Gene Summary

Gene:SLAMF1; signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1
Aliases: SLAM, CD150, CDw150
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:signaling lymphocytic activation molecule
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tumor Markers
  • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Jurkat Cells
  • Measles virus
  • Lentivirus
  • CD Antigens
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Biological Models
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Surface Receptors
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Chromosome 1
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear
  • ULBP1
  • Gene Transfer Techniques
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Lymphoma
  • Plasma Cells
  • Receptors, Transferrin
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta
  • Leukaemia
  • Immunophenotyping
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • TFR2
  • leu-13 antigen
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Transduction
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • CD150 antigen
  • Cultured Cells
  • Antigens, CD46
  • Genes, Neoplasm
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SLAMF1 (cancer-related)

Lühl NC, Zirngibl F, Dorneburg C, et al.
Attenuated measles virus controls pediatric acute B-lineage lymphoblastic leukemia in NOD/SCID mice.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(6):1050-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Novel therapies are needed for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia resistant to conventional therapy. While emerging data suggest leukemias as possible targets of oncolytic attenuated measles virus, it is unknown whether measles virus can eradicate disseminated leukemia, in particular pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We evaluated the efficacy of attenuated measles virus against a large panel of pediatric xenografted and native primary acute lymphoblastic leukemias ex vivo, and against four different acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts of B-lineage in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. Ex vivo, attenuated measles virus readily spread among and effectively killed leukemia cells while sparing normal human blood cells and their progenitors. In immunodeficient mice with disseminated acute lymphoblastic leukemia a few intravenous injections of attenuated measles virus sufficed to eradicate leukemic blasts in the hematopoietic system and to control central nervous system disease resulting in long-term survival in three of the four xenografted B-lineage leukemias. Differential sensitivity of leukemia cells did not require increased expression of the measles entry receptors CD150 or CD46 nor absence of the anti-viral retinoic acid-inducible gene I/melanoma differentiation associated gene-5 /interferon pathway. Attenuated oncolytic measles virus is dramatically effective against pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the pre-clinical setting warranting further investigations towards clinical translation.

Takeda S, Kanbayashi D, Kurata T, et al.
Enhanced susceptibility of B lymphoma cells to measles virus by Epstein-Barr virus type III latency that upregulates CD150/signaling lymphocytic activation molecule.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(2):211-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Measles virus (MV) is one of the candidates for the application of oncolytic virotherapy (OVT). Although an advanced clinical study has been reported on a T-cell lymphoma, the potential of MV OVT against B-cell lymphomas remains to be clarified. We found that an EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell line, a model for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cells bearing type III latency were highly susceptible to the cytolysis induced by an MV vaccine strain CAM-70. As analyzed by EBV-positive and -negative counterparts of the same cytogenetic background, type III EBV latency, not type I, was shown to augment the susceptibility of B lymphoma cells to MV-induced cytolysis. Cell surface levels of CD150/signaling lymphocytic activation molecule, a receptor of MV, were upregulated in B lymphoma cell lines with type III EBV latency by 3.8-fold, on average. The cytolytic activity of CD150-tropic WT MV was akin to that of CD46- and CD150-tropic CAM-70, suggesting that CD150 is critical for the susceptibility to MV-induced cytolysis. Among EBV-encoded genes, latent membrane protein 1 was responsible for the CD150 upregulation. It was notable that the majority of B lymphoma cell lines of type III EBV latency showed higher susceptibility to the non-Edmonston-derived CAM-70 than to the Edmonston-derived Schwarz strain. This is the first report indicating the potential of non-Edmonston MV strain for the application of OVT. Furthermore, a cellular regulator of MV replication was implicated that functions in a vaccine strain-specific fashion. Altogether, the MV OVT should serve as an alternative therapy against EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with type III EBV latency.

Miest TS, Frenzke M, Cattaneo R
Measles virus entry through the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule governs efficacy of mantle cell lymphoma radiovirotherapy.
Mol Ther. 2013; 21(11):2019-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We developed here a vaccine-identical measles virus (MV) as an oncolytic agent against mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is difficult to cure but radiosensitive. We armed the virus with the sodium-iodide symporter, which concentrates iodide within infected cells enabling noninvasive imaging and combination radiovirotherapy. Through high-resolution in vivo and ex vivo imaging, we visualized the spread of infections in primary and metastatic tumors for over 2 weeks after therapy, documenting homogeneous virus seeding and spread restricted to perfused tissue. Infection of metastases was more rapid and intense than primary tumors, achieving isotope uptake within about threefold the efficiency of the thyroid. Virotherapy combined with systemic (131)I resulted in more rapid disease regression than either therapy alone. In addition to ubiquitous CD46, vaccine MV retains cell entry through its immune cell-specific receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM). We asked whether both receptors could sustain effective oncolysis of MCL. Strikingly, only SLAM-dependent entry sustained efficient viral spread, tumor regression, and prolonged survival. These observations shift the focus of future clinical trials to SLAM-expressing hematologic malignancies and suggest that oncolytic vectors may depend on tissue-specific receptors for both cell entry and activation of responses assisting their replication.

