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New Zealand

Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 4.5m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 21,300
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 295.0
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:28.8%
People dying from cancer /yr: 8,600
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications from New Zealand

Cancer Organisations and Resources (10 links)

Latest Research Publications from New Zealand

Karunasinghe N, Zhu Y, Han DY, et al.
Quality of life effects of androgen deprivation therapy in a prostate cancer cohort in New Zealand: can we minimize effects using a stratification based on the aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 rs12529 gene polymorphism?
BMC Urol. 2016; 16(1):48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective palliation treatment in men with advanced prostate cancer (PC). However, ADT has well documented side effects that could alter the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The current study aims to test whether a genetic stratification could provide better knowledge for optimising ADT options to minimize HRQoL effects.
METHODS: A cohort of 206 PC survivors (75 treated with and 131 without ADT) was recruited with written consent to collect patient characteristics, clinical data and HRQoL data related to PC management. The primary outcomes were the percentage scores under each HRQoL subscale assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaires (QLQ-C30 and PR25) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales developed by the University of Melbourne, Australia. Genotyping of these men was carried out for the aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 (AKR1C3) rs12529 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Analysis of HRQoL scores were carried out against ADT duration and in association with the AKR1C3 rs12529 SNP using the generalised linear model. P-values <0 · 05 were considered significant, and were further tested for restriction with Bonferroni correction.
RESULTS: Increase in hormone treatment-related effects were recorded with long-term ADT compared to no ADT. The C and G allele frequencies of the AKR1C3rs12529 SNP were 53·4 % and 46·6 % respectively. Hormone treatment-related symptoms showed an increase with ADT when associated with the AKR1C3 rs12529 G allele. Meanwhile, decreasing trends on cancer-specific symptoms and increased sexual interest were recorded with no ADT when associated with the AKR1C3 rs12529 G allele and reverse trends with the C allele. As higher incidence of cancer-specific symptoms relate to cancer retention it is possible that associated with the C allele there could be higher incidence of unresolved cancers under no ADT options.
CONCLUSIONS: If these findings can be reproduced in larger homogeneous cohorts, a genetic stratification based on the AKR1C3 rs12529 SNP, can minimize ADT-related HRQoL effects in PC patients. Our data additionally show that with this stratification it could also be possible to identify men needing ADT for better oncological advantage.

Rumley CN, Nedev N, Sharples K, et al.
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer: implementation and outcomes in a New Zealand community hospital.
J Med Radiat Sci. 2016; 63(2):96-103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has become the standard of care for squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (HNSCC). This report presents early outcomes of IMRT with concomitant chemotherapy in a community setting in New Zealand.
METHODS: Forty-eight patients with stage III and IV advanced HNSCC received definitive treatment with IMRT. A dose of 66 Gy in 30 fractions was delivered over 6 weeks with 3-weekly concurrent cisplatin after a single induction cycle of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Acute toxicity, locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival and overall survival (OS) outcomes were analysed.
RESULTS: Follow-up ranged from 2 to 82 months (median 34 months). Acute grade 2 toxicity was observed in 27 patients and grade 3 toxicity in 19 patients. No patients experienced grade 4 toxicity and there were no treatment-related deaths. Locoregional failures occurred in six patients and distant metastatic disease occurred in five patients. Actuarial estimates of 3-year LRC, disease-free survival and OS were 87.3%, 74.4% and 73.7% respectively.
CONCLUSION: Definitive treatment of stage III and IV cancer of the head and neck with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy was achievable in the community setting. Acute toxicities were manageable and 3-year outcomes were comparable to other published series.

Spillane AJ
What is new in the surgical management and prevention of breast cancer?
Med J Aust. 2016; 204(8):311-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Australian women. As most women now survive breast cancer, improving quality-of-life outcomes is increasingly important and major changes are occurring in breast surgery to meet this challenge. Use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy results in lower mastectomy rates, broader surgical options and less surgical morbidity. Oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS) facilitates less frequent need for mastectomy, better aesthetic outcomes and improved quality of life. Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) improves quality of life and can be considered in a large proportion of women requiring mastectomy; however, Australia's rate of IBR is low compared with similar countries. Breast cancer risk reduction can be achieved with lifestyle modifications and, in women at high risk, chemoprevention with selective oestrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy is an option for BRCA gene mutation carriers or those women otherwise established to have a high level of risk. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) is increasingly performed at the time of initial breast cancer management, largely driven by patient preference. However, CPM does not improve survival and has similar rates of complications as therapeutic mastectomy. It should be cautiously considered, with full discussion of risks and benefits. Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand (BreastSurgANZ) coordinates training of most new breast surgeons and is fostering a broader range of multidisciplinary oncology, OBS and IBR skills in its members. The BreastSurgANZ Quality Audit monitors the quality of care provided by members. Training breast surgeons now have access to a Graduate Certificate in Surgery (Breast Surgery) to broaden their knowledge base.

