Gene Summary

Gene:CBFA2T3; CBFA2/RUNX1 translocation partner 3
Aliases: ETO2, MTG16, MTGR2, ZMYND4, RUNX1T3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the myeloid translocation gene family which interact with DNA-bound transcription factors and recruit a range of corepressors to facilitate transcriptional repression. The t(16;21)(q24;q22) translocation is one of the less common karyotypic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the runt-related transcription factor 1 gene fused to the 3'-region of this gene. This gene is also a putative breast tumor suppressor. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein CBFA2T3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Adolescents
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Young Adult
  • Chromosome 16
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Translocation
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Phosphoproteins
  • ras Proteins
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cytogenetic Analysis
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • FISH
  • Transcription Factors
  • Breast Cancer
  • Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Chromosome 21
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Leukaemia
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit
  • Infant
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CBFA2T3 (cancer-related)

Gruber TA, Downing JR
The biology of pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2015; 126(8):943-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) comprises between 4% and 15% of newly diagnosed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients. AMKL in children with Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by a founding GATA1 mutation that cooperates with trisomy 21, followed by the acquisition of additional somatic mutations. In contrast, non-DS-AMKL is characterized by chimeric oncogenes consisting of genes known to play a role in normal hematopoiesis. CBFA2T3-GLIS2 is the most frequent chimeric oncogene identified to date in this subset of patients and confers a poor prognosis.

Salah Z, Arafeh R, Maximov V, et al.
miR-27a and miR-27a* contribute to metastatic properties of osteosarcoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(7):4920-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in adolescents and young adults. The essential mechanisms underlying osteosarcomagenesis and progression continue to be obscure. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have far-reaching effects on the cellular biology of development and cancer. We recently reported that unique miRNA signatures associate with the pathogenesis and progression of OS. Of particular interest, we found that higher expression of miR-27a is associated with clinical metastatic disease. We report here that overexpression of miR-27a/miR-27a*, a microRNA pair derived from a single precursor, promotes pulmonary OS metastases formation. By contrast, sequestering miR-27a/miR-27a* by sponge technology suppressed OS cells invasion and metastases formation. miR-27a/miR-27a* directly repressed CBFA2T3 expression among other target genes. We demonstrated that CBFA2T3 is downregulated in majority of OS samples and its over expression significantly attenuated OS metastatic process mediated by miR-27a/miR-27a* underscoring CBFA2T3 functions as a tumor suppressor in OS. These findings establish that miR-27a/miR-27a* pair plays a significant role in OS metastasis and proposes it as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in managing OS metastases.

Kim M, Tan YS, Cheng WC, et al.
MIR144 and MIR451 regulate human erythropoiesis via RAB14.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 168(4):583-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression levels of MIR144 and MIR451 increase during erythropoiesis, a pattern that is conserved from zebrafish to humans. As these two miRs are expressed from the same polycistronic transcript, we manipulated MIR144 and MIR451 in human erythroid cells individually and together to investigate their effects on human erythropoiesis. Inhibition of endogenous human MIR451 resulted in decreased numbers of erythroid (CD71(hi) CD235a(hi) CD34(-) ) cells, consistent with prior studies in zebrafish and mice. In addition, inhibition of MIR144 impaired human erythroid differentiation, unlike in zebrafish and mouse studies where the functional effect of MIR144 on erythropoiesis was minimal. In this study, we found RAB14 is a direct target of both MIR144 and MIR451. As MIR144 and MIR451 expression increased during human erythropoiesis, RAB14 protein expression decreased. Enforced RAB14 expression phenocopied the effect of MIR144 and/or MIR451 depletion, whereas shRNA-mediated RAB14 knockdown protected cells from MIR144 and/or MIR451 depletion-mediated erythropoietic inhibition. RAB14 knockdown increased the frequency and number of erythroid cells, increased β-haemoglobin expression, and decreased CBFA2T3 expression during human erythropoiesis. In summary, we utilized MIR144 and MIR451 to identify RAB14 as a novel physiological inhibitor of human erythropoiesis.

Parry M, Rose-Zerilli MJ, Gibson J, et al.
Whole exome sequencing identifies novel recurrently mutated genes in patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83244 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) remains largely unknown. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies have identified recurrent mutations in key pathways, most notably NOTCH2 mutations in >25% of patients. These studies are based on small, heterogeneous discovery cohorts, and therefore only captured a fraction of the lesions present in the SMZL genome. To identify further novel pathogenic mutations within related biochemical pathways, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number (CN) analysis to a biologically and clinically homogeneous cohort of seven SMZL patients with 7q abnormalities and IGHV1-2*04 gene usage. We identified 173 somatic non-silent variants, affecting 160 distinct genes. In additional to providing independent validation of the presence of mutation in several previously reported genes (NOTCH2, TNFAIP3, MAP3K14, MLL2 and SPEN), our study defined eight additional recurrently mutated genes in SMZL; these genes are CREBBP, CBFA2T3, AMOTL1, FAT4, FBXO11, PLA2G4D, TRRAP and USH2A. By integrating our WES and CN data we identified three mutated putative candidate genes targeted by 7q deletions (CUL1, EZH2 and FLNC), with FLNC positioned within the well-characterized 7q minimally deleted region. Taken together, this work expands the reported directory of recurrently mutated cancer genes in this disease, thereby expanding our understanding of SMZL pathogenesis. Ultimately, this work will help to establish a stratified approach to care including the possibility of targeted therapy.

