Gene Summary

Gene:CD79B; CD79b molecule
Aliases: B29, IGB, AGM6
Summary:The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen-specific component, surface immunoglobulin (Ig). Surface Ig non-covalently associates with two other proteins, Ig-alpha and Ig-beta, which are necessary for expression and function of the B-cell antigen receptor. This gene encodes the Ig-beta protein of the B-cell antigen component. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein beta chain
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Latest Publications: CD79B (cancer-related)

Yonese I, Takase H, Yoshimori M, et al.
CD79B mutations in primary vitreoretinal lymphoma: Diagnostic and prognostic potential.
Eur J Haematol. 2019; 102(2):191-196 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) is a rare type of lymphoma wherein the lesions are limited to the eyes. PVRL is difficult to diagnose because of the challenges related to obtaining sufficient samples for biopsy. Moreover, PVRL has poor outcomes and often leads to the development of central nervous system (CNS) lesions during its course. Two studies recently reported that approximately 70%-80% of patients with vitreoretinal lymphoma have MYD88
METHOD: By using direct sequencing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, we examined the mutation of CD79B
RESULTS: Among the included patients, six patients (35%) were found with CD79B

Sorrentino A, Federico A, Rienzo M, et al.
PR/SET Domain Family and Cancer: Novel Insights from the Cancer Genome Atlas.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The PR/SET domain gene family (PRDM) encodes 19 different transcription factors that share a subtype of the SET domain [Su(var)3-9, enhancer-of-zeste and trithorax] known as the PRDF1-RIZ (PR) homology domain. This domain, with its potential methyltransferase activity, is followed by a variable number of zinc-finger motifs, which likely mediate protein⁻protein, protein⁻RNA, or protein⁻DNA interactions. Intriguingly, almost all PRDM family members express different isoforms, which likely play opposite roles in oncogenesis. Remarkably, several studies have described alterations in most of the family members in malignancies. Here, to obtain a pan-cancer overview of the genomic and transcriptomic alterations of

Petrizzo A, Tagliamonte M, Mauriello A, et al.
Unique true predicted neoantigens (TPNAs) correlates with anti-tumor immune control in HCC patients.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):286 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A novel prediction algorithm is needed for the identification of effective tumor associated mutated neoantigens. Only those with no homology to self wild type antigens are true predicted neoantigens (TPNAs) and can elicit an antitumor T cell response, not attenuated by central tolerance. To this aim, the mutational landscape was evaluated in HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
METHODS: Liver tumor biopsies and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues were obtained from 9 HCV-chronically infected subjects and subjected to RNA-Seq analysis. Mutant peptides were derived from single nucleotide variations and TPNAs were predicted using two prediction servers (e.g. NetTepi and NetMHCstabpan) by comparison with corresponding wild-type sequences, non-related self and pathogen-related antigens. Immunological confirmation was obtained in preclinical as well as clinical setting.
RESULTS: The development of such an improved algorithm resulted in a handful of TPNAs despite the large number of predicted neoantigens. Furthermore, TPNAs may share homology to pathogen's antigens and be targeted by a pre-existing T cell immunity. Cross-reactivity between such antigens was confirmed in an experimental pre-clinical setting. Finally, TPNAs homologous to pathogen's antigens were found in the only HCC long-term survival patient, suggesting a correlation between the pre-existing T cell immunity specific for these TPNAs and the favourable clinical outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: The new algorithm allowed the identification of the very few TPNAs in cancer cells, and those targeted by a pre-existing immunity strongly correlated with long-term survival. Only such TPNAs represent the optimal candidates for immunotherapy strategies.

Zhou Y, Liu W, Xu Z, et al.
Analysis of Genomic Alteration in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma and the Expression of Some Related Genes.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(10):1059-1069 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and special type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The treatment of PCNSL is comprehensive, combining surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. However, the outcome is poor because of its high invasiveness and rate of recurrence. We analyzed 22 cases of PCNSL using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect 64 candidate genes. We used immunohistochemical methods to analyze gene expression in 57 PCNSL samples. NGS showed that recurrent mutations in KMT2D and CD79B, components of the NF-κB pathway, accounted for 65% of total mutations in PCNSL samples. The most frequent mutated gene was PIM1 (77.27%, 17/22), followed by MYD88 (63.64%, 14/22), CD79B (69.09%, 13/22), and KMT2D (50.00%, 11/22). Mutations of the CD79B gene were associated with an inferior progression-free survival (PFS), and GNA13 gene mutations were associated with a shorter PFS and overall survival (OS) in PCNSL patients (P < .05). PIM1 and MYD88 were highly expressed in PCNSL patients and were related to their OS time. MYD88 overexpression might be an independent and poor prognostic predictor of OS time. In summary, we identified highly recurrent genetic lesions in CD79B and KMT2D, components of the NF-κB pathway, in PCNSL and validated the expression of PIM1 and MYD88 related to poor survival, thereby providing novel insights into the pathogenesis and precision medicine of PCNSL.