Stacey FG, James EL, Chapman K, Lubans DR
Social cognitive theory mediators of physical activity in a lifestyle program for cancer survivors and carers: findings from the ENRICH randomized controlled trial.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016; 13:49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing numbers of cancer survivors and evidence that diet and physical activity improves the health of cancer survivors, most do not meet guidelines. Some social cognitive theory (SCT)-based interventions have increased physical activity behavior, however few have used objective physical activity measures. The Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health (ENRICH) randomized controlled trial reported a significant intervention effect for the primary outcome of pedometer-assessed step counts at post-test (8-weeks) and follow-up (20-weeks). The aim of this study was to test whether the SCT constructs operationalized in the ENRICH intervention were mediators of physical activity behavior change.
METHODS: Randomized controlled trial with 174 cancer survivors and carers assessed at baseline, post-test (8-weeks), and follow-up (20-weeks). Participants were randomized to the ENRICH six session face-to-face healthy lifestyle program, or to a wait-list control. Hypothesized SCT mediators of physical activity behavior change (self-efficacy, behavioral goal, outcome expectations, impediments, and social expectations) were assessed using valid and reliable scales. Mediation was assessed using the Preacher and Hayes SPSS INDIRECT macro.
RESULTS: At eight weeks, there was a significant intervention effect on behavioral goal (A = 9.12, p = 0.031) and outcome expectations (A = 0.25, p = 0.042). At 20 weeks, the intervention had a significant effect on self-efficacy (A = 0.31, p = 0.049) and behavioral goal (A = 13.15, p = 0.011). Only changes in social support were significantly associated with changes in step counts at eight weeks (B = 633.81, p = 0.023). Behavioral goal was the only SCT construct that had a significant mediating effect on step counts, and explained 22 % of the intervention effect at 20 weeks (AB = 397.9, 95 % CI 81.5-1025.5).
CONCLUSIONS: SCT constructs had limited impact on objectively-assessed step counts in a multiple health behavior change intervention for cancer survivors and their carers. Behavioral goal measured post-intervention was a significant mediator of pedometer-assessed step counts at 3-months after intervention completion, and explained 22 % of the intervention effect. Future research should examine the separate impact of goals and planning, as well as examining mediators of behavior maintenance in physical activity interventions targeting cancer survivors.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials registry ANZCTRN1260901086257 .

Wilson N, Selak V, Blakely T, et al.
Decision-making in an era of cancer prevention via aspirin: New Zealand needs updated guidelines and risk calculators.
N Z Med J. 2016; 129(1431):85-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Based on new systematic reviews of the evidence, the US Preventive Services Task Force has drafted updated guidelines on the use of low-dose aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The Task Force generally recommends consideration of aspirin in adults aged 50-69 years with 10-year CVD risk of at least 10%, in who absolute health gain (reduction of CVD and cancer) is estimated to exceed absolute health loss (increase in bleeds). With the ongoing decline in CVD, current risk calculators for New Zealand are probably outdated, so it is difficult to be precise about what proportion of the population is in this risk category (roughly equivalent to 5-year CVD risk ≥5%). Nevertheless, we suspect that most smokers aged 50-69 years, and some non-smokers, would probably meet the new threshold for taking low-dose aspirin. The country therefore needs updated guidelines and risk calculators that are ideally informed by estimates of absolute net health gain (in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) per person) and cost-effectiveness. Other improvements to risk calculators include: epidemiological rigour (eg, by addressing competing mortality); providing enhanced graphical display of risk to enhance risk communication; and possibly capturing the issues of medication disutility and comparison with lifestyle changes.

Tan J, Joblin L, Davenport E
Accuracy of frozen sections for breast cancer sentinel lymph node biopsies within a peripheral New Zealand hospital.
N Z Med J. 2016; 129(1431):46-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Intra-operative frozen section is a commonly-used technique for evaluating sentinel lymph node biopsies in breast cancer to determine the need for an axillary node dissection (AND). Frozen section does have drawbacks, including cost and uncertainty around operating time. In addition, recent studies have questioned the benefit of AND in certain cases. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the accuracy of frozen section at our institution.
METHODS: All patients who had a sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer in the Hawke's Bay District Health Board region over a 1-year period were included in the study. Results of intra-operative frozen section were compared to routine paraffin histological analysis.
RESULTS: Eighty patients were eligible. Eighteen had a positive frozen section. There were two false negatives. The sensitivity of frozen section for metastases was 90%, specificity was 100%, and the false negative rate was 2.5%.
CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of frozen section section for sentinel lymph node biopsies in breast cancer at Hawke's Bay District Health Board is acceptable by international standards. However, as further evidence against axillary node dissections in those with sentinel node positive disease mounts, their use in the future may be limited.

Kladnitski M, Kenwright D
Management of gestational trophoblastic disease: a survey of New Zealand O&G practice.
N Z Med J. 2016; 129(1431):38-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of the study was to obtain information on pathways for diagnosis and management of molar pregnancy/gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) across New Zealand, the protocols used, and, in addition, to consider the view of O&G Specialists on a national GTD reference centre.
METHOD: An electronic survey approved by the RANZCOG Continues Professional Development Committee was distributed amongst registered O&G Specialists currently working in New Zealand. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2011. Frequency distributions were used to determine the percentage of participants responding to the listed alternatives for each question.
RESULTS: There were 234 potential responders, but only 68 complete questionnaires were received and available for analysis. The diagnosis of GTD requires histopathological analysis of pregnancy tissue, however only 79.7% of participants request this test routinely. Sixty-five percent of Fellows thought that a number of molar pregnancies can be missed with increasing proportion of medically-managed miscarriages, reliance on ultrasound and appearance of the tissue being contributing factors. Sixty-six percent of specialists were directly involved in the management of patients with GTD to various degrees. Follow-up responsibilities were divided between designated O&G specialists (52.3%), specialised gynaecology clinics (29.2%), acute assessment units (13.8%), nurse specialists (12%), O&G registrars (10.8%), GPs (6.2%), and others (6.2%). NZGCG guidelines were used by the majority of responders (54.8%), followed by local (29%) and RCOG (27.4%) guidelines. Seventy-two percent of specialists felt that some form of centralisation in the management of GTD is needed.
CONCLUSION: In spite of the low response rate, our research demonstrates existing practice heterogeneity at every level of care. It also confirms that there is a desire for some form of centralisation in diagnosis and management of GTD, and a definite need for data collection in the form of a national register.

