Nucleotide sequence of mouse Camta1 cDNA was determined in silico by assembling nucleotide sequences of BY733411, BU610694 ESTs and AK122383 cDNA. Human CAMTA1 (1673 aa) and mouse Camta1 (1682 aa) showed 94.1% total-amino-acid identity. CAMTA1 was a Calmodulin-binding transcription activator (CAMTA) family protein, consisting of CG-1 domain, TIG domain, ankyrin repeats, and IQ motifs. FLJ10737 and CAMTA1 genes on 1p36.31-p36.23 are candidate tumor suppressor genes of neuroblastoma.

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