Zorofchian S, El-Achi H, Yan Y, et al.
Characterization of genomic alterations in primary central nervous system lymphomas.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 140(3):509-517 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects the central nervous system (CNS). Although previous studies have reported the most common mutated genes in PCNSL, including MYD88 and CD79b, our understanding of genetic characterizations in primary CNS lymphomas is limited. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis investigating the most frequent mutation types, and their frequency, in PCNSL.
METHODS: Fifteen patients with a diagnosis of PCNSL from our institution were analyzed for mutations in 406 genes and rearrangements in 31 genes by next generation sequencing (NGS).
RESULTS: Missense mutations were identified as the most common mutation type (32%) followed by frame shift mutations (23%). The highest mutation rate was reported in the MYD88 (33.3%), CDKN2A/B (33.3%), and TP53 (26.7%) genes. Intermediate tumor mutation burden (TMB) and high TMB was detected in 13.3% and 26.7% of PCNSL, respectively. The most frequent gene rearrangement involved the IGH-BCL6 genes (20%).
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the most common genetic alterations in PCNSL as determined by a commercial next generation sequencing assay. MYD88 and CD79b are frequently mutated in PCNSL, IGH-BCL6 is the most frequent gene rearrangement and approximately 1/4 of cases show a high TMB. Mutations in multiple genes, in addition to high TMB and gene rearrangements, highlights the complex molecular heterogeneity of PCNSL. Knowledge about genetic alterations in PCNSL can inform the development of novel targets for diagnosis and treatment.

Phelan JD, Young RM, Webster DE, et al.
A multiprotein supercomplex controlling oncogenic signalling in lymphoma.
Nature. 2018; 560(7718):387-391 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
B cell receptor (BCR) signalling has emerged as a therapeutic target in B cell lymphomas, but inhibiting this pathway in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has benefited only a subset of patients

Intlekofer AM, Joffe E, Batlevi CL, et al.
Integrated DNA/RNA targeted genomic profiling of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using a clinical assay.
Blood Cancer J. 2018; 8(6):60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We sought to define the genomic landscape of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy specimens. We used targeted sequencing of genes altered in hematologic malignancies, including DNA coding sequence for 405 genes, noncoding sequence for 31 genes, and RNA coding sequence for 265 genes (FoundationOne-Heme). Short variants, rearrangements, and copy number alterations were determined. We studied 198 samples (114 de novo, 58 previously treated, and 26 large-cell transformation from follicular lymphoma). Median number of GAs per case was 6, with 97% of patients harboring at least one alteration. Recurrent GAs were detected in genes with established roles in DLBCL pathogenesis (e.g. MYD88, CREBBP, CD79B, EZH2), as well as notable differences compared to prior studies such as inactivating mutations in TET2 (5%). Less common GAs identified potential targets for approved or investigational therapies, including BRAF, CD274 (PD-L1), IDH2, and JAK1/2. TP53 mutations were more frequently observed in relapsed/refractory DLBCL, and predicted for lack of response to first-line chemotherapy, identifying a subset of patients that could be prioritized for novel therapies. Overall, 90% (n = 169) of the patients harbored a GA which could be explored for therapeutic intervention, with 54% (n = 107) harboring more than one putative target.

Hiemcke-Jiwa LS, Leguit RJ, Snijders TJ, et al.
Molecular analysis in liquid biopsies for diagnostics of primary central nervous system lymphoma: Review of literature and future opportunities.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2018; 127:56-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive lymphoma with a poor prognosis, for which accurate and timely diagnosis is of utmost importance. Unfortunately, diagnosis of PCNSL can be challenging and a brain biopsy (gold standard for diagnosis) is an invasive procedure with the risk of major complications. Thus, there is an urgent need for an alternative strategy to diagnose and monitor these lymphomas. Currently, liquid biopsies from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are used for cytomorphologic and flow cytometric analysis. Recently, new biomarkers such as genetic mutations and interleukins have been identified in these liquid biopsies, further expanding the diagnostic armamentarium. In this review we present an overview of genetic aberrations (>70) reported in this unique lymphoma. Of these genes, we have selected those that are reported in ≥3 studies. Half of the selected genes are implicated in the NFκB pathway (CARD11, CD79B, MYD88, TBL1XR1 and TNFAIP3), while the other half are not related to this pathway (CDKN2A, ETV6, PIM1, PRDM1 and TOX). Although this underlines the crucial role of the NFκB pathway in PCNSL, CD79B and MYD88 are at present the only genes mentioned in liquid biopsy analysis. Finally, a stepwise approach is proposed for minimally invasive liquid biopsy analysis and work-up of PCNSL, incorporating molecular analysis. Prioritization and refinements of this approach can be constructed based upon multidisciplinary collaboration as well as novel scientific insights.

