Gene Summary

Gene:BRMS1; BRMS1 transcriptional repressor and anoikis regulator
Summary:This gene reduces the metastatic potential, but not the tumorogenicity, of human breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. The protein encoded by this gene localizes primarily to the nucleus and is a component of the mSin3a family of histone deacetylase complexes (HDAC). The protein contains two coiled-coil motifs and several imperfect leucine zipper motifs. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Xenograft Models
  • MicroRNAs
  • Messenger RNA
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • NF-kappa B
  • Apoptosis
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Disease Progression
  • Withanolides
  • Promoter Regions
  • Staging
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Up-Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Down-Regulation
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Melanoma
  • Young Adult
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Breast Cancer
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Chromosome 11
  • alpha-Crystallin B Chain
  • Cell Movement
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Transfection
  • Western Blotting
  • Tumor Burden
  • DNA Methylation
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Cell Adhesion
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BRMS1 (cancer-related)

Zhang X, Xu Y, Fu L, et al.
Identification of mRNAs related to endometrium function regulated by lncRNA CD36-005 in rat endometrial stromal cells.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018; 16(1):96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and is commonly complicated by adverse endometrial outcomes. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding transcripts that are more than 200 nucleotides in length. Accumulating evidence indicates that lncRNAs are involved in the development of various human diseases. Among these lncRNAs, lncRNA CD36-005 (CD36-005) is indicated to be associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. However, the mechanisms of action of CD36-005 have not yet been elucidated.
METHODS: This study determined the CD36-005 expression level in the uteri of PCOS rat model and its effect on the proliferation activity of rat primary endometrial stromal cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and bioinformatics analysis were performed to detect the mRNA expression profiles and the biological pathways in which these differentially expressed mRNAs involved, after CD36-005 overexpression in the primary endometrial stromal cells. The differential expression of Hmgn5, Nr5a2, Dll4, Entpd1, Fam50a, and Brms1 were further validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: CD36-005 is highly expressed in the uteri of PCOS rat model and promotes the proliferation of rat primary endometrial stromal cells. A total of fifty-five mRNAs differentially expressed were identified in CD36-005 overexpressed stromal cells. Further analyses identified that these differentially expressed mRNAs participate in many biological processes and are associated with various human diseases. The results of qRT-PCR validation were consistent with the RNA-seq data.
CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a list of potential target mRNA genes of CD36-005 in endometrial stromal cells and laid a foundation for further studies on the molecular function and mechanism of CD36-005 in the endometrium.

Hashemi ZS, Forouzandeh Moghadam M, Khalili S, et al.
Additive effect of metastamiR-193b and breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 as an anti-metastatic strategy.
Breast Cancer. 2019; 26(2):215-228 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that enhancing the cellular levels of miR-193b as well as breast cancer-metastasis-suppressor-1 (BRMS1) protein is associated with diminished metastatic characteristics in breast cancer. In view of these facts, as a new therapeutic intervention, we employed a restoration-based strategy using both miR-193b-3p mimic and optimized BRMS1 in the context of a chimeric construct.
METHODS: miR-193b-3p and BRMS1 genes were cloned and the resulting plasmids were transfected into the MDA-MB231, MCF-7 and MCF-10A cell lines. microRNA expression levels were assessed by rea time PCR using LNA-primer and protein expression was confirmed by western blot method. Then, apoptosis, MTT, colony formation and invasion assays were carried out.
RESULTS: The expression levels of miR-146a, miR-146b and miR-373 were up-regulated, while the miR-520c, miR-335 and miR-10b were down-regulated following the exogenous BRMS1 expression. The exogenous over-expression of BRMS1 was associated with higher amounts of endogenous miR-193b-3p expression and enabled more efficient targeting of the 3'UTR of uPA. Although, miR-193b-3p and BRMS1 are individually capable of suppressing breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion abilities, their cistronic expression was capable of enhancing the ability to repress the breast cancer cells invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results collectively indicated the existence of an additive anti-metastatic effect between miR-193b-3p and BRMS1. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that the exogenous expression of a protein can effect endogenous expression of non-relevant microRNA. Our findings provide new grounds for miR-restoration therapy applications as an amenable anti-metastatic strategy.

Lin L, Cai M, Dai Y, et al.
Breast cancer metastasis suppressor gene, breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1, may be associated with clinicopathological features of breast cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(Supplement):S368-S374 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: We aim to investigate whether the breast cancer metastasis suppressor gene, breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1), is correlated with clinicopathological features of breast cancer or not.
Materials and Methods: Following a stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, case-control studies related to the association between BRMS1 and breast cancer were selected from articles retrieved by electronic database searches. All statistical analyses were performed by Stata version 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA).
Results: A total of 12 studies were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. Results of our meta-analysis suggested that BRMS1 protein in breast cancer tissues was significantly lower compared with normal breast tissues (odds ratio [OR] =0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.04-0.15, P < 0.001). The BRMS1 protein in metastatic breast cancer tissue was lower than that in nonmetastatic breast cancer tissue (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13-0.29, P < 0.001), and BRMS1 protein in tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages 1, 2 was found to be higher than TNM stages 3, 4 (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 2.77-7.70, P < 0.001). With respect to breast cancer types, BRMS1 protein in all the three major types of breast cancer was lower than the normal tissues. We also found strong correlations between BRMS1 mRNA levels and TNM stage and tumor size.
Conclusion: Our meta-analysis results showed that reduced BRMS1 expression level was significantly associated with clinicopathological features of breast cancer, suggesting that loss of expression or reduced levels of BRMS1 might be a strong indicator of the metastatic capacity of breast cancer, with poor prognosis.

