Gene Summary

Gene:CALU; calumenin
Summary:The product of this gene is a calcium-binding protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and it is involved in such ER functions as protein folding and sorting. This protein belongs to a family of multiple EF-hand proteins (CERC) that include reticulocalbin, ERC-55, and Cab45 and the product of this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Proliferation
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Base Sequence
  • Apoptosis
  • Signal Transduction
  • DNA Methylation
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
  • Cell Survival
  • Chromosome 7
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cisplatin
  • Cell Division
  • Xenobiotics
  • Drug Resistance
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Radiation Tolerance
  • RT-PCR
  • Messenger RNA
  • Mutation
  • Cell Movement
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Cell Line
  • Down-Regulation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • RNA Interference
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Vincristine
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • siRNA
  • Lung Cancer
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CALU (cancer-related)

Ke C, Zhu K, Sun Y, et al.
SUMO1 promotes the proliferation and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells by regulating NF-κB.
Thorac Cancer. 2019; 10(1):33-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that SUMO1 expression is closely related to progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the function of SUMO1 in NSCLC has not yet been well elucidated.
METHODS: SUMO1 was enhanced or silenced in two NSCLC cell lines by using either forced SUMO1 expression or short hairpin RNA against SUMO1 lentiviral vectors, respectively. The biological functions of SUMO1 in NSCLC were investigated through colony-formation, cell proliferation, and invasion assays, and cell cycle analysis. NF-κB expression was detected in the overexpressed and silenced SUMO1 cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect an association between SUMO1 and NF-κB in the cancer and adjacent tissues of 168 patients with lung cancer.
RESULTS: Overexpressed SUMO1 promoted the proliferation rate, colony formation ability, invasion, and NF-κB expression in an A549 cell line. Conversely, SUMO1 depletion inhibited the cell growth rate, colony formation ability, invasion, and NF-κB expression in a Calu-1 cell line. SUMO1 expression was significantly correlated with NF-κB expression in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma patients (r > 0.5, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence that SUMO1 promotes the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells by regulating NF-κB.

Chi Y, Jin Q, Liu X, et al.
miR-203 inhibits cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of non-small-cell lung cancer by downregulating RGS17.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(12):2366-2372 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Involvement of the RGS17 oncogene in the promotion of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported, but the regulation mechanism in NSCLC remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression, and their dysregulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis. To understand the role of miRNAs in Regulator of G Protein Signaling 17 (RGS17)-induced NSCLC, we showed that miR-203 was downregulated during tumorigenesis, and inhibited the proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells. We then determined whether miR-203 regulated NSCLC by targeting RGS17. To characterize the regulatory effect of miR-203 on RGS17, we used lung cancer cell lines, A549 and Calu-1, and the constructed miR-203 and RGS17 overexpression vectors. The CCK8 kit was used to determine cell proliferation, and the Transwell® assay was used to measure cell invasion and migration. RT-PCR, western blots, and immunofluorescence were used to analyze expression of miR-203 and RGS17, and the luciferase reporter assay was used to examine the interaction between miR-203 and RGS17. Nude mice were used to characterize in vivo tumor growth regulation. Expression of miR-203 inhibited proliferation, invasion, and migration of lung cancer cell lines A549 and Calu-1 by targeting RGS17. The regulatory effect of miR-203 was inhibited after overexpression of RGS17. The luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-203 downregulated RGS17 by direct integration into the 3'-UTR of RGS17 mRNA. In vivo studies showed that expression of miR-203 significantly inhibited growth of tumors. Taken together, the results suggested that expression of miR-203 inhibited tumor growth and metastasis by targeting RGS17.

Liu H, Zhou T, Wang B, et al.
Identification and functional analysis of a potential key lncRNA involved in fat loss of cancer cachexia.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(2):1679-1688 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cachexia is a devastating, multifactorial, and irreversible syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle reduction with or without fat loss. Although much attention has been focused on muscle wasting, fat loss may occur earlier and accelerate muscle wasting in cachexia. The cause of 20% of cancer related death makes it urgent to discover molecular mechanisms behind cancer cachexia. Here we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify cachexia related gene modules using differentially expressed 3289 genes and 59 long non-coding RNAs based on microarray data of cachectic and non-cachectic subcutaneous adipose tissue. Subsequently, 16 independent modules were acquired and GSAASeqSP Toolset confirmed that black module was significantly associated with fat loss in cancer cachexia. Top 50 hub-genes in black module contained only one lncRNA, VLDLR antisense RNA 1 (VLDLR-AS1). We then explored the function of black module from the view of VLDLR-AS1-connected genes in the network. GO enrichment and KEGG pathways analysis revealed LDLR-AS1-connected genes were involved in Wnt signaling pathway, small GTPase mediated signal transduction, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and so on. Through construction of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) regulation network, we showed that VLDLR-AS1 may function with hsa-miR-600 to regulate gene GOLGA3, DUSP14, and UCHL1, or interact with hsa-miR-1224-3p to modulate the expression of gene GOLGA3, ZNF219, RNF141, and CALU. After literature validation, we predicted that VLDLR-AS1 most likely interacted with miR-600 to regulate UCH-L1 through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, further experiments are still required to validate mechanisms of VLDLR-AS1 in fat reduction of cancer cachexia.