He X, Kläsener K, Iype JM, et al.
Continuous signaling of CD79b and CD19 is required for the fitness of Burkitt lymphoma B cells.
EMBO J. 2018; 37(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is essential not only for the development but also for the maintenance of mature B cells. Similarly, many B-cell lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL), require continuous BCR signaling for their tumor growth. This growth is driven by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and PI3 kinase (PI3K) signaling. Here, we employ CRISPR/Cas9 to delete BCR and B-cell co-receptor genes in the human BL cell line Ramos. We find that Ramos B cells require the expression of the BCR signaling component Igβ (CD79b), and the co-receptor CD19, for their fitness and competitive growth in culture. Furthermore, we show that in the absence of any other BCR component, Igβ can be expressed on the B-cell surface, where it is found in close proximity to CD19 and signals in an ITAM-dependent manner. These data suggest that Igβ and CD19 are part of an alternative B-cell signaling module that use continuous ITAM/PI3K signaling to promote the survival of B lymphoma and normal B cells.

Schmitz R, Wright GW, Huang DW, et al.
Genetics and Pathogenesis of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
N Engl J Med. 2018; 378(15):1396-1407 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous. Gene-expression profiling has identified subgroups of DLBCL (activated B-cell-like [ABC], germinal-center B-cell-like [GCB], and unclassified) according to cell of origin that are associated with a differential response to chemotherapy and targeted agents. We sought to extend these findings by identifying genetic subtypes of DLBCL based on shared genomic abnormalities and to uncover therapeutic vulnerabilities based on tumor genetics.
METHODS: We studied 574 DLBCL biopsy samples using exome and transcriptome sequencing, array-based DNA copy-number analysis, and targeted amplicon resequencing of 372 genes to identify genes with recurrent aberrations. We developed and implemented an algorithm to discover genetic subtypes based on the co-occurrence of genetic alterations.
RESULTS: We identified four prominent genetic subtypes in DLBCL, termed MCD (based on the co-occurrence of MYD88
CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered genetic subtypes of DLBCL with distinct genotypic, epigenetic, and clinical characteristics, providing a potential nosology for precision-medicine strategies in DLBCL. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health and others.).

Scotto di Carlo F, Divisato G, Iacoangeli M, et al.
The identification of H3F3A mutation in giant cell tumour of the clivus and the histological diagnostic algorithm of other clival lesions permit the differential diagnosis in this location.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):358 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Giant Cell Tumour of Bone (GCT) is a locally aggressive primary bone tumour that usually occurs at the epiphyses of the long bones of the appendicular skeleton with a tendency to recurrence. Recurrent somatic H3F3A mutations have been described in 92% of GCT cases. GCTs involving the Clivus are extremely rare lesions and less than 15 cases are described in the literature. They represent a surgery challenge and are easily misdiagnosed. Our aim was to reveal if the genetic bases underlying Clival GCTs were the same of GCTs of long bones to improve the diagnosis and treatment.
METHODS: The targeted somatic sequencing of GCT-related genes (H3F3A, H3F3B, IDH1, IDH2 and ZNF687) was performed on Clival GCT biopsies of two different cases. Histological analyses on the same tissues were used to detect the neoplastic population and its expression profile.
RESULTS: Sanger sequencing revealed that both patients were positive for the p.Gly34Trp mutation in the H3F3A gene. Immunofluorescence assay using monoclonal antibody, specifically detecting the mutant H3.3, highlighted that the mutation only involved the mononuclear cell population and not the multinucleated giant cells. Moreover, immunohistochemistry assay showed that RANKL was highly expressed by the stromal cells within Clival GCT, mimicking what happens in GCT of the long bones. In addition, systematic literature review allowed us to generate a histology-based diagnostic algorithm of the most common clival lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the Clival GCT is genetically defined by somatic mutation in the H3F3A gene, linking it to the GCT of long bones. The similarity with GCTs of long bones let us to hypothesize the utility of Denosumab therapy (already effective for GCTs) in these surgically challenging cases. Moreover, H3F3A genetic screening can be combined to the histological analysis to differentiate GCTs from morphologically similar giant cell-rich sarcomas, while the histological diagnostic algorithm could help the differential diagnosis of other clival lesions.

