Gene Summary

Gene:SKI; SKI proto-oncogene
Aliases: SGS, SKV
Summary:This gene encodes the nuclear protooncogene protein homolog of avian sarcoma viral (v-ski) oncogene. It functions as a repressor of TGF-beta signaling, and may play a role in neural tube development and muscle differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ski oncogene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (56)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Drug Resistance
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
  • Cell Movement
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cell Proliferation
  • SKI
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Messenger RNA
  • Transcription Factors
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • beta Catenin
  • Disease Progression
  • RT-PCR
  • HeLa Cells
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Breast Cancer
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cell Survival
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Transcription
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • MicroRNAs
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Melanoma
  • Apoptosis
  • Transfection
  • Chromosome 1
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Mutation
  • siRNA
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SKI (cancer-related)

Taguchi L, Miyakuni K, Morishita Y, et al.
c-Ski accelerates renal cancer progression by attenuating transforming growth factor β signaling.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):2063-2074 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of many cancers, its role in renal cancer has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of TGF-β in clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) progression in vitro and in vivo. First, expression levels of TGF-β signaling pathway components were examined. Microarray and immunohistochemical analyses showed that the expression of c-Ski, a transcriptional corepressor of Smad-dependent TGF-β and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, was higher in ccRCC tissues than in normal renal tissues. Next, a functional analysis of c-Ski effects was carried out. Bioluminescence imaging of renal orthotopic tumor models demonstrated that overexpression of c-Ski in human ccRCC cells promoted in vivo tumor formation. Enhancement of tumor formation was also reproduced by the introduction of a dominant-negative mutant TGF-β type II receptor into ccRCC cells. In contrast, introduction of the BMP signaling inhibitor Noggin failed to accelerate tumor formation, suggesting that the tumor-promoting effect of c-Ski depends on the inhibition of TGF-β signaling rather than of BMP signaling. Finally, the molecular mechanism of the tumor-suppressive role of TGF-β was assessed. Although TGF-β signaling did not affect tumor angiogenesis, apoptosis of ccRCC cells was induced by TGF-β. Taken together, these findings suggest that c-Ski suppresses TGF-β signaling in ccRCC cells, which, in turn, attenuates the tumor-suppressive effect of TGF-β.

Zhang H, Wang JS, Chen XG, et al.
Overexpression of c-Ski promotes cell proliferation, invasion and migration of gastric cancer associated fibroblasts.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2019; 35(4):214-221 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of c-Ski on cell proliferation, invasion and migration of gastric cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Expression of c-Ski in gastric cancer (GC) tissues was determined using immunohistochemistry. Both CAFs and non-cancerous gastric fibroblasts (NGFs) were isolated and cultured. c-Ski and Smad3 were over-expressed or knocked down using pcDNA3.0-c-Ski/Smad3 or siRNA, respectively. Cell viability, invasion and migration were measured and expression of c-Ski, α-SMA, and Smad3 in cells was determined using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. Expression of c-Ski was significantly higher in both in GC tissues and cell lines, and was the highest in tissues of diffuse type. Both c-Ski and α-SMA were significantly over-expressed in CAFs compared with that in the NGFs. When c-Ski was over-expressed in NGFs, cell viability, cell invasion and migration were all enhanced and expression of Smad3 was downregulated. When c-Ski was inhibited, cell viability, cell invasion, and migration were all suppressed and expression of Smad3 was upregulated. Meanwhile, overexpression of Smad3 significantly reversed the effects of over-expressed c-Ski in NGFs, and knockdown of Smad3 dramatically reversed the effects of si-c-Ski in CAFs. Over-expressed c-Ski could enhance cell viability, promote cell invasion, and migration of GC CAFs, and the effects might be through regulation of Smad3 signaling. This study may give deeper insights for relationship between c-Ski and CAFs, as well as role of c-Ski in cancer development, and also provide some novel research targets for treatment of GC.

Aitken SJ, Ibarra-Soria X, Kentepozidou E, et al.
CTCF maintains regulatory homeostasis of cancer pathways.
Genome Biol. 2018; 19(1):106 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CTCF binding to DNA helps partition the mammalian genome into discrete structural and regulatory domains. Complete removal of CTCF from mammalian cells causes catastrophic genome dysregulation, likely due to widespread collapse of 3D chromatin looping and alterations to inter- and intra-TAD interactions within the nucleus. In contrast, Ctcf hemizygous mice with lifelong reduction of CTCF expression are viable, albeit with increased cancer incidence. Here, we exploit chronic Ctcf hemizygosity to reveal its homeostatic roles in maintaining genome function and integrity.
RESULTS: We find that Ctcf hemizygous cells show modest but robust changes in almost a thousand sites of genomic CTCF occupancy; these are enriched for lower affinity binding events with weaker evolutionary conservation across the mouse lineage. Furthermore, we observe dysregulation of the expression of several hundred genes, which are concentrated in cancer-related pathways, and are caused by changes in transcriptional regulation. Chromatin structure is preserved but some loop interactions are destabilized; these are often found around differentially expressed genes and their enhancers. Importantly, the transcriptional alterations identified in vitro are recapitulated in mouse tumors and also in human cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: This multi-dimensional genomic and epigenomic profiling of a Ctcf hemizygous mouse model system shows that chronic depletion of CTCF dysregulates steady-state gene expression by subtly altering transcriptional regulation, changes which can also be observed in primary tumors.