Li G, Li L, Sun Q, et al.
MicroRNA-3200-5p Promotes Osteosarcoma Cell Invasion via Suppression of BRMS1.
Mol Cells. 2018; 41(6):523-531 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumour metastasis is one of the most serious challenges of cancer as it is the major cause of mortality in patients with solid tumours, including osteosarcoma (OS). In this regard, anti-metastatic genes have potential for metastasis inhibition strategies. Recent evidence showed the importance of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) in control of OS invasiveness, but the regulation of BRMS1 in OS remains largely unknown. Here, we used bioinformatics analyses to predict BRMS1-targeting microRNAs (miRNAs), and the functional binding of miRNAs to BRMS1 mRNA was evaluated using a dual luciferase reporter assay. Among all BRMS1-targeting miRNAs, only miR-151b, miR-7-5p and miR-3200-5p showed significant expression in OS specimens. Specifically, we found that only miR-3200-5p significantly inhibited protein translation of BRMS1 via pairing to the 3'-UTR of the BRMS1 mRNA. Moreover, we detected significantly lower BRMS1 and significantly higher miR-3200-5p in the OS specimens compared to the paired adjacent non-tumour bone tissues. Furthermore, BRMS1 and miR-3200-5p levels were inversely correlated to each other. Low BRMS1 was correlated with metastasis and poor patient survival. In vitro, overexpression of miR-3200-5p significantly decreased BRMS1 levels and promoted OS cell invasion and migration, while depletion of miR-3200-5p significantly increased BRMS1 levels and inhibited OS cell invasion and migration. Thus, our study revealed that miR-3200-5p may be a critical regulator of OS cell invasiveness.

Lv J, Yang H, Wang X, et al.
Decreased BRMS1L expression is correlated with glioma grade and predicts poor survival in glioblastoma via an invasive phenotype.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(2):311-316 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To evaluate the prognostic and clinicopathological features of glioma with BRMS1L expression.
METHODS: Total 120 glioma samples were obtained as discovery cohort. CGGA, GSE and TCGA datasets were obtained as validation sets. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariate Cox analysis were used to evaluate the survival distributions. Moreover, the functional role of BRMS1L was also analyzed by transwell assay.
RESULTS: In the discovery cohort, decreased BRMS1L expression was significantly associated with high-grade glioma as well as the higher mortality in survival analysis (log-rank test, p< 0.01). And the three validation cohorts showed the similar results. Furthermore, BRMS1L act as an independent prognostic factor in glioblastoma patients. Additionally, functional assay showed that ectopic of BRMS1L suppressed glioma cells' invasion.
CONCLUSION: BRMS1L plays as an anti-oncogene in GBM and indicates a new potential therapeutic target.

Wang Y, Zhu M, Yuan B, et al.
VSP-17, a New PPARγ Agonist, Suppresses the Metastasis of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer via Upregulating the Expression of E-Cadherin.
Molecules. 2018; 23(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive subtype of breast cancer, shows higher metastases and relapse rates than other subtypes. The metastasis of TNBC is the main reason for the death of TNBC patients. Increasing evidence has shown that inhibiting the metastasis of TNBC is a good method for TNBC treatment. Here, VSP-17 was designed and synthesized as an agonist of PPARγ, evidenced by upregulating the expression of CD36 and increasing the activity of PPARγ reporter gene. VSP-17 obviously inhibited the migration and invasion process of MDA-MB-231 cells but showed little effect on the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, VSP-17 could selectively promote the expression of E-cadherin without affecting the expression of BRMS1, CXCL12, MMP9, Orai1, Stim1, TGF-β, and VEGF. In addition, VSP-17 significantly suppressed the metastasis of liver and promoted the expression of E-cadherin in MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. In conclusion, VSP-17 inhibited the metastasis process of TNBC via upregulating the expression of E-cadherin.

Guo Z, Li J, Sun J, et al.
miR-346 Promotes HCC Progression by Suppressing Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 Expression.
Oncol Res. 2018; 26(7):1073-1081 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. MicroRNA (miRNA), a class of noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules, is involved in regulating cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. We showed that the expression of miR-346 was significantly increased in HCC tissues and cell lines, compared with noncancerous controls, and was associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression of miR-346 promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells, while knockdown of miR-346 significantly suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Then we identified breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) as a direct target of miR-346 based on luciferase reporter assays. There was a negative correlation between miR-346 and BRMS1 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, inhibition of BRMS1 expression reversed the tumor-suppression effects of miR-346 downregulation in HepG2 cells. These results indicate that miR-346 promotes HCC progression by regulating BRMS1 expression.

