Gene Summary

Gene:SLAMF1; signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1
Aliases: SLAM, CD150, CDw150
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:signaling lymphocytic activation molecule
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Membrane Cofactor Protein
  • Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Virus Latency
  • fas Receptor
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • EBV-associated membrane antigen, Epstein-Barr virus
  • Measles virus
  • SLAMF1 protein, human
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Latency Period (Psychology)
  • CD Antigens
  • CD150 antigen
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Antigens, Viral
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Virus Replication
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Signal Transduction
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Chromosome 1
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Leukaemia
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Xenograft Models
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Cultured Cells
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family Member 1
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human
  • Transduction
  • Cell Surface Receptors
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SLAMF1 (cancer-related)

Muhar M, Ebert A, Neumann T, et al.
SLAM-seq defines direct gene-regulatory functions of the BRD4-MYC axis.
Science. 2018; 360(6390):800-805 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Defining direct targets of transcription factors and regulatory pathways is key to understanding their roles in physiology and disease. We combined SLAM-seq [thiol(SH)-linked alkylation for the metabolic sequencing of RNA], a method for direct quantification of newly synthesized messenger RNAs (mRNAs), with pharmacological and chemical-genetic perturbation in order to define regulatory functions of two transcriptional hubs in cancer, BRD4 and MYC, and to interrogate direct responses to BET bromodomain inhibitors (BETis). We found that BRD4 acts as general coactivator of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, which is broadly repressed upon high-dose BETi treatment. At doses triggering selective effects in leukemia, BETis deregulate a small set of hypersensitive targets including MYC. In contrast to BRD4, MYC primarily acts as a selective transcriptional activator controlling metabolic processes such as ribosome biogenesis and de novo purine synthesis. Our study establishes a simple and scalable strategy to identify direct transcriptional targets of any gene or pathway.

Sugimoto A, Kataoka TR, Ueshima C, et al.
SLAM family member 8 is involved in oncogenic KIT-mediated signalling in human mastocytosis.
Exp Dermatol. 2018; 27(6):641-646 [PubMed] Related Publications
The signalling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 8 (SLAMF8)/CD353 is a member of the CD2 family of proteins. Its ligand has not been identified. SLAMF8 is expressed by macrophages and suppresses cellular functions. No study has yet explored SLAMF8 expression or function in human mastocytosis, which features oncogenic KIT-mediated proliferation of human mast cells. SLAMF8 protein was expressed in human mastocytosis cells, immunohistochemically. SLAMF8 expression was also evident in the human mast cell lines, HMC1.2 (expressing oncogenic KIT) and LAD2 (expressing wild-type KIT) cells. SLAMF8 knock-down significantly reduced the KIT-mediated growth of HMC1.2 cells but not that of LAD2 cells. SLAMF8 knock-down HMC1.2 cells exhibited significant attenuation of SHP-2 activation and oncogenic KIT-mediated RAS-RAF-ERK signalling. An interaction between SLAMF8 and SHP-2 was confirmed in HMC1.2 cells and all pathological mastocytosis specimens examined (19 of 19 cases, 100%). Thus, SLAMF8 is involved in oncogenic KIT-mediated RAS-RAF-ERK signalling and the subsequent growth of human neoplastic mast cells mediated by SHP-2. SLAMF8 is a possible therapeutic target in human mastocytosis patients.

Maurus K, Appenzeller S, Roth S, et al.
Panel Sequencing Shows Recurrent Genetic FAS Alterations in Primary Cutaneous Marginal Zone Lymphoma.
J Invest Dermatol. 2018; 138(7):1573-1581 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (PCMZL) represents an indolent subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is clinically characterized by slowly growing skin tumors with a very low propensity for systemic dissemination. The underlying genetic basis of PCMZL has not been comprehensively elucidated. To gain deeper insight into the molecular pathogenesis of PCMZL, we performed hybridization-based panel sequencing of 38 patients with well-characterized PCMZL. In 32 of the 38 patients, we identified genetic alterations within 39 selected target genes. The most frequently detected alterations (24/38 patients, 63.2%) affected the FAS gene, of which 22 patients harbored alterations, which affect the functionally relevant death domain of the apoptosis-regulating FAS/CD95 protein in a dominant-negative manner. In addition, we identified highly recurrent mutations in three other genes, namely SLAMF1, SPEN, and NCOR2. Our molecular data suggest that apoptosis defects provide the molecular basis of the observed clinical features of PCMZL, which commonly presents with only slowly growing skin tumors, reflecting its invariably indolent behavior. From a diagnostic point of view, highly recurrent FAS mutations in PCMZL presumably separate this indolent lymphoma entity from pseudolymphoma, and this adds adjunctive discriminatory features at a molecular level.