Madsen MJ, Knight S, Sweeney C, et al.
Reparameterization of PAM50 Expression Identifies Novel Breast Tumor Dimensions and Leads to Discovery of a Genome-Wide Significant Breast Cancer Locus at
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018; 27(6):644-652 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Kinugawa Y, Uehara T, Matsuda K, et al.
Promoter hypomethylation of SKI in autoimmune pancreatitis.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(4):492-497 [PubMed] Related Publications
The relationship between methylation abnormality and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP)-a representative IgG4-related disease-has not yet been elucidated. We identified SKI might have a significant methylation abnormality in AIP through methylation array analysis using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip array, and investigated the relationship of SKI with AIP clinicopathological features. The methylation rate of SKI was assessed by quantitative SYBR green methylation-specific PCR, and the degree of SKI expression in tissue specimens was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 10 AIP cases, 14 cases of obstructive pancreatitis area in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) without a history of AIP, and 9 normal pancreas (NP) cases. The SKI methylation ratio was significantly lower in AIP than in PDA and NP. Additionally, the immunohistochemical staining-index (SI) score for SKI was significantly higher in AIP than NP, although there was no significant difference between AIP and PDA. There was a strong negative correlation between SI score and SKI methylation ratio, and between the serum concentrations of IgG4 and the SKI methylation ratio. There was a moderate positive correlation between the serum concentrations of IgG4 and SI. SKI is thought to be an oncogene indicating that SKI hypomethylation and carcinogenesis might be linked to AIP. Furthermore, the correlation between serum concentrations of IgG4 and SKI methylation levels suggest SKI might be involved in the pathogenesis of AIP. However, the role of SKI has not been clearly elucidated. Further studies are needed to understand further the function of SKI.

Rinaldetti S, Pfirrmann M, Manz K, et al.
Effect of ABCG2, OCT1, and ABCB1 (MDR1) Gene Expression on Treatment-Free Remission in a EURO-SKI Subtrial.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2018; 18(4):266-271 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) can safely be discontinued in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients with sustained deep molecular response. ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein), OCT1 (organic cation transporter 1), and ABCB1 (multidrug resistance protein 1) gene products are known to play a crucial role in acquired pharmacogenetic TKI resistance. Their influence on treatment-free remission (TFR) has not yet been investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA was isolated on the last day of TKI intake from peripheral blood leukocytes of 132 chronic phase CML patients who discontinued TKI treatment within the European Stop Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Study trial. Plasmid standards were designed including subgenic inserts of OCT1, ABCG2, and ABCB1 together with GUSB as reference gene. For expression analyses, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used. Multiple Cox regression analysis was performed. In addition, gene expression cutoffs for patient risk stratification were investigated.
RESULTS: The TFR rate of 132 patients, 12 months after TKI discontinuation, was 54% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46%-62%). ABCG2 expression (‰) was retained as the only significant variable (P = .02; hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07) in multiple Cox regression analysis. Only for the ABCG2 efflux transporter, a significant cutoff was found (P = .04). Patients with an ABCG2/GUSB transcript level >4.5‰ (n = 93) showed a 12-month TFR rate of 47% (95% CI, 37%-57%), whereas patients with low ABCG2 expression (≤4.5‰; n = 39) had a 12-month TFR rate of 72% (95% CI, 55%-82%).
CONCLUSION: In this study, we investigated the effect of pharmacogenetics in the context of a CML treatment discontinuation trial. The transcript levels of the efflux transporter ABCG2 predicted TFR after TKI discontinuation.