Ye Z, Fang B, Pan J, et al.
miR-138 suppresses the proliferation, metastasis and autophagy of non-small cell lung cancer by targeting Sirt1.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(6):3244-3252 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study determined the role and mechanism of miR-138 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In total, 45 freshly resected clinical NSCLC tissues were collected. The expression of miR-138 in tissues and cell lines were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. miR-138 mimics were transfected into A549 and Calu-3 cells in vitro, and then the effects of miR-138 on lung cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and metastasis were investigated by CCK-8 assay, Transwell and flow cytometry, respectively. The protein expression of the potential target gene Sirt1 in lung cancer cells were determined by western blot analysis. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to further confirm whether Sirt1 was the target gene of miR-138. The expression of miR-138 was significantly lower in lung cancer tissues and was negatively correlated to the differentiation degree and lymph node metastasis of lung cancer. In vitro experiment results showed that miR-138 inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration. It was verified that miR-138 could downregulate Sirt1 protein expression, inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), decrease the activity of AMPK signaling pathway and elevate mTOR phosphorylation level. Dual-luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-138 could directly regulate Sirt1. Downregulation of Sirt1 alone can also cause the same molecular and biological function changes. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy results indicated that overexpression of miR-138 or interference of Sirt1 expression could inhibit lung cancer cell autophagy activity possibly through AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway. miR-138 plays a tumor suppressor function in lung cancer. It may inhibit the proliferation, invasion and migration of lung cancer through downregulation of Sirt1 expression and activation of cell autophagy. The downregulation of miR-138 is closely related to the development of lung cancer.

Liu T, Sun H, Zhu D, et al.
TRA2A Promoted Paclitaxel Resistance and Tumor Progression in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers via Regulating Alternative Splicing.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(7):1377-1388 [PubMed] Related Publications
Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been challenging, and paclitaxel resistance is one of the major obstacles to the better prognosis. Deregulation of alternative splicing (AS) may contribute to tumor progression and chemotherapy resistance. Human AS factor

Arechaga-Ocampo E, Lopez-Camarillo C, Villegas-Sepulveda N, et al.
Tumor suppressor miR-29c regulates radioresistance in lung cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317695010 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiotherapy is an important treatment option for non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. Despite the appropriate use of radiotherapy, radioresistance is a biological behavior of cancer cells that limits the efficacy of this treatment. Deregulation of microRNAs contributes to the molecular mechanism underlying resistance to radiotherapy in cancer cells. Although the functional roles of microRNAs have been well described in lung cancer, their functional roles in radioresistance are largely unclear. In this study, we established a non-small cell lung carcinoma Calu-1 radioresistant cell line by continuous exposure to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation as a model to investigate radioresistance-associated microRNAs. Our data show that 50 microRNAs were differentially expressed in Calu-1 radioresistant cells (16 upregulated and 34 downregulated); furthermore, well-known and novel microRNAs associated with resistance to radiotherapy were identified. Gene ontology and enrichment analysis indicated that modulated microRNAs might regulate signal transduction, cell survival, and apoptosis. Accordingly, Calu-1 radioresistant cells were refractory to radiation by increasing cell survival and reducing the apoptotic response. Among deregulated microRNAs, miR-29c was significantly suppressed. Reestablishment of miR-29c expression in Calu-1 radioresistant cells overcomes the radioresistance through the activation of apoptosis and downregulation of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 target genes. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that miR-29c is also suppressed in tumor samples of non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. Notably, we found that low miR-29c levels correlated with shorter relapse-free survival of non-small cell lung carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. Together, these results indicate a new role of miR-29c in radioresistance, highlighting their potential as a novel biomarker for outcomes of radiotherapy in lung cancer.

Russo A, Saide A, Smaldone S, et al.
Role of uL3 in Multidrug Resistance in p53-Mutated Lung Cancer Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer is one of the most common causes of death among adults. Chemotherapy is crucial in determining patient survival and quality of life. However, the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to pose a significant challenge in the management of cancer. In this study, we analyzed the role of human ribosomal protein uL3 (formerly rpL3) in multidrug resistance. Our studies revealed that uL3 is a key determinant of multidrug resistance in

You BR, Han BR, Park WH
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid increases anti-cancer effect of tumor necrosis factor-α through up-regulation of TNF receptor 1 in lung cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(11):17726-17737 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has anti-cancer effect. Here, we evaluated the effect of SAHA on HDAC activity and cell growth in many normal lung and cancer cells. We observed that the HDAC activities of lung cancer cells were higher than that of normal lung cells. SAHA inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells regardless of the inhibitory effect on HDAC. This agent induced a G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, which was accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP: ΔΨm) loss in lung cancer cells. However, SAHA did not induce cell death in normal lung cells. All tested caspase inhibitors prevented apoptotic cell death in SAHA-treated A549 and Calu-6 lung cancer cells. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) enhanced apoptosis in SAHA-treated lung cancer cells through caspase-8 and caspase-9 activations. Especially, SAHA increased the expression level of TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), especially acetylation of the region of TNFR1 promoter -223/-29 in lung cancer cells. The down-regulation of TNFR1 suppressed apoptosis in TNF-α and SAHA-treated lung cancer cells. In conclusion, SAHA inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells via a G2/M phase arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. SAHA also enhanced apoptotic effect of TNF-α in human lung cancer cells through up-regulation of TNFR1. TNF-α may be a key to improve anti-cancer effect of HDAC inhibitors.