Bucciarelli PR, Tan KS, Chudgar NP, et al.
BRMS1 Expression in Surgically Resected Lung Adenocarcinoma Predicts Future Metastases and Is Associated with a Poor Prognosis.
J Thorac Oncol. 2018; 13(1):73-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Expression of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 gene (BRMS1) is decreased in NSCLC cells and tumors. We hypothesized that intratumoral breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) expression is associated with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) histologic subtypes and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients undergoing resection for early-stage LUAD.
METHODS: Patients (N = 1030) who underwent complete resection for LUAD with tissue available for histologic evaluation were identified. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and immunostaining was performed and scored for intensity of BRMS1 expression. OS and DFS were estimated (by the Kaplan-Meier method) and compared between groups (by the log-rank test), stratified by stage. Hazard ratios (HRs) for hazard of death and recurrence were estimated using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. OS and DFS nomograms were created, and model performance was examined.
RESULTS: Intratumoral BRMS1 expression was high in 632 patients (61%) and low in 398 (39%). Low BRMS1 expression was associated with higher pathologic T stage (p = 0.001), larger tumor size (p ≤ 0.0001), greater lymphatic (p = 0.032) and vascular (p = 0.001) invasion, LUAD histologic subtype (p = 0.001), and intermediate and high architectural tumor grade (p = 0.003). Low BRMS1 expression was an independent predictor of worse OS (HR = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.65, p = 0.004) and DFS (HR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.54, p = 0.012). OS and DFS nomograms showed excellent predictive performance based on discrimination and calibration.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with surgically resected LUAD, OS and DFS were significantly worse in cases with low intratumoral BRMS1 expression. Our findings suggest that BRMS1 is an independent biomarker with prognostic significance in surgically resected LUAD.

Lin LZ, Cai MG, Dai YC, et al.
Biosci Rep. 2017; 37(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our aim is to investigate whether or not the breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (

Panagopoulou M, Lambropoulou M, Balgkouranidou I, et al.
Gene promoter methylation and protein expression of BRMS1 in uterine cervix in relation to high-risk human papilloma virus infection and cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(4):1010428317697557 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is strongly related to certain high-risk types of human papilloma virus infection. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a tumor suppressor gene, its expression being regulated by DNA promoter methylation in several types of cancers. This study aims to evaluate the methylation status of BRMS1 promoter in relation to high-risk types of human papilloma virus infection and the development of pre-cancerous lesions and describe the pattern of BRMS1 protein expression in normal, high-risk types of human papilloma virus-infected pre-cancerous and malignant cervical epithelium. We compared the methylation status of BRMS1 in cervical smears of 64 women with no infection by high-risk types of human papilloma virus to 70 women with proven high-risk types of human papilloma virus infection, using real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The expression of BRMS1 protein was described by immunohistochemistry in biopsies from cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions, and normal cervices. Methylation of BRMS1 promoter was detected in 37.5% of women with no high-risk types of human papilloma virus infection and was less frequent in smears with high-risk types of human papilloma virus (11.4%) and in women with pathological histology (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) (11.9%). Methylation was detected also in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed nuclear BRMS1 protein staining in normal high-risk types of human papilloma virus-free cervix, in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, and in malignant tissues, where staining was occasionally also cytoplasmic. In cancer, expression was stronger in the more differentiated cancer blasts. In conclusion, BRMS1 promoter methylation and aberrant protein expression seem to be related to high-risk types of human papilloma virus-induced carcinogenesis in uterine cervix and is worthy of further investigation.

Qiao X, Yang X, Zhou Y, et al.
Characterization of DAPK1 as a novel transcriptional target of BRMS1.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(5):1760-1766 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) can specifically regulate tumor metastasis in many cancers. Our previous studies have demonstrated that BRMS1 can promote cell apoptosis through regulating osteopontin (OPN) expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the transcriptional targets of BRMS1 have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), a tumor suppressor gene with multiple roles in regulating cell death, was identified as a potential transcriptional target of BRMS1 in the whole genome expression microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis of HCC cells overexpressing BRMS1 further confirmed the transcriptional regulation relationship between BRMS1 and DAPK1. Moreover, DAPK1 expression was frequently decreased or even lost in HCC tissue samples by comparison with neighboring pathologically normal liver tissue, which was consistent with the decreased BRMS1 expression pattern. To unravel the molecular mechanism of BRMS1 in regulating DAPK1, a series of deletion mutants of DAPK1 promoter was subjected to luciferase assay. The luciferase units of -200 to -80 bp region, with two tandem putative NF-κB binding sites, were specifically enhanced by BRMS1 expression. Site-directed mutants of NF-κB binding sites blocked the transcriptional activation effect. In addition, the binding capability of BRMS1 and the putative NF-κB binding sites were demonstrated in the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. In conclusion, our study characterized DAPK1 as a novel transcriptional target of BRMS1. Transcriptional activation of DAPK1 might be another important mechanism accounting for the metastasis suppressive activity of BRMS1.