Mohammadieh AM, Bowler SD, Silverstone EJ, et al.
Everolimus treatment of abdominal lymphangioleiomyoma in five women with sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Med J Aust. 2013; 199(2):121-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare systemic disease of young women arising from mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, TSC1 or TSC2. This disrupts the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, affecting cellular proliferation and growth. mTOR inhibitors are a promising novel therapy in LAM. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus is reported to produce resolution of lymphatic abnormalities in LAM, but the efficiacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus has not been assessed. We aimed to examine the efficacy of everolimus on lymphatic abnormalities in LAM.
DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Open-label treatment of five patients with sporadic LAM (sLAM) and abdominopelvic and lung involvement at the outpatient LAM clinic of a tertiary city teaching hospital. Clinical data were collected during treatment of the women and included regular clinical reviews, everolimus levels, lung function and computed tomography assessment before and after 6 months of everolimus treatment.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms and level of resolution of lymphangioleiomyomas.
RESULTS: All five women experienced significant shrinkage or complete resolution of the lymphangioleiomyomas during treatment. In one woman, cessation of everolimus resulted in recurrence of symptoms. Adverse events were compatible with the known side-effect profile of everolimus, but overall the drug was well tolerated.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to suggest that everolimus has efficacy in the treatment of lymphangioleiomyoma and chylous ascites in sLAM.

Veillette A, Guo H
CS1, a SLAM family receptor involved in immune regulation, is a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2013; 88(1):168-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors have been implicated in normal immunity, immunodeficiencies and autoimmunity. CS1 (also known as CRACC, CD319 and SLAMF7) is a member of the SLAM family expressed on several normal hematopoietic cell types. It is also highly and nearly universally expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This review focuses on the biology of CS1, both in normal hematopoietic cells and in MM cells. It also discusses the preclinical and clinical data on the use of a humanized anti-CS1 monoclonal antibody, elotuzumab, for the treatment of MM. Based on current knowledge, CS1 is a compelling new target for the treatment of MM.

Gillis LC, Berry DM, Minden MD, et al.
Gads (Grb2-related adaptor downstream of Shc) is required for BCR-ABL-mediated lymphoid leukemia.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(8):1666-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias, including chronic myeloid leukemia and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), are driven by the oncogenic BCR-ABL fusion protein. Animal modeling experiments utilizing retroviral transduction and subsequent bone marrow transplantation have demonstrated that BCR-ABL generates both myeloid and lymphoid disease in mice receiving whole bone marrow transduced with BCR-ABL. Y177 of BCR-ABL is critical to the development of myeloid disease, and phosphorylation of Y177 has been shown to induce GRB2 binding to BCR-ABL, followed by activation of the Ras and phosphoinositide 3 kinase signaling pathways. We show that the GRB2-related adapter protein, GADS, also associates with BCR-ABL, specifically through Y177 and demonstrate that BCR-ABL-driven lymphoid disease requires Gads. BCR-ABL transduction of Gads(-/-) bone marrow results in short latency myeloid disease within 3-4 weeks of transplant, while wild-type mice succumb to both a longer latency lymphoid and myeloid diseases. We report that GADS mediates a unique BCR-ABL complex with SLP-76 in BCR-ABL-positive cell lines and B-ALL patient samples. These data suggest that GADS mediates lymphoid disease downstream of BCR-ABL through the recruitment of specific signaling intermediates.

Sugiyama T, Yoneda M, Kuraishi T, et al.
Measles virus selectively blind to signaling lymphocyte activation molecule as a novel oncolytic virus for breast cancer treatment.
Gene Ther. 2013; 20(3):338-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncolytic viruses hold much promise as novel therapeutic agents that can be combined with conventional therapeutic modalities. Measles virus (MV) is known to enter cells using the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), which is expressed on cells of the immune system. Although human breast cancer cell lines do not express SLAM, we found that a wild-type MV (HL strain) efficiently infected various breast cancer cell lines, causing cell death. Based on this finding, we used reverse genetics to generate a recombinant MV selectively unable to use SLAM (rMV-SLAMblind). The rMV-SLAMblind lacked infectivity for SLAM-positive lymphoid cells, while retaining oncolytic activity against breast cancer cells. We showed that, unlike the MV vaccine strains, rMV-SLAMblind used PVRL4 (polio virus receptor-related 4) as a receptor to infect breast cancer cells and not the ubiquitously expressed CD46. Consistent with this, rMV-SLAMblind infected CD46-positive primary normal human cells at a much-reduced level, whereas a vaccine strain of the Edmonston lineage (rMV-Edmonston) efficiently infected and killed them. The rMV-SLAMblind showed antitumor activity against human breast cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice. The oncolytic activity of rMV-SLAMblind was significantly greater than that of rMV-Edmonston. To assess the in vivo safety, three monkeys seronegative for MV were inoculated with rMV-SLAMblind, and no clinical symptoms were documented. On the basis of these results, rMV-SLAMblind could be a promising candidate as a novel oncolytic virus for breast cancer treatment.