Gordiienko I, Shlapatska L, Kholodniuk VM, et al.
CD150 and CD180 are involved in regulation of transcription factors expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Exp Oncol. 2017; 39(4):291-298 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sequential stages of B-cell development is stringently coordinated by transcription factors (TFs) network that include B-lineage commitment TFs (Ikaros, Runx1/Cbfb, E2A, and FOXO1), B-lineage maintenance TFs (EBF1 and PAX5) and stage specific set of TFs (IRF4, IRF8, BCL6, BLIMP1). Deregulation of TFs expression and activity is often occurs in malignant B cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate TFs expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells taking into consideration CD150 cell surface expression. From other side we attempted to regulate TFs expression via CD150 and CD180 cell surface receptors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies were performed on normal peripheral blood B-cell subpopulations and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells isolated from peripheral blood of 67 primary untreated patients with CLL. Evaluation of TFs expression was performed on mRNA level using qRT-PCR and on protein level by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Median of PAX5 and EBF1 mRNA expression was higher in cell surface CD150 positive (csCD150
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of TFs expression profile revealed upregulated SPIB mRNA level and downregulated PU.1 in CLL cells. CD150 and CD180 receptors may modulate transcriptional program in CLL cells by regulating the TFs expression levels.

Aref S, Bailey K, Fielding A
Measles to the Rescue: A Review of Oncolytic Measles Virus.
Viruses. 2016; 8(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oncolytic virotherapeutic agents are likely to become serious contenders in cancer treatment. The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. This paramyxovirus vaccine has a proven safety record and is amenable to careful genetic modification in the laboratory. Overexpression of the measles virus (MV) receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) in oncolysis. Successful attempts to retarget MV by inserting genes for tumour-specific ligands to antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD20, CD38, and by engineering the virus to express synthetic microRNA targeting sequences, and "blinding" the virus to the natural viral receptors are exciting measures to increase viral specificity and enhance the oncolytic effect. Sodium iodine symporter (NIS) can also be expressed by MV, which enables in vivo tracking of MV infection. Radiovirotherapy using MV-NIS, chemo-virotherapy to convert prodrugs to their toxic metabolites, and immune-virotherapy including incorporating antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors can also increase the oncolytic potential. Anti-viral host immune responses are a recognized barrier to the success of MV, and approaches such as transporting MV to the tumour sites by carrier cells, are showing promise. MV Clinical trials are producing encouraging preliminary results in ovarian cancer, myeloma and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and the outcome of currently open trials in glioblastoma multiforme, mesothelioma and squamous cell carcinoma are eagerly anticipated.

Gordiienko IM, Shlapatska LM, Kovalevska LM, Sidorenko SP
Differential expression of CD150/SLAMF1 in normal and malignant B cells on the different stages of maturation.
Exp Oncol. 2016; 38(2):101-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Within B-cell lineage cell surface receptor CD150/SLAMF1 is broadly expressed starting from pre-B cells with upregulation toward plasma cells. However, expression of CD150 is rather limited on the surface of malignant B cells with the block of differentiation at the different stages of maturation. The aim of our work was to explore CD150 expression both on protein and mRNA levels with the emphasis on CD150 isoforms in malignant B-cell lines at the different stages of maturation in comparison with their normal B cell counterparts.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies were performed on normal tonsillar B-cell subpopulations, B-lymphoblastoid cell lines, malignant B-cell lines of different origin, including pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Protein CD150 expression was assessed by western blot analysis and the expression level of CD150 isoforms was evaluated using qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: Despite the similar CD150 expression both on mRNA and protein levels in normal B-cell subsets and B-lymphoblastoid cell lines, malignant B-cell lines demonstrated substantial heterogeneity in CD150 expression. Only Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines, Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines BJAB and Raji, and also pre-B cell line BLIN-1 expressed CD150 protein. At the same time total CD150 and mCD150 mRNA was detected in all studied cell lines excluding pre-B cell line REH. The minor sCD150 isoform was found only in Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines and Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Raji. The nCD150 isoform was broadly expressed in tested B cell lines with exception of REH and Daudi.
CONCLUSION: Malignant B-cell lines at the different stages of maturation only partially resemble their normal counterparts by CD150 expression. In malignant B-cell lines, CD150 expression on mRNA level is much broader than on protein level. CD150 isoforms are differentially expressed in normal and malignant B cells with predominant expression of mCD150 isoform.

Bergkvist KS, Nørgaard MA, Bøgsted M, et al.
Characterization of memory B cells from thymus and its impact for DLBCL classification.
Exp Hematol. 2016; 44(10):982-990.e11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The rare memory B cells in thymus (Thy) are considered the cells of origin for primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the normal memory B-cell compartment in Thy and to support its association with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. Seven paired human tissue samples from Thy and sternum bone marrow (BM) were harvested during cardiac surgery. B-cell subsets were phenotyped by Euroflow standard and fluorescence-activated cell sorting for microarray analysis on the Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays platform. Differentially expressed genes between Thy and BM memory B cells were identified and correlated with the molecular subclasses of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Within Thy, 4% (median; range 2%-14%) of the CD45(+) hematopoietic cells were CD19(+) B cells, with a major fraction being CD27(+)/CD38(-) memory B cells (median 80%, range 76%-93%). The BM contained 14% (median; range 3%-27%), of which only a minor fraction (median 5%, range 2%-10%) were memory B cells. Global gene expression analysis of the memory B-cell subsets from the two compartments identified 133 genes upregulated in Thy, including AICDA, REL, STAT1, TNF family, SLAMF1, CD80, and CD86. In addition, exons 4 and 5 in the 3' end of AICDA were more highly expressed in Thy than in BM. The Thy memory B-cell gene profile was overexpressed in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma compared with other diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subclasses. The present study describes a Thy memory B-cell subset and its gene profile correlated with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphomas, suggesting origin from Thy memory B cells.