Zhang HM, Qiao QD, Xie HF, Wei JX
Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) suppresses prostate cancer progression by inducing apoptosis and regulating invasion.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(1):68-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) was originally identified as a metastasis suppressor gene in human breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A recent study has established an association between BRMS1 with the clinical stage and different pathology grades of prostate cancer. However, whether BRMS1 plays a role in prostate cancer has not been elucidated.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that overexpression of BRMS1 in PC-3 cells induced apoptosis and inhibited invasion; moreover, we found that overexpression BRMS1 was associated with the suppressed expression of EMMPRIN.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results show that BRMS1 may suppress progression and metastasis of prostate cancer through modulating EMMPRIN expression.

Welch DR, Manton CA, Hurst DR
Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 (BRMS1): Robust Biological and Pathological Data, But Still Enigmatic Mechanism of Action.
Adv Cancer Res. 2016; 132:111-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis requires coordinated expression of multiple genetic cassettes, often via epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. BRMS1 blocks metastasis, but not orthotopic tumor growth in multiple tumor types, presumably via SIN3 chromatin remodeling complexes. Although there is an abundance of strong data supporting BRMS1 as a metastasis suppressor, the mechanistic data directly connecting molecular pathways with inhibition of particular steps in metastasis are not well defined. In this review, the data for BRMS1-mediated metastasis suppression in multiple tumor types are discussed along with the steps in metastasis that are inhibited.

Smolkova B, Miklikova S, Kajabova VH, et al.
Global and gene specific DNA methylation in breast cancer cells was not affected during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in vitro.
Neoplasma. 2016; 63(6):901-910 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) significantly affects the risk of metastasising in breast cancer. Plasticity and reversibility of EMT suggest that epigenetic mechanisms could be the key drivers of these processes, but little is known about the dynamics of EMT-related epigenetic alterations. We hypothesised that EMT, mediated by autocrine and paracrine signals, will be accompanied by changes in DNA methylation profiles. Therefore, conditioned medium from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells was used for induction of EMT in human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cell line. EMT-related morphological alterations and changes in gene expression of EMT-associated markers were assessed. To reverse EMT, 20 nm size gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesized by the citrate reduction method were applied. Finally, DNA methylation of LINE-1 sequences and promoter methylation of TIMP3, ADAM23 and BRMS1 genes were quantitatively evaluated by pyrosequencing. Despite the presence of EMT-associated morphological and gene expression changes in tumour cells, EMT induced by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells had almost no effect on LINE-1 and gene-specific DNA methylation patterns of TIMP3, ADAM23 and BRMS1 genes. Although treatment for 24, 48 or 72 hours with 20 nm AuNPs at a concentration of 3 µg/ml slightly decreased gene expression of EMT-associated markers in SK-BR-3 cells, it did not alter global or gene-specific DNA methylation. Our results suggest that changes in DNA methylation are not detectable in vitro in early phases of EMT. Previously published positive findings could represent rather the sustained presence of potent EMT-inducing signals or the synergistic effect of various epigenetic mechanisms. Treatment with AuNPs slightly attenuated EMT, and their therapeutic potential needs to be further investigated.

Parisi C, Mastoraki S, Markou A, et al.
Development and validation of a multiplex methylation specific PCR-coupled liquid bead array for liquid biopsy analysis.
Clin Chim Acta. 2016; 461:156-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Liquid biopsy is based on minimally invasive blood tests and has the potential to characterize the evolution of a solid tumor in real time, by extracting molecular information from circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Epigenetic silencing of tumor and metastasis suppressor genes plays a key role in survival and metastatic potential of cancer cells. Our group was the first to show the presence of epigenetic alterations in CTCs.
METHODS: We present the development and analytical validation of a highly specific and sensitive Multiplex Methylation Specific PCR-coupled liquid bead array (MMSPA) for the simultaneous detection of the methylation status of three tumor and metastasis suppressor genes (CST6, SOX17 and BRMS1) in liquid biopsy material (CTCs, corresponding ctDNA) and paired primary breast tumors.
RESULTS: In the EpCAM-positive CTCs fraction we observed methylation of: a) CST6, in 11/30(37%) and 11/30(37%), b) BRMS1 in 8/30(27%) and 11/30(37%) c) SOX17 in 8/30(27%) and 13/30(43%) early breast cancer patients and patients with verified metastasis respectively. In ctDNA we observed methylation of: a) CST6, in 5/30(17%) and 10/31(32%), b) BRMS1 in 8/30 (27%) and 8/31 (26%) c) SOX17 in 5/30(17%) and 13/31(42%) early breast cancer patients and patients with verified metastasis respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a high cancerous load at the epigenetic level in EpCAM-positive CTCs fractions and corresponding ctDNA in breast cancer. The main principle of the developed methodology has the potential to be extended in a large number of gene-targets and be applied in many types of cancer.