Schoenhals M, Frecha C, Bruyer A, et al.
Efficient transduction of healthy and malignant plasma cells by lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with measles virus glycoproteins.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(7):1663-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
A lot of genes deregulated in malignant plasma cells (PCs) involved in multiple myeloma have been reported these last years. The expression of some of these genes is associated with poor survival. A critical step is to elucidate the biological mechanisms triggered by these gene products. Such studies are hampered by the difficulty to obtain malignant PCs and to genetically modify them. Usual lentiviral vectors (LVs) pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein poorly transduced healthy and malignant PCs. Here, we report that LVs pseudotyped with the hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins from the measles Edmonston strain (H/F-LVs) can efficiently and stably transduce healthy and primary malignant PCs, without modifying their main phenotypic characteristics. Both LV pseudotypes efficiently transduced human myeloma cell lines. Importantly, both healthy and malignant PCs expressed CD46 and SLAMF1/CD150 membrane proteins, which are critical receptors for binding and productive genetic modification by H/F-LVs. The ability to efficiently introduce and express a given gene into PCs opens the possibility to study in detail PC biology.

Schweighofer CD, Coombes KR, Barron LL, et al.
A two-gene signature, SKI and SLAMF1, predicts time-to-treatment in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(12):e28277 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We developed and validated a two-gene signature that predicts prognosis in previously-untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Using a 65 sample training set, from a cohort of 131 patients, we identified the best clinical models to predict time-to-treatment (TTT) and overall survival (OS). To identify individual genes or combinations in the training set with expression related to prognosis, we cross-validated univariate and multivariate models to predict TTT. We identified four gene sets (5, 6, 12, or 13 genes) to construct multivariate prognostic models. By optimizing each gene set on the training set, we constructed 11 models to predict the time from diagnosis to treatment. Each model also predicted OS and added value to the best clinical models. To determine which contributed the most value when added to clinical variables, we applied the Akaike Information Criterion. Two genes were consistently retained in the models with clinical variables: SKI (v-SKI avian sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) and SLAMF1 (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1; CD150). We optimized a two-gene model and validated it on an independent test set of 66 samples. This two-gene model predicted prognosis better on the test set than any of the known predictors, including ZAP70 and serum β2-microglobulin.

Palendira U, Low C, Chan A, et al.
Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.
PLoS Biol. 2011; 9(11):e1001187 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+) and SAP(-) cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+) T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+) and SAP(-) populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+). The preferential recruitment of SAP(+) cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+) T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(-) clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(-) CD8(+) T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

Yurchenko M, Sidorenko SP
Hodgkin's lymphoma: the role of cell surface receptors in regulation of tumor cell fate.
Exp Oncol. 2010; 32(4):214-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The hallmark of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) are mononucleated Hodgkin's cells and multinucleated Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, which usually account for only about 1% of cells in the tumor tissue. The majority of HRS cells in classical HL are derived from germinal centre B cells that have acquired disadvantageous Ig variable chain gene mutations and escaped from apoptosis. Due to reprogramming of gene expression, these lymphoma cells have lost the expression of most B-cell specific genes and acquired expression of multiple genes that are typical for other hematopoietic cells. HRS cells attract various cells of immune system into lymphoma tissue resulting in an inflammatory microenvironment. Moreover, HRS cells are dependent on microenvironment, especially on survival signals from other cells. Despite the loss of BCR - the master-regulator of B cell fate, HRS cells express a number of receptors that regulate tumor cell survival. The rescue of HRS cells from apoptosis is a key event in HL pathogenesis. These cells express at least six receptors that belong to TNF receptor family: CD30, CD40, CD95, TACI, BCMA and RANK, co-stimulatory receptors CD80 and CD86, and E-selectins ligand CD15. Due to the mutations in genes encoding proteins of CD95-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway, it is not functional in HRS cells. Ligands of TNF family receptors on cells in HL microenvironment contribute to the activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways and survival program of HRS cells. Moreover, in HRS cells a number of multiple mutations in negative NF-κB regulators, and also gains and amplifications of positive regulators, cooperate in deregulating these pathways. All TNF receptors may be linked to the activation of prosurvival gene expression programs via Akt and ERK pathways. HRS cells also express CD150 receptor with specific ITSM motifs in the cytoplasmic tail. Ligation of this receptor on HRS cells induced activation of Akt and ERK pathways, and moreover, it triggered activation of JNK signaling cascade.
CONCLUSION: The review presents the current views on the role of cell surface receptors in maintenance of HL microenvironment favorable for HRS cells survival.