Russo A, Saide A, Cagliani R, et al.
rpL3 promotes the apoptosis of p53 mutated lung cancer cells by down-regulating CBS and NFκB upon 5-FU treatment.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:38369 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
5-FU is a chemotherapy drug commonly used for the treatment of human cancers; however drug resistance represents a major challenge for its clinical application. In the present study, we reporte that rpL3 induced by 5-FU treatment in Calu-6 cells represses CBS transcription and reduces CBS protein stability leading to a decrease of CBS protein levels. rpL3 also regulates negatively the activation of NFκB by preventing NFκB nuclear translocation through IκB-α up-regulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that rpL3 significantly enhances the apoptosis of 5-FU treated Calu-6 cells promoting the overexpression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and the inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. We finally demonstrate that rpL3 potentiates 5-FU efficacy inhibiting cell migration and invasion. Our results suggest that combination of rpL3 and 5-FU is a promising strategy for chemotherapy of lung cancers lacking functional p53 that are resistant to 5-FU.

Ren Y, Yeoh KW, Hao P, et al.
Irradiation of Epithelial Carcinoma Cells Upregulates Calcium-Binding Proteins That Promote Survival under Hypoxic Conditions.
J Proteome Res. 2016; 15(12):4258-4264 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia is thought to promote tumor radio-resistance via effects on gene expression in cancer cells that modulate their metabolism, proliferation, and DNA repair pathways to enhance survival. Here we demonstrate for the first time that under hypoxic condition A431 epithelial carcinoma cells exhibit increased viability when exposed to low-dose γ-irradiation, indicating that radiotherapy can promote tumor cell survival when oxygen supply is limited. When assessed using iTRAQ quantitative proteomics and Western blotting, irradiated tumor cells were observed to significantly up-regulate the expression of calcium-binding proteins CALM1, CALU, and RCN1, suggesting important roles for these mediators in promoting tumor cell survival during hypoxia. Accordingly, shRNA-knockdown of CALM1, CALU, and RCN1 expression reduced hypoxic tumor cell resistance to low-dose radiation and increased apoptosis. These data indicate that γ-irradiation of hypoxic tumor cells induces up-regulation of calcium-binding proteins that promote cancer cell survival and may limit the efficacy of radiotherapy in the clinic.

Beer AG, Zenzmaier C, Schreinlechner M, et al.
Expression of a recombinant full-length LRP1B receptor in human non-small cell lung cancer cells confirms the postulated growth-suppressing function of this large LDL receptor family member.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(42):68721-68733 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B), a member of the LDL receptor family, is frequently inactivated in multiple malignancies including lung cancer. LRP1B is therefore considered as a putative tumor suppressor. Due to its large size (4599 amino acids), until now only minireceptors or receptor fragments have been successfully cloned. To assess the effect of LRP1B on the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells, we constructed and expressed a transfection vector containing the 13.800 bp full-length murine Lrp1b cDNA using a PCR-based cloning strategy. Expression of LRP1B was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using primers specific for human LRP1B or mouse Lrp1b. Effective expression of the full length receptor was demonstrated by the appearance of a single 600 kDa band on Western Blots of HEK 293 cells. Overexpression of Lrp1b in non-small cell lung cancer cells with low or absent endogenous LRP1B expression significantly reduced cellular proliferation compared to empty vector-transfected control cells. Conversely, in Calu-1 cells, which express higher endogenous levels of the receptor, siRNA-mediated LRP1B knockdown significantly enhanced cellular proliferation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that, consistent with the postulated tumor suppressor function, overexpression of full-length Lrp1b leads to impaired cellular proliferation, while LRP1B knockdown has the opposite effect. The recombinant Lrp1b construct represents a valuable tool to unravel the largely unknown physiological role of LRP1B and its potential functions in cancer pathogenesis.

Roointan A, Sharifi-Rad M, Badrzadeh F, Sharifi-Rad J
A comparison between PLGA-PEG and NIPAAm-MAA nanocarriers in curcumin delivery for hTERT silencing in lung cancer cell line.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016; 62(9):51-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common cancer among men. Since the main reason of cancer cells immortality is telomerase activity, targeting of such enzyme can be a promising approach in cancer therapy. Curcumin is a safe and efficient anticancer agent in this context, but its applications in cancer therapy are limited because of its hydrophobic structure and low solubility in water. Today, using nanocarriers for delivery of such anticancer agents is a well performed method. Here, we developed and compared the efficiency of two nanocarriers (PLGA-PEG and NIPAAm-MAA) in delivery of curcumin and also in levels of hTERT silencing in lung cancer cell line (calu-6). Scanning electron microscopy, MTT assays and real-time PCR were used for imaging, cytotoxicity testing and measuring the expression levels of hTERT after treatment of cells with different concentrations of free curcumin and curcumin loaded nanocarriers. The MTT results demonstrated that the IC50 values of curcumin loaded nanocarriers were in lower concentrations than free curcumin. The hTERT expression levels were decreased by curcumin loaded PLGA-PEG more than curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA and free curcumin. Our results showed that the curcumin loaded PLGA-PEG can be a useful nano based carrier for delivery of anti-cancer agents such as curcumin to fight lung cancer.