Lin W, Lin HD, Guo XY, et al.
Allelic expression imbalance polymorphisms in susceptibility chromosome regions and the risk and survival of breast cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(1):300-311 [PubMed] Related Publications
Allelic expression imbalance (AEI) has been applied to indicate potential function of genetic variants. Combining earlier results from global differential allele-specific expression analysis and genome wide association studies (GWASs), we select the single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) exhibiting AEI phenomenon located in breast cancer susceptibility chromosome regions, and evaluate their associations with breast cancer risk and survival. We examined the genotypes of 10 AEI SNPs in 1551 incident breast cancer cases and 1605 age-frequency matched controls from Guangzhou, China. In total, 1168 cases were followed up. MUC16 rs2591592 (AT/AA vs. TT) was associated with an increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer (OR [95%CI]: 1.30 [1.07, 1.57]); SLAMF1 rs1061217 (CT/TT vs. CC) decreased the risk of breast cancer among overweight women (OR [95%CI]: 0.74 [0.57, 0.96]) but increased the risk among normal-weight women (OR [95%CI]: 1.15 [1.01, 1.39]); ZNF331 rs8109631 (AG/AA vs. GG) and CHRAC1 rs10216653 (GC/GG vs. CC) were associated with progression free survival among breast cancer patients with negative ER/PR status and higher clinical stage (HRs [95%CIs]: 2.39 [1.14, 5.00], 1.85 [1.03, 3.32], and 0.49 [0.30, 0.80], respectively). ZNF331 rs8109631 and CHRAC1 rs10216653 were further found to represent several functional SNPs through bioinformatic analysis. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated suggestive associations of AEI polymorphisms with breast cancer risk (MUC16 rs2591592 and SLAMF1 rs1061217) and prognosis (ZNF331 rs8109631 and CHRAC1 rs10216653). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wu N, Veillette A
SLAM family receptors in normal immunity and immune pathologies.
Curr Opin Immunol. 2016; 38:45-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family is a group of six receptors restricted to hematopoietic cells. Most of these receptors are self-ligands, and thus are triggered in the context of interactions between hematopoietic cells. By way of their cytoplasmic domain, SLAM-related receptors associate with the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) family of adaptors, which control the signals and functions of SLAM family receptors. Recent findings have provided new insights into the key roles of SLAM family receptors in normal immunity, their involvement in human diseases and their usefulness as drug targets to treat human malignancies. These data are reviewed herein.

Tarasevich A, Filatov A, Pichugin A, Mazurov D
Monoclonal antibody profiling of cell surface proteins associated with the viral biofilms on HTLV-1 transformed cells.
Acta Virol. 2015; 59(3):247-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human T lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that spreads predominantly via cell-to-cell contact. Two models of cell-to-cell virus transmission are proposed: virological synapse (VS) and viral biofilms (VB). Both infectious structures can be involved in transmission and synergistically enhance HTLV-1 spread between cells. Although transmission of virus via VB has been reported, the molecular composition of VB remains poorly understood. In this study we generated new anti-VB monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and screenedthem along with a panel of anti-human cluster of differentiation (CD) MAbs to select antigens associated with VB. Among four MAbs generated against VB, two MAbs were identified as anti-CD25 (IL-2RA). We found that antigens CD4, CD150, CD25, CD70, and CD80 were enriched in VB. We also determined that expression of viral protein Tax, a central molecule in HTLV-1 transmission, upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), CD95, CD25, CD70, and CD80. Whether these antigens are essential for VB formation and HTLV-1 infection remains unknown and will be determined in further experiments.

Muccio VE, Saraci E, Gilestro M, et al.
Multiple myeloma: New surface antigens for the characterization of plasma cells in the era of novel agents.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2016; 90(1):81-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells (PCs). Flow cytometry is an essential tool to confirm diagnosis and evaluate minimal residual disease (MRD). This study aims at identifying new surface PC markers suitable for targeted therapy in MM and able to improve MRD detection.
METHODS: The expression of 82 molecules provided by the "Ninth International Workshop on Leukocyte Antigens" was analyzed by flow cytometry in 5 MM cell lines and in 20 newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) patients. Based on the antigens expression and monoclonal antibody availability, CD150, CD48, CD229, CD352, CD319, CD272, CD86, CD200 and CD184 were subsequently tested in 24 NDMM, 8 relapsed MM (RMM), 6 plasma cell leukemia (PCL) and 13 healthy subjects.
RESULTS: CD352 was less frequently expressed on NDMM than on healthy PCs; CD200 was more frequently expressed on NDMM than on RMM and healthy PCs. CD150, CD319, CD229, CD352 Mean Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) was lower in pathological than in healthy samples. The proportion of CD150-positive samples was lower in NDMM and RMM than in healthy subjects; CD86+ samples were less frequent in NDMM than in healthy subjects; CD200+ samples were more frequent in NDMM than in RMM and healthy subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: CD150, CD86 and CD200 can help to identify malignant PCs; CD272, CD319, CD229, CD48 are highly expressed on all PCs and could be considered for targeted therapy. All these antigens could be added to a routine panel for PCs identification and MRD evaluation.