Rezaei N, Mahmoudi E, Aghamohammadi A, et al.
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome: a genetic condition typified by the triad of infection, immunodeficiency and lymphoma.
Br J Haematol. 2011; 152(1):13-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency characterized by the clinical triad of increased susceptibility to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, dysgammaglobulinaemia and lymphoma. Most cases are caused by germline mutations in the SH2D1A gene, which encodes the adaptor molecule Signalling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). Recently, a subset of patients with an XLP-like phenotype was found to carry mutations in XIAP, the gene encoding the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Studies of XLP patients and Sap-/- mice reveal that loss of SAP expression impairs immune cell activities, such as natural killer and CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, T cell cytokine production, activation-induced cell death, germinal centre formation and natural killer T cell development. Efforts to dissect the diverse roles of SAP and XIAP are enhancing our understanding of immune cell biology and defining how genetic defects in these molecules predispose to EBV-specific as well as more general cellular and humoral immune dysfunction. These studies are also highlighting critical signalling pathways that might be amenable to pharmacological targeting to improve the treatment of XLP and other disorders associated with impaired antiviral and antitumour immunity.

Booth C, Gilmour KC, Veys P, et al.
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SAP/SH2D1A deficiency: a multicenter study on the manifestations, management and outcome of the disease.
Blood. 2011; 117(1):53-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) is a rare immunodeficiency characterized by severe immune dysregulation and caused by mutations in the SH2D1A/SAP gene. Clinical manifestations are varied and include hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia, often triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Historical data published before improved treatment regimens shows very poor outcome. We describe a large cohort of 91 genetically defined XLP1 patients collected from centers worldwide and report characteristics and outcome data for 43 patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and 48 untransplanted patients. The advent of better treatment strategies for HLH and malignancy has greatly reduced mortality for these patients, but HLH still remains the most severe feature of XLP1. Survival after allogeneic HSCT is 81.4% with good immune reconstitution in the large majority of patients and little evidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. However, survival falls to 50% in patients with HLH as a feature of disease. Untransplanted patients have an overall survival of 62.5% with the majority on immunoglobulin replacement therapy, but the outcome for those untransplanted after HLH is extremely poor (18.8%). HSCT should be undertaken in all patients with HLH, because outcome without transplant is extremely poor. The outcome of HSCT for other manifestations of XLP1 is very good, and if HSCT is not undertaken immediately, patients must be monitored closely for evidence of disease progression.

Zucchetto A, Cattarossi I, Nanni P, et al.
Cluster analysis of immunophenotypic data: the example of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Immunol Lett. 2011; 134(2):137-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies of gene expression profiling have been successfully used for the identification of molecules to be employed as potential prognosticators. In analogy with gene expression profiling, we have previously proposed an original method to identify the immunophenotypic signature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) subsets with different prognosis, named surface-antigen expression profiling. According to this method, expression data for surface markers can be successfully analyzed by data mining tools identical to those employed in gene expression profiling studies, including unsupervised and supervised algorithms, with the aim to identify the immunophenotypic signature of CLL subsets with different prognosis. By employing an identical approach for investigating the reactivity of a wide panel of monoclonal antibodies provided by the "Ninth International Workshop on Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens", we were able to identify some of them (i.e. TCL1, CCR7, FCRL2, FCRL3, and CD150) as additional potential markers with prognostic relevance in CLL. These suggestions need to be confirmed: (i) in a new set of clinically characterized CLL cases; (ii) in combination with other prognostic markers in the context of comprehensive scoring systems for clinical outcome prediction.

Gomes AQ, Correia DV, Grosso AR, et al.
Identification of a panel of ten cell surface protein antigens associated with immunotargeting of leukemias and lymphomas by peripheral blood gammadelta T cells.
Haematologica. 2010; 95(8):1397-404 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes are regarded as promising mediators of cancer immunotherapy due to their capacity to eliminate multiple experimental tumors, particularly within those of hematopoietic origin. However, Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cell based lymphoma clinical trials have suffered from the lack of biomarkers that can be used as prognostic of therapeutic success.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We have conducted a comprehensive study of gene expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, aimed at identifying markers of susceptibility versus resistance to Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We employed cDNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR to screen 20 leukemia and lymphoma cell lines, and 23 primary hematopoietic tumor samples. These data were analyzed using state-of-the-art bioinformatics, and gene expression patterns were correlated with susceptibility to Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell mediated cytolysis in vitro.
RESULTS: We identified a panel of 10 genes encoding cell surface proteins that were statistically differentially expressed between "gammadelta-susceptible" and "gammadelta-resistant" hematopoietic tumors. Within this panel, 3 genes (ULBP1, TFR2 and IFITM1) were associated with increased susceptibility to Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cell cytotoxicity, whereas the other 7 (CLEC2D, NRP2, SELL, PKD2, KCNK12, ITGA6 and SLAMF1) were enriched in resistant tumors. Furthermore, some of these candidates displayed a striking variance of expression among primary follicular lymphomas and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that hematopoietic tumors display a highly variable repertoire of surface proteins that can impact on Vgamma9Vdelta2 cell-mediated immunotargeting. The prognostic value of the proposed markers can now be evaluated in upcoming Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell-based lymphoma/leukemia clinical trials.