Bassi DE, Zhang J, Renner C, Klein-Szanto AJ
Targeting proprotein convertases in furin-rich lung cancer cells results in decreased in vitro and in vivo growth.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(3):1182-1188 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Proprotein convertases (PCs) are serine proteases with an active role in the post-translational processing of numerous inactive proteins to active proteins including many substrates of paramount importance in cancer development and progression. Furin (PCSKC3), a well-studied member of this family, is overexpressed in numerous human and experimental malignancies. In the present communication, we treated two furin-overexpressing non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines (Calu-6 and HOP-62) with the PC inhibitor CMK (Decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethylketone). This resulted in a diminished IGF-1R processing and a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation of two NSCLC lines. Similarly, growth of subcutaneous xenografts of both cell lines, were partially inhibited by an in vivo treatment with the same drug. These observations point to a potential role of PC inhibitors in cancer therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Chen P, Li J, Chen YC, et al.
The functional status of DNA repair pathways determines the sensitization effect to cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(6):511-522 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cisplatin can cause a variety of DNA crosslink lesions including intra-strand and inter-strand crosslinks (ICLs), which are associated with the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin. Here, we aimed to assess the contribution of the Fanconi anemia (FA), homologous recombination (HR) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways to cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-derived cells.
METHODS: The expression of FA, HR and NER pathway-associated genes was assessed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. siRNAs were used to knock down the expression of these genes. CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays were used to assess the viability and apoptotic rate of NSCLC-derived cells, respectively. Immunofluorescence and alkaline comet assays were used to assess the repair of ICLs.
RESULTS: We found that acquired cisplatin-resistant NSCLC-derived A549/DR cells exhibited markedly enhanced FA and HR repair pathway capacities compared to its parental A549 cells and another independent NSCLC-derived cell line, Calu-1, which possesses a moderate innate resistance to cisplatin. siRNA-mediated silencing of the FA-associated genes FANCL and RAD18 and the HR-associated genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 significantly potentiated the sensitivity of A549/DR cells to cisplatin compared to A549 and Calu-1 cells, suggesting that the acquired cisplatin resistance in A549/DR cells may be attributed to enhanced FA and HR pathway capacities responsible for ICL repair. Although we found that expression knockdown of the NER-associated genes XPA and ERCC1 sensitized the three NSCLC-derived cell lines to cisplatin, the sensitization effect was more significant in Calu-1 cells than in A549 and A549/DR cells, implying that the innate cisplatin resistance in Calu-1 cells may result from an increased NER activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the functional status of DNA repair pathways determine the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to cisplatin. Direct targeting of the pathway that is involved in cisplatin resistance may be an effective strategy to surmount cisplatin resistance in NSCLC.

Drzewiecka H, Gałęcki B, Jarmołowska-Jurczyszyn D, et al.
Decreased expression of connective tissue growth factor in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with clinicopathological variables and can be restored by epigenetic modifiers.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(9):1927-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recent studies indicated undisputed contribution of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the development of many cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the functional role and regulation of CTGF expression during tumorigenesis remain elusive. Our goal was to determine CTGF transcript and protein levels in tumoral and matched control tissues from 98 NSCLC patients, to correlate the results with clinicopathological features and to investigate whether the CTGF expression can be epigenetically regulated in NSCLC.
METHODS: We used quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to evaluate CTGF expression in lung cancerous and histopathologically unchanged tissues. We tested the impact of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-dAzaC) and trichostatin A (TSA) on CTGF transcript and protein levels in NSCLC cells (A549, Calu-1). DNA methylation status of the CTGF regulatory region was evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. The influence of 5-dAzaC and TSA on NSCLC cells viability and proliferation was monitored by the trypan blue assay.
RESULTS: We found significantly decreased levels of CTGF mRNA and protein (both p < 0.0000001) in cancerous tissues of NSCLC patients. Down-regulation of CTGF occurred regardless of gender in all histological subtypes of NSCLC. Moreover, we showed that 5-dAzaC and TSA were able to restore CTGF mRNA and protein contents in NSCLC cells. However, no methylation within CTGF regulatory region was detected. Both compounds significantly reduced NSCLC cells proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: Decreased expression of CTGF is a common feature in NSCLC; however, it can be restored by the chromatin-modifying agents such as 5-dAzaC or TSA and consequently restrain cancer development.

Capel V, Vllasaliu D, Watts P, Stolnik S
Insight into the relationship between the cell culture model, cell trafficking and siRNA silencing efficiency.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 477(2):260-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite research efforts, cell uptake processes determining siRNA silencing efficiency remain unclear. Here, we examine the relationship between in vitro cell culture models, cellular trafficking and siRNA silencing efficiency to provide a mechanistic insight on siRNA delivery system design. Model siRNA-polyplexes, based on chitosan as a 'classical' condensing agent, were applied to a panel of lung epithelial cell lines, H1299, A549 and Calu-3 and cell internalization levels, trafficking pathways and gene silencing assessed on exposure to pharmacological inhibitors. The data reveal striking differences in the internalization behaviour and gene silencing efficiency in the tested cell lines, despite their common lung epithelial origins. The model system's silencing was lower where clathrin internalization pathway predominated in Calu-3, relative to silencing in H1299 cells where a non-clathrin internalization appears dominant. Increased silencing on endosomal disruption was apparent in Calu-3 cells, but absent when cellular internalization was not predominantly clathrin-mediated in A549 cells. This highlights that identifying cell trafficking pathways before incorporation of functional components to siRNA delivery systems (e.g. endosomolytic compounds) is crucial. The study hence stresses the importance of selection of appropriate cell culture model, relevant to in vivo target, to assess the gene silencing efficiency and decide which functionalities the 'stratified siRNA silencing vector' requires.