Yoon H, Park S, Ju H, et al.
Integrated copy number and gene expression profiling analysis of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(6):383-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Viral oncogenes and host immunosenescence have been suggested as causes of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV + DLBCL) of the elderly. To investigate the molecular genetic basis of immune evasion and tumor outgrowth, we analyzed copy number alterations (CNAs) and gene expression profiles in EBV + DLBCL samples compared with EBV - DLBCL. There were relatively few genomic alterations in EBV + DLBCL compared with those detected in EBV-negative DLBCL. The most frequent CNAs (>30%) in EBV + DLBCLs were gains at 1q23.2-23.3, 1q23.3, 1q32.1, 5p15.3, 8q22.3, 8q24.1-24.2, and 9p24.1; losses at 6q27, 7q11.2, and 7q36.2-36.3 were also recurrent. A gene expression profile analysis identified the host immune response as a key molecular signature in EBV + DLBCL. Antiviral response genes, proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines associated with the innate immune response were overexpressed, indicating the presence of a virusinduced inflammatory microenvironment. Genes associated with the B-cell receptor signaling pathway were downregulated. An integrated analysis indicated that SLAMF1 and PDL2 were key targets of the gains detected at 1q23.2-23.3 and 9p24.1. The chromosomal gain at 9p24.1 was associated with poor overall survival. Taken together, our results led to the identification of recurrent copy number alterations and distinct gene expression associated with the host immune response in EBV + DLBCL. We suggest that the upregulation of PDL2 on 9p24.1 promotes immune evasion and is associated with poor prognosis in EBV + DLBCL.

Romanets-Korbut O, Najakshin AM, Yurchenko M, et al.
Expression of CD150 in tumors of the central nervous system: identification of a novel isoform.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0118302 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD150 (IPO3/SLAM) belongs to the SLAM family of receptors and serves as a major entry receptor for measles virus. CD150 is expressed on normal and malignant cells of the immune system. However, little is known about its expression outside the hematopoietic system, especially tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Although CD150 was not found in different regions of normal brain tissues, our immunohistochemical study revealed its expression in 77.6% of human CNS tumors, including glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma, ependymoma, and others. CD150 was detected in the cytoplasm, but not on the cell surface of glioma cell lines, and it was colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex markers. In addition to the full length mRNA of the mCD150 splice isoform, in glioma cells we found a highly expressed novel CD150 transcript (nCD150), containing an 83 bp insert. The insert is derived from a previously unrecognized exon designated Cyt-new, which is located 510 bp downstream of the transmembrane region exon, and is a specific feature of primate SLAMF1. Both mCD150 and nCD150 cDNA variants did not contain any mutations and had the leader sequence. The nCD150 transcript was also detected in normal and malignant B lymphocytes, primary T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages; however, in glioma cells nCD150 was found to be the predominant CD150 isoform. Similarly to mCD150, cell surface expression of nCD150 allows wild type measles virus entry to the cell. Our data indicate that CD150 expression in CNS tumors can be considered a new diagnostic marker and potential target for novel therapeutic approaches.

Lühl NC, Zirngibl F, Dorneburg C, et al.
Attenuated measles virus controls pediatric acute B-lineage lymphoblastic leukemia in NOD/SCID mice.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(6):1050-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Novel therapies are needed for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia resistant to conventional therapy. While emerging data suggest leukemias as possible targets of oncolytic attenuated measles virus, it is unknown whether measles virus can eradicate disseminated leukemia, in particular pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We evaluated the efficacy of attenuated measles virus against a large panel of pediatric xenografted and native primary acute lymphoblastic leukemias ex vivo, and against four different acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts of B-lineage in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. Ex vivo, attenuated measles virus readily spread among and effectively killed leukemia cells while sparing normal human blood cells and their progenitors. In immunodeficient mice with disseminated acute lymphoblastic leukemia a few intravenous injections of attenuated measles virus sufficed to eradicate leukemic blasts in the hematopoietic system and to control central nervous system disease resulting in long-term survival in three of the four xenografted B-lineage leukemias. Differential sensitivity of leukemia cells did not require increased expression of the measles entry receptors CD150 or CD46 nor absence of the anti-viral retinoic acid-inducible gene I/melanoma differentiation associated gene-5 /interferon pathway. Attenuated oncolytic measles virus is dramatically effective against pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the pre-clinical setting warranting further investigations towards clinical translation.