Elwood JM, Aye PS, Tin Tin S
Increasing Disadvantages in Cancer Survival in New Zealand Compared to Australia, between 2000-05 and 2006-10.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150734 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
New Zealand has lower cancer survival compared to its neighbour Australia. If this were due to long established differences between the two patient populations, it might be expected to be either constant in time, or decreasing, as improving health services deals with inequities. In this study we compared trends in relative cancer survival ratios in New Zealand and Australia between 2000-05 and 2006-10, using data from the New Zealand Cancer Registry and the Australian Institute for Health and Welfare. Over this period, Australia showed significant improvements (6.0% in men, 3.0% in women) in overall 5-year cancer survival, with substantial increases in survival from major cancer sites such as lung, bowel, prostate, and breast cancers. New Zealand had only a 1.8% increase in cancer survival in men and 1.3% in women, with non-significant changes in survival from lung and bowel cancers, although there were increases in survival from prostate and breast cancers. For all cancers combined, and for lung and bowel cancer, the improvements in survival and the greater improvements in Australia were mainly in 1-year survival, suggesting factors related to diagnosis and presentation. For breast cancer, the improvements were similar in each country and seen in survival after the first year. The findings underscore the need to accelerate the efforts to improve early diagnosis and optimum treatment for New Zealand cancer patients to catch up with the progress in Australia.

Lao C, Obertová Z, Brown C, et al.
Differences in survival between Māori and New Zealand Europeans with prostate cancer.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2016; 25(2):262-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to examine the survival disparity between Māori men and New Zealand (NZ) Europeans diagnosed with prostate cancer. We identified men aged 40+ years in the Midland Cancer Network region registered with prostate cancer in 2007-2010 in the Cancer Registry. Data were extracted from patient notes of all Māori men and a sample of NZ Europeans. The survival disparity between Māori men and Europeans was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models after adjusting for other factors. This study included 535 men with prostate cancer (135 Māori men and 400 Europeans). The 5-year cancer-specific survival was 98.6% for men diagnosed with localised cancer, 88.8% for locally advanced disease and 19.1% for metastatic cancer. The all-cause survival and the cancer-specific survival were both significantly poorer for Māori men than for NZ Europeans (log rank test: P = 0.004, 0.006 respectively). The hazard ratio of cancer-specific survival for Māori men was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.21-3.36) compared with NZ Europeans. Māori men with prostate cancer had poorer all-cause survival and cancer-specific survival than NZ Europeans. Māori men were at risk of having more advanced disease at diagnosis, which explains most of the survival inequity between Māori men and NZ Europeans.

Lawrenson R, Seneviratne S, Scott N, et al.
Breast cancer inequities between Māori and non-Māori women in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2016; 25(2):225-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Māori women have one of the highest incidences of breast cancer in the world. This high incidence is generally unexplained although higher rates of obesity and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors that may be important. Māori women are less likely to attend mammographic breast screening and are likely to be diagnosed with more advanced disease. This is one of the reasons for the excess mortality. Another factor is differences in the treatment pathway. Māori women are more likely to experience delay in receiving treatment, are less likely to receive radiotherapy, are more likely to be treated with a mastectomy and are less likely to adhere to long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy. However, genetic factors in Māori women do not seem to impact significantly on mortality. This review looks at the inequity between Māori and non-Māori women and addresses the causes. It proposes ways of reducing inequity through primary prevention, increased participation in breast screening and greater standardisation of the treatment pathway for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. We believe that health system improvements will decrease barriers to health care participation for Māori women and suggest that further research into identifying and modifying obstacles within health systems is required.

Slater T, Matheson A, Davies C, et al.
The role and potential of community-based cancer care for Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
N Z Med J. 2016; 129(1430):29-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the contribution to cancer care and prevention by Māori health provider organisations (MHPs) in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
METHODS: A nationwide postal survey of all MHPs (n=253) was undertaken in 2011. The response rate was 55%.
RESULTS: We found that MHPs are delivering a wide range of programmes including cancer prevention services focussed on health promotion, advocacy, information and support. MHPs identified financial hardship, transport difficulties, and lack of information as the greatest barriers to cancer care. Culturally safe care by mainstream providers would improve cancer service provision overall. The importance of trust and long-term relationships, with a focus on families rather than individual-based care, was highlighted.
CONCLUSION: These findings could lead to substantial improvements in quality of life for Māori cancer patients. This is the first study to show how indigenous health providers contribute to cancer care and prevention in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

Boyd M, Blakely T, Atkinson J
Ethnic counts on mortality, New Zealand Cancer Registry and census data: 2006-2011.
N Z Med J. 2016; 129(1429):22-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the effects on lung function of IV magnesium in acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), when given in conjunction with standard bronchodilator therapy.
METHODS: This was a pilot study to a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. 30 patients presenting to ED with AECOPD were included. In addition to standard bronchodilator therapy, 17 patients were given saline, and 13 received 2 g of magnesium sulphate intravenously. Spirometry was carried out at presentation (TA), after initial standard bronchodilator therapy (TB) and immediately (T0), at 60 minutes (T60) and 120 minutes (T120) after trial drug infusion. Primary outcomes were percentage change in FEV1 and FVC at T0, T60 and T120. Secondary outcomes were admission rates, length of stay and requirement for NIV or mechanical ventilation. Trial registration (ANZCTR), ACTRN12613000837729.
RESULTS: Greater improvements were seen in FEV1 at T0, T60 and T120 compared to TB in magnesium group (at T120, mean percentage change in FEV1 was 27.07% with magnesium versus 11.39% in the placebo group, 95%CI 3.7 to 27.7, p=0.01). Similar significantly greater improvements were noted with FVC in the magnesium group, compared to TB.
CONCLUSIONS: IV magnesium sulphate used as an adjunct therapy to standard bronchodilators in AECOPD presenting to ED may improve lung function in the short term.

