Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: KTN1 (cancer-related)
Zhang L, Wang L, Wang Y, et al.LncRNA KTN1-AS1 promotes tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting miR-23c/ERBB2IP axis.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:1140-1147 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical regulators in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LncRNA KTN1 antisense RNA 1 (KTN1-AS1) has been reported to play an important role in colorectal cancer and correlates with unfavorable clinical outcomes of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, the clinical significance and functional role of KTN1-AS1 in HCC are still unclear. Here, we found that KTN1-AS1 was a highly expressed lncRNA in HCC according to public available databases and our HCC cohort. Further analyses revealed that higher expression of KTN1-AS1 was observed in HCC tissues with large tumor size, high tumor grade and advanced TNM stage. Analysis of survival data indicated that high KTN1-AS1 expression was prominently correlated with poor clinical outcomes of HCC patients. Functionally, KTN1-AS1 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation, and increased apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells in vitro. Furthermore, silencing of KTN1-AS1 restrained tumor growth of HCC in vivo. Conversely, forced expression of KTN1-AS1 facilitated Huh7 cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis. Mechanistically, KTN1-AS1 inversely regulated miR-23c abundance in HCC cells. Further evidence supported that KTN1-AS1 acted as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by directly sponging miR-23c in HCC cells. Interestingly, erbb2 interacting protein (ERBB2IP), a known target of miR-23c, was positively regulated by KTN1-AS1 and its restoration reversed KTN1-AS1 knockdown attenuated HCC cell growth. To conclude, our study sheds light on the novel function and underlying mechanism of KTN1-AS1 in HCC, which may accelerate the development of cancer therapy.
Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare intraocular tumor that, similar to cutaneous melanoma, originates from melanocytes. To gain insights into its genetics, we performed whole-genome sequencing at very deep coverage of tumor-control pairs in 33 samples (24 primary and 9 metastases). Genome-wide, the number of coding mutations was rather low (only 17 variants per tumor on average; range 7-28), thus radically different from cutaneous melanoma, where hundreds of exonic DNA insults are usually detected. Furthermore, no UV light-induced mutational signature was identified. Recurrent coding mutations were found in the known UM drivers GNAQ, GNA11, BAP1, EIF1AX, and SF3B1. Other genes, i.e., TP53BP1, CSMD1, TTC28, DLK2, and KTN1, were also found to harbor somatic mutations in more than one individual, possibly indicating a previously undescribed association with UM pathogenesis. De novo assembly of unmatched reads from non-coding DNA revealed peculiar copy-number variations defining specific UM subtypes, which in turn could be associated with metastatic transformation. Mutational-driven comparison with other tumor types showed that UM is very similar to pediatric tumors, characterized by very few somatic insults and, possibly, important epigenetic changes. Through the analysis of whole-genome sequencing data, our findings shed new light on the molecular genetics of uveal melanoma, delineating it as an atypical tumor of the adult for which somatic events other than mutations in exonic DNA shape its genetic landscape and define its metastatic potential.
BACKGROUND: We have previously characterized 19 ependymal tumors using Giemsa banding and high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization. The aim of this study was to analyze these tumors searching for fusion genes.
METHODS: RNA sequencing was performed in 12 samples. Potential fusion transcripts were assessed by seed count and structural chromosomal aberrations. Transcripts of interest were validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR followed by direct sequencing.
RESULTS: RNA sequencing identified rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) in 2 samples. Both tumors harbored structural aberrations involving the ALK locus 2p23. Tumor 1 had an unbalanced t(2;14)(p23;q22) translocation which led to the fusion gene KTN1-ALK. Tumor 2 had an interstitial del(2)(p16p23) deletion causing the fusion of CCDC88A and ALK. In both samples, the breakpoint of ALK was located between exons 19 and 20. Both patients were infants and both tumors were supratentorial. The tumors were well demarcated from surrounding tissue and had both ependymal and astrocytic features but were diagnosed and treated as ependymomas.
CONCLUSIONS: By combining karyotyping and RNA sequencing, we identified the 2 first ever reported ALK rearrangements in CNS tumors. Such rearrangements may represent the hallmark of a new entity of pediatric glioma characterized by both ependymal and astrocytic features. Our findings are of particular importance because crizotinib, a selective ALK inhibitor, has demonstrated effect in patients with lung cancer harboring ALK rearrangements. Thus, ALK emerges as an interesting therapeutic target in patients with ependymal tumors carrying ALK fusions.
Babeto E, Conceição AL, Valsechi MC, et al.Differentially expressed genes in giant cell tumor of bone.