Chen HY, Lin LT, Wang ML, et al.
Musashi-1 promotes chemoresistant granule formation by PKR/eIF2α signalling cascade in refractory glioblastoma.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018; 1864(5 Pt A):1850-1861 [PubMed] Related Publications
Musashi-1 (MSI1), one of the RNA-binding proteins, is abundantly found not only in neural stem cells but also in several cancer tissues and has been reported to act as a positive regulator of cancer progression. Growing evidence indicates that PKR and eIF2α play pivotal roles in the stimulation of stress granule formation as well as in the subsequent translation modulation in response to stressful conditions; however, little is known about whether MSI1 is involved in this PKR/eIF2α cancer stem cell-enhancing machinery. In this study, we demonstrated that MSI1 promotes human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cells and enhances chemoresistance when exposed to sublethal stress. The overexpression of MSI1 leads to a protective effect in mitigating drug-induced cell death, thus facilitating the formation of chemoresistant stress granules (SGs) in response to arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment. SG components, such as PKR and eIF2α, were dominantly activated and assembled, while ATO was engaged. The activated PKR and eIF2α contribute to the downstream enhancement of stem cell genes, thereby promoting the progression of GBM. The silencing of MSI1 or PKR both obviously withdrew the phenomena. Taken together, our findings indicate that MSI1 plays a leading role in stress granule formation that grants cancer stem cell properties and chemoresistant stress granules in GBM, in response to stressful conditions via the PKR/eIF2α signalling cascade.

Feld C, Sahu P, Frech M, et al.
Combined cistrome and transcriptome analysis of SKI in AML cells identifies SKI as a co-repressor for RUNX1.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(7):3412-3428 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SKI is a transcriptional co-regulator and overexpressed in various human tumors, for example in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). SKI contributes to the origin and maintenance of the leukemic phenotype. Here, we use ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analysis to identify the epigenetic alterations induced by SKI overexpression in AML cells. We show that approximately two thirds of differentially expressed genes are up-regulated upon SKI deletion, of which >40% harbor SKI binding sites in their proximity, primarily in enhancer regions. Gene ontology analysis reveals that many of the differentially expressed genes are annotated to hematopoietic cell differentiation and inflammatory response, corroborating our finding that SKI contributes to a myeloid differentiation block in HL60 cells. We find that SKI peaks are enriched for RUNX1 consensus motifs, particularly in up-regulated SKI targets upon SKI deletion. RUNX1 ChIP-seq displays that nearly 70% of RUNX1 binding sites overlap with SKI peaks, mainly at enhancer regions. SKI and RUNX1 occupy the same genomic sites and cooperate in gene silencing. Our work demonstrates for the first time the predominant co-repressive function of SKI in AML cells on a genome-wide scale and uncovers the transcription factor RUNX1 as an important mediator of SKI-dependent transcriptional repression.

Waller RG, Darlington TM, Wei X, et al.
Novel pedigree analysis implicates DNA repair and chromatin remodeling in multiple myeloma risk.
PLoS Genet. 2018; 14(2):e1007111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The high-risk pedigree (HRP) design is an established strategy to discover rare, highly-penetrant, Mendelian-like causal variants. Its success, however, in complex traits has been modest, largely due to challenges of genetic heterogeneity and complex inheritance models. We describe a HRP strategy that addresses intra-familial heterogeneity, and identifies inherited segments important for mapping regulatory risk. We apply this new Shared Genomic Segment (SGS) method in 11 extended, Utah, multiple myeloma (MM) HRPs, and subsequent exome sequencing in SGS regions of interest in 1063 MM / MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance-a precursor to MM) cases and 964 controls from a jointly-called collaborative resource, including cases from the initial 11 HRPs. One genome-wide significant 1.8 Mb shared segment was found at 6q16. Exome sequencing in this region revealed predicted deleterious variants in USP45 (p.Gln691* and p.Gln621Glu), a gene known to influence DNA repair through endonuclease regulation. Additionally, a 1.2 Mb segment at 1p36.11 is inherited in two Utah HRPs, with coding variants identified in ARID1A (p.Ser90Gly and p.Met890Val), a key gene in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Our results provide compelling statistical and genetic evidence for segregating risk variants for MM. In addition, we demonstrate a novel strategy to use large HRPs for risk-variant discovery more generally in complex traits.

Takayama KI, Suzuki T, Fujimura T, et al.
Association of USP10 with G3BP2 Inhibits p53 Signaling and Contributes to Poor Outcome in Prostate Cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(5):846-856 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ubiquitin-specific protease 10 (USP10) is known to deubiquitylate its target proteins, mainly to enhance their stabilities. USP10 maintains p53 protein levels and controls epigenetic changes induced by the androgen receptor (AR). GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 2 (G3BP2), an androgen-responsive gene, is known as the main component of stress granules (SG) that interacts with USP10 in SGs. This study explores the roles of USP10 in prostate cancer progression in p53, G3BP2, and AR signaling. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequence analysis, it was found that USP10 is transcriptionally induced with AR recruitment to an intronic region. Furthermore, USP10 regulates androgen-mediated signaling and cell growth. USP10 maintained G3BP2 protein stability by reducing polyubiquitylation. G3BP2-dependent growth activation and p53 nuclear export that reduced p53 signaling were repressed by USP10 knockdown. Clinically, USP10 was expressed primarily in the cytoplasm of prostate cancer tissues. High levels of USP10 expression were strongly correlated with high levels of AR, G3BP2, and p53 in the cytoplasm. High expression of USP10 was significantly associated with poor prognosis of patients with prostate cancer. Taken together, USP10 has a repressive effect on p53 signaling for cell growth by regulating G3BP2 expression. These findings highlight an important oncogenic aspect of USP10 through its modulation of the p53-G3BP2 complex and AR signaling in prostate cancer.