Seneviratne S, Lawrenson R, Harvey V, et al.
Stage of breast cancer at diagnosis in New Zealand: impacts of socio-demographic factors, breast cancer screening and biology.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:129 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Examination of factors associated with late stage diagnosis of breast cancer is useful to identify areas which are amenable to intervention. This study analyses trends in cancer stage at diagnosis and impact of socio-demographic, cancer biological and screening characteristics on cancer stage in a population-based series of women with invasive breast cancer in New Zealand.
METHODS: All women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 were identified from two regional breast cancer registries. Factors associated with advanced (stages III and IV) and metastatic (stage IV) cancer at diagnosis were analysed in univariate and multivariate models adjusting for covariates.
RESULTS: Of the 12390 women included in this study 2448 (19.7%) were advanced and 575 (4.6%) were metastatic at diagnosis. Māori (OR = 1.86, 1.39-2.49) and Pacific (OR = 2.81, 2.03-3.87) compared with NZ European ethnicity, other urban (OR = 2.00, 1.37-2.92) compared with main urban residency and non-screen (OR = 6.03, 4.41-8.24) compared with screen detection were significantly associated with metastatic cancer at diagnosis in multivariate analysis. A steady increase in the rate of metastatic cancer was seen which has increased from 3.8% during 2000-2003 to 5.0% during 2010-2013 period (p = 0.042).
CONCLUSIONS: Providing equitable high quality primary care and increasing mammographic screening coverage needs to be looked at as possible avenues to reduce late-stage cancer at diagnosis and to reduce ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical disparities in stage of breast cancer at diagnosis in New Zealand.

Foo EW, Moore T, Harris D, et al.
Long-term outcomes of hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases at a New Zealand tertiary level public hospital.
ANZ J Surg. 2016; 86(4):285-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is common with half of all patients developing metastases to the liver. The aim of this study was to document the survival for patients undergoing liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases.
METHOD: A review of all patients undergoing hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases at a New Zealand tertiary level public hospital over a 9-year period was performed.
RESULTS: Primary survival outcomes assessed were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Of the 116 patients followed-up with a median (range) of 53 (10-116) months, the OS at 5 years was 53%. Median survival was 6.5 years. At end of follow-up, 57% of patients were alive and 49% were alive without recurrence. The overall rate of recurrence was 39%.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms that excellent long term survival can be achieved with hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases.

Evans SM, Nag N, Roder D, et al.
Development of an International Prostate Cancer Outcomes Registry.
BJU Int. 2016; 117 Suppl 4:60-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To establish a Prostate Cancer Outcomes Registry-Australia and New Zealand (PCOR-ANZ) for monitoring outcomes of prostate cancer treatment and care, in a cost-effective manner.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stakeholders were recruited based on their interest, importance in achieving the monitoring and reporting of clinical practice and patient outcomes, and in amalgamation of existing registries. Each participating jurisdiction is responsible for local governance, site recruitment, data collection, and data transfer into the PCOR-ANZ. To establish each local registry, hospitals and clinicians within a jurisdiction were approached to voluntarily contribute to the registry following relevant ethical approval. Patient contact occurs following notification of prostate cancer through a hospital or pathology report, or from a cancer registry. Patient registration is based on an opt-out model. The PCOR-ANZ is a secure web-based registry adhering to ISO 27001 standards. Based on a standardised minimum data set, information on demographics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, and patient reported quality of life, are collected.
RESULTS: Eight of nine jurisdictions have agreed to contribute to the PCOR-ANZ. Each jurisdiction has commenced implementation of necessary infrastructure to support rapid rollout. PCOR-ANZ has defined a minimum data set for collection, to enable analysis of key quality indicators that will aid in assessing clinical practice and patient focused outcomes.
CONCLUSION: PCOR-ANZ will provide a useful resource of risk-adjusted evidence-based data to clinicians, hospitals, and decision makers on prostate cancer clinical practice.

Robertson JP, Wells CI, Vather R, Bissett IP
Effect of Diversion Ileostomy on the Occurrence and Consequences of Chemotherapy-Induced Diarrhea.
Dis Colon Rectum. 2016; 59(3):194-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer are well established. Chemotherapy-induced diarrhea is a common adverse effect of these regimens. The occurrence of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea not only directly affects patient health but may also compromise treatment efficacy because of consequent dosing alterations or discontinuation.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of diverting loop ileostomy during chemotherapy on the occurrence and consequences of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective evaluation of a prospective surgical database.
SETTINGS: This was a single-institution retrospective study.
PATIENTS: All patients receiving curative adjuvant chemotherapy after anterior resection for colorectal cancer at Auckland Hospital from 2002 to 2013 were retrospectively evaluated.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient-, perioperative-, and chemotherapy-related variables were collected. Chemotherapy-induced diarrhea occurrence was graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea occurrence, treatment modifications, and hospital admission.
RESULTS: A total of 109 identified patients received 691 chemotherapy cycles; 84% of patients with a diverting ileostomy experienced chemotherapy-induced diarrhea compared with 47% in those who were not defunctioned (p < 0.01). On logistic regression analysis, the presence of a diverting ileostomy during chemotherapy was an independent predictor of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea grade 3 or higher (OR, 13.6 (95% CI: 1.2-150.9); p = 0.02), the need for a dosing reduction (OR, 4.0 (95% CI: 1.3-12.4); p = 0.02), and the need for any modification in the chemotherapy regimen (OR, 3.4 (95% CI: 1.2-9.6); p = 0.02).
LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by its retrospective design, potentially limiting the accuracy of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea grade reporting.
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of an ileostomy during adjuvant chemotherapy is a predictor of severe chemotherapy-induced diarrhea and the need for modifications in the chemotherapy regimen. This may have important consequences for long-term survival. Prospective investigation is needed to further assess the impact of diverting ileostomy on the delivery of chemotherapy and oncologic outcomes.