Takeda S, Kanbayashi D, Kurata T, et al.
Enhanced susceptibility of B lymphoma cells to measles virus by Epstein-Barr virus type III latency that upregulates CD150/signaling lymphocytic activation molecule.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(2):211-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Measles virus (MV) is one of the candidates for the application of oncolytic virotherapy (OVT). Although an advanced clinical study has been reported on a T-cell lymphoma, the potential of MV OVT against B-cell lymphomas remains to be clarified. We found that an EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell line, a model for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cells bearing type III latency were highly susceptible to the cytolysis induced by an MV vaccine strain CAM-70. As analyzed by EBV-positive and -negative counterparts of the same cytogenetic background, type III EBV latency, not type I, was shown to augment the susceptibility of B lymphoma cells to MV-induced cytolysis. Cell surface levels of CD150/signaling lymphocytic activation molecule, a receptor of MV, were upregulated in B lymphoma cell lines with type III EBV latency by 3.8-fold, on average. The cytolytic activity of CD150-tropic WT MV was akin to that of CD46- and CD150-tropic CAM-70, suggesting that CD150 is critical for the susceptibility to MV-induced cytolysis. Among EBV-encoded genes, latent membrane protein 1 was responsible for the CD150 upregulation. It was notable that the majority of B lymphoma cell lines of type III EBV latency showed higher susceptibility to the non-Edmonston-derived CAM-70 than to the Edmonston-derived Schwarz strain. This is the first report indicating the potential of non-Edmonston MV strain for the application of OVT. Furthermore, a cellular regulator of MV replication was implicated that functions in a vaccine strain-specific fashion. Altogether, the MV OVT should serve as an alternative therapy against EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with type III EBV latency.

Miest TS, Frenzke M, Cattaneo R
Measles virus entry through the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule governs efficacy of mantle cell lymphoma radiovirotherapy.
Mol Ther. 2013; 21(11):2019-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We developed here a vaccine-identical measles virus (MV) as an oncolytic agent against mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is difficult to cure but radiosensitive. We armed the virus with the sodium-iodide symporter, which concentrates iodide within infected cells enabling noninvasive imaging and combination radiovirotherapy. Through high-resolution in vivo and ex vivo imaging, we visualized the spread of infections in primary and metastatic tumors for over 2 weeks after therapy, documenting homogeneous virus seeding and spread restricted to perfused tissue. Infection of metastases was more rapid and intense than primary tumors, achieving isotope uptake within about threefold the efficiency of the thyroid. Virotherapy combined with systemic (131)I resulted in more rapid disease regression than either therapy alone. In addition to ubiquitous CD46, vaccine MV retains cell entry through its immune cell-specific receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM). We asked whether both receptors could sustain effective oncolysis of MCL. Strikingly, only SLAM-dependent entry sustained efficient viral spread, tumor regression, and prolonged survival. These observations shift the focus of future clinical trials to SLAM-expressing hematologic malignancies and suggest that oncolytic vectors may depend on tissue-specific receptors for both cell entry and activation of responses assisting their replication.

Mohammadieh AM, Bowler SD, Silverstone EJ, et al.
Everolimus treatment of abdominal lymphangioleiomyoma in five women with sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Med J Aust. 2013; 199(2):121-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare systemic disease of young women arising from mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, TSC1 or TSC2. This disrupts the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, affecting cellular proliferation and growth. mTOR inhibitors are a promising novel therapy in LAM. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus is reported to produce resolution of lymphatic abnormalities in LAM, but the efficiacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus has not been assessed. We aimed to examine the efficacy of everolimus on lymphatic abnormalities in LAM.
DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Open-label treatment of five patients with sporadic LAM (sLAM) and abdominopelvic and lung involvement at the outpatient LAM clinic of a tertiary city teaching hospital. Clinical data were collected during treatment of the women and included regular clinical reviews, everolimus levels, lung function and computed tomography assessment before and after 6 months of everolimus treatment.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms and level of resolution of lymphangioleiomyomas.
RESULTS: All five women experienced significant shrinkage or complete resolution of the lymphangioleiomyomas during treatment. In one woman, cessation of everolimus resulted in recurrence of symptoms. Adverse events were compatible with the known side-effect profile of everolimus, but overall the drug was well tolerated.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to suggest that everolimus has efficacy in the treatment of lymphangioleiomyoma and chylous ascites in sLAM.

Veillette A, Guo H
CS1, a SLAM family receptor involved in immune regulation, is a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2013; 88(1):168-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors have been implicated in normal immunity, immunodeficiencies and autoimmunity. CS1 (also known as CRACC, CD319 and SLAMF7) is a member of the SLAM family expressed on several normal hematopoietic cell types. It is also highly and nearly universally expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This review focuses on the biology of CS1, both in normal hematopoietic cells and in MM cells. It also discusses the preclinical and clinical data on the use of a humanized anti-CS1 monoclonal antibody, elotuzumab, for the treatment of MM. Based on current knowledge, CS1 is a compelling new target for the treatment of MM.