Masetti R, Togni M, Astolfi A, et al.
DHH-RHEBL1 fusion transcript: a novel recurrent feature in the new landscape of pediatric CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive acute myeloid leukemia.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(10):1712-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous malignant disease. Despite improvements in outcome over the past decades, the current survival rate still is approximately 60-70%. Cytogenetic, recurrent genetic abnormalities and early response to induction treatment are the main factors predicting clinical outcome. While the majority of children carry recurrent chromosomal translocations, 20% of patients do not show any recognizable cytogenetic alteration and are defined to have cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML). This subset of patients is characterized by a significant heterogeneity in clinical outcome, which is influenced by factors only recently started to be identified. In this respect, genome-wide analyses have been used with the aim of defining the full array of genetic lesions in CN-AML. Recently, through whole-transcriptome massively parallel sequencing of seven cases of pediatric CN-AML, we identified a novel recurrent CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion, predicting poorer outcome. However, since the expression of CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion in mice is not sufficient for leukemogenesis, we speculated that further unknown abnormalities could contribute to both cancer transformation and response to treatment. Thus, we analyzed, by whole-transcriptome sequencing, 4 CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive patients, as well as 4 CN-AML patients. We identified a new fusion transcript in the CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive patients, involving Desert Hedgehog (DHH), a member of Hedgehog family, and Ras Homologue Enrich in Brain Like 1 (RHEBL1), a gene coding for a small GTPase of the Ras family. Through the screening of a validation cohort of 55 additional pediatric AML patients, we globally detected DHH-RHEBL1 fusion in 8 out of 20 (40%) CBFA2T3-GLIS2-rearranged patients. Gene expression analysis performed on RNA-seq data revealed that DHH-RHEBL1-positive patients exhibited a specific signature. These 8 patients had an 8-year overall survival worse than that of the remaining 12 CBFA2T3-GLIS2-rearranged patients not harboring DHH-RHEBL1 fusion (25% vs 55%, respectively, P=0.1). Taken together, these findings are unprecedented and indicate that the DHH-RHEBL1 fusion transcript is a novel recurrent feature in the changing landscape of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive childhood AML. Moreover, it could be instrumental in the identification of a subgroup of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive patients with a very poor outcome.

Jiang MM, Gao L, Jing Y, et al.
Rapid detection of AML1 associated fusion genes in patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2013; 21(4):821-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was aimed to detect the expression of AML1 fusion genes in the patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and further to investigate their association with the progression and prognosis of AML. Bone marrow samples were collected from 168 patients with de novo adult AML, and the expression of AML1 ETO, AML1-EVI1, AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, AML1-LRP16, AML1-CLCA2 and AML1-PRDX4 was analyzed by a novel multiplex nested RT-PCR. Positive samples and minimal residual disease were further examined by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that the AML1 fusion genes were found in 10.7% (18/168) patients. Among them, AML1-ETO in 12 (7.1%) cases were detected, AML1-EVI1 in 2 cases (1.2%), and AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, and AML1-CLCA2 in 1 case (0.6%) each were detected. Among the patients with AML1-ETO, 10 patients (10/12, 83.33%) achieved complete remission (CR) after one cycle of chemotherapy, while 2 patients achieved CR after 2 cycles of chemotherapy. The 2 patients with AML1-EVI1 failed to achieve CR after one cycle of chemotherapy. Patients with AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, or AML1-CACL2 did not achieve CR after one cycle of chemotherapy. It is concluded that AML1 fusion genes are more frequent and can provide the molecular markers for diagnostics and prognosis evaluation of AML and for monitoring MRD.

de Rooij JD, Hollink IH, Arentsen-Peters ST, et al.
NUP98/JARID1A is a novel recurrent abnormality in pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with a distinct HOX gene expression pattern.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(12):2280-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytogenetic abnormalities and early response to treatment are the main prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, NUP98/NSD1 (t(5; 11)(q35; p15)), a cytogenetically cryptic fusion, was described as recurrent event in AML, characterized by dismal prognosis and HOXA/B gene overexpression. Using split-signal fluorescence in situ hybridization, other NUP98-rearranged pediatric AML cases were identified, including several acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) cases with a cytogenetically cryptic fusion of NUP98 to JARID1A (t(11;15)(p15;q35)). In this study we screened 105 pediatric AMKL cases to analyze the frequency of NUP98/JARID1A and other recurrent genetic abnormalities. NUP98/JARID1A was identified in 11/105 patients (10.5%). Other abnormalities consisted of RBM15/MKL1 (n=16), CBFA2T3/GLIS2 (n=13) and MLL-rearrangements (n=13). Comparing NUP98/JARID1A-positive patients with other pediatric AMKL patients, no significant differences in sex, age and white blood cell count were found. NUP98/JARID1A was not an independent prognostic factor for 5-year overall (probability of overall survival (pOS)) or event-free survival (probability of event-free survival (pEFS)), although the 5-year pOS for the entire AMKL cohort was poor (42 ± 6%). Cases with RBM15/MLK1 fared significantly better in terms of pOS and pEFS, although this was not independent from other risk factors in multivariate analysis. NUP98/JARID1A cases were characterized by HOXA/B gene overexpression, which is a potential druggable pathway. In conclusion, NUP98/JARID1A is a novel recurrent genetic abnormality in pediatric AMKL.

Masetti R, Pigazzi M, Togni M, et al.
CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion transcript is a novel common feature in pediatric, cytogenetically normal AML, not restricted to FAB M7 subtype.
Blood. 2013; 121(17):3469-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) is a heterogeneous subgroup of myeloid clonal disorders that do not harbor known mutations. To investigate the mutation spectrum of pediatric CN-AML, we performed whole-transcriptome massively parallel sequencing on blasts from 7 CN-AML pediatric patients. In 3 patients we identified a recurrent cryptic inversion of chromosome 16, encoding a CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion transcript. In a validation cohort of 230 pediatric CN-AML samples we identified 17 new cases. Among a total of 20 patients with CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion transcript out of 237 investigated (8.4%), 10 patients (50%) did not belong to the French-American-British (FAB) M7 subgroup. The 5-year event-free survival for these 20 children was worse than that for the other CN-AML patients (27.4% vs 59.6%; P = .01). These data suggest that the presence of CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion transcript is a novel common feature of pediatric CN-AML, not restricted to the FAB M7 subtype, predicting poorer outcome.