Furukawa H, Tohma S, Kitazawa H, et al.
Role of SLAM-associated protein in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and immunological disorders.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2010; 58(1):37-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is an adaptor molecule containing a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. SAP is expressed in T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and binds to the cytoplasmic domains of SLAM family receptors, resulting in the subsequent recruitment of Fyn. The SAP (SH2D1A) gene is located on the X chromosome and is responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, characterized by higher susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus infection. The SAP-mediated signal is not only essential for the development of NKT cells, i.e. unconventional CD1d-restricted T cells with invariant Valpha14 T cell receptors, but also for the regulation of the function of NK cells and conventional T cells. The role of SAP-mediated signaling in the induction of autoimmune diseases has been analyzed using animal models such as lupus, hepatitis, and graft-versus-host disease and is considered important in their pathogenesis in humans. In this review we highlight the current findings on SAP-mediated signaling in hematopoietic cells and discuss its importance in autoimmune diseases and immunological disorders.

Nagy N, Matskova L, Hellman U, et al.
The apoptosis modulating role of SAP (SLAM associated protein) contributes to the symptomatology of the X linked lymphoproliferative disease.
Cell Cycle. 2009; 8(19):3086-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletion or mutation of the SH2D1A gene located at Xq25 is responsible for the development of the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, XLP. Primary infection of the affected individuals with EBV leads to fulminant and often fatal infectious mononucleosis, FIM. Moreover, they run a 200 fold elevated risk for lymphoma development. Due to the critical role of the immune response for the outcome of EBV infection and the detection of EBV genomes in several malignancies, XLP studies have been mainly focused on the immunological aspects. The involvement of SAP in the apoptotic machinery provides a further aspect in the complex syndrome of XLP. Functional impairment of SAP leads to defective apoptotic responses. Activation induced apoptosis plays a pivotal role in the termination of the lymphocyte proliferation in IM. This mechanism is inefficient in XLP patients. In addition, in the absence of SAP, lymphoma development may be promoted by the illegitimate survival of lymphocytes with damaged DNA that would be normally eliminated by apoptosis.

Frecha C, Costa C, Lévy C, et al.
Efficient and stable transduction of resting B lymphocytes and primary chronic lymphocyte leukemia cells using measles virus gp displaying lentiviral vectors.
Blood. 2009; 114(15):3173-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Up to now, no lentiviral vector (LV) tool existed to govern efficient and stable gene delivery into quiescent B lymphocytes, which hampers its application in gene therapy and immunotherapy areas. Here, we report that LVs incorporating measles virus (MV) glycoproteins, H and F, on their surface allowed transduction of 50% of quiescent B cells, which are not permissive to VSVG-LV transduction. This high transduction level correlated with B-cell SLAM expression and was not at cost of cell-cycle entry or B-cell activation. Moreover, the naive and memory phenotypes of transduced resting B cells were maintained. Importantly, H/F-LVs represent the first tool permitting stable transduction of leukemic cancer cells, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, blocked in G(0)/G(1) early phase of the cell cycle. Thus, H/F-LV transduction overcomes the limitations of current LVs by making B cell-based gene therapy and immunotherapy applications feasible. These new LVs will facilitate antibody production and the study of gene functions in these healthy and cancer immune cells.

Huck K, Feyen O, Niehues T, et al.
Girls homozygous for an IL-2-inducible T cell kinase mutation that leads to protein deficiency develop fatal EBV-associated lymphoproliferation.
J Clin Invest. 2009; 119(5):1350-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The fatal immune dysregulation that sometimes follows EBV infection in boys has been linked to mutations in two X chromosome-encoded genes, SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). In this study we describe 2 girls from a consanguineous Turkish family who died after developing severe immune dysregulation and therapy-resistant EBV-positive B cell proliferation following EBV infection. SNP array-based genome-wide linkage analysis revealed IL-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) as a candidate gene for this immunodeficiency syndrome. Both girls harbored a homozygous missense mutation that led to substitution of a highly conserved residue (R335W) in the SH2 domain of ITK. Characteristics of ITK deficiency in mouse models, such as absence of NKT cells and high levels of eomesodermin in CD8+ cells, were seen in either one or both of the girls. Two lines of evidence suggested that R335W caused instability of the ITK protein. First, in silico modeling of the mutant protein predicted destabilization of the SH2 domain. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that, unlike wild-type ITK, the R335W mutant was nearly undetectable when expressed in 293 T cells. Our results suggest that ITK deficiency causes what we believe to be a novel immunodeficiency syndrome that leads to a fatal inadequate immune response to EBV. Because ITK deficiency resembles EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in boys, we suggest that this molecular cause should be considered during diagnosis and treatment.