Ranasinghe WK, Suh N, Hughes PD
Survival Outcomes in Renal Transplant Recipients With Renal Cell Carcinoma or Transitional Cell Carcinoma From the ANZDATA Database.
Exp Clin Transplant. 2016; 14(2):166-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to determine the incidence and outcomes of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma in recipients of renal allografts.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 2000 to 2012 in the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, a binational population-based database, to identify the incidence and survival outcomes of renal transplant recipients with renal cell and transitional cell carcinoma.
RESULTS: Of the 8850 renal transplants, there were 60 new diagnoses of renal cancers posttransplant, with an overall cumulative incidence of 56 per 100,000 per year. Nine tumors were detected in the allograft, and 51 tumors (85%) were detected in the native kidney of the recipient. The median time of diagnosis from transplant was 6.6 years (range, 0.1-8.9 y). There were no cancer-specific deaths from allograft tumors; however, 17 cancer-specific deaths (14 from renal cell carcinoma and 3 from transitional cell carcinoma) occurred in patients with cancer in the native kidney. The 5-year and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates for renal cell carcinoma were 71.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 57.0-84.0) and 58.5% (95% CI: 40.5-77.9), with 5-year and 10-year rates for transitional cell carcinoma of 50% (95% CI: 15.5-94.2) and 0%.
CONCLUSIONS: Renal cell carcinoma occurring in the native kidney comprised most of the tumors detected after renal transplant; however, transitional cell carcinoma occurred sooner after transplant and resulted in a lower cancer-specific survival rate. While it is important to screen those at risk of TCC prior and after renal transplant, the low incidence of TCC maybe too small to justify a benefit with routine screening, compared to RCCs.

Soeberg M, Blakely T, Sarfati D
Trends in ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival, New Zealand, 1991-2004.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(6):860-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Improvements in cancer survival may be distributed inequitably throughout populations and across time. We assessed trends in cancer survival inequalities in New Zealand by ethnic and income group. 126,477 people diagnosed with cancer between 1991 and 2004, followed-up to 2006, were included. First, inequalities pooled over time were measured with excess mortality rate ratios (EMRRs). Second, interpretation of changes in inequalities over time can differ depending on whether one uses EMRRs, excess mortality rate differences (EMRD) or absolute differences in relative survival risks (RSRD); we estimated all three by cancer-site and (for EMRRs only) pooled across all sites. We found that pooled over time and all sites, Māori had an EMRR of 1.29 (95% CI, 1.24-1.34) compared to non-Māori. The low compared to high-income EMRR was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.09-1.15). Pooled over cancers, there was no change in the ethnic EMRR over time but the income EMRR increased by 9% per decade (1-17%). Changes over time in site-specific inequalities were imprecisely measured, but the direction of change was usually consistent across EMRRs, EMRDs and RSRDs. There were persistent ethnic inequalities in cancer survival over time, and slower improvements for low-income people.

Harding JL, Sooriyakumaran M, Anstey KJ, et al.
Hypertension, antihypertensive treatment and cancer incidence and mortality: a pooled collaborative analysis of 12 Australian and New Zealand cohorts.
J Hypertens. 2016; 34(1):149-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Observational studies examining associations between hypertension and cancer are inconsistent. We explored the association of hypertension, graded hypertension and antihypertensive treatment with cancer incidence and mortality.
METHOD: Eighty-six thousand five hundred and ninety-three participants from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration were linked to the National Death Index and Australian Cancer Database. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association of treated and untreated hypertension with cancer incidence and mortality.
RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 15.1 years, 12 070 incident and 4350 fatal cancers were identified. Untreated and treated hypertension, compared with normotension, were associated with an increased risk for cancer incidence [hazard ratio 1.06, 95% CI (1.00-1.11) and 1.09 (1.02-1.16) respectively], and cancer mortality (1.07, 0.98-1.18) and (1.15, 1.03-1.28), respectively. When compared with untreated hypertension, treated hypertension did not have a significantly greater risk for cancer incidence (1.03, 0.97-1.10) or mortality (1.07, 0.97-1.19). A significant dose-response relationship was observed between graded hypertension and cancer incidence and mortality; Ptrend = 0.053 and Ptrend = 0.001, respectively. When stratified by treatment status, these relationships remained significant in untreated, but not in treated, hypertension.
CONCLUSION: Hypertension, both treated and untreated, is associated with a modest increased risk for cancer incidence and mortality. Similar risks in treated and untreated hypertension suggest that the increased cancer risk is not explained by the use of antihypertensive treatment.

Sulzberger L, Baillie R, Itinteang T, et al.
Serum levels of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II in patients treated by surgical excision, propranolol and captopril for problematic proliferating infantile haemangioma.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2016; 69(3):381-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the biology of infantile haemangioma (IH) and its accelerated involution induced by β-blockers was first proposed in 2010. This led to the first clinical trial in 2012 using low-dose captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, demonstrating a similar response in these tumours. This study aimed to compare serial serum levels of the components of the RAS in patients before and after surgical excision, propranolol or captopril treatment for problematic proliferating IH. Patients with problematic proliferating IH underwent measurements of serum levels of plasma renin activity (PRA), ACE and angiotensin II (ATII) before, and 1-2 and 6 months following surgical excision, propranolol or captopril treatment. This study included 27 patients undergoing surgical excision (n = 8), propranolol (n = 11) and captopril (n = 8) treatment. Treatment with either surgical excision or propranolol resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of PRA. Surgical excision or captopril treatment led to significant decline in the mean levels of ATII. All three treatment modalities had no significant effect on the mean levels of ACE. This study demonstrates the effect of surgical excision, propranolol and captopril treatment in lowering the levels of PRA and ATII, but not ACE, supporting a mechanistic role for the RAS in the biology of IH.