Dunbar CE, High KA, Joung JK, et al.
Gene therapy comes of age.
Science. 2018; 359(6372) [PubMed] Related Publications
After almost 30 years of promise tempered by setbacks, gene therapies are rapidly becoming a critical component of the therapeutic armamentarium for a variety of inherited and acquired human diseases. Gene therapies for inherited immune disorders, hemophilia, eye and neurodegenerative disorders, and lymphoid cancers recently progressed to approved drug status in the United States and Europe, or are anticipated to receive approval in the near future. In this Review, we discuss milestones in the development of gene therapies, focusing on direct in vivo administration of viral vectors and adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells or hematopoietic stem cells. We also discuss emerging genome editing technologies that should further advance the scope and efficacy of gene therapy approaches.

El-Naggar AM, Sorensen PH
Translational control of aberrant stress responses as a hallmark of cancer.
J Pathol. 2018; 244(5):650-666 [PubMed] Related Publications
Altered mRNA translational control is emerging as a critical factor in cancer development and progression. Targeting specific elements of the translational machinery, such as mTORC1 or eIF4E, is emerging as a new strategy for innovative cancer therapy. While translation of most mRNAs takes place through cap-dependent mechanisms, a sub-population of cellular mRNA species, particularly stress-inducible mRNAs with highly structured 5'-UTR regions, are primarily translated through cap-independent mechanisms. Intriguingly, many of these mRNAs encode proteins that are involved in tumour cell adaptation to microenvironmental stress, and thus linked to aggressive behaviour including tumour invasion and metastasis. This necessitates a rigorous search for links between microenvironmental stress and aggressive tumour phenotypes. Under stress, cells block global protein synthesis to preserve energy while maintaining selective synthesis of proteins that support cell survival. One highly conserved mechanism to regulate protein synthesis under cell stress is to sequester mRNAs into cytosolic aggregates called stress granules (SGs), where their translation is silenced. SGs confer survival advantages and chemotherapeutic resistance to tumour cells under stress. Recently, it has been shown that genetically blocking SG formation dramatically reduces tumour invasive and metastatic capacity in vivo. Therefore, targeting SG formation might represent a potential treatment strategy to block cancer metastasis. Here, we present the critical link between selective mRNA translation, stress adaptation, SGs, and tumour progression. Further, we also explain how deciphering mechanisms of selective mRNA translation occurs under cell stress holds great promise for the identification of new targets in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ide K, Mitsui K, Irie R, et al.
A Novel Construction of Lentiviral Vectors for Eliminating Tumorigenic Cells from Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Stem Cells. 2018; 36(2):230-239 [PubMed] Related Publications
The risk of tumor formation poses a challenge for human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based transplantation therapy. Specific and total elimination of tumorigenic hPSCs by suicide genes (SGs) has not been achieved because no methodology currently exists for testing multiple candidate transgene constructs. Here, we present a novel method for efficient generation of tumorigenic cell-targeting lentiviral vectors (TC-LVs) with diverse promoters upstream of a fluorescent protein and SGs. Our two-plasmid system achieved rapid and simultaneous construction of different TC-LVs with different promoters. Ganciclovir (GCV) exerted remarkable cytotoxicity in herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-transduced hPSCs, and high specificity for undifferentiated cells was achieved using the survivin promoter (TC-LV.Surv). Moreover, GCV treatment completely abolished teratoma formation by TC-LV.Surv-infected hPSCs transplanted into mice, without harmful effects. Thus, TC-LV can efficiently identify the best promoter and SG for specific and complete elimination of tumorigenic hPSCs, facilitating the development of safe regenerative medicine. Stem Cells 2018;36:230-239.

Perna F, Berman SH, Soni RK, et al.
Integrating Proteomics and Transcriptomics for Systematic Combinatorial Chimeric Antigen Receptor Therapy of AML.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 32(4):506-519.e5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy targeting CD19 has yielded remarkable outcomes in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To identify potential CAR targets in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we probed the AML surfaceome for overexpressed molecules with tolerable systemic expression. We integrated large transcriptomics and proteomics datasets from malignant and normal tissues, and developed an algorithm to identify potential targets expressed in leukemia stem cells, but not in normal CD34