Sugiyama T, Yoneda M, Kuraishi T, et al.
Measles virus selectively blind to signaling lymphocyte activation molecule as a novel oncolytic virus for breast cancer treatment.
Gene Ther. 2013; 20(3):338-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncolytic viruses hold much promise as novel therapeutic agents that can be combined with conventional therapeutic modalities. Measles virus (MV) is known to enter cells using the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), which is expressed on cells of the immune system. Although human breast cancer cell lines do not express SLAM, we found that a wild-type MV (HL strain) efficiently infected various breast cancer cell lines, causing cell death. Based on this finding, we used reverse genetics to generate a recombinant MV selectively unable to use SLAM (rMV-SLAMblind). The rMV-SLAMblind lacked infectivity for SLAM-positive lymphoid cells, while retaining oncolytic activity against breast cancer cells. We showed that, unlike the MV vaccine strains, rMV-SLAMblind used PVRL4 (polio virus receptor-related 4) as a receptor to infect breast cancer cells and not the ubiquitously expressed CD46. Consistent with this, rMV-SLAMblind infected CD46-positive primary normal human cells at a much-reduced level, whereas a vaccine strain of the Edmonston lineage (rMV-Edmonston) efficiently infected and killed them. The rMV-SLAMblind showed antitumor activity against human breast cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice. The oncolytic activity of rMV-SLAMblind was significantly greater than that of rMV-Edmonston. To assess the in vivo safety, three monkeys seronegative for MV were inoculated with rMV-SLAMblind, and no clinical symptoms were documented. On the basis of these results, rMV-SLAMblind could be a promising candidate as a novel oncolytic virus for breast cancer treatment.

Schoenhals M, Frecha C, Bruyer A, et al.
Efficient transduction of healthy and malignant plasma cells by lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with measles virus glycoproteins.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(7):1663-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
A lot of genes deregulated in malignant plasma cells (PCs) involved in multiple myeloma have been reported these last years. The expression of some of these genes is associated with poor survival. A critical step is to elucidate the biological mechanisms triggered by these gene products. Such studies are hampered by the difficulty to obtain malignant PCs and to genetically modify them. Usual lentiviral vectors (LVs) pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein poorly transduced healthy and malignant PCs. Here, we report that LVs pseudotyped with the hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins from the measles Edmonston strain (H/F-LVs) can efficiently and stably transduce healthy and primary malignant PCs, without modifying their main phenotypic characteristics. Both LV pseudotypes efficiently transduced human myeloma cell lines. Importantly, both healthy and malignant PCs expressed CD46 and SLAMF1/CD150 membrane proteins, which are critical receptors for binding and productive genetic modification by H/F-LVs. The ability to efficiently introduce and express a given gene into PCs opens the possibility to study in detail PC biology.

Schweighofer CD, Coombes KR, Barron LL, et al.
A two-gene signature, SKI and SLAMF1, predicts time-to-treatment in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(12):e28277 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We developed and validated a two-gene signature that predicts prognosis in previously-untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Using a 65 sample training set, from a cohort of 131 patients, we identified the best clinical models to predict time-to-treatment (TTT) and overall survival (OS). To identify individual genes or combinations in the training set with expression related to prognosis, we cross-validated univariate and multivariate models to predict TTT. We identified four gene sets (5, 6, 12, or 13 genes) to construct multivariate prognostic models. By optimizing each gene set on the training set, we constructed 11 models to predict the time from diagnosis to treatment. Each model also predicted OS and added value to the best clinical models. To determine which contributed the most value when added to clinical variables, we applied the Akaike Information Criterion. Two genes were consistently retained in the models with clinical variables: SKI (v-SKI avian sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) and SLAMF1 (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1; CD150). We optimized a two-gene model and validated it on an independent test set of 66 samples. This two-gene model predicted prognosis better on the test set than any of the known predictors, including ZAP70 and serum β2-microglobulin.

Yurchenko M, Sidorenko SP
Hodgkin's lymphoma: the role of cell surface receptors in regulation of tumor cell fate.
Exp Oncol. 2010; 32(4):214-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The hallmark of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) are mononucleated Hodgkin's cells and multinucleated Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, which usually account for only about 1% of cells in the tumor tissue. The majority of HRS cells in classical HL are derived from germinal centre B cells that have acquired disadvantageous Ig variable chain gene mutations and escaped from apoptosis. Due to reprogramming of gene expression, these lymphoma cells have lost the expression of most B-cell specific genes and acquired expression of multiple genes that are typical for other hematopoietic cells. HRS cells attract various cells of immune system into lymphoma tissue resulting in an inflammatory microenvironment. Moreover, HRS cells are dependent on microenvironment, especially on survival signals from other cells. Despite the loss of BCR - the master-regulator of B cell fate, HRS cells express a number of receptors that regulate tumor cell survival. The rescue of HRS cells from apoptosis is a key event in HL pathogenesis. These cells express at least six receptors that belong to TNF receptor family: CD30, CD40, CD95, TACI, BCMA and RANK, co-stimulatory receptors CD80 and CD86, and E-selectins ligand CD15. Due to the mutations in genes encoding proteins of CD95-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway, it is not functional in HRS cells. Ligands of TNF family receptors on cells in HL microenvironment contribute to the activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways and survival program of HRS cells. Moreover, in HRS cells a number of multiple mutations in negative NF-κB regulators, and also gains and amplifications of positive regulators, cooperate in deregulating these pathways. All TNF receptors may be linked to the activation of prosurvival gene expression programs via Akt and ERK pathways. HRS cells also express CD150 receptor with specific ITSM motifs in the cytoplasmic tail. Ligation of this receptor on HRS cells induced activation of Akt and ERK pathways, and moreover, it triggered activation of JNK signaling cascade.
CONCLUSION: The review presents the current views on the role of cell surface receptors in maintenance of HL microenvironment favorable for HRS cells survival.