Quinten C, Coens C, Ghislain I, et al.
The effects of age on health-related quality of life in cancer populations: A pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 involving 6024 cancer patients.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(18):2808-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer incidence increases exponentially with advancing age, cancer patients live longer than in the past, and many new treatments focus on stabilizing disease and HRQOL. The objective of this study is to examine how cancer affects patients' HRQOL and whether their HRQOL is age-dependent.
METHODS: Data from 25 EORTC randomized controlled trials was pooled. EORTC QLQ-C30 mean scores for the cancer cohort and five general population cohorts were compared to assess the impact of cancer on patients' HRQOL. Within the cancer cohort, multiple linear regressions (two-sided level P-value = 0.05 adjusted for multiple testing.) were used to investigate the association between age and HRQOL, adjusted for gender, WHO performance status (PS), distant metastasis and stratified by cancer site. A difference of 10 points on the 0-100 scale was considered clinically important.
RESULTS: Cancer patients generally have worse HRQOL compared to the general population, but the specific HRQOL domains impaired vary with age. When comparing the cancer versus the general population, young cancer patients had worse financial problems, social and role functioning, while the older cancer groups had more appetite loss. Within the cancer cohort, HRQOL was worse with increasing age for physical functioning and constipation, and better with increasing age for social functioning, insomnia and financial problems (all p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: HRQOL is impaired in cancer patients compared to the general population, but the impact on specific HRQOL domains varies by age. Within the cancer population, some HRQOL components improve with age while others deteriorate. Optimal care for older cancer patients should target HRQOL domains most relevant to this population.

Meredith I, Seneviratne S, Gerred S, et al.
Patterns of axillary lymph node metastases and recurrent disease in grade 1 breast cancer in a New Zealand cohort: Does ethnicity matter?
Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(6):994-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In New Zealand, Māori and Pacific women are more likely than New Zealand/European women to present at a younger age with larger tumours and metastatic disease. Survival rates are also differential by ethnicity. Many factors are believed to be responsible for this including differences in comorbidities, delays to presentation and delays in treatment. It is unclear whether these differences exist amongst women with grade 1 cancer in New Zealand. Therefore, we examined patterns of axillary nodal involvement, recurrent disease and mortality in grade 1 breast cancer in New Zealand women, and whether ethnicity was an important predictor for any of these outcomes.
METHOD: Data was retrieved from the Auckland Breast Cancer Registry (ABCR) and the Waikato Breast Cancer Registry (WBCR) which are prospective, population-based databases. All women newly diagnosed with grade 1 primary invasive breast cancer between 1 June 2000 and 31 May 2013 were identified from the two registries.
RESULTS: There were 2857 grade 1 breast cancers diagnosed over this time period. Axillary lymph nodes were involved in 19.0% of women, and 5.1% developed recurrent disease (locoregional or distant). Pacific and Māori women were more likely than NZ European women to have larger tumours and lymphovascular invasion (LVI). Predictors for axillary node involvement were tumour size greater than 10mm, LVI and non-screen detected cancers. Tumour size greater than 10mm, lobular carcinoma and BCS without radiotherapy were predictive of recurrent and or metastatic disease. Ethnicity was not observed to be an independent predictor for axillary nodal involvement, recurrent and/or metastatic disease, or breast cancer specific mortality amongst New Zealand women with grade 1 breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Ethnicity was not a predictor of axillary node involvement, recurrent disease or mortality in grade 1 breast cancer in our population.

Farmer R, Fenton A
Time trends in breast cancer and menopause hormone therapy use in New Zealand.
Climacteric. 2016; 19(1):42-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The publication of preliminary findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study in 2002 suggested an increased risk of breast cancer among users of menopause hormone therapy (MHT). This resulted world-wide in a rapid and significant decline in the use of hormone therapy. It was later claimed that breast cancer incidence rates had fallen as a result of lower rates of hormone therapy use. Our aim was to investigate whether there was an association between changes in the use of hormone therapy and rates of breast cancer diagnosis in New Zealand subsequent to the publication of the WHI.
METHOD: Validated prescription usage data along with breast cancer screening and cancer registration data were accessed. Time trends extending for 8 years after the publication of the WHI were assessed.
RESULTS: The use of hormone therapy for managing menopausal symptoms fell by about 70% following the controversy about its safety. Breast cancer registration rates among women aged 50-59 years had started to fall in advance of this change in prescribing. Changes in other age groups appear to coincide with changes in the screening eligibility for the national breast screening program rather than use of hormone therapy.
CONCLUSION: The time trend analysis does not support an association between changes in hormone therapy use and the incidence rate of breast cancer.

Gurney JK, Stanley J, Shaw C, Sarfati D
Ethnic patterns of hypospadias in New Zealand do not resemble those observed for cryptorchidism and testicular cancer: evidence of differential aetiology?
Andrology. 2016; 4(1):82-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been proposed that hypospadias, cryptorchidism, poor semen quality and testicular cancer might share common prenatal causes. We have previously demonstrated similar ethnic patterns for the incidence of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism - a known risk factor for testicular cancer. If the underlying exposure(s) that cause hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are shared, then we would expect the incidence relationship between ethnic groups to follow the same pattern across all three conditions. We followed a birth cohort of 318 345 eligible male neonates born in New Zealand between 2000-2010, and linked routinely collected maternity records with inpatient hospitalization and mortality records through to 2011. We searched hospitalization records for diagnoses of hypospadias, and used mortality records for censoring. We used Poisson regression methods to compare the relative risk of hypospadias between ethnic groups, adjusting for perinatal risk factors and total person time. We observed that European/Other children had the highest risk of hypospadias, with Māori, Pacific and Asian boys having around 40% lower risk of disease compared with this group (adjusted relative risk [RR]: Māori 0.62, 95% CI 0.55-0.70; Pacific 0.62, 95% CI 0.53-0.72; Asian 0.57, 95% CI 0.47-0.69). This contrasts substantially with our previous observations for cryptorchidism and testicular cancer, where Māori males have the greatest risk. Our observations suggest that - at least in New Zealand - the exposures that drive the development of hypospadias may differ to those that that drive the development of cryptorchidism and/or testicular cancer.