Brauchle E, Kasper J, Daum R, et al.
Biomechanical and biomolecular characterization of extracellular matrix structures in human colon carcinomas.
Matrix Biol. 2018; 68-69:180-193 [PubMed] Related Publications
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is extensively remodeled in tumor tissues. Overproduction of collagens, pathological collagen crosslinking and alignment of fibers are major processes that ultimately result in an increased tissue stiffness. Although it is known that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play an important role in tumor signaling, their contribution to the biomechanical properties of tumor ECM is unknown. In this study, ECM structures of human colon carcinoma and normal (control) colon tissues were histologically identified. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation, we show that the collagen-rich regions within the ECM of colon carcinoma tissues were significantly stiffer than the submucosal collagen-rich layer of control tissues. Screening of these regions with Raman microspectroscopy revealed significantly different molecular fingerprints for collagen fibers in colon carcinoma tissues compared to control tissues. We further showed an increased alignment of collagen fibers and elevated levels of GAG immuno-reactivity within the collagen network of colon carcinoma tissues. GAGs such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were detected in significantly elevated levels in collagen fibers of carcinoma tissues. Moreover, immunodetection of the collagen-associated proteoglycan decorin was significantly decreased in carcinomas tissues of individual patients when compared with the corresponding control tissues. Overall a strong patient-to-patient variability was evident in the ECM composition, structure and biomechanics of individual colon carcinoma tissues. Although, biomechanical characteristics of tumor ECM were not directly impacted by GAG content, GAGs might play an important role during the mechanical and structural remodeling of pathological tumor ECM. To manipulate GAG expression and deposition in tumor microenvironments could represent a novel potential therapeutic strategy.

Bomben R, Ferrero S, D'Agaro T, et al.
A B-cell receptor-related gene signature predicts survival in mantle cell lymphoma: results from the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi MCL-0208 trial.
Haematologica. 2018; 103(5):849-856 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma patients have variable clinical courses, ranging from indolent cases that do not require immediate treatment to aggressive, rapidly progressing diseases. Thus, diagnostic tools capable of stratifying patients according to their risk of relapse and death are needed. This study included 83 samples from the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi MCL-0208 clinical trial. Through gene expression profiling and quantitative real-time PCR we analyzed 46 peripheral blood and 43 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph node samples. A prediction model to classify patients was developed. By analyzing the transcriptome of 27 peripheral blood samples, two subgroups characterized by a differential expression of genes from the B-cell receptor pathway (B-cell receptor

Twa DDW, Mottok A, Savage KJ, Steidl C
The pathobiology of primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Implications for novel therapies.
Blood Rev. 2018; 32(3):249-255 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary testicular lymphomas (PTL) are the most prevalent type of testicular cancer arising in men over the age of 60. PTL accounts for approximately 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas and most present with localized disease but despite this, outcome is poor. The majority of cases represent an extranodal manifestation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), known as primary testicular DLBCL (PT-DLBCL). Gene expression profiling has established that over 75% of PT-DLBCLs resemble the activated B-cell-like (ABC) or non-germinal center subtype of nodal DLBCL. In distilling the specific mutational landscape and immunophenotypic profiles, immune-escape and sustained signalling emerge as prominent features of PT-DLBCL. These include genomic alterations arising within the core components of antigen presentation (CIITA, B2M, and HLA loci) and structural rearrangements of programmed death ligands 1 (CD274) and 2 (PDCD1LG2). Enrichment for somatic mutations within NF-κB pathway genes (MYD88, CD79B, NFKBIZ, BCL10, and MALT1) also feature prominently in PT-DLBCL. Taken together, the unique molecular and clinical characteristics of PT-DLBCL have informed on aspects of the distinct disease biology of this organotypic lymphoma that may guide rational therapeutic strategies.