Liu W, Yin Y, Wang J, et al.
Kras mutations increase telomerase activity and targeting telomerase is a promising therapeutic strategy for Kras-mutant NSCLC.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(1):179-190 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As shortened telomeres inhibit tumor formation and prolong life span in a KrasG12D mouse lung cancer model, we investigated the implications of telomerase in Kras-mutant NSCLC. We found that Kras mutations increased TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) mRNA expression and telomerase activity and telomere length in both immortalized bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and lung adenocarcinoma cells (Calu-3). MEK inhibition led to reduced TERT expression and telomerase activity. Furthermore, telomerase inhibitor BIBR1532 shortened telomere length and inhibited mutant Kras-induced long-term proliferation, colony formation and migration capabilities of BEAS-2B and Calu-3 cells. Importantly, BIBR1532 sensitized oncogenic Kras expressing Calu-3 cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The Calu-3-KrasG12D xenograft mouse model confirmed that BIBR1532 enhanced the antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel in vivo. In addition, higher TERT expression was seen in Kras-mutant NSCLC than that with wild-type Kras. Our data suggest that Kras mutations increase telomerase activity and telomere length by activating the RAS/MEK pathway, which contributes to an aggressive phenotype of NSCLC. Kras mutations-induced lung tumorigenesis and chemoresistance are attenuated by telomerase inhibition. Targeting telomerase/telomere may be a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with Kras-mutant NSCLC.

Gaudio E, Paduano F, Ngankeu A, et al.
A Fhit-mimetic peptide suppresses annexin A4-mediated chemoresistance to paclitaxel in lung cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(21):29927-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We recently reported that Fhit is in a molecular complex with annexin A4 (ANXA4); following to their binding, Fhit delocalizes ANXA4 from plasma membrane to cytosol in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells, thus restoring their chemosensitivity to the drug. Here, we demonstrate that Fhit physically interacts with A4 through its N-terminus; molecular dynamics simulations were performed on a 3D Fhit model to rationalize its mechanism of action. This approach allowed for the identification of the QHLIKPS heptapeptide (position 7 to 13 of the wild-type Fhit protein) as the smallest Fhit sequence still able to preserve its ability to bind ANXA4. Interestingly, Fhit peptide also recapitulates the property of the native protein in inhibiting Annexin A4 translocation from cytosol to plasma membrane in A549 and Calu-2 lung cancer cells treated with paclitaxel. Finally, the combination of Tat-Fhit peptide and paclitaxel synergistically increases the apoptotic rate of cultured lung cancer cells and blocks in vivo tumor formation.Our findings address to the identification of chemically simplified Fhit derivatives that mimic Fhit tumor suppressor functions; intriguingly, this approach might lead to the generation of novel anticancer drugs to be used in combination with conventional therapies in Fhit-negative tumors to prevent or delay chemoresistance.

Regan E, Sibley RC, Cenik BK, et al.
Identification of Gene Expression Differences between Lymphangiogenic and Non-Lymphangiogenic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150963 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is well established that lung tumors induce the formation of lymphatic vessels. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling tumor lymphangiogenesis in lung cancer have not been fully delineated. In the present study, we identify a panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines that induce lymphangiogenesis and use genome-wide mRNA expression to characterize the molecular mechanisms regulating tumor lymphangiogenesis. We show that Calu-1, H1993, HCC461, HCC827, and H2122 NSCLC cell lines form tumors that induce lymphangiogenesis whereas Calu-3, H1155, H1975, and H2073 NSCLC cell lines form tumors that do not induce lymphangiogenesis. By analyzing genome-wide mRNA expression data, we identify a 17-gene expression signature that distinguishes lymphangiogenic from non-lymphangiogenic NSCLC cell lines. Importantly, VEGF-C is the only lymphatic growth factor in this expression signature and is approximately 50-fold higher in the lymphangiogenic group than in the non-lymphangiogenic group. We show that forced expression of VEGF-C by H1975 cells induces lymphangiogenesis and that knockdown of VEGF-C in H1993 cells inhibits lymphangiogenesis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the triple angiokinase inhibitor, nintedanib (small molecule that blocks all FGFRs, PDGFRs, and VEGFRs), suppresses tumor lymphangiogenesis in H1993 tumors. Together, these data suggest that VEGF-C is the dominant driver of tumor lymphangiogenesis in NSCLC and reveal a specific therapy that could potentially block tumor lymphangiogenesis in NSCLC patients.