Chen JH, Wong G, Chapman JR, Lim WH
Cumulative Doses of T-Cell Depleting Antibody and Cancer Risk after Kidney Transplantation.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0139479 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
T-cell depleting antibody is associated with an increased risk of cancer after kidney transplantation, but a dose-dependent relationship has not been established. This study aimed to determine the association between cumulative doses of T-cell depleting antibody and the risk of cancer after kidney transplantation. Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry between 1997-2012, we assessed the risk of incident cancer and cumulative doses of T-cell depleting antibody using adjusted Cox regression models. Of the 503 kidney transplant recipients with 2835 person-years of follow-up, 276 (55%), 209 (41%) and 18 (4%) patients received T-cell depleting antibody for induction, rejection or induction and rejection respectively. The overall cancer incidence rate was 1,118 cancers per 100,000 patient-years, with 975, 1093 and 1377 cancers per 100,000 patient-years among those who had received 1-5 doses, 6-10 doses and >10 doses, respectively. There was no association between cumulative doses of T cell depleting antibody and risk of incident cancer (1-5: referent, 6-10: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95%CI 0.48-2.95, >10: HR 1.42, 95%CI 0.50-4.02, p = 0.801). This lack of association is contradictory to our hypothesis and is likely attributed to the low event rates resulting in insufficient power to detect significant differences.

Wang A, Obertová Z, Brown C, et al.
Risk of fracture in men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy: a population-based cohort study in New Zealand.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:837 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) administered as a prostate cancer treatment is known to exert multiple side effects including bone deterioration leading to bone fracture. The current analysis is to evaluate the burden of fracture risk in the New Zealand prostate cancer (PCa) population treated with ADT, and to understand the subsequent risk of mortality after a fracture.
METHODS: Using datasets created through linking records from the New Zealand Cancer Registry, National Minimal Dataset, Pharmaceutical Collection and Mortality Collection, we studied 25,544 men (aged ≥40 years) diagnosed with PCa between 2004 and 2012. ADT was categorised into the following groups: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, anti-androgens, combined androgen blockade (GnRH agonists plus anti-androgens), bilateral orchiectomy, and bilateral orchiectomy plus pharmacologic ADT (anti-androgens and/or GnRH agonists).
RESULTS: Among patients receiving ADT, 10.8 % had a fracture compared to 3.2 % of those not receiving ADT (p < 0.0001). After controlling for age and ethnicity, the use of ADT was associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture (OR = 2.83; 95 % CI 2.52-3.17) and of hip fracture requiring hospitalisation (OR = 1.82; 95 % CI 1.44-2.30). Those who received combined androgen blockade (OR = 3.48; 95 % CI 3.07-3.96) and bilateral orchiectomy with pharmacologic ADT (OR = 4.32; 95 % CI 3.34-5.58) had the greatest risk of fracture. The fracture risk following different types of ADT was confounded by pathologic fractures and spinal cord compression (SCC). ADT recipients with fractures had a 1.83-fold (95 % CI 1.68-1.99) higher mortality risk than those without a fracture. However, after the exclusion of pathologic fractures and SCC, there was no increased risk of mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: ADT was significantly associated with an increased risk of any fracture and hip fracture requiring hospitalisation. The excess risk was partly driven by pathologic fractures and SCC which are associated with decreased survival in ADT users. Identification of those at higher risk of fracture and close monitoring of bone health while on ADT is an important factor to consider. This may require monitoring of bone density and bone marker profiles.

Halkett GK, Lobb EA, Miller L, et al.
Protocol for the Care-IS Trial: a randomised controlled trial of a supportive educational intervention for carers of patients with high-grade glioma (HGG).
BMJ Open. 2015; 5(10):e009477 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: High-grade glioma (HGG) is a rapidly progressive and debilitating disease. Primary carers experience significant levels of distress which impacts on their experience of caregiving, the quality of care received and the community in terms of the increased reliance on healthcare due to the potential development of complicated grief. This paper describes the protocol for testing the efficacy and feasibility of an intervention for primary carers of patients with HGG in order to improve preparedness to care and reduce carer distress.
METHODS: Randomised controlled trial. The target population is carers of patients with HGG who are undergoing combined chemoradiotherapy. The intervention consists of 4 components: (1) initial telephone assessment of unmet needs of the carer, (2) tailoring of a personalised resource folder, (3) home visit, (4) ongoing monthly telephone contact and support for 12 months. The control arm will receive usual care.
PRIMARY HYPOTHESIS: This intervention will improve preparedness for caring and reduce carer psychological distress.
SECONDARY HYPOTHESIS: This intervention will reduce carer unmet needs. The longer term aim of the intervention is to reduce patient healthcare resource utilisation and, by doing so, reduce costs. Assessments will be obtained at baseline, 8 weeks post intervention, then 4, 6 and 12 months. Participants will also complete a healthcare utilisation checklist and proxy performance status which will be assessed at baseline and monthly. 240 carers will be recruited. The sample size is 180. Multilevel mixed effects regression models will be applied to test the effect of the intervention.
ETHICS: Ethics approval has been gained from Curtin University and the participating sites.
DISSEMINATION: Results will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration (ACTRN)12612001147875.