Zhang H, Yan T, Liu Z, et al.
MicroRNA-137 is negatively associated with clinical outcome and regulates tumor development through EZH2 in cervical cancer.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(1):938-947 [PubMed] Related Publications
We intend to evaluate the expression, clinical relevance, and functional role of microRNA-137 (miR-137) in human cervical cancer (CC). MiR-137 expressions were assessed by qPCR in CC cell lines and human CC tumors. The correlation between endogenous miR-137 expression and CC patients' postoperative overall survival was examined statistically. CC cell lines, Ca-Ski, and SiHa cells were transduced with lentivirus to ectopically upregulate endogenous miR-137 expressions. Possible inhibitory effects of miR-137 upregulation on CC in vitro proliferation and migration, as well as in vivo transplantation were evaluated. Targeting of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) gene by miR-137 in CC was assessed by dual-luciferase activity assay and qPCR. In CC cells with upregulated miR-137, EZH2 was overexpressed to assess its direct function in miR-137 mediated CC proliferation and migration. MiR-137 was downregulated in both CC cells and human CC tumors. Downregulation of endogenous miR-137 was significantly correlated with CC patients' short overall survival. In CC cells, miR-137 upregulation is tumor-suppressive by inhibiting proliferation and migration in vitro, and transplantation in vivo. EZH2 was a direct downstream target gene of miR-137 in CC. Forced overexpression of EZH2 in miR-137-upregulated CC cells reversed the tumor-suppression induced by miR-137. MiR-137 is lowly expressed in CC and possibly acting as a negative biomarker for CC patients' clinical outcome. MiR-137 upregulation may suppress CC, very likely by inversely regulating EZH2.

Liu C, Wang X, Genchev GZ, Lu H
Multi-omics facilitated variable selection in Cox-regression model for cancer prognosis prediction.
Methods. 2017; 124:100-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
MOTIVATION: New developments in high-throughput genomic technologies have enabled the measurement of diverse types of omics biomarkers in a cost-efficient and clinically-feasible manner. Developing computational methods and tools for analysis and translation of such genomic data into clinically-relevant information is an ongoing and active area of investigation. For example, several studies have utilized an unsupervised learning framework to cluster patients by integrating omics data. Despite such recent advances, predicting cancer prognosis using integrated omics biomarkers remains a challenge. There is also a shortage of computational tools for predicting cancer prognosis by using supervised learning methods. The current standard approach is to fit a Cox regression model by concatenating the different types of omics data in a linear manner, while penalty could be added for feature selection. A more powerful approach, however, would be to incorporate data by considering relationships among omics datatypes.
METHODS: Here we developed two methods: a SKI-Cox method and a wLASSO-Cox method to incorporate the association among different types of omics data. Both methods fit the Cox proportional hazards model and predict a risk score based on mRNA expression profiles. SKI-Cox borrows the information generated by these additional types of omics data to guide variable selection, while wLASSO-Cox incorporates this information as a penalty factor during model fitting.
RESULTS: We show that SKI-Cox and wLASSO-Cox models select more true variables than a LASSO-Cox model in simulation studies. We assess the performance of SKI-Cox and wLASSO-Cox using TCGA glioblastoma multiforme and lung adenocarcinoma data. In each case, mRNA expression, methylation, and copy number variation data are integrated to predict the overall survival time of cancer patients. Our methods achieve better performance in predicting patients' survival in glioblastoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

Ma C, Xu B, Husaiyin S, et al.
MicroRNA-505 predicts prognosis and acts as tumor inhibitor in cervical carcinoma with inverse association with FZD4.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 92:586-594 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We investigated the expression and mechanisms of microRNA-505 (miR-505) and its downstream target gene Frizzled-4 (FZD4) in cervical cancer.
METHODS: miR-505 expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR in cervical cancer cell lines and human carcinomas. Cancer patients' clinicopathological factors and survival were analyzed based on their tumorous miR-505 levels. Ca-Ski and HeLa cells were transduced with lentivirus to upregulate or downregulate miR-505. Their impacts on cervical cancer were evaluated by in vitro proliferation, invasion and in vivo tumorigenicity assays, respectively. Target gene of miR-505, FZD4, was evaluated by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Its expression in cervical cancer cell was evaluated by qRT-PCR. FZD4 was either upregulated or downregulated in cervical cancer cells to further assess its impact on modulating cervical cancer development in vitro.
RESULTS: MiR-505 is lowly expressed in cervical cancer cell lines and human carcinomas. Low tumorous miR-505 expression was associated with patients' advanced tumor stage and short survival. In Ca-Ski and HeLa cells, lentivirus-mediated miR-505 upregulation suppressed cancer proliferation and invasion in vitro, and tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas miR-505 downregulation had no functional effects. FZD4 was confirmed to be a downstream target of miR-505, and found to be upregulated in cervical cancer. Genetic modification of FZD4 in cervical cancer cells yielded a significant change in cancer growth, as FZD4 upregulation suppressed whereas FZD4 downregulation promoted cervical cancer proliferation and invasion In vitro.
CONCLUSION: MiR-505 may act as a cancer inhibitor and prognostic factor in cervical cancer. FDZ4 is reversely expressed as miR-505, and has dramatic regulatory function in cervical cancer.