Rezaei N, Mahmoudi E, Aghamohammadi A, et al.
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome: a genetic condition typified by the triad of infection, immunodeficiency and lymphoma.
Br J Haematol. 2011; 152(1):13-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency characterized by the clinical triad of increased susceptibility to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, dysgammaglobulinaemia and lymphoma. Most cases are caused by germline mutations in the SH2D1A gene, which encodes the adaptor molecule Signalling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). Recently, a subset of patients with an XLP-like phenotype was found to carry mutations in XIAP, the gene encoding the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Studies of XLP patients and Sap-/- mice reveal that loss of SAP expression impairs immune cell activities, such as natural killer and CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, T cell cytokine production, activation-induced cell death, germinal centre formation and natural killer T cell development. Efforts to dissect the diverse roles of SAP and XIAP are enhancing our understanding of immune cell biology and defining how genetic defects in these molecules predispose to EBV-specific as well as more general cellular and humoral immune dysfunction. These studies are also highlighting critical signalling pathways that might be amenable to pharmacological targeting to improve the treatment of XLP and other disorders associated with impaired antiviral and antitumour immunity.

Zucchetto A, Cattarossi I, Nanni P, et al.
Cluster analysis of immunophenotypic data: the example of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Immunol Lett. 2011; 134(2):137-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies of gene expression profiling have been successfully used for the identification of molecules to be employed as potential prognosticators. In analogy with gene expression profiling, we have previously proposed an original method to identify the immunophenotypic signature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) subsets with different prognosis, named surface-antigen expression profiling. According to this method, expression data for surface markers can be successfully analyzed by data mining tools identical to those employed in gene expression profiling studies, including unsupervised and supervised algorithms, with the aim to identify the immunophenotypic signature of CLL subsets with different prognosis. By employing an identical approach for investigating the reactivity of a wide panel of monoclonal antibodies provided by the "Ninth International Workshop on Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens", we were able to identify some of them (i.e. TCL1, CCR7, FCRL2, FCRL3, and CD150) as additional potential markers with prognostic relevance in CLL. These suggestions need to be confirmed: (i) in a new set of clinically characterized CLL cases; (ii) in combination with other prognostic markers in the context of comprehensive scoring systems for clinical outcome prediction.

Gomes AQ, Correia DV, Grosso AR, et al.
Identification of a panel of ten cell surface protein antigens associated with immunotargeting of leukemias and lymphomas by peripheral blood gammadelta T cells.
Haematologica. 2010; 95(8):1397-404 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes are regarded as promising mediators of cancer immunotherapy due to their capacity to eliminate multiple experimental tumors, particularly within those of hematopoietic origin. However, Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cell based lymphoma clinical trials have suffered from the lack of biomarkers that can be used as prognostic of therapeutic success.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We have conducted a comprehensive study of gene expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, aimed at identifying markers of susceptibility versus resistance to Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We employed cDNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR to screen 20 leukemia and lymphoma cell lines, and 23 primary hematopoietic tumor samples. These data were analyzed using state-of-the-art bioinformatics, and gene expression patterns were correlated with susceptibility to Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell mediated cytolysis in vitro.
RESULTS: We identified a panel of 10 genes encoding cell surface proteins that were statistically differentially expressed between "gammadelta-susceptible" and "gammadelta-resistant" hematopoietic tumors. Within this panel, 3 genes (ULBP1, TFR2 and IFITM1) were associated with increased susceptibility to Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cell cytotoxicity, whereas the other 7 (CLEC2D, NRP2, SELL, PKD2, KCNK12, ITGA6 and SLAMF1) were enriched in resistant tumors. Furthermore, some of these candidates displayed a striking variance of expression among primary follicular lymphomas and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that hematopoietic tumors display a highly variable repertoire of surface proteins that can impact on Vgamma9Vdelta2 cell-mediated immunotargeting. The prognostic value of the proposed markers can now be evaluated in upcoming Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell-based lymphoma/leukemia clinical trials.

Frecha C, Costa C, Lévy C, et al.
Efficient and stable transduction of resting B lymphocytes and primary chronic lymphocyte leukemia cells using measles virus gp displaying lentiviral vectors.
Blood. 2009; 114(15):3173-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Up to now, no lentiviral vector (LV) tool existed to govern efficient and stable gene delivery into quiescent B lymphocytes, which hampers its application in gene therapy and immunotherapy areas. Here, we report that LVs incorporating measles virus (MV) glycoproteins, H and F, on their surface allowed transduction of 50% of quiescent B cells, which are not permissive to VSVG-LV transduction. This high transduction level correlated with B-cell SLAM expression and was not at cost of cell-cycle entry or B-cell activation. Moreover, the naive and memory phenotypes of transduced resting B cells were maintained. Importantly, H/F-LVs represent the first tool permitting stable transduction of leukemic cancer cells, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, blocked in G(0)/G(1) early phase of the cell cycle. Thus, H/F-LV transduction overcomes the limitations of current LVs by making B cell-based gene therapy and immunotherapy applications feasible. These new LVs will facilitate antibody production and the study of gene functions in these healthy and cancer immune cells.