Virchows Arch. 2011; 458(4):467-76 [PubMed
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Giant cells tumors of bone (GCTB) are benign in nature but cause osteolytic destruction with a number of particular characteristics. These tumors can have uncertain biological behavior often contain a significant proportion of highly multinucleated cells, and may show aggressive behavior. We have studied differential gene expression in GCTB that may give a better understanding of their physiopathology, and might be helpful in prognosis and treatment. Rapid subtractive hybridization (RaSH) was used to identify and measure novel genes that appear to be differentially expressed, including KTN1, NEB, ROCK1, and ZAK using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry in the samples of GCTBs compared to normal bone tissue. Normal bone was used in the methodology RaSH for comparison with the GCTB in identification of differentially expressed genes. Functional annotation indicated that these genes are involved in cellular processes related to their tumor phenotype. The differential expression of KTN1, ROCK1, and ZAK was independently confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The expression of the KTN1 and ROCK1 genes were increased in samples by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, and ZAK had reduced expression. Since ZAK have CpG islands in their promoter region and low expression in tumor tissue, their methylation pattern was analyzed by MSP-PCR. The genes identified KTN1, ROCK1, and ZAK may be responsible for loss of cellular homeostasis in GCTB since they are responsible for various functions related to tumorigenesis such as cell migration, cytoskeletal organization, apoptosis, and cell cycle control and thus may contribute at some stage in the process of formation and development of GCTB.
Wang HC, Su YR, Han KJ, et al.Multiple variants and a differential splicing pattern of kinectin in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem Cell Biol. 2004; 82(2):321-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To extend the search for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated antigens with immunogenicity for clinical applications, we constructed a cDNA expression library using resected human HCC tissue sample and screened it by serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression library (SEREX) with autologous and allogeneic sera. A total of 24 distinct antigens were isolated and kinectin was the antigen most frequently identified. We found that kinectin was alternatively spliced at four sites and obtained all eight theoretical forms of variant, six by SEREX and two by RT-PCR, from the different splicing combinations of the last three sites. In addition, the splicing patterns of four sites were analyzed. Variant containing D2 was overexpressed in cancerous tissues and this alteration may be tumor associated. The four splicing sites, the variants generated by alternative splicing, and the humoral immune response in HCC patients, may help to analyze the role of kinectin in human HCC cell biology.
Zhou XG, Sandvej K, Li PJ, et al.Epstein--Barr virus gene polymorphisms in Chinese Hodgkin's disease cases and healthy donors: identification of three distinct virus variants.
J Gen Virol. 2001; 82(Pt 5):1157-67 [PubMed
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Epstein--Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies. Specific EBV gene variants, e.g. the BamHI f configuration, a C-terminal region 30 bp deletion in the latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) gene (del-LMP) and the loss of an XhoI site in LMP1 (XhoI-loss), are found in Chinese cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), suggesting that EBV sequence variation may be involved in oncogenesis. In order to understand better the epidemiology of these EBV variants, they were studied in virus isolates from EBV-positive Chinese cases of Hodgkin's disease (HD; n=71) and donor throat washings from healthy CHINESE: Sequencing was performed of 15 representative EBV isolates, including the first analysis of the LMP1 promoter in Asian wild-type EBV isolates. The following observations were made. (i) Three EBV LMP1 variants were identified, designated Chinese groups (CG) 1--3. In both EBV-associated HD and in healthy Chinese, CG1-like viruses showing del-LMP1 and XhoI-loss were predominant. (ii) CG1viruses were distinct from European and African variants, suggesting that this profile is useful for epidemiological studies. (iii) Specific patterns of mutations were present in the LMP1 promoter in both CG1 and CG2. (iv) The BamHI f variant was not found in Chinese HD, in contrast to Chinese NPC and European HD. This study confirms that EBV isolates in Chinese HD and other tumours differ from those reported in Western cases. However, this reflects the predominant virus strain present in the healthy Chinese population, suggesting that these are geographically restricted polymorphisms rather than tumour-specific strains.
Salassidis K, Bruch J, Zitzelsberger H, et al.Translocation t(10;14)(q11.2:q22.1) fusing the kinetin to the RET gene creates a novel rearranged form (PTC8) of the RET proto-oncogene in radiation-induced childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(11):2786-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Evaluation of 20 cases of radiation-induced childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma using fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of clonal translocations affecting the RET locus. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR indicated overexpression of the RET tyrosine kinase (TK) domain in four cases. In two cases, the RET rearrangements PTC6 and PTC7 were identified and assigned to balanced translocations t(7;10)(q32;q11.2) and t(1;10)(p13;q11.2), respectively. In one case with a balanced translocation t(10;14)(q11.2;q22.1), 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed a novel type of RET oncogenic activation (PTC8), arising from a fusion of the 5' part of the kinectin (KTN1) gene to the TK domain of the RET gene. The presence of coiled-coil domains in the resulting ktn1/ret fusion protein suggests ligand-independent dimerization and thus constitutive activation of the ret TK domain.