Chiou GY, Yang TW, Huang CC, et al.
Musashi-1 promotes a cancer stem cell lineage and chemoresistance in colorectal cancer cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):2172 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are a critical health issue worldwide. Cancer stem cell (CSC) lineages are associated with tumour transformation, progression, and malignant transformation. However, how lineages are transformed and how chemoresistance is acquired by CRCs remain largely unknown. In this report, we demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein Musashi-1 enhanced the development of CD44

Morel A, Baguet A, Perrard J, et al.
5azadC treatment upregulates miR-375 level and represses HPV16 E6 expression.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(28):46163-46176 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-risk human papillomaviruses are the etiological agents of cervical cancer and HPV16 is the most oncogenic genotype. Immortalization and transformation of infected cells requires the overexpression of the two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 following HPV DNA integration into the host cell genome. Integration often leads to the loss of the E2 open reading frame and the corresponding protein can no longer act as a transcriptional repressor on p97 promoter. Recently, it has been proposed that long control region methylation also contributes to the regulation of E6/E7 expression.To determine which epigenetic mechanism is involved in HPV16 early gene regulation, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was used to demethylate Ca Ski and SiHa cell DNA. Decreased expression of E6 mRNA and protein levels was observed in both cell lines in an E2-independent manner. E6 repression was accompanied by neither a modification of the main cellular transcription factor expression involved in long control region regulation, nor by a modification of the E6 mRNA splicing pattern. In contrast, a pronounced upregulation of miR-375, known to destabilize HPV16 early viral mRNA, was observed. Finally, the use of miR-375 inhibitor definitively proved the involvement of miR-375 in E6 repression. These results highlight that cellular DNA methylation modulates HPV16 early gene expression and support a role for epigenetic events in high-risk HPV associated-carcinogenesis.

Rivière I, Sadelain M
Chimeric Antigen Receptors: A Cell and Gene Therapy Perspective.
Mol Ther. 2017; 25(5):1117-1124 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic receptors that reprogram T lymphocytes to target chosen antigens. The targeting of CD19, a cell surface molecule expressed in the vast majority of leukemias and lymphomas, has been successfully translated in the clinic, earning CAR therapy a special distinction in the selection of "cancer immunotherapy" by Science as the breakthrough of the year in 2013. CD19 CAR therapy is predicated on advances in genetic engineering, T cell biology, tumor immunology, synthetic biology, target identification, cell manufacturing sciences, and regulatory compliance-the central tenets of CAR therapy. Here, we review two of these foundations: the genetic engineering approaches and cell types to engineer.

Xu CY, Liu SQ, Qin MB, et al.
SphK1 modulates cell migration and EMT-related marker expression by regulating the expression of p-FAK in colorectal cancer cells.
Int J Mol Med. 2017; 39(5):1277-1284 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) plays an important role in colorectal carcinoma metastasis. However, whether SphK1 modulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related marker expression and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, in order to clarify this issue, we used various colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, Caco2, HT29, RKO and HCT116. Each of the cell lines was divided into 3 groups as follows: the control group, SKI-Ⅱ (SphK1 inhibitor) group and PF-562271 [focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor] group. The migratory ability of the cells was examined by Transwell chamber assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of SphK1, FAK (p-FAK), Slug, vimentin, N-cadherin and E-cadherin were detected by PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The results revealed that the suppression of SphK1 reduced the cell migratory ability, and decreased the expression of Slug, vimentin and N-cadherin; however, the expression of E-cadherin was increased. Moreover, the inhibition of SphK1 reduced the expression of p-FAK. The inhibition of FAK (p-FAK) also decreased the cell migratory ability, and decreased the expression of Slug, vimentin and N-cadherin, whereas the expression of E-cadherin was increased. Thus, our data suggest that SphK1 modulates the expression of EMT-related markers and cell migration by regulating the expression of p-FAK in CRC cells. Thus, SphK1 may play a functional role in mediating the EMT process in CRC.