Gruber TA, Larson Gedman A, Zhang J, et al.
An Inv(16)(p13.3q24.3)-encoded CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion protein defines an aggressive subtype of pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2012; 22(5):683-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To define the mutation spectrum in non-Down syndrome acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (non-DS-AMKL), we performed transcriptome sequencing on diagnostic blasts from 14 pediatric patients and validated our findings in a recurrency/validation cohort consisting of 34 pediatric and 28 adult AMKL samples. Our analysis identified a cryptic chromosome 16 inversion (inv(16)(p13.3q24.3)) in 27% of pediatric cases, which encodes a CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion protein. Expression of CBFA2T3-GLIS2 in Drosophila and murine hematopoietic cells induced bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling and resulted in a marked increase in the self-renewal capacity of hematopoietic progenitors. These data suggest that expression of CBFA2T3-GLIS2 directly contributes to leukemogenesis.

Thiollier C, Lopez CK, Gerby B, et al.
Characterization of novel genomic alterations and therapeutic approaches using acute megakaryoblastic leukemia xenograft models.
J Exp Med. 2012; 209(11):2017-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a heterogeneous disease generally associated with poor prognosis. Gene expression profiles indicate the existence of distinct molecular subgroups, and several genetic alterations have been characterized in the past years, including the t(1;22)(p13;q13) and the trisomy 21 associated with GATA1 mutations. However, the majority of patients do not present with known mutations, and the limited access to primary patient leukemic cells impedes the efficient development of novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, using a xenotransplantation approach, we have modeled human pediatric AMKL in immunodeficient mice. Analysis of high-throughput RNA sequencing identified recurrent fusion genes defining new molecular subgroups. One subgroup of patients presented with MLL or NUP98 fusion genes leading to up-regulation of the HOX A cluster genes. A novel CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion gene resulting from a cryptic inversion of chromosome 16 was identified in another subgroup of 31% of non-Down syndrome AMKL and strongly associated with a gene expression signature of Hedgehog pathway activation. These molecular data provide useful markers for the diagnosis and follow up of patients. Finally, we show that AMKL xenograft models constitute a relevant in vivo preclinical screening platform to validate the efficacy of novel therapies such as Aurora A kinase inhibitors.

Cubedo E, Gentles AJ, Huang C, et al.
Identification of LMO2 transcriptome and interactome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2012; 119(23):5478-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
LMO2 regulates gene expression by facilitating the formation of multipartite DNA-binding complexes. In B cells, LMO2 is specifically up-regulated in the germinal center (GC) and is expressed in GC-derived non-Hodgkin lymphomas. LMO2 is one of the most powerful prognostic indicators in diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) patients. However, its function in GC B cells and DLBCL is currently unknown. In this study, we characterized the LMO2 transcriptome and transcriptional complex in DLBCL cells. LMO2 regulates genes implicated in kinetochore function, chromosome assembly, and mitosis. Overexpression of LMO2 in DLBCL cell lines results in centrosome amplification. In DLBCL, the LMO2 complex contains some of the traditional partners, such as LDB1, E2A, HEB, Lyl1, ETO2, and SP1, but not TAL1 or GATA proteins. Furthermore, we identified novel LMO2 interacting partners: ELK1, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor1 (LEF1) proteins. Reporter assays revealed that LMO2 increases transcriptional activity of NFATc1 and decreases transcriptional activity of LEF1 proteins. Overall, our studies identified a novel LMO2 transcriptome and interactome in DLBCL and provides a platform for future elucidation of LMO2 function in GC B cells and DLBCL pathogenesis.

Ajore R, Kumar P, Dhanda RS, et al.
The leukemia associated nuclear corepressor ETO homologue genes MTG16 and MTGR1 are regulated differently in hematopoietic cells.
BMC Mol Biol. 2012; 13:11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MTG16, MTGR1 and ETO are nuclear transcriptional corepressors of the human ETO protein family. MTG16 is implicated in hematopoietic development and in controlling erythropoiesis/megakaryopoiesis. Furthermore, ETO homologue genes are 3'participants in leukemia fusions generated by chromosomal translocations responsible of hematopoietic dysregulation. We tried to identify structural and functional promoter elements of MTG16 and MTGR1 genes in order to find associations between their regulation and hematopoiesis.
RESULTS: 5' deletion examinations and luciferase reporter gene studies indicated that a 492 bp sequence upstream of the transcription start site is essential for transcriptional activity by the MTG16 promoter. The TATA- and CCAAT-less promoter with a GC box close to the start site showed strong reporter activity when examined in erythroid/megakaryocytic cells. Mutation of an evolutionary conserved GATA -301 consensus binding site repressed promoter function. Furthermore, results from in vitro antibody-enhanced electrophoretic mobility shift assay and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated binding of GATA-1 to the GATA -301 site. A role of GATA-1 was also supported by transfection of small interfering RNA, which diminished MTG16 expression. Furthermore, expression of the transcription factor HERP2, which represses GATA-1, produced strong inhibition of the MTG16 promoter reporter consistent with a role of GATA-1 in transcriptional activation. The TATA-less and CCAAT-less MTGR1 promoter retained most of the transcriptional activity within a -308 to -207 bp region with a GC-box-rich sequence containing multiple SP1 binding sites reminiscent of a housekeeping gene with constitutive expression. However, mutations of individual SP1 binding sites did not repress promoter function; multiple active SP1 binding sites may be required to safeguard constitutive MTGR1 transcriptional activity. The observed repression of MTG16/MTGR1 promoters by the leukemia associated AML1-ETO fusion gene may have a role in hematopoietic dysfunction of leukemia.
CONCLUSIONS: An evolutionary conserved GATA binding site is critical in transcriptional regulation of the MTG16 promoter. In contrast, the MTGR1 gene depends on a GC-box-rich sequence for transcriptional regulation and possible ubiquitous expression. Our results demonstrate that the ETO homologue promoters are regulated differently consistent with hematopoietic cell-type- specific expression and function.