Chen K, Shi W
Autophagy regulates resistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells to paclitaxel.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10539-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic drug that is effective for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some NSCLCs are not sensitive to paclitaxel treatment with undetermined underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we found that paclitaxel dose-dependently activated Beclin-1 in 2 NSCLC cell lines, A549 and Calu-3. Inhibition of autophagy significantly increased the paclitaxel-induced NSCLC cell death in a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Moreover, microRNA (miR)-216b levels were significantly downregulated in paclitaxel-treated NSCLC cells. Bioinformatics study showed that miR-216b targeted the 3'-UTR of Beclin-1 mRNA to inhibit its translation, which was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Together, these data suggest that paclitaxel may decrease miR-216b levels in NSCLC cells, which subsequently upregulates Beclin-1 to increase NSCLC cell autophagy to antagonize paclitaxel-induced cell death. Strategies that increase miR-216b levels or inhibit cell autophagy may improve the outcome of paclitaxel treatment in NSCLC therapy.

He Z, Huang C, Lin G, Ye Y
siRNA-induced TRAF6 knockdown promotes the apoptosis and inhibits the invasion of human lung cancer SPC-A1 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):1933-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) has been found to be involved in multiple cancers. However, the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)‑induced knockdown of TRAF6 on the biological behaviors of cancer cells remains unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of siRNA-induced knockdown of TRAF6 on the biological behaviors of human lung cancer SPC-A1 cells. The expression of TRAF6 was determined in human lung adenocarcinoma A549, non-small cell lung cancer H1650, human airway epithelial Calu-3 and human lung cancer SPC-A1 cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT‑PCR) and western blotting at the transcriptional and translational levels. TRAF6 expression was knocked down in the SPC-A1 cells using an siRNA technique, and the effects of TRAF6 knockdown on NF-κB activity, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion and migration of the SPC-A1 cells were determined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, Transwell invasion assay and scratch wound assay. In addition, the protein expression of CD24, CXCR4, MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, TWIST, TIMP-2 and Slug was quantified using western blotting assay. Western blotting and qRT-PCR assays showed upregulation of TRAF6 at both the translational and transcriptional levels in the Calu-3 and SPC-A1 cells, and K63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6 and constitutive NF-κB activation were detected in the SPC-A1 cells. Knockdown of TRAF6 inhibited the migration and invasion and promoted the apoptosis of the SPC-A1 cells, but had little effect on cell proliferation and the cell cycle. In addition, siRNA-induced TRAF6 knockdown caused a marked reduction in the protein expression of CD24 and CXCR4, but had little effect on MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, Twist, TIMP-2 or Slug expression. The present study demonstrated that TRAF6 is upregulated in human lung cancer cells, and siRNA-induced TRAF6 knockdown inhibits the invasion of lung cancer cells and promotes apoptosis. It is suggested that TRAF6 may be a promising target for the therapy of lung cancer.

Ota M, Mochizuki S, Shimoda M, et al.
ADAM23 is downregulated in side population and suppresses lung metastasis of lung carcinoma cells.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(4):433-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells contain a small population of cancer stem cells or cancer initiating cells, which can be enriched in the side population (SP) after fluorescence activated cell sorting. To examine the members of the ADAM, ADAMTS and MMP gene families related to phenotypes of the SP and the main population (MP), we screened the expression of all the members in the propagated SP and MP of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, and found that the relative expression ratio of ADAM23 in the MP to the SP is most highly increased, but none of them are increased in the SP. A similar result on the ADAM23 expression was obtained with another cell line, Calu-3 cells. Overexpression of ADAM23 inhibited colony formation, cell adhesion and migration, and knockdown of ADAM23 by shRNA showed the reverse effects. ADAM23-mediated suppression of colony formation, cell adhesion and migration was greatly reduced by treatment with neutralizing anti-ADAM23 antibody, anti-αvβ3 integrin antibody and/or ADAM23 disintegrin peptide. Expression of cancer stem cell-related genes, including AKRC1/2, TM4SF1 and NR0B1, was increased by knockdown of ADAM23. In addition, lung metastasis of A549 transfectants with different levels of ADAM23 expression was negatively regulated by the ADAM23 expression levels. Our data provide evidence that ADAM23 plays a role in suppression of cancer cell progression through interaction with αvβ3 integrin, and suggest that downregulation of ADAM23 in SP cells may contribute toward providing a cancer stem cell phenotype by facilitating the activity of integrin αvβ3.

Ma L, Wang R, Nan Y, et al.
Phloretin exhibits an anticancer effect and enhances the anticancer ability of cisplatin on non-small cell lung cancer cell lines by regulating expression of apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(2):843-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-85% of all lung cancer cases and the prognosis of NSCLC patients is unsatisfactory since 5-year survival rate of NSCLC is still as low as 11%. Natural compounds derived from plants with few or no side effects have been recognized as alternative or auxiliary cure for cancer patients. Phloretin is such an agent possessing various pharmacological activities; however, there is scarce information on its anticancer effects on NSCLC. It was evaluated and confirmed, in the present study, that phloretin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549, Calu-1, H838 and H520 cells in a dose-dependent manner, phloretin also suppressed the invasion and migration of NSCLC cells. We further confirmed that phloretin dose-dependently suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, increased the protein expression of cleaved-caspase-3 and -9, and deregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 on gene and protein levels. Besides, evaluations revealed that phloretin enhanced the anticancer effects of cisplatin on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Moreover, phloretin facilitated the effects of cisplatin on deregulation of Bcl-2, MMP-2 and -9, and upregulation of cleaved-caspase-3 and -9. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that phloretin possessed anticancer effects and enhanced the anticancer effects of cisplatin on NSCLC cell lines by suppressing proliferation, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting invasion and migration of the cells through regulating apoptotic pathways and MMPs.