Moore SP, Antoni S, Colquhoun A, et al.
Cancer incidence in indigenous people in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA: a comparative population-based study.
Lancet Oncol. 2015; 16(15):1483-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Indigenous people have disproportionally worse health and lower life expectancy than their non-indigenous counterparts in high-income countries. Cancer data for indigenous people are scarce and incidence has not previously been collectively reported in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA. We aimed to investigate and compare, for the first time, the cancer burden in indigenous populations in these countries.
METHODS: We derived incidence data from population-based cancer registries in three states of Australia (Queensland, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory), New Zealand, the province of Alberta in Canada, and the Contract Health Service Delivery Areas of the USA. Summary rates for First Nations and Inuit in Alberta, Canada, were provided directly by Alberta Health Services. We compared age-standardised rates by registry, sex, cancer site, and ethnicity for all incident cancer cases, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers, diagnosed between 2002 and 2006. Standardised rate ratios (SRRs) and 95% CIs were computed to compare the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of each jurisdiction, except for the Alaska Native population, which was compared with the white population from the USA.
FINDINGS: We included 24 815 cases of cancer in indigenous people and 5 685 264 in non-indigenous people from all jurisdictions, not including Alberta, Canada. The overall cancer burden in indigenous populations was substantially lower in the USA except in Alaska, similar or slightly lower in Australia and Canada, and higher in New Zealand compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. Among the most commonly occurring cancers in indigenous men were lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer. In most jurisdictions, breast cancer was the most common cancer in women followed by lung and colorectal cancer. The incidence of lung cancer was higher in indigenous men in all Australian regions, in Alberta, and in US Alaska Natives than in their non-indigenous counterparts. For breast cancer, rates in women were lower in all indigenous populations except in New Zealand (SRR 1·23, CI 95% 1·16-1·32) and Alaska (1·14, 1·01-1·30). Incidence of cervical cancer was higher in indigenous women than in non-indigenous women in most jurisdictions, although the difference was not always statistically significant.
INTERPRETATION: There are clear differences in the scale and profile of cancer in indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA. Our findings highlight the need for much-improved, targeted programmes of screening, vaccination, and smoking cessation, among other prevention strategies. Governments and researchers need to work in partnership with indigenous communities to improve cancer surveillance in all jurisdictions and facilitate access to cancer data.
FUNDING: International Agency for Research on Cancer-Australia Fellowship.

James EL, Stacey FG, Chapman K, et al.
Impact of a nutrition and physical activity intervention (ENRICH: Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health) on health behaviors of cancer survivors and carers: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:710 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and consuming a healthy diet have clear benefits to the physical and psychosocial health of cancer survivors, with guidelines recognising the importance of these behaviors for cancer survivors. Interventions to promote physical activity and improve dietary behaviors among cancer survivors and carers are needed. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a group-based, face-to-face multiple health behavior change intervention on behavioral outcomes among cancer survivors of mixed diagnoses and carers.
METHODS: The Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health (ENRICH) intervention was evaluated using a two-group pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Cancer survivors and carers (n = 174) were randomly allocated to the face-to-face, group-based intervention (six, theory-based two-hour sessions delivered over 8 weeks targeting healthy eating and physical activity [PA]) or wait-list control (after completion of 20-week data collection). Assessment of the primary outcome (pedometer-assessed mean daily step counts) and secondary outcomes (diet and alcohol intake [Food Frequency Questionnaire], self-reported PA, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference) were assessed at baseline, 8-and 20-weeks.
RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the change over time in the intervention group and the control group. At 20 weeks, the intervention group had increased by 478 steps, and the control group had decreased by 1282 steps; this represented an adjusted mean difference of 1761 steps (184 to 3337; P = 0.0028). Significant intervention effects for secondary outcomes, included a half serving increase in vegetable intake (difference 39 g/day; 95 % CI: 12 to 67; P = 0.02), weight loss (kg) (difference -1.5 kg; 95 % CI, -2.6 to -0.3; P = 0.014) and change in body mass index (kg/m(2)) (difference -0.55 kg/m(2); 95 % CI, -0.97 to -0.13; P = 0.012). No significant intervention effects were found for self-reported PA, total sitting time, waist circumference, fruit, energy, fibre, alcohol, meat, or fat consumption.
CONCLUSIONS: The ENRICH intervention was effective for improving PA, weight, body mass index, and vegetable consumption even with the inclusion of multiple cancer types and carers. As an example of successful research translation, the Cancer Council NSW has subsequently adopted ENRICH as a state-wide program.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register identifier: ANZCTRN1260901086257.

Cross AJ, McCormick JJ, Griffin N, et al.
Malignancy and mesenteric panniculitis.
Colorectal Dis. 2016; 18(4):372-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Mesenteric panniculitis (MP) is a chronic inflammatory process of the small bowel mesentery that has been reported in conjunction with malignancy. The objectives of the present study were to identify the frequency and type of cancers that may coexist with MP and whether these can be seen on the initial diagnostic computerised tomography (CT).
METHOD: A prospective database was kept of patients diagnosed with MP in the Canterbury region of New Zealand between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2014. CT scans were independently reviewed. Clinical records were reviewed and family doctors were contacted for additional information.
RESULTS: There were 302 patients with possible MP identified and 259 in whom it was confirmed on review. Seventy-eight patients had a diagnosis of malignancy, with 54 having a current cancer (59 total cancers), 33 a past cancer and nine both. Of the 59 current cancers the most common primary sites were colorectum (19), lymph nodes (17), kidney (six) and prostate (four). Fifty-four were at sites included on an abdominal CT scan. At all sites [except prostate (0/4)] there were high rates of detection on CT with 44/54 cancers visible including 20/23 gastrointestinal tract, 14/17 lymphomas and 9/9 non-prostate urogenital tract malignancies. Six people were subsequently diagnosed with cancer after the index CT.
CONCLUSION: When MP occurs in association with malignancy, the commonest primary sites are large bowel, the lymph nodes and the urogenital tract. In those with MP on imaging, any cancer except prostate can usually be seen on the index CT. Further extensive investigation in asymptomatic patients is therefore likely to be of low yield.

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