Salaverria I, Akasaka T, Gesk S, et al.
The CBFA2T3/ACSF3 locus is recurrently involved in IGH chromosomal translocation t(14;16)(q32;q24) in pediatric B-cell lymphoma with germinal center phenotype.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(4):338-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Translocations involving immunoglobulin (IG) loci are the hallmarks of several subtypes of B-cell lymphoma. Common to these translocations is that cellular proto-oncogenes come under the influence of IG regulatory elements leading to deregulated expression. In case of a breakpoint in the IGH switch region, oncogene activation can take place on both derivative chromosomes, which means that in principle one translocation can result in concurrent activation of two genes. By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified a case of leukemic B-cell lymphoma in a child with an IGH break and unknown partner. Subsequent long-distance inverse PCR revealed fusion of IGH Sl in 14q32 and the 50 region of CBFA2T3 in 16q24.3, suggesting presence of the t(14;16)(q32;q24.3). Candidate oncogenes targeted through this translocation are CBFA2T3 and ACSF3, which could be activated on der(16) and der(14), respectively. FISH screening of a population-based cohort of B-cell lymphomas from a prospective trial for the treatment of lymphoma in childhood (BFM-NHL) identified additionally a follicular lymphoma Grade 3/diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with IGH-CBFA2T3/ACSF3 juxtaposition. Both lymphomas shared expression of CD10 and CD20 in the absence of TdT, suggesting a germinal center (GC) B-cell origin. Our data indicate that the CBFA2T3/ACSF3 locus is a novel recurrent oncogenic target of IGH translocations, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of pediatric GC-derived B-cell lymphoma.

Kumar R, Selth LA, Schulz RB, et al.
Genome-wide mapping of ZNF652 promoter binding sites in breast cancer cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2011; 112(10):2742-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
A significant proportion of transcription factors encoded by the human genome are classical C(2) H(2) zinc finger proteins that regulate gene expression by directly interacting with their cognate DNA binding motifs. We previously showed that one such C(2) H(2) zinc finger DNA binding protein, ZNF652 (zinc finger protein 652), specifically and functionally interacts with CBFA2T3 to repress transcription of genes involved in breast oncogenesis. To identify potential targets by which ZNF652 exerts its putative tumour suppressive function, its promoter-specific cistrome was mapped by ChIP-chip. De novo motif scanning of the ZNF652 binding sites identified a novel ZNF652 recognition motif that closely resembles the previously characterised in vitro binding site, being a 10 nucleotide core of that 13 nucleotide sequence. Genes with ZNF652 binding sites function in diverse cellular pathways, and many are involved in cancer development and progression. Characterisation of the in vivo ZNF652 DNA binding motif and identification of potential ZNF652 target genes are key steps towards elucidating the function(s) of this transcription factor in the normal and malignant breast cell.

Barrett CW, Fingleton B, Williams A, et al.
MTGR1 is required for tumorigenesis in the murine AOM/DSS colitis-associated carcinoma model.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(4):1302-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myeloid Translocation Gene, Related-1 (MTGR1) CBFA2T2 is a member of the Myeloid Translocation Gene (MTG) family of transcriptional corepressors. The remaining two family members, MTG8 (RUNX1T1) and MTG16 (CBFA2T3) are identified as targets of chromosomal translocations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mtgr1(-/-) mice have defects in intestinal lineage allocation and wound healing. Moreover, these mice show signs of impaired intestinal stem cell function. Based on these phenotypes, we hypothesized that MTGR1 may influence tumorigenesis arising in an inflammatory background. We report that Mtgr1(-/-) mice were protected from tumorigenesis when injected with azoxymethane (AOM) and then subjected to repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Tumor cell proliferation was comparable, but Mtgr1(-/-) tumors had significantly higher apoptosis rates. These phenotypes were dependent on epithelial injury, the resultant inflammation, or a combination of both as there was no difference in aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or tumor burden when animals were treated with AOM as the sole agent. Gene expression analysis indicated that Mtgr1(-/-) tumors had significant upregulation of inflammatory networks, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for immune cell subsets revealed a marked multilineage increase in infiltrates, consisting predominately of CD3(+) and natural killer T (NKT) cells as well as macrophages. Transplantation of wild type (WT) bone marrow into Mtgr1(-/-) mice, and the reciprocal transplant, did not alter the phenotype, ruling out an MTGR1 hematopoietic cell-autonomous mechanism. Our findings indicate that MTGR1 is required for efficient inflammatory carcinogenesis in this model, and implicate its dysfunction in colitis-associated carcinoma. This represents the first report functionally linking MTGR1 to intestinal tumorigenesis.