Liu C, Hasegawa K, Russell SJ, et al.
Prostate-specific membrane antigen retargeted measles virotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2009; 69(10):1128-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Live attenuated vaccine strain of measles virus (MV) has promising antitumor activity and is undergoing clinical testing in three different phase I cancer trials. The virus uses one of two receptors, CD46 which is ubiquitously expressed on all nucleated cells or CD150 which is expressed on immune cells, to infect cells. To minimize potential toxicity due to indiscriminate infection of normal cells, we have generated a fully retargeted MV that infects cells exclusively through the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) receptor, which is overexpressed on prostate cancer cells and tumor neovasculature.
METHODS: A single-chain antibody (scFv) specific for the extracellular domain of PSMA (J591) was inserted as a C-terminal extension on the MV attachment protein. Specificity of infection by the PSMA targeted virus was evaluated in parallel with the parental MV and a control virus which binds to CD38, a myeloma antigen. Antitumor activity of the PSMA retargeted virus was tested in both LNCaP and PC3-PSMA tumor xenograft models, with and without low dose external beam radiation.
RESULTS: Replication of the PSMA targeted virus was comparable to the parental MV. The PSMA scFv efficiently redirected virus infection and cytopathic killing exclusively to PSMA positive prostate cancer cells and not PSMA negative cells. There was an additive effect on cell killing from radiation treatment and virotherapy. The PSMA virus induced tumor regression of LNCaP and PC3-PSMA tumor xenografts. Extensive areas of MV infection and apoptosis were seen in virus treated tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: The PSMA retargeted virus warrants further investigation as a virotherapy agent.

Ostrakhovitch EA, Wang Y, Li SS
SAP binds to CD22 and regulates B cell inhibitory signaling and calcium flux.
Cell Signal. 2009; 21(4):540-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP or SH2D1A) is an important regulator of immune function which, when mutated or deleted, causes the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP). Because B cell lymphoma is a major phenotype of XLP, it is important to understand the function of SAP in B cells. Here we report that SAP is expressed endogenously in mouse splenic B cells, is inducibly expressed in the human BJAB cells, and co-localizes and interacts with CD22. We also show that SAP binding to the inhibitory immunoreceptor CD22 regulates calcium mobilization in B cells. Moreover, forced expression of SAP leads to constitutive CD22 tyrosine phosphorylation and decreased Ca(2+) response in B cells. Biochemical analysis reveals that, in response to IgM cross-linking, the phosphorylation of Syk, Blnk, or PLCgamma2 and their interactions with one another were either diminished or completely abolished in SAP-expressing cells compared to cells that lack SAP. Collectively our work identifies a novel role for SAP in B cells and extends its function to inhibitory immunoreceptor signaling and calcium mobilization.

Suzuki A, Yamada R, Kochi Y, et al.
Functional SNPs in CD244 increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in a Japanese population.
Nat Genet. 2008; 40(10):1224-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with a complex genetic etiology. Members of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family carry out pivotal functions in innate immunity and in conventional lymphocytes. We identified a linkage disequilibrium block associated with rheumatoid arthritis in the chromosome 1q region containing multiple SLAM family genes. In this block, the association peaked at two functional SNPs (rs3766379 and rs6682654) in CD244 in two independent rheumatoid arthritis cohorts from Japan (P = 3.23 x 10(-8) and P = 7.45 x 10(-8)). We also identified a Japanese cohort with systemic lupus erythematosus that had a similar genotype distribution as the rheumatoid arthritis cohorts. We demonstrated that the rheumatoid arthritis-susceptible alleles of rs3766379 and rs6682654 and their haplotype increased their expression in luciferase and allele-specific transcript quantification assays. CD244 is a genetic risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis and may have a role in the autoimmune process shared by rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Kapral M, Strzalka B, Kowalczyk M, et al.
Transforming growth factor beta isoforms (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3) messenger RNA expression in laryngeal cancer.
Am J Otolaryngol. 2008 Jul-Aug; 29(4):233-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cancerogenesis is a multistage process controlled by many cytokines, including growth factors. The aim of the study was the comparison of transcriptional activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) genes in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent nonneoplastic tissues.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissues samples were obtained from 32 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in histologic grades G1 to G3 who underwent surgical treatment at the ENT Clinics of Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland. Quantification of gene expression was performed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique.
RESULTS: In tumor cells, expression of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 isoforms (P < .001) was higher than in normal tissues. There was a positive correlation between the expression of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 genes in tumors (R = 0.78, P = .0000) and adjacent normal tissues (R = 0.77, P = .0000).
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 messenger RNAs may be useful as molecular markers in distinguishing cancer from nonneoplastic tissues in laryngeal area.