Yan HL, Li L, Li SJ, et al.
miR-346 promotes migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via targeting BRMS1.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2016; 30(12):602-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to determine the expression and roles of miR-346 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We showed that miR-346 was upregulated in NPC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumorous nasopharyngeal tissues. Inhibition of miR-346 significantly attenuated the migration and invasion of NPC cells. Luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-346 targeted the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1). Overexpression of miR-346 suppressed the endogenous expression of BRMS1 in NPC cells. There was a significant negative correlation between miR-346 and BRMS1 protein expression in NPC tissues (r = -0.372, P = 0.008). Rescue experiments demonstrated that overexpression of BRMS1 lacking the 3'-UTR impaired the invasiveness of NPC cells transfected with miR-346 mimic. Taken together, miR-346 shows the ability to promote the migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal cancer cells via targeting BRMS1 and represents a potential therapeutic target for NPC.

Chen X, Scapa JE, Liu DX, Godbey WT
Cancer-specific promoters for expression-targeted gene therapy: ran, brms1 and mcm5.
J Gene Med. 2016; 18(7):89-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To expand the library of promoters that can be used for expression-targeted gene delivery to cancer cells, the specificity and strength of expression of three cancer-related gene promoters was evaluated: RAS-related nuclear protein ((P) ran), breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 ((P) brms1) and minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 ((P) mcm5).
METHODS: The expression of reporter genes under the control of these promoters demonstrated selectivity in cancer cell lines of breast, prostate and ovarian origins versus a panel of normal cell types. The (P) ran was next used to regulate the expression of a bioactive exon (a constitutively active form of human caspase 3) to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Further evaluation was performed in an orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.
RESULTS: The average strengths of reporter expression had relative intensities of 99.8% ((P) ran), 87.7% ((P) brms1) and 55.8% ((P) mcm5) versus the strong (P) cmv-driven positive control. Comparisons of expression-targeted reporter gene expression for these three promoters versus the clinically interesting promoter for the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene ((P) hTERT) yielded an improvement of two- to 15-fold. Following transfection, cell death was evident from morphologic observations and viability assays performed on the cancer cells lines, with little (if any) effects seen when the same genes were delivered to normal cells. Cell viability was reduced by up to 60% after one treatment, with cell death via apoptosis implied by caspase 3 detection. During the in vivo preclinical study, reduced tumor burden, lack of mineralization and decreased inflammation were demonstrated after only three treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: The ran, brms1, and mcm5 promoters have the specificity and strength needed for cancer-specific expression-targeted gene therapy. (p) ran in particular produced exciting results when coupled with a version of the caspase 3 exon to treat bladder cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Vartholomaiou E, Echeverría PC, Picard D
Unusual Suspects in the Twilight Zone Between the Hsp90 Interactome and Carcinogenesis.
Adv Cancer Res. 2016; 129:1-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular chaperone Hsp90 has attracted a lot of interest in cancer research ever since cancer cells were found to be more sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition than normal cells. Why that is has remained a matter of debate and is still unclear. In addition to increased Hsp90 dependence for some mutant cancer proteins and modifications of the Hsp90 machinery itself, a number of other characteristics of cancer cells probably contribute to this phenomenon; these include aneuploidy and overall increased numbers and levels of defective and mutant proteins, which all contribute to perturbed proteostasis. Work over the last two decades has demonstrated that many cancer-related proteins are Hsp90 clients, and yet only few of them have been extensively investigated, selected either on the basis of their obvious function as cancer drivers or because they proved to be convenient biomarkers for monitoring the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors. The purpose of our review is to go beyond these "usual suspects." We established a workflow to select poorly studied proteins that are related to cancer processes and qualify as Hsp90 clients. By discussing and taking a fresh look at these "unusual suspects," we hope to stimulate others to revisit them as novel therapeutic targets or diagnostic markers.

Ma H, Gollahon LS
ERα Mediates Estrogen-Induced Expression of the Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor Gene BRMS1.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recently, estrogen has been reported as putatively inhibiting cancer cell invasion and motility. This information is in direct contrast to the paradigm of estrogen as a tumor promoter. However, data suggests that the effects of estrogen are modulated by the receptor isoform with which it interacts. In order to gain a clearer understanding of the role of estrogen in potentially suppressing breast cancer metastasis, we investigated the regulation of estrogen and its receptor on the downstream target gene, breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) in MCF-7, SKBR3, TTU-1 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Our results showed that estrogen increased the transcription and expression of BRMS1 in the ERα positive breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Additionally, the ERα specific agonist PPT also induced the transcription and expression of BRMS1. However, the two remaining estrogen receptor (ER) subtype agonists had no effect on BRMS1 expression. In order to further examine the influence of ERα on BRMS1 expression, ERα expression was knocked down using siRNA (siERα). Western blot analysis showed that siERα reduced estrogen-induced and PPT-induced BRMS1 expression. In summary, this study demonstrates estrogen, via its α receptor, positively regulates the expression of BRMS1, providing new insight into a potential inhibitory effect of estrogen on metastasis suppression.