Brioschi M, Fischer J, Cairoli R, et al.
Down-regulation of microRNAs 222/221 in acute myelogenous leukemia with deranged core-binding factor subunits.
Neoplasia. 2010; 12(11):866-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Core-binding factor leukemia (CBFL) is a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) characterized by genetic mutations involving the subunits of the core-binding factor (CBF). The leukemogenesis model for CBFL posits that one, or more, gene mutations inducing increased cell proliferation and/or inhibition of apoptosis cooperate with CBF mutations for leukemia development. One of the most common mutations associated with CBF mutations involves the KIT receptor. A high expression of KIT is a hallmark of a high proportion of CBFL. Previous studies indicate that microRNA (MIR) 222/221 targets the 3' untranslated region of the KIT messenger RNA and our observation that AML1 can bind the MIR-222/221 promoter, we hypothesized that MIR-222/221 represents the link between CBF and KIT. Here, we show that MIR-222/221 expression is upregulated after myeloid differentiation of normal bone marrow AC133(+) stem progenitor cells. CBFL blasts with either t(8;21) or inv(16) CBF rearrangements with high expression levels of KIT (CD117) display a significantly lower level of MIR-222/221 expression than non-CBFL blasts. Consistently, we found that the t(8;21) AML1-MTG8 fusion protein binds the MIR-222/221 promoter and induces transcriptional repression of a MIR-222/221-LUC reporter. Because of the highly conserved sequence homology, we demonstrated concomitant MIR-222/221 down-regulation and KIT up-regulation in the 32D/WT1 mouse cell model carrying the AML1-MTG16 fusion protein. This study provides the first hint that CBFL-associated fusion proteins may lead to up-regulation of the KIT receptor by down-regulating MIR-222/221, thus explaining the concomitant occurrence of CBF genetic rearrangements and overexpression of wild type or mutant KIT in AML.

Ajore R, Dhanda RS, Gullberg U, Olsson I
The leukemia associated ETO nuclear repressor gene is regulated by the GATA-1 transcription factor in erythroid/megakaryocytic cells.
BMC Mol Biol. 2010; 11:38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Eight-Twenty-One (ETO) nuclear co-repressor gene belongs to the ETO homologue family also containing Myeloid Translocation Gene on chromosome 16 (MTG16) and myeloid translocation Gene-Related protein 1 (MTGR1). By chromosomal translocations ETO and MTG16 become parts of fusion proteins characteristic of morphological variants of acute myeloid leukemia. Normal functions of ETO homologues have as yet not been examined. The goal of this work was to identify structural and functional promoter elements upstream of the coding sequence of the ETO gene in order to explore lineage-specific hematopoietic expression and get hints to function.
RESULTS: A putative proximal ETO promoter was identified within 411 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Strong ETO promoter activity was specifically observed upon transfection of a promoter reporter construct into erythroid/megakaryocytic cells, which have endogeneous ETO gene activity. An evolutionary conserved region of 228 bp revealed potential cis-elements involved in transcription of ETO. Disruption of the evolutionary conserved GATA -636 consensus binding site repressed transactivation and disruption of the ETS1 -705 consensus binding site enhanced activity of the ETO promoter. The promoter was stimulated by overexpression of GATA-1 into erythroid/megakaryocytic cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay with erythroid/megakaryocytic cells showed specific binding of GATA-1 to the GATA -636 site. Furthermore, results from chromatin immunoprecipitation showed GATA-1 binding in vivo to the conserved region of the ETO promoter containing the -636 site. The results suggest that the GATA -636 site may have a role in activation of the ETO gene activity in cells with erythroid/megakaryocytic potential. Leukemia associated AML1-ETO strongly suppressed an ETO promoter reporter in erythroid/megakaryocytic cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that the GATA-1 transcription factor binds and transactivates the ETO proximal promoter in an erythroid/megakaryocytic-specific manner. Thus, trans-acting factors that are essential in erythroid/megakaryocytic differentiation govern ETO expression.

Lamprecht B, Walter K, Kreher S, et al.
Derepression of an endogenous long terminal repeat activates the CSF1R proto-oncogene in human lymphoma.
Nat Med. 2010; 16(5):571-9, 1p following 579 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mammalian genomes contain many repetitive elements, including long terminal repeats (LTRs), which have long been suspected to have a role in tumorigenesis. Here we present evidence that aberrant LTR activation contributes to lineage-inappropriate gene expression in transformed human cells and that such gene expression is central for tumor cell survival. We show that B cell-derived Hodgkin's lymphoma cells depend on the activity of the non-B, myeloid-specific proto-oncogene colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R). In these cells, CSF1R transcription initiates at an aberrantly activated endogenous LTR of the MaLR family (THE1B). Derepression of the THE1 subfamily of MaLR LTRs is widespread in the genome of Hodgkin's lymphoma cells and is associated with impaired epigenetic control due to loss of expression of the corepressor CBFA2T3. Furthermore, we detect LTR-driven CSF1R transcripts in anaplastic large cell lymphoma, in which CSF1R is known to be expressed aberrantly. We conclude that LTR derepression is involved in the pathogenesis of human lymphomas, a finding that might have diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications.

Park IJ, Park JE, Kim HJ, et al.
Acute myeloid leukemia with t(16;21)(q24;q22) and eosinophilia: case report and review of the literature.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 196(1):105-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(16;21)(q24;q22), a rare chromosomal translocation involving chromosome 21 in de novo and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (AML), produces a RUNX1-CBFA2T3 fusion gene (previously AML1-MTG16) fusion gene. The translocation has been reported in 20 patients with AML, with eosinophilia present in 3 cases. Here we report a pediatric case of t(16;21)(q24;q22) in de novo AML with eosinophilia and suggest that eosinophilia is a hematologic characteristic of at least a subpopulation of AML with t(16;21)(q24;q22). A 4-year-old Korean girl was admitted with complaints of pale appearance and dizziness, and was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia. On admission, laboratory evaluation revealed hemoglobin at 3.3 g/dL, platelets at 9.0 x 10(9)/L, and white blood cells at 9.1 x 10(9)/L with 10% eosinophils and 1% blasts. The bone marrow aspirate contained 31% blasts and 11% eosinophils. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the expression of CD13, CD14, CD19, CD33, CD34, and HLA-DR by the leukemic blasts. The karyotype was 47,XX, + 8,t(16;21)(q24;q22)[18]/46,XX[2]. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with a dual-color, dual-fusion translocation LSI AML1/ETO probe set for RUNX1 and RUNX1T1 produced three signals for each probe in 90% of interphases, but no fusion signals. We confirmed the presence of RUNX1-CBFA2T3 fusion transcripts with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, using primers AML1ex5f1 and MTG16r2.