Gladkikh AA, Potashnikova DM, Tatarskiy V, et al.
Comparison of the mRNA expression profile of B-cell receptor components in normal CD5-high B-lymphocytes and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a key role of ZAP70.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(12):2984-2997 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway is of great importance for B-cell survival and proliferation. The BCR expressed on malignant B-CLL cells contributes to the disease pathogenesis, and its signaling pathway is currently the target of several therapeutic strategies. Although various BCR alterations have been described in B-CLL at the protein level, the mRNA expression levels of tyrosine kinases in B-CLL compared to that in normal CD5-high and CD5-low B-lymphocytes remain unknown. In the current study, we measured the mRNA expression levels of CD79A, CD79B, LYN, SYK, SHP1, and ZAP70 in purified populations of CD5-high B-CLL cells, CD5-low B-cells from the peripheral blood of healthy donors, and CD5-high B-cells from human tonsils. Here, we report a clear separation in the B-CLL dataset between the ZAP70-high and ZAP70-low subgroups. Each subgroup has a unique expression profile of BCR signaling components that might reflect the functional status of the BCR signaling pathway. Moreover, the ZAP70-low subgroup does not resemble either CD5-high B-lymphocytes from the tonsils or CD5-low lymphocytes from PBMC (P < 0.05). We also show that ZAP70 is the only gene that is differentially expressed in CD5-high and CD5-low normal B-lymphocytes, confirming the key role of Zap-70 tyrosine kinase in BCR signaling alterations in B-CLL.

Lagler C, El-Mesery M, Kübler AC, et al.
The anti-myeloma activity of bone morphogenetic protein 2 predominantly relies on the induction of growth arrest and is apoptosis-independent.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0185720 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignancy of the bone marrow, is characterized by a pathological increase in antibody-producing plasma cells and an increase in immunoglobulins (plasmacytosis). In recent years, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been reported to be activators of apoptotic cell death in neoplastic B cells in MM. Here, we use bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to show that the "apoptotic" effect of BMPs on human neoplastic B cells is dominated by anti-proliferative activities and cell cycle arrest and is apoptosis-independent. The anti-proliferative effect of BMP2 was analysed in the human cell lines KMS12-BM and L363 using WST-1 and a Coulter counter and was confirmed using CytoTox assays with established inhibitors of programmed cell death (zVAD-fmk and necrostatin-1). Furthermore, apoptotic activity was compared in both cell lines employing western blot analysis for caspase 3 and 8 in cells treated with BMP2 and FasL. Additionally, expression profiles of marker genes of different cell death pathways were analysed in both cell lines after stimulation with BMP2 for 48h using an RT-PCR-based array. In our experiments we observed that there was rather no reduction in absolute cell number, but cells stopped proliferating following treatment with BMP2 instead. The time frame (48-72 h) after BMP2 treatment at which a reduction in cell number is detectable is too long to indicate a directly BMP2-triggered apoptosis. Moreover, in comparison to robust apoptosis induced by the approved apoptotic factor FasL, BMP2 only marginally induced cell death. Consistently, neither the known inhibitor of apoptotic cell death zVAD-fmk nor the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 was able to rescue myeloma cell growth in the presence of BMP2.

Ohata Y, Tatsuzawa A, Ohyama Y, et al.
A distinctive subgroup of oral EBV+ B-cell neoplasm with polymorphous features is potentially identical to EBV+ mucocutaneous ulcer.
Hum Pathol. 2017; 69:129-139 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBVMCU) is a newly recognized provisional entity included in mature B-cell neoplasm in the latest 2016 World Health Organization Classification. It has a self-limited growth potential with a high predilection for oral cavities and occurs in age-related or iatrogenic immunodeficiency with indolent clinical courses. However, it shares histological features with EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and this often leads to diagnostic challenges and controversies in patients with an oral EBV-positive B-cell neoplasm. The aim of this study was to better characterize and comprehend the pathophysiology of DLBCL and EBVMCU in the oral cavity. We conducted clinicopathologic and recurrent gene mutation analysis of 49 cases (14 EBV positive, 35 EBV negative), including cases diagnosed as DLBCL or B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with high-grade morphology in the oral cavity. All EBV-positive cases matched the criteria of EBVMCU, with significantly earlier clinical stages than the EBV-negative group (P=.0006). Besides, histological analysis showed that all EBV-positive cases presented polymorphous features, whereas 91.4% (32/35) of the EBV-negative cases showed diffuse and monotonous proliferation (P<.0001). Furthermore, EBV-positive cases presented favorable clinical outcomes without disease-related death or recurrence. Gene mutation analysis (MYD88, CD79A, CD79B, CARD11, and EZH2) revealed that 33.3% (9/27) of EBV-negative cases harbored at least 1 gene mutation, whereas no gene mutation was observed in the EBV-positive group (0/11). These results suggest that oral EBV-positive B-cell lymphoid proliferation with polymorphous features often fulfill the criteria for EBVMCU, with clinicopathologically and genetically distinctive properties.