Roesley SN, Suryadinata R, Morrish E, et al.
Cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated phosphorylation of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) affects cell migration.
Cell Cycle. 2016; 15(1):137-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 (BRMS1) reduces the incidence of metastasis in many human cancers, without affecting tumorigenesis. BRMS1 carries out this function through several mechanisms, including regulation of gene expression by binding to the mSin3/histone deacetylase (HDAC) transcriptional repressor complex. In the present study, we show that BRMS1 is a novel substrate of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) that is phosphorylated on serine 237 (S237). Although CDKs are known to regulate cell cycle progression, the mutation of BRMS1 on serine 237 did not affect cell cycle progression and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; however, their migration was affected. Phosphorylation of BRMS1 does not affect its association with the mSin3/HDAC transcriptional repressor complex or its transcriptional repressor activity. The serine 237 phosphorylation site is immediately proximal to a C-terminal nuclear localization sequence that plays an important role in BRMS1-mediated metastasis suppression but phosphorylation does not control BRMS1 subcellular localization. Our studies demonstrate that CDK-mediated phosphorylation of BRMS1 regulates the migration of tumor cells.

Kong B, Lv ZD, Wang Y, et al.
Down-regulation of BRMS1 by DNA hypermethylation and its association with metastatic progression in triple-negative breast cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):11076-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a metastasis suppressor gene in several solid tumors. However, the expression and function of BRMS1 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have not been reported. In this study, we found that BRMS1 was down-regulation in breast cancer cell lines and primary TNBC, while decreased expression of BRMS1 mRNA was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. And this down-regulation was found to be in accordance with aberrant methylation of the gene. Hypermethylation of the gene was observed in 53.4% (62/116) of the TNBC primary breast carcinomas, while it was found in only 24.1% (28/116) of the corresponding nonmalignant tissues. In addition, BRMS1 expression was restored in MDA-MB-231 after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), and demethylation of the highly metastatic cells MDA-MB-231 induced invasion suppression of the cells. Furthermore, the suppression of BRMS1 by siRNA transfection enhanced cancer cells invasion. Collectively, our results suggest that the aberrant methylation of BRMS1 frequently occurs in the down-regulation of BRMS1 in TNBC and that it may play a role in the metastasis of breast cancer.

Huo X, Li S, Shi T, et al.
Cullin3 promotes breast cancer cells metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting BRMS1 for degradation.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(39):41959-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is the leading cause of death in breast cancer (BC) patients. However, until now, the mechanisms of BC metastasis remain elusive. Cullin3 is a highly conserved Cullin family member present in the genomes of all eukaryotes, which has been proposed as an oncogene in many types of tumors; however, its role and underlying mechanisms in BC remain unclear. Here we show that Cullin3 is elevated in BC and its expression level is positively correlated with metastasis. Overexpression of Cullin3 in BC cells increased proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic capacities in vivo. In contrast, silencing Cullin3 in aggressive and invasive BC cells inhibited these processes. Mechanistically, we found Cullin3 exerts its function through promoting BRMS1 protein degradation, which was associated with EMT, migration and invasion. BRMS1 overexpression blocked Cullin3-driven EMT, and metastasis. Our results, for the first time, portray a pivotal role of Cullin3 in stimulating metastatic behaviors of BC cells. Targeting Cullin3 may thus be a useful strategy to impede BC cell invasion and metastasis.

Cho KH, Yu SL, Cho DY, et al.
Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) attenuates TGF-β1-induced breast cancer cell aggressiveness through downregulating HIF-1α expression.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:829 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer metastasis is a multi-step event including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a novel metastasis suppressor protein without anti-proliferating activity. However, a detailed underlying mechanism by which BRMS1 attenuates cancer cell EMT and invasion remained to be answered. In the present study, we report an additional mechanism by which BRMS1 attenuates Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1)-induced breast cancer cell EMT and invasion.
METHODS: Experimental analysis involving chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays were used to validate hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) as a transcriptional regulator of TWIST1 and Snail. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript expression. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence were used to analyze protein expression. Matrigel-coated in vitro invasion insert was used to analyze cancer cell invasion.
RESULTS: BRMS1 strongly inhibited TGF-β1-induced breast cancer cell EMT and invasion. Unexpectedly, we observed that BRMS1 downregulates not only TWIST1 but also Snail expression, thereby inhibiting breast cancer cell invasion. In addition, we provide evidence that HIF-1α is required for Snail and TWIST1 expression. Further, BRMS1 reduced TGF-β1-induced HIF-1α transcript expression through inactivation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB).
CONCLUSION: Collectively, the present study demonstrates a mechanical cascade of BRMS1 suppressing cancer cell invasion through downregulating HIF-1α transcript and consequently reducing Snail and TWIST1 expression.