Rossetti S, Hoogeveen AT, Esposito J, Sacchi N
Loss of MTG16a (CBFA2T3), a novel rDNA repressor, leads to increased ribogenesis and disruption of breast acinar morphogenesis.
J Cell Mol Med. 2010; 14(6A):1358-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human MTG16a (CBFA2T3), a chromatin repressor with nucleolar localization, was described to act as a suppressor of breast tumourigenesis. Here we show that MTG16a is a novel ribosomal gene repressor, which can counteract MYC-driven activation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription. We also show that either knocking down MTG16a by RNA interference, or sequestering MTG16a outside the nucleolus of human breast epithelial cells, hampers acinar morphogenesis concomitant with up-regulation of rRNA synthesis and increased ribogenesis. This is the first demonstration that loss of MTG16a function in the nucleolus of breast epithelial cells can induce morphological and molecular changes typical of breast cancer initiation.

Ottone T, Hasan SK, Montefusco E, et al.
Identification of a potential "hotspot" DNA region in the RUNX1 gene targeted by mitoxantrone in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with t(16;21) translocation.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2009; 48(3):213-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
The translocation t(16;21) involving RUNX1 (AML1) and resulting in the RUNX1-CBFA2T3 fusion is a rare but recurrent abnormality mostly found in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) associated with agents targeting topoisomerase II (topo II). We characterized, at the genomic level, the t(16;21) translocation in a patient who developed t-AML after treatment of multiple sclerosis with mitoxantrone (MTZ). Long template nested PCR of genomic DNA followed by direct sequencing enabled the localization of RUNX1 and CBFA2T3 (ETO2) breakpoints in introns 5 and 3, respectively. Sequencing of the cDNA with specific primers showed the presence of the expected RUNX1-CBFA2T3 fusion transcript in leukemic cells. The RUNX1 intron 5 breakpoint was located at nucleotide position 24,785. This region contained an ATGCCCCAG nucleotide sequence showing approximately 90% homology to a "hotspot" DNA region ATGCCCTAG present in intron 6 of PML previously identified in therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia cases arising following treatment with MTZ. This study suggests a wider distribution in the human genome, and particularly at genes involved in chromosome translocations observed in t-AML, of DNA regions (hotspot) targeted by specific topo II drugs.

De Braekeleer E, Douet-Guilbert N, Le Bris MJ, et al.
RUNX1-MTG16 fusion gene in acute myeloblastic leukemia with t(16;21)(q24;q22): case report and review of the literature.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2008; 185(1):47-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report here a 73-year old female who was admitted for hematomas, dyspnea, and fever. Hematological data showed pancytopenia with 9% blast cells positive for CD13, CD33, CD34, HLAD2, and myeloperoxydase. A diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) type 2 (FAB classification) was made. Banding cytogenetic techniques performed on bone marrow cells showed a 48,XX,+8,+9,del(9)(q22q33)x2 ,t(16;21)(q24;q22)[20]/46,XX[2] karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with BACs covering the RUNX1 (alias AML1) (band 21q22) and MTG16 (band 16q24) gene showed a fusion of both genes. The t(16;21)(q24;q22) has been described in 16 AML cases, including ours. Eleven patients had received chemotherapy for a previous cancer, most of them were been treated with DNA-topoisomerase II inhibitors known to be associated with chromosomal translocations involving the RUNX1 gene. The significant homology between MGT16 and MTG8 suggests that the RUNX1-MTG16 fusion gene induced by the t(16;21)(q24;q22) is a variant of the RUNX1-MTG8 that shares similar activity.

Kumar R, Cheney KM, McKirdy R, et al.
CBFA2T3-ZNF652 corepressor complex regulates transcription of the E-box gene HEB.
J Biol Chem. 2008; 283(27):19026-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcriptional repression plays a critical role in development and homeostasis. The ETO family represents a group of highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed transcriptional regulatory proteins that are components of a diverse range of multiprotein repressor complexes. ETO proteins function as transcriptional repressors by interacting with a number of transcription factors that bind to their cognate consensus DNA binding sequences within the promoters of target genes. We previously reported that the classical C(2)H(2) zinc finger DNA-binding protein, ZNF652, specifically and functionally interacts with the ETO protein CBFA2T3 and has a role in the suppression of breast oncogenesis. Here we report the identification and validation of the ZNF652 consensus DNA binding sequence. Our results show that the E-box gene HEB is a direct target of CBFA2T3-ZNF652-mediated transcriptional repression. The CBFA2T3-ZNF652 complex regulates HEB expression by binding to a single ZNF652 response element located within the promoter sequence of HEB. This study also shows that the NHR3 and NHR4 domains of CBFA2T3 interact with a conserved proline-rich region located within the C terminus of ZNF652. Our results, together with previous reports, indicate that HEB has a complex relationship with CBFA2T3; CBFA2T3 interacts with ZNF652 to repress HEB expression, and in addition CBFA2T3 interacts with the HEB protein to inhibit its activator function. These findings suggest that CBFA2T3-ZNF652-mediated HEB regulation may play an important role in hematopoiesis and myogenesis.