Mittal AK, Hegde GV, Aoun P, et al.
Molecular basis of aggressive disease in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with 11q deletion and trisomy 12 chromosomal abnormalities.
Int J Mol Med. 2007; 20(4):461-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Rai stage, immunoglobulin gene mutational status, chromosomal abnormalities, CD38 and ZAP-70 expression were used as prognostic markers. In this study, to understand the molecular basis of chromosomal abnormalities leading to tumor progression, 90 CLL patients were grouped into poor prognosis (with 11q deletion and trisomy 12) and good prognosis (with normal karyotype and 13q deletion) and their clinical outcome was assessed. Gene expression profiles of 35 CLL samples with poor outcome (11q deletion, n=9; trisomy 12, n=5) and good outcome (13q deletion, n=13; normal karyotype, n=8) were analyzed using oligonucleotide microarray. Significance analysis of microarray (SAM) identified 27 differentially expressed genes between these two subgroups with significant overexpression of ATF5 and underexpression of CDC16, PCDH8, SLAM, MNDA and ATF2 in CLL patients with poor outcome. ATF5 gene expression in CLL was further studied because of its role in the regulation of cell cycle progression/differentiation and apoptosis. The overexpression of ATF5 was confirmed by real-time PCR using 39 CLL samples from the poor and good outcome groups. ATF5 was significantly (p<0.001) overexpressed in the poor outcome group. Furthermore, ATF5 expression was significantly higher in the 11q deletion as well as trisomy 12 group alone compared to the 13q deletion and normal karyotype groups. ATF5 overexpression was also associated with significantly (p=0.04) shorter time to treatment. Similarly, expression of five underexpressed genes also correlated with longer time to treatment. Thus, this report demonstrates that ATF5 may be one of the key genes involved in increased proliferation and survival in 11q deletion or trisomy 12, whereas CD16, CD86, SLAM, MNDA and ATF2 may be involved in the decreased proliferation of CLL cells with 13q deletion or normal karyotype.

Takeda M, Tahara M, Hashiguchi T, et al.
A human lung carcinoma cell line supports efficient measles virus growth and syncytium formation via a SLAM- and CD46-independent mechanism.
J Virol. 2007; 81(21):12091-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Measles virus (MV) propagates mainly in lymphoid organs throughout the body and produces syncytia by using signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as a receptor. MV also spreads in SLAM-negative epithelial tissues by unknown mechanisms. Ubiquitously expressed CD46 functions as another receptor for vaccine strains of MV but not for wild-type strains. We here show that MV grows and produces syncytia efficiently in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line via a SLAM- and CD46-independent mechanism using a novel receptor-binding site on the hemagglutinin protein. This infection model could advance our understanding of MV infection of SLAM-negative epithelial cells and tissues.

Mehrle S, Schmidt J, Büchler MW, et al.
Enhancement of anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo by CD150 and SAP.
Mol Immunol. 2008; 45(3):796-804 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, CD150) is a co-stimulatory receptor involved in T cell activation. The activity of CD150 is dependent on the intracellular signaling molecule SAP. Here, we investigated anti-CD3 activated human lymphocytes, transfected either with CD150-plasmid or with CD150- or SAP-siRNA in cytotoxicity assays against human colon cancer cells in vitro and in a xenograft model (CB/Scid/CrL mice) in vivo. Up-regulation or silencing of CD150 was accompanied by increased or decreased cytotoxic activity, respectively. Similar effects could also be shown in an IFN-gamma ELISpot assay. Furthermore, CD150 co-localized after activation with lipid rafts in specific membrane compartments on CD8 T cells. Treatment of xenografted mice with CD150 over-expressing lymphocytes decelerated tumor growth significantly. Lymphocytes were detectable in spleen 18 days after injection and expressed mainly CD8, CD45RO and CD150 above average. In conclusion, over-expression of CD150 in lymphocytes is accompanied with enhanced cytotoxic activity and IFN-gamma secretion in vitro and anti-tumor activity in vivo, whereas silencing of CD150 down-regulates effector functions. Adoptive cell transfer of CD150 over-expressing lymphocytes results in an accumulation of CD8, CD45RO and CD150 cells in tumor and spleen indicating together with the observed CD150 co-localization with lipid rafts that CD150 mediates a Th1 response.

Sawada S, Takei M, Ishiwata T
SAP discovery: the sword edges--beneficial and harmful.
Autoimmun Rev. 2007; 6(7):444-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We cloned the SLAM associated protein (SAP) gene in 1995. In 1998, it was discovered that the SAP gene was defective in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Subsequently, details on the key role of life-long immune memory (vaccination) and of life-long autoantibody production in patients suffering from autoimmune disease have been revealed. In this paper, we discuss the dual nature of SAP in humans: its beneficial effect on life-long immune memory (vaccination) and its harmful effect on life-long autoantibody production.