Xie M, Wu X, Zhang J, et al.
Ski regulates Smads and TAZ signaling to suppress lung cancer progression.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(10):2178-2189 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ski, the transforming protein of the avian Sloan-Kettering retrovirus, displays both pro- and anti-oncogenic activities in human cancer. The mechanisms underlying these conflicting observations have not been fully understood. Herein, we investigated the mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor activity of Ski. To investigate the effect of Ski re-activation on TGF-β and Hippo/TAZ pathway, we measured its effect on the endogenous Smad target genes (PAI-1 and P15

Acuna-Hidalgo R, Deriziotis P, Steehouwer M, et al.
Overlapping SETBP1 gain-of-function mutations in Schinzel-Giedion syndrome and hematologic malignancies.
PLoS Genet. 2017; 13(3):e1006683 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by multiple malformations, severe neurological alterations and increased risk of malignancy. SGS is caused by de novo germline mutations clustering to a 12bp hotspot in exon 4 of SETBP1. Mutations in this hotspot disrupt a degron, a signal for the regulation of protein degradation, and lead to the accumulation of SETBP1 protein. Overlapping SETBP1 hotspot mutations have been observed recurrently as somatic events in leukemia. We collected clinical information of 47 SGS patients (including 26 novel cases) with germline SETBP1 mutations and of four individuals with a milder phenotype caused by de novo germline mutations adjacent to the SETBP1 hotspot. Different mutations within and around the SETBP1 hotspot have varying effects on SETBP1 stability and protein levels in vitro and in in silico modeling. Substitutions in SETBP1 residue I871 result in a weak increase in protein levels and mutations affecting this residue are significantly more frequent in SGS than in leukemia. On the other hand, substitutions in residue D868 lead to the largest increase in protein levels. Individuals with germline mutations affecting D868 have enhanced cell proliferation in vitro and higher incidence of cancer compared to patients with other germline SETBP1 mutations. Our findings substantiate that, despite their overlap, somatic SETBP1 mutations driving malignancy are more disruptive to the degron than germline SETBP1 mutations causing SGS. Additionally, this suggests that the functional threshold for the development of cancer driven by the disruption of the SETBP1 degron is higher than for the alteration in prenatal development in SGS. Drawing on previous studies of somatic SETBP1 mutations in leukemia, our results reveal a genotype-phenotype correlation in germline SETBP1 mutations spanning a molecular, cellular and clinical phenotype.

Makino Y, Yoon JH, Bae E, et al.
Repression of Smad3 by Stat3 and c-Ski/SnoN induces gefitinib resistance in lung adenocarcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 484(2):269-277 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-associated inflammation develops resistance to the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harboring oncogenic EGFR mutations. Stat3-mediated interleukin (IL)-6 signaling and Smad-mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways play crucial regulatory roles in cancer-associated inflammation. However, mechanisms how these pathways regulate sensitivity and resistance to EGFR-TKI in NSCLCs remain largely undetermined. Here we show that signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 represses Smad3 in synergy with the potent negative regulators of TGF-β signaling, c-Ski and SnoN, whereby renders gefitinib-sensitive HCC827 cells resistant. We found that IL-6 signaling via phosphorylated Stat3 induced gefitinib resistance as repressing transcription of Smad3, whereas TGF-β enhanced gefitinib sensitivity as activating transcription of Smad3 in HCC827 cells with gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR mutation. Promoter analyses showed that Stat3 synergized with c-Ski/SnoN to repress Smad2/3/4-induced transcription of the Smad3 gene. Smad3 was found to be an apoptosis inducer, which upregulated pro-apoptotic genes such as caspase-3 and downregulated anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2. Our results suggest that derepression of Smad3 can be a therapeutic strategy to prevent gefitinib-resistance in NSCLCs with gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR mutation.

Schütz C, Inselmann S, Saussele S, et al.
Expression of the CTLA-4 ligand CD86 on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) predicts risk of disease recurrence after treatment discontinuation in CML.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(4):829-836 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is unknown, why only a minority of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients sustains treatment free remission (TFR) after discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in deep molecular remission (MR). Here we studied, whether expression of the T-cell inhibitory receptor (CTLA-4)-ligand CD86 (B7.2) on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) affects relapse risk after TKI cessation. CML patients in MR displayed significantly higher CD86

Shin HS, An HY, Choi JS, et al.
Organotypic Spheroid Culture to Mimic Radiation-Induced Salivary Hypofunction.
J Dent Res. 2017; 96(4):396-405 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiation treatment often leads to irreversible damage to normal salivary glands (SGs) because of their proximity to head and neck cancers. Optimization of the in vitro model of irradiation (IR)-induced SG damage is warranted to investigate pathophysiology and monitor treatment outcome. Here, we present an organotypic spheroid culture model to investigate the impact of IR on SGs and the mechanisms underlying IR-induced structural and functional changes. Human parotid epithelial cells were obtained from human parotid glands and plated on either plastic plates or Matrigel. A number of 3-dimensional (3D) spheroids were assembled on Matrigel. After IR at 10 and 20 Gy, morphologic changes in cells in 2D monolayers and 3D spheroids were observed. As the structural integrity of the 3D spheroids was destroyed by IR, the expression levels of salivary epithelial and structural proteins and genes decreased proportionally with radiation dosage. Furthermore, the spheroid culture allowed better measurement of functional alterations following IR relative to the monolayer culture, in which IR-inflicted spheroids exhibited a loss of acinar-specific cellular functions that enable Ca