Dhanda RS, Lindberg SR, Olsson I
The human SIN3B corepressor forms a nucleolar complex with leukemia-associated ETO homologues.
BMC Mol Biol. 2008; 9:8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: SIN3 (SWI-Independent) is part of a transcriptional deacetylase complex, which generally mediates the formation of repressive chromatin. The purpose of this work was to study possible interactions between corepressors human SIN3B (hSIN3B) and the ETO homologues - ETO (eight twenty-one), MTG16 (myeloid-transforming gene 16) and MTGR1 (MTG-related protein 1). In addition, the subnuclear localization of the hSIN3B and the ETO homologues was also examined.
RESULTS: A ubiquitous expression of hSIN3B was observed in adult and fetal tissues. Results with both ectopically expressed proteins in COS-7 cells and endogeneous proteins in the K562 human erytholeukemia cell line demonstrated interactions between hSIN3B and ETO or MTG16 but not MTGR1. Furthermore, nuclear extract of primary placental cells showed complexes between hSIN3B and ETO. The interaction between hSIN3B and ETO required an intact amino-terminus of ETO and the NHR2 domain. A nucleolar localization of hSIN3B and all the ETO homologues was demonstrated upon overexpression in COS-7 cells, and confirmed for the endogeneously expressed proteins in K562 cells. However, hSIN3B did not colocalize or interact with the leukemia-associated AML1 -ETO.
CONCLUSION: Our data from protein-protein interactions and immunolocalization experiments support that hSIN3B is a potential member of a corepressor complex involving selective ETO homologues.

Gandemer V, Rio AG, de Tayrac M, et al.
Five distinct biological processes and 14 differentially expressed genes characterize TEL/AML1-positive leukemia.
BMC Genomics. 2007; 8:385 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocation is found in 20 to 25% of cases of childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). This rearrangement results in the fusion of ETV6 (TEL) and RUNX1 (AML1) genes and defines a relatively uniform category, although only some patients suffer very late relapse. TEL/AML1-positive patients are thus an interesting subgroup to study, and such studies should elucidate the biological processes underlying TEL/AML1 pathogenesis. We report an analysis of gene expression in 60 children with B-lineage ALL using Agilent whole genome oligo-chips (44K-G4112A) and/or real time RT-PCR.
RESULTS: We compared the leukemia cell gene expression profiles of 16 TEL/AML1-positive ALL patients to those of 44 TEL/AML1-negative patients, whose blast cells did not contain any additional recurrent translocation. Microarray analyses of 26 samples allowed the identification of genes differentially expressed between the TEL/AML1-positive and negative ALL groups. Gene enrichment analysis defined five enriched GO categories: cell differentiation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell motility and response to wounding, associated with 14 genes -RUNX1, TCFL5, TNFRSF7, CBFA2T3, CD9, SCARB1, TP53INP1, ACVR1C, PIK3C3, EGFL7, SEMA6A, CTGF, LSP1, TFPI - highlighting the biology of the TEL/AML1 sub-group. These results were first confirmed by the analysis of an additional microarray data-set (7 patient samples) and second by real-time RT-PCR quantification and clustering using an independent set (27 patient samples). Over-expression of RUNX1 (AML1) was further investigated and in one third of the patients correlated with cytogenetic findings.
CONCLUSION: Gene expression analyses of leukemia cells from 60 children with TEL/AML1-positive and -negative B-lineage ALL led to the identification of five biological processes, associated with 14 validated genes characterizing and highlighting the biology of the TEL/AML1-positive ALL sub-group.

Rossetti S, Hoogeveen AT, Liang P, et al.
A distinct epigenetic signature at targets of a leukemia protein.
BMC Genomics. 2007; 8:38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human myelogenous leukemia characterized by either the non random t(8; 21)(q22; q22) or t(16; 21)(q24; q22) chromosome translocations differ for both their biological and clinical features. Some of these features could be consequent to differential epigenetic transcriptional deregulation at AML1 targets imposed by AML1-MTG8 and AML1-MTG16, the fusion proteins deriving from the two translocations. Preliminary findings showing that these fusion proteins lead to transcriptional downregulation of AML1 targets, marked by repressive chromatin changes, would support this hypothesis. Here we show that combining conventional global gene expression arrays with the power of bioinformatic genomic survey of AML1-consensus sequences is an effective strategy to identify AML1 targets whose transcription is epigenetically downregulated by the leukemia-associated AML1-MTG16 protein.
RESULTS: We interrogated mouse gene expression microarrays with probes generated either from 32D cells infected with a retroviral vector carrying AML1-MTG16 and unable of granulocyte differentiation and proliferation in response to the granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), or from 32D cells infected with the cognate empty vector. From the analysis of differential gene expression alone (using as criteria a p value < 0.01 and an absolute fold change > 3), we were unable to conclude which of the 37 genes downregulated by AML1-MTG16 were, or not, direct AML1 targets. However, when we applied a bioinformatic approach to search for AML1-consensus sequences in the 10 Kb around the gene transcription start sites, we closed on 17 potential direct AML1 targets. By focusing on the most significantly downregulated genes, we found that both the AML1-consensus and the transcription start site chromatin regions were significantly marked by aberrant repressive histone tail changes. Further, the promoter of one of these genes, containing a CpG island, was aberrantly methylated.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that a leukemia-associated fusion protein can impose a distinct epigenetic repressive signature at specific sites in the genome. These findings strengthen the conclusion that leukemia-specific oncoproteins can induce non-random epigenetic changes.