Paraskevakou G, Allen C, Nakamura T, et al.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-retargeted measles virus strains effectively target EGFR- or EGFRvIII expressing gliomas.
Mol Ther. 2007; 15(4):677-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
A retargeted measles virus strain MV-GFP-H(AA)-scEGFR was generated by engineering the MV-NSe Edmonston vaccine strain to incorporate both CD46 (Y481A) and signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) (R533A) ablating mutations in the hemagglutinin protein in combination with the display of a single-chain antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at the C terminus of hemagglutinin. The unmodified MV-GFP virus was used as a positive control. Specificity of the EGFR retargeted virus was demonstrated in non-permissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected to express either the natural receptors CD46 or SLAM or the target receptors EGFR and EGFRvIII. In vitro, the retargeted virus had potent antitumor activity against EGFR- or EGFRvIII-overexpressing primary glioblastoma multi-forme (GBM) cell lines that was comparable to the activity of the unmodified MV-GFP virus. Intratumoral administration of MV-GFP-H(AA)-scEGFRvIII in orthotopic GBM12 xenografts resulted in tumor regression, as demonstrated by bioluminescence imaging and significant prolongation of survival, that was comparable to the effect of the unmodified strain. In contrast to MV-GFP, central nervous system administration of the targeted MV-GFP-H(AA)-scEGFR virus in measles replication-permissive Ifnar(ko) CD46 transgenic mice resulted in no neurotoxicity. In conclusion, EGFR-retargeted measles virus strains have comparable therapeutic efficacy to the unmodified virus in glioma cells overexpressing EGFR or EGFRvIII in vivo and in vitro, and improved therapeutic index, a finding with potential translational implications in glioma virotherapy.

Allen C, Vongpunsawad S, Nakamura T, et al.
Retargeted oncolytic measles strains entering via the EGFRvIII receptor maintain significant antitumor activity against gliomas with increased tumor specificity.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(24):11840-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among the best-characterized genetic alterations in gliomas is the amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, present in approximately 40% of glioblastoma multiforme, and frequently associated with the EGFRvIII gene rearrangement. We have previously shown that attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have potent antitumor activity against gliomas, and identified H protein mutations, which ablate recognition of the natural measles virus receptors CD46 and SLAM. Retargeted recombinant viruses were generated from the measles Edmonston-NSe vaccine strain displaying a single-chain antibody against EGFRvIII at the COOH terminus of H and containing the marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in position 1. Two different H mutants were employed: H(SNS) (V451S, Y481N, and A527S)-CD46 blind, and H(AA) (Y481A and R533A)-CD46 and SLAM blind. MV-GFP virus was used as a positive control. Both EGFRvIII-retargeted viruses had significant antitumor activity against EGFRvIII-expressing glioblastoma multiforme but no cytopathic effect against normal cells. In an orthotopic model of EGFRvIII-expressing GBM39 xenografts, there was comparable therapeutic efficacy between retargeted strains and unmodified MV-GFP and statistically significant prolongation of survival in treated animals compared with the control group (P = 0.001). Formation of syncytia was observed in tumors treated with retargeted viruses, with a surrounding infiltrate consisting of macrophages and natural killer cells. In summary, EGFRvIII-retargeted oncolytic measles virus strains have comparable therapeutic efficacy with the unmodified MV-GFP strain against EGFRvIII-expressing glioma lines and xenografts with improved therapeutic index, a finding with potential translational implications in glioma virotherapy.

Chen CN, Lin JJ, Chen JJ, et al.
Gene expression profile predicts patient survival of gastric cancer after surgical resection.
J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(29):7286-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to characterize gene expression profile of survival in patients with surgically curable gastric cancer by using an in-house membrane microarray and developing a survival prediction model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of cDNA microarrays were obtained from 18 pairs of cancerous and noncancerous gastric tissues. Nine patients who survived > 30 months were identified as good survival, and the other nine, who survived < 12 months, were identified as poor survival. Supervised analysis was performed to identify a gene expression profile by good and poor survival. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the microarray data in 10 patients with sufficient RNA. Using these 10 patients and another 10 patients selected randomly from 40 newly enrolled patients as the training group, the RT-PCR status of the confirmed genes was used for predicting good versus poor survival. Finally, the prediction model was tested in the remaining 30 newly enrolled gastric cancer patients.
RESULTS: A survival prediction model consisting of three genes (CD36, SLAM, PIM-1) was developed. This model could correctly predict poor or good survival in 23 (76.7%) of 30 newly enrolled patients, and yielded a specificity of 80% and a sensitivity of 73.3%. The survival rate of the patients predicted to have good survival was significantly higher than that of those predicted to have poor survival in the test group as a whole (N = 30; P = .00531) and in stage III patients (n = 16; P = .04467).
CONCLUSION: The semiquantitative RT-PCR gene expression profiling of three genes extracted from microarray study can accurately predict surgery-related outcome in gastric cancer patients.

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