Shagieva G, Domnina L, Makarevich O, et al.
Depletion of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species downregulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cervical cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(3):4901-4913 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the course of cancer progression, epithelial cells often acquire morphological and functional characteristics of mesenchymal cells, a process known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT provides epithelial cells with migratory, invasive, and stem cell capabilities. Reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondria (mtROS) could be of special importance for pro-tumorigenic signaling and EMT.In our study, we used mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 to lower the mtROS level and analyze their role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion junctions, and signaling pathways critical for tumorigenesis of cervical carcinomas. A decrease in mtROS was found to induce formation of β-cytoplasmic actin stress fibers and circumferential rings in cervical cancer SiHa and Ca-Ski cells. It was accompanied by an upregulation of E-cadherin in SiHa cells and a downregulation of N-cadherin in Ca-Ski cells. In SiHa cells, an increase in E-cadherin expression was accompanied by a reduction of Snail, E-cadherin negative regulator. A stimulation of mtROS by epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused a Snail upregulation in SiHa cells that could be downregulated by SkQ1. SkQ1 caused a decrease in activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in SiHa and Ca-Ski. EGF produced an opposite effect. Incubation with SkQ1 suppressed EGF-induced p-ERK1/2 upregulation in SiHa, but not in Ca-Ski cells. Thus, we showed that scavenging of mtROS by SkQ1 initiated reversal of EMT and suppressed proliferation of cervical cancer cells.

Beider K, Rosenberg E, Bitner H, et al.
The Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Modulator FTY720 Targets Multiple Myeloma via the CXCR4/CXCL12 Pathway.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(7):1733-1747 [PubMed] Related Publications

Okada T, Lee AY, Qin LX, et al.
Integrin-α10 Dependency Identifies RAC and RICTOR as Therapeutic Targets in High-Grade Myxofibrosarcoma.
Cancer Discov. 2016; 6(10):1148-1165 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myxofibrosarcoma is a common mesenchymal malignancy with complex genomics and heterogeneous clinical outcomes. Through gene-expression profiling of 64 primary high-grade myxofibrosarcomas, we defined an expression signature associated with clinical outcome. The gene most significantly associated with disease-specific death and distant metastasis was ITGA10 (integrin-α10). Functional studies revealed that myxofibrosarcoma cells strongly depended on integrin-α10, whereas normal mesenchymal cells did not. Integrin-α10 transmitted its tumor-specific signal via TRIO and RICTOR, two oncoproteins that are frequently co-overexpressed through gene amplification on chromosome 5p. TRIO and RICTOR activated RAC/PAK and AKT/mTOR to promote sarcoma cell survival. Inhibition of these proteins with EHop-016 (RAC inhibitor) and INK128 (mTOR inhibitor) had antitumor effects in tumor-derived cell lines and mouse xenografts, and combining the drugs enhanced the effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrin-α10/TRIO/RICTOR signaling for driving myxofibrosarcoma progression and provide the basis for promising targeted treatment strategies for patients with high-risk disease.
SIGNIFICANCE: Identifying the molecular pathogenesis for myxofibrosarcoma progression has proven challenging given the highly complex genomic alterations in this tumor type. We found that integrin-α10 promotes tumor cell survival through activation of TRIO-RAC-RICTOR-mTOR signaling, and that inhibitors of RAC and mTOR have antitumor effects in vivo, thus identifying a potential treatment strategy for patients with high-risk myxofibrosarcoma. Cancer Discov; 6(10); 1148-65. ©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1069.

Gallo-Oller G, Vollmann-Zwerenz A, Meléndez B, et al.
P144, a Transforming Growth Factor beta inhibitor peptide, generates antitumoral effects and modifies SMAD7 and SKI levels in human glioblastoma cell lines.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 381(1):67-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent malignant primary brain tumor, accounting for 60-70% of all gliomas. Current median patient survival time is 14-16 months after diagnosis. Numerous efforts in therapy have not significantly altered the nearly uniform lethality of this malignancy. The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a key role in GBM and is implicated in proliferation, invasion and therapy resistance. Several inhibitors of the TGF-β pathway have entered clinical trials or are under development. In this work, the therapeutic potential of P144, a TGF-β inhibitor peptide, was analyzed. P144 decreased proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and tumorigenicity in vitro, whereas apoptosis and anoikis were significantly increased for GBM cell lines. SMAD2 phosphorylation was reduced, together with a downregulation of SKI and an upregulation of SMAD7 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Additionally, P144 was able to impair tumor growth and increase survival in an in vivo flank model. Our findings suggest a potential effect of P144 in vitro and in vivo that is mediated by regulation of transcriptional target genes of the TGF-β pathway, suggesting a therapeutic potential of P144 for GBM treatment.

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