Kodura MA, Souchelnytskyi S
Breast carcinoma metastasis suppressor gene 1 (BRMS1): update on its role as the suppressor of cancer metastases.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2015; 34(4):611-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BRMS1 was discovered over a decade ago as a potential tumor suppressor gene. In this review, we summarize the recent findings about the structure of BRMS1, mechanisms of its action and a role of BRMS1 in the cancer progression. As a suppressor of metastasis, BRMS1 has demonstrated a variety of ways to act on the cell functions, such as cell migration, invasiveness, angiogenesis, cell survival, cytoskeleton rearrangements, cell adhesion, and immune recognition. This variety of effects is a likely reason behind the robustness of anti-metastatic influence of BRMS1. Intracellular signaling mechanisms employed by BRMS1 include regulation of transcription, EGF/HER2 signaling, and expression of NF-kB, fascin, osteopontin, and IL-6. Recently reported clinical studies confirm that BRMS1 can indeed be used as a prognostic marker. Approaches to employ BRMS1 in a development of anti-cancer treatment have also been made. The studies reviewed here with respect to BRMS1 structure, cellular effects, intracellular signaling, and clinical value consolidate the importance of BRMS1 in the development of metastasis.

Wang Q, Wei J, Su P, Gao P
Histone demethylase JARID1C promotes breast cancer metastasis cells via down regulating BRMS1 expression.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 464(2):659-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis is the leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. However, until now, the mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis remain elusive. Epigenetic switch, including histone methylation or demethylation, which can either activates or represses transcription. The JARID1C is a histone demethylase that promotes cancer cell growth and is involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling, cause X-linked mental retardation. But the pathogenic breadth and mechanistic aspects of this effect relative to breast cancer have not been defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of JARID1C in breast cancer. In clinical breast cancer samples, we found that JARID1C expression was significantly upregulated in cancer lesions compared with paired normal breast tissues and its expression level is positively correlated with metastasis. Silencing JARID1C in breast cancer cells could inhibit cell migration and invasion. Moreover, we also found that the expression of BRMS1 was modulated by JARID1C. Silencing of JARID1C dramatically increased BRMS1 expression both at mRNA and protein level. Mechanistically, we found JARID1C exerts its function through modulation of H3K4me3 at the BRMS1 gene promoter, which was associated with inactive BRMS1 transcription. BRMS1 knockdown reversed shJARID1C-induced migration inhibition. Further, BRMS1 expression in human breast cancer is negatively correlated with JARID1C expression. Our results, for the first time, portray a pivotal role of JARID1C in regulating metastatic behaviors of breast cancer cells.

Zhang W, Qian P, Zhang X, et al.
Autocrine/Paracrine Human Growth Hormone-stimulated MicroRNA 96-182-183 Cluster Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Invasion in Breast Cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(22):13812-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human growth hormone (hGH) plays critical roles in pubertal mammary gland growth, development, and sexual maturation. Accumulated studies have reported that autocrine/paracrine hGH is an orthotopically expressed oncoprotein that promotes normal mammary epithelial cell oncogenic transformation. Autocrine/paracrine hGH has also been reported to promote mammary epithelial cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely obscure. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reported to be involved in regulation of multiple cellular functions of cancer. To determine whether autocrine/paracrine hGH promotes EMT and invasion through modulation of miRNA expression, we performed microarray profiling using MCF-7 cells stably expressing wild type or a translation-deficient hGH gene and identified miR-96-182-183 as an autocrine/paracrine hGH-regulated miRNA cluster. Forced expression of miR-96-182-183 conferred on epithelioid MCF-7 cells a mesenchymal phenotype and promoted invasive behavior in vitro and dissemination in vivo. Moreover, we observed that miR-96-182-183 promoted EMT and invasion by directly and simultaneously suppressing BRMS1L (breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1-like) gene expression. miR-96 and miR-182 also targeted GHR, providing a potential negative feedback loop in the hGH-GHR signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that autocrine/paracrine hGH stimulated miR-96-182-183 expression and facilitated EMT and invasion via STAT3 and STAT5 signaling. Consistent with elevated expression of autocrine/paracrine hGH in metastatic breast cancer tissue, miR-96-182-183 expression was also remarkably enhanced. Hence, we delineate the roles of the miRNA-96-182-183 cluster and elucidate a novel hGH-GHR-STAT3/STAT5-miR-96-182-183-BRMS1L-ZEB1/E47-EMT/invasion axis, which provides further understanding of the mechanism of autocrine/paracrine hGH-stimulated EMT and invasion in breast cancer.

Xing WJ, Liao XH, Wang N, et al.
MRTF-A and STAT3 promote MDA-MB-231 cell migration via hypermethylating BRSM1.
IUBMB Life. 2015; 67(3):202-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide which is closely related to metastasis. But the exact molecular mechanism of metastasis is still not fully understood. We now report that both MRTF-A and STAT3 play important roles in migration of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Moreover, MRTF-A and STAT3 synergistically increased MDA-MB-231 cell migration by promoting the expression of migration markers urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and osteopontin (OPN) and inhibiting the expression of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1). Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that MRTF-A and STAT3 do not affect transcription of the BRMS1 promoter. Instead, we identified a newly molecular mechanism by which MRTF-A and STAT3 synergistically controlled MDA-MB-231 cell migration by recruiting DNMT1 to hypermethylate the promoter of BRMS1 and thus affect the expression of BRMS1. Interestingly, physical interaction between MRTF-A and STAT3 synergistically promotes the transactivity of DNMT1 by binding to the GAS element within the DNMT1 promoter. Our data thus provide important and novel insights into the roles of MRTF-A and STAT3 in regulating MDA-MB-231 cell migration.