Liu C, Hasegawa K, Russell SJ, et al.
Prostate-specific membrane antigen retargeted measles virotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2009; 69(10):1128-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Live attenuated vaccine strain of measles virus (MV) has promising antitumor activity and is undergoing clinical testing in three different phase I cancer trials. The virus uses one of two receptors, CD46 which is ubiquitously expressed on all nucleated cells or CD150 which is expressed on immune cells, to infect cells. To minimize potential toxicity due to indiscriminate infection of normal cells, we have generated a fully retargeted MV that infects cells exclusively through the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) receptor, which is overexpressed on prostate cancer cells and tumor neovasculature.
METHODS: A single-chain antibody (scFv) specific for the extracellular domain of PSMA (J591) was inserted as a C-terminal extension on the MV attachment protein. Specificity of infection by the PSMA targeted virus was evaluated in parallel with the parental MV and a control virus which binds to CD38, a myeloma antigen. Antitumor activity of the PSMA retargeted virus was tested in both LNCaP and PC3-PSMA tumor xenograft models, with and without low dose external beam radiation.
RESULTS: Replication of the PSMA targeted virus was comparable to the parental MV. The PSMA scFv efficiently redirected virus infection and cytopathic killing exclusively to PSMA positive prostate cancer cells and not PSMA negative cells. There was an additive effect on cell killing from radiation treatment and virotherapy. The PSMA virus induced tumor regression of LNCaP and PC3-PSMA tumor xenografts. Extensive areas of MV infection and apoptosis were seen in virus treated tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: The PSMA retargeted virus warrants further investigation as a virotherapy agent.

Ostrakhovitch EA, Wang Y, Li SS
SAP binds to CD22 and regulates B cell inhibitory signaling and calcium flux.
Cell Signal. 2009; 21(4):540-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP or SH2D1A) is an important regulator of immune function which, when mutated or deleted, causes the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP). Because B cell lymphoma is a major phenotype of XLP, it is important to understand the function of SAP in B cells. Here we report that SAP is expressed endogenously in mouse splenic B cells, is inducibly expressed in the human BJAB cells, and co-localizes and interacts with CD22. We also show that SAP binding to the inhibitory immunoreceptor CD22 regulates calcium mobilization in B cells. Moreover, forced expression of SAP leads to constitutive CD22 tyrosine phosphorylation and decreased Ca(2+) response in B cells. Biochemical analysis reveals that, in response to IgM cross-linking, the phosphorylation of Syk, Blnk, or PLCgamma2 and their interactions with one another were either diminished or completely abolished in SAP-expressing cells compared to cells that lack SAP. Collectively our work identifies a novel role for SAP in B cells and extends its function to inhibitory immunoreceptor signaling and calcium mobilization.

Suzuki A, Yamada R, Kochi Y, et al.
Functional SNPs in CD244 increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in a Japanese population.
Nat Genet. 2008; 40(10):1224-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with a complex genetic etiology. Members of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family carry out pivotal functions in innate immunity and in conventional lymphocytes. We identified a linkage disequilibrium block associated with rheumatoid arthritis in the chromosome 1q region containing multiple SLAM family genes. In this block, the association peaked at two functional SNPs (rs3766379 and rs6682654) in CD244 in two independent rheumatoid arthritis cohorts from Japan (P = 3.23 x 10(-8) and P = 7.45 x 10(-8)). We also identified a Japanese cohort with systemic lupus erythematosus that had a similar genotype distribution as the rheumatoid arthritis cohorts. We demonstrated that the rheumatoid arthritis-susceptible alleles of rs3766379 and rs6682654 and their haplotype increased their expression in luciferase and allele-specific transcript quantification assays. CD244 is a genetic risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis and may have a role in the autoimmune process shared by rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Kapral M, Strzalka B, Kowalczyk M, et al.
Transforming growth factor beta isoforms (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3) messenger RNA expression in laryngeal cancer.
Am J Otolaryngol. 2008 Jul-Aug; 29(4):233-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cancerogenesis is a multistage process controlled by many cytokines, including growth factors. The aim of the study was the comparison of transcriptional activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) genes in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent nonneoplastic tissues.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissues samples were obtained from 32 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in histologic grades G1 to G3 who underwent surgical treatment at the ENT Clinics of Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland. Quantification of gene expression was performed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique.
RESULTS: In tumor cells, expression of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 isoforms (P < .001) was higher than in normal tissues. There was a positive correlation between the expression of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 genes in tumors (R = 0.78, P = .0000) and adjacent normal tissues (R = 0.77, P = .0000).
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 messenger RNAs may be useful as molecular markers in distinguishing cancer from nonneoplastic tissues in laryngeal area.

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