Della Corte CM, Ciaramella V, Di Mauro C, et al.
Metformin increases antitumor activity of MEK inhibitors through GLI1 downregulation in LKB1 positive human NSCLC cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(4):4265-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Metformin, widely used as antidiabetic drug, showed antitumoral effects expecially in combination with chemotherapy. Our group recently has demonstrated that metformin and gefitinib are synergistic in LKB1-wild-type NSCLC cells. In these models, metformin as single agent induced an activation and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated-protein-kinase (MAPK) through an increased C-RAF/B-RAF heterodimerization.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Since single agent metformin enhances proliferating signals through the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway, and several MEK inhibitors (MEK-I) demonstrated clinical efficacy in combination with other agents in NSCLC, we tested the effects of metformin plus MEK-I (selumetinib or pimasertib) on proliferation, invasiveness, migration abilities in vitro and in vivo in LKB1 positive NSCLC models harboring KRAS wild type and mutated gene.
RESULTS: The combination of metformin with MEK-I showed a strong anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effect in Calu-3, H1299, H358 and H1975 human NSCLC cell lines, independently from the KRAS mutational status. The combination reduced the metastatic behaviour of NSCLC cells, via a downregulation of GLI1 trascritional activity, thus affecting the transition from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype. Metformin and MEK-Is combinations also decreased the production and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by reducing the NF-jB (p65) binding to MMP-2 and MMP-9 promoters.
CONCLUSIONS: Metformin potentiates the antitumor activity of MEK-Is in human LKB1-wild-type NSCLC cell lines, independently from the KRAS mutational status, through GLI1 downregulation and by reducing the NF-jB (p65)-mediated transcription of MMP-2 and MMP-9.

Garnett DJ
Caveolae as a target to quench autoinduction of the metastatic phenotype in lung cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(3):611-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Mevalonate pathway inhibitors are potentially useful chemotherapeutic agents showing growth inhibition and pro-apoptotic effects in cancer cells. The effects of statins and bisphosphonates on cancer growth are attributed to a reduction in protein isoprenylation. Post-translational modification and activation of GTPase binding Ras superfamily permit the recruitment of these signal proteins to membranes where they mediate the cancer phenotype. Here, the effects of three inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway and one specific inhibitor of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins were studied in both an ER-negative, Ras-inactive breast (MDA-MB-231) and lung adenocarcinoma (CaLu-1) cells in vitro.
METHODS: Treated cells were subject to genome-wide gene expression profiling. A gene subset was established so that the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) could be observed and compared with signalling protein shifts.
RESULTS: Within the subset, some genes normally up-regulated during EMT were asymmetrically reduced by a Δ-24 DHCR inhibitor in the lung cells. Signalling proteins associated with caveolae were down-regulated by this oxidoreductase inhibitor, while those associated with membrane rafts were up-regulated.
CONCLUSIONS: This study decouples isoprenylation effects from cholesterol events per se. The data support a hypothesis that caveolae are abolished by Δ-24 DHCR intervention and it is revealed that these microdomains are vital EMT signalling structures for lung cells but not ER- and Ras-negative breast cells. When signalling by extracellular signals is quenched by removal of the hydrophilic conduit provided by caveolae, the transcriptome responds by moving the cellular identity towards quiescence.

Suzawa K, Toyooka S, Sakaguchi M, et al.
Antitumor effect of afatinib, as a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-targeted therapy, in lung cancers harboring HER2 oncogene alterations.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(1):45-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a member of the HER family of proteins containing four receptor tyrosine kinases. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of certain human cancers. In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), HER2 amplification or mutations have been reported. However, little is known about the benefit of HER2-targeted therapy for NSCLCs harboring HER2 alterations. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of afatinib, an irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-HER2 dual inhibitor, in lung cancers harboring HER2 oncogene alterations, including novel HER2 mutations in the transmembrane domain, which we recently identified. Normal bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, ectopically overexpressing wild-type HER2 or mutants (A775insYVMA, G776VC, G776LC, P780insGSP, V659E, and G660D) showed constitutive autophosphorylation of HER2 and activation of downstream signaling. They were sensitive to afatinib, but insensitive to gefitinib. Furthermore, we examined the antitumor activity of afatinib and gefitinib in several NSCLC cell lines, and investigated the association between their genetic alterations and sensitivity to afatinib treatment. In HER2-altered NSCLC cells (H2170, Calu-3, and H1781), afatinib downregulated the phosphorylation of HER2 and EGFR as well as their downstream signaling, and induced an antiproliferative effect through G1 arrest and apoptotic cell death. In contrast, HER2- or EGFR-non-dependent NSCLC cells were insensitive to afatinib. In addition, these effects were confirmed in vivo by using a xenograft mouse model of HER2-altered lung cancer cells. Our results suggest that afatinib is a therapeutic option as a HER2-targeted therapy for NSCLC harboring HER2 amplification or mutations.