Gratias S, Rieder H, Ullmann R, et al.
Allelic loss in a minimal region on chromosome 16q24 is associated with vitreous seeding of retinoblastoma.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(1):408-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
In addition to RB1 gene mutations, retinoblastomas frequently show gains of 1q and 6p and losses of 16q. To identify suppressor genes on 16q, we analyzed 22 short tandem repeat loci in 58 patients with known RB1 mutations. A subset of tumors was also investigated by conventional and matrix comparative genomic hybridization. In 40 of 58 (69%) tumors, we found no loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at any 16q marker. LOH was detected in 18 of 58 (31%) tumors, including five with allelic imbalance at some markers. In one tumor LOH was only observed at 16q24. As the parental origin of allele loss was unbiased, an imprinted locus is unlikely to be involved. Analysis of gene expression by microarray hybridization and quantitative RT real-time PCR did not identify a candidate suppressor in 16q24. Cadherin 13 (CDH13), CBFA2T3, and WFDC1, which are candidate suppressors in other tumor entities with 16q24 loss, did not show loss of expression. In addition, mutation and methylation analysis showed no somatic alteration of CDH13. Results in all tumors with chromosome 16 alterations define a single minimal deleted region of 5.7 Mb in the telomeric part of 16q24 with the centromeric boundary defined by retention of heterozygosity for a single nucleotide variant in exon 10 of CDH13 (Mb 82.7). Interestingly, clinical presentation of tumors with and without 16q alterations was distinct. Specifically, almost all retinoblastomas with 16q24 loss showed diffuse intraocular seeding. This suggests that genetic alterations in the minimal deleted region are associated with impaired cell-to-cell adhesion.

Kumar R, Manning J, Spendlove HE, et al.
ZNF652, a novel zinc finger protein, interacts with the putative breast tumor suppressor CBFA2T3 to repress transcription.
Mol Cancer Res. 2006; 4(9):655-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcriptional repressor CBFA2T3 is a putative breast tumor suppressor. To define the role of CBFA2T3, we used a segment of this protein as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified a novel uncharacterized protein, ZNF652. In general, primary tumors and cancer cell lines showed lower expression of ZNF652 than normal tissues. Together with the location of this gene on the long arm of chromosome 17q, a region of frequent loss of heterozygosity in cancer, these results suggest a possible role of ZNF652 in tumorigenesis. In silico analysis of this protein revealed that it contains multiple classic zinc finger domains that are predicted to bind DNA. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that ZNF652 strongly interacts with CBFA2T3 and this interaction occurs through the COOH-terminal 109 amino acids of ZNF652. In contrast, there was a weak interaction of ZNF652 with CBFA2T1 and CBFA2T2, the other two members of this ETO family. Transcriptional reporter assays further confirmed the strength and selectivity of the ZNF652-CBFA2T3 interaction. The transcriptional repression of growth factor independent-1 (GFI-1), a previously characterized ETO effector zinc finger protein, was shown to be enhanced by CBFA2T1, but to a lesser extent by CBFA2T2 and CBFA2T3. We therefore suggest that each of the various gene effector zinc finger proteins may specifically interact with one or more of the ETO proteins to generate a defined range of transcriptional repressor complexes.

Schwartz R, Engel I, Fallahi-Sichani M, et al.
Gene expression patterns define novel roles for E47 in cell cycle progression, cytokine-mediated signaling, and T lineage development.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006; 103(26):9976-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In maturing T lineage cells, the helix-loop-helix protein E47 has been shown to enforce a critical proliferation and developmental checkpoint commonly referred to as beta selection. To examine how E47 regulates cellular expansion and developmental progression, we have used an E2A-deficient lymphoma cell line and DNA microarray analysis to identify immediate E47 target genes. Hierarchical cluster analysis of gene expression patterns revealed that E47 coordinately regulates the expression of genes involved in cell survival, cell cycle progression, lipid metabolism, stress response, and lymphoid maturation. These include Plcgamma2, Cdk6, CD25, Tox, Gadd45a, Gadd45b, Gfi1, Gfi1b, Socs1, Socs3, Id2, Eto2, and Xbp1. We propose a regulatory network linking Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-mediated signaling, E47, and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins in a common pathway. Finally, we suggest that the aberrant activation of Cdk6 in E47-deficient T lineage cells contributes to the development of lymphoid malignancy.

van Wezel T, Lombaerts M, van Roon EH, et al.
Expression analysis of candidate breast tumour suppressor genes on chromosome 16q.
Breast Cancer Res. 2005; 7(6):R998-1004 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Chromosome arm 16q is the second most frequent target of loss of heterozygosity in breast cancer and is, therefore, a candidate to contain one or more classic tumour suppressor genes (TSGs). E-cadherin at 16q22 was identified as a TSG in lobular breast cancer, but TSGs in ductal breast cancer remain elusive. Several genes have been suggested as potential candidates (e.g. CBFA2T3, CTCF and WWOX) but no inactivating mutations could be identified in these genes and they thus fail to fit the classic two-hit model for a TSG. With the completion of the human transcriptome, new candidate genes can be distinguished. Besides mutational inactivation, a TSG could, at least in a subset of the tumours, be transcriptionally suppressed or even inactivated. Studying candidate genes for expression and somatic mutations could thus identify the TSGs.
METHODS: Possible candidates CBFA2T3, TERF2 and TERF2IP, FBXL8 and LRRC29 and FANCA were studied for insertion and deletion mutations and for expression differences using quantitative RT-PCR in a panel of tumour cell lines and primary tumours with and without loss of 16q.
RESULTS: None of the genes showed mutations or obvious expression differences. FANCA expression increased with tumour grade.
CONCLUSION: Apparently, the underlying genetics at chromosome 16q are complex or the TSGs remain to be identified. Multiple mechanisms, such as mutations, promoter hypermethylation or haploinsufficiency, might lead to the inactivation of a TSG.

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