Kramer D, Schön M, Bayerlová M, et al.
A pro-apoptotic function of iASPP by stabilizing p300 and CBP through inhibition of BRMS1 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e1634 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The p53 family and its cofactors are potent inducers of apoptosis and form a barrier to cancer. Here, we investigated the impact of the supposedly inhibitory member of the apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53, iASPP, on the activity of the p53 homolog TAp73, and its cofactors p300 and CBP. We found that iASPP interacted with and stabilized the histone acetyltransferase p300 and its homolog CBP upon cisplatin treatment. Vice versa, iASPP depletion by shRNA resulted in decreased amounts of p300 and CBP, impaired binding of p300 and TAp73 to target site promoters, reduced induction of pro-apoptotic TAp73 target genes, and impaired apoptosis. Mechanistically, we observed that the p300-regulatory E3 ubiquitin ligase BRMS1 could rescue the degradation of p300 and CBP in cisplatin-treated, iASPP-depleted cells. This argues that iASPP stabilizes p300 and CBP by interfering with their BRMS1-mediated ubiquitination, thereby contributing to apoptotic susceptibility. In line, iASPP overexpression partially abolished the interaction of BRMS1 and CBP upon DNA damage. Reduced levels of iASPP mRNA and protein as well as CBP protein were observed in human melanoma compared with normal skin tissue and benign melanocytic nevi. In line with our findings, iASPP overexpression or knockdown of BRMS1 each augmented p300/CBP levels in melanoma cell lines, thereby enhancing apoptosis upon DNA damage. Taken together, destabilization of p300/CBP by downregulation of iASPP expression levels appears to represent a molecular mechanism that contributes to chemoresistance in melanoma cells.

Pan W, Li G, Yang X, Miao J
Revealing the potential pathogenesis of glioma by utilizing a glioma associated protein-protein interaction network.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2015; 21(2):455-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to explore the potential mechanism of glioma through bioinformatic approaches. The gene expression profile (GSE4290) of glioma tumor and non-tumor samples was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 180 samples were available, including 23 non-tumor and 157 tumor samples. Then the raw data were preprocessed using robust multiarray analysis, and 8,890 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by using t-test (false discovery rate < 0.0005). Furthermore, 16 known glioma related genes were abstracted from Genetic Association Database. After mapping 8,890 DEGs and 16 known glioma related genes to Human Protein Reference Database, a glioma associated protein-protein interaction network (GAPN) was constructed. In addition, 51 sub-networks in GAPN were screened out through Molecular Complex Detection (score ≥ 1), and sub-network 1 was found to have the closest interaction (score = 3). What' more, for the top 10 sub-networks, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis (p value < 0.05) was performed, and DEGs involved in sub-network 1 and 2, such as BRMS1L and CCNA1, were predicted to regulate cell growth, cell cycle, and DNA replication via interacting with known glioma related genes. Finally, the overlaps of DEGs and human essential, housekeeping, tissue-specific genes were calculated (p value = 1.0, 1.0, and 0.00014, respectively) and visualized by Venn Diagram package in R. About 61% of human tissue-specific genes were DEGs as well. This research shed new light on the pathogenesis of glioma based on DEGs and GAPN, and our findings might provide potential targets for clinical glioma treatment.

Gong C, Qu S, Lv XB, et al.
BRMS1L suppresses breast cancer metastasis by inducing epigenetic silence of FZD10.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:5406 [PubMed] Related Publications
BRMS1L (breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 like, BRMS1-like) is a component of Sin3A-histone deacetylase (HDAC) co-repressor complex that suppresses target gene transcription. Here we show that reduced BRMS1L in breast cancer tissues is associated with metastasis and poor patient survival. Functionally, BRMS1L inhibits breast cancer cells migration and invasion by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These effects are mediated by epigenetic silencing of FZD10, a receptor for Wnt signalling, through HDAC1 recruitment and histone H3K9 deacetylation at the promoter. Consequently, BRMS1L-induced FZD10 silencing inhibits aberrant activation of WNT3-FZD10-β-catenin signalling. Furthermore, BRMS1L is a target of miR-106b and miR-106b upregulation leads to BRMS1L reduction in breast cancer cells. RNA interference-mediated silencing of BRMS1L expression promotes metastasis of breast cancer xenografts in immunocompromised mice, whereas ectopic BRMS1L expression inhibits metastasis. Therefore, BRMS1L provides an epigenetic regulation of Wnt signalling in breast cancer cells and acts as a breast cancer metastasis suppressor.

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