Liu L, Qiao Y, Hu C, et al.
Endostatin exerts radiosensitizing effect in non-small cell lung cancer cells by inhibiting VEGFR2 expression.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(1):18-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of endostatin on vascular growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and the mechanisms underlying its radiosensitizing effect.
METHODS: VEGFR2 mRNA levels were determined in different NSCLC cell lines using qRT-PCR. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to assess the expression of mRNA and proteins. The radiosensitivity of the cells was determined by colony-formation assays; and cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: VEGFR2 mRNA levels differed among the five NSCLC cell lines (P < 0.01), with the highest expression in Calu-1 cells and lowest in A549 cells. Endostatin significantly inhibited the growth of Calu-1 cells (P < 0.01) (IC20 = 296.5 μg/ml), and the expression of VEGFR2 and HIF-1α (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and p38 were significantly lower in endostatin-treated cells than control (P < 0.05). Endostatin enhanced the radiosensitivity of Calu-1 cells to SER = 1.38 and induced apoptosis (P < 0.01) and G2/M blockage (P < 0.01). However, endostatin had limited effects on A549 cells. Compared with Calu-1 cells, there was not significantly effects on cell radiosensitivity (SER = 1.09).
CONCLUSIONS: Endostatin induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity of the VEGFR2 high-expressing cell line Calu-1, but it has a limited effect on the VEGFR2 low-expressing cell line A549.

Liu Y, Qiao Y, Hu C, et al.
VEGFR2 inhibition by RNA interference affects cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and response to radiation in Calu-1 cells.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(2):212-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in the proliferation, migration, invasion, and radiation-induced apoptosis of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line Calu-1.
METHODS: VEGFR2 gene was silenced by RNA interference in Calu-1 cells, and the expression of VEGFR2 was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The cells were divided into control, VEGF-treated, VEGFR2 knockdown, and VEGFR2 knockdown and VEGF-treated groups. A CCK8 assay and Transwell assay were performed to assess cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, respectively, after VEGFR2 knockdown. Western blot assays were used to detect signaling proteins downstream of VEGFR2. Cells in the groups listed above were also subjected to radiation treatment, followed by apoptosis analysis.
RESULTS: (1) RNA interference of VEGFR2 in Calu-1 cells reduced VEGFR2 mRNA (P < 0.01) and protein levels (P < 0.01). (2) VEGFR2 knockdown inhibited proliferation (P < 0.05), migration (P < 0.05), and invasion (P < 0.05) in Calu-1 cells. (3) VEGFR2 knockdown blocked the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt, also known as PKB), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) to various extent (P < 0.05), but did not change their total protein expression. (4) Knockdown of VEGFR2 suppressed HIF-1α protein synthesis (P < 0.05), and exacerbated apoptosis induced by radiation (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: VEGFR2 gene knockdown significantly suppressed a number of cellular activities in Calu-1 cells and increased radiation-induced cell death.

Xiao P, Sun LL, Wang J, et al.
LKB1 gene inactivation does not sensitize non-small cell lung cancer cells to mTOR inhibitors in vitro.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2015; 36(9):1107-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: Previous study has shown that endometrial cancers with LKB1 inactivation are highly responsive to mTOR inhibitors. In this study we examined the effect of LKB1 gene status on mTOR inhibitor responses in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.
METHODS: Lung cancer cell lines Calu-1, H460, H1299, H1792, and A549 were treated with the mTOR inhibitors rapamycin or everolimus (RAD001). The mTOR activity was evaluated by measuring the phosphorylation of 4EBP1 and S6K, the two primary mTOR substrates. Cells proliferation was measured by MTS or sulforhodamine B assays.
RESULTS: The basal level of mTOR activity in LKB1 mutant A549 and H460 cells was significantly higher than that in LKB1 wild-type Calu-1 and H1792 cells. However, the LKB1 mutant A549 and H460 cells were not more sensitive to the mTOR inhibitors than the LKB1 wild-type Calu-1 and H1792 cells. Moreover, knockdown of LKB1 gene in H1299 cells did not increase the sensitivity to the mTOR inhibitors. Treatment with rapamycin or RAD001 significantly increased the phosphorylation of AKT in both LKB1 wild-type and LKB1 mutant NSCLC cells, which was attenuated by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, RAD001 combined with LY294002 markedly enhanced the growth inhibition on LKB1 wild-type H1792 cells and LKB1 mutant A549 cells.
CONCLUSION: LKB1 gene inactivation in NSCLC cells does not increase the sensitivity to the mTOR inhibitors. The negative feedback activation of AKT by mTOR inhibition may contribute to the resistance of NSCLC cells to mTOR inhibitors.

Zheng P, Wang Q, Teng J, Chen J
Calumenin and fibulin-1 on tumor metastasis: Implications for pharmacology.
Pharmacol Res. 2015; 99:11-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor metastasis is a key cause of cancer mortality, and inhibiting migration of cancer cells is one of the major directions of anti-metastatic drug development. Calumenin and fibulin-1 are two extracellular proteins that synergistically inhibit cell migration and tumor metastasis, and could potentially be served as targets for pharmacological research of anti-metastatic drugs. This review briefly introduces the multi-function of these two proteins, and discusses the mechanism of how they regulate cell migration and tumor metastasis.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. CALU, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999