Varettoni M, Zibellini S, Defrancesco I, et al.
Pattern of somatic mutations in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia or IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(12):2077-2085 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We analyzed

Terracciano D, Terreri S, de Nigris F, et al.
The role of a new class of long noncoding RNAs transcribed from ultraconserved regions in cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer. 2017; 1868(2):449-455 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ultraconserved regions (UCRs) represent a relatively new class of non-coding genomic sequences highly conserved between human, rat and mouse genomes. These regions can reside within exons of protein-coding genes, despite the vast majority of them localizes within introns or intergenic regions. Several studies have undoubtedly demonstrated that most of these regions are actively transcribed in normal cells/tissues, where they contribute to regulate many cellular processes. Interestingly, these non-coding RNAs exhibit aberrant expression levels in human cancer cells and their expression profiles have been used as prognostic factors in human malignancies, as well as to unambiguously distinguish among distinct cancer types. In this review, we first describe their identification, then we provide some updated information about their genomic localization and classification. More importantly, we discuss about the available literature describing an overview of the mechanisms through which some transcribed UCRs (T-UCR) contribute to cancer progression or to the metastatic spread. To date, the interplay between T-UCRs and microRNAs is the most convincing evidence linking T-UCRs and tumorigenesis. The limitations of these studies and the future challenges to be addressed in order to understand the biological role of T-UCRs are also discussed herein. We envision that future efforts are needed to convincingly include this class of ncRNAs in the growing area of cancer therapeutics.

Jiménez C, Alonso-Álvarez S, Alcoceba M, et al.
From Waldenström's macroglobulinemia to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a whole-exome analysis of abnormalities leading to transformation.
Blood Cancer J. 2017; 7(8):e591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transformation of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) occurs in up to 10% of patients and is associated with an adverse outcome. Here we performed the first whole-exome sequencing study of WM patients who evolved to DLBCL and report the genetic alterations that may drive this process. Our results demonstrate that transformation depends on the frequency and specificity of acquired variants, rather than on the duration of its evolution. We did not find a common pattern of mutations at diagnosis or transformation; however, there were certain abnormalities that were present in a high proportion of clonal tumor cells and conserved during this transition, suggesting that they have a key role as early drivers. In addition, recurrent mutations gained in some genes at transformation (for example, PIM1, FRYL and HNF1B) represent cooperating events in the selection of the clones responsible for disease progression. Detailed comparison reveals the gene abnormalities at diagnosis and transformation to be consistent with a branching model of evolution. Finally, the frequent mutation observed in the CD79B gene in this specific subset of patients implies that it is a potential biomarker predicting transformation in WM.

Köhnke T, Wittmann VK, Bücklein VL, et al.
Diagnosis of CLL revisited: increased specificity by a modified five-marker scoring system including CD200.
Br J Haematol. 2017; 179(3):480-487 [PubMed] Related Publications
The modified Matutes score has been the basis for the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) by flow cytometry for the past 15 years. To increase the specificity of the current score we systematically evaluated the diagnostic value of established as well as novel markers, such as CD200, in a large cohort of patients with untreated B-cell malignancies (n = 370). Double positivity for CD5 and CD23 was of very high value to differentiate between CLL and non-CLL cases. In addition, lack of FMC7 expression as well as CD79b expression intensity showed high sensitivity (90·4% and 92·3%) with acceptable specificity (74·4% and 76·9%). For surface IgM, low or absent expression displayed poor specificity in distinguishing CLL from non-CLL cases (51,3%; sensitivity 83,7%). Finally, CD200 positivity showed high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, CD5/CD23, FMC7, CD79b and CD200 were included in our new CLLflow score, which retained high sensitivity (97·1% vs. 98·6% for the Matutes score, P = 0·38), but showed markedly increased specificity (87·2% vs. 53·8%, P < 0·001). These results were confirmed in our validation cohort (sensitivity 97·0% vs. 100%, P = not applicable; specificity 86·4% vs. 59·1%, P = 0·03). Our data support the use of our new CLLflow score for the diagnosis of CLL with significantly higher specificity.

Kuang Z, Guo L, Li X
Identification of key genes and pathways associated with classical Hodgkin lymphoma by bioinformatics analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(4):4685-4693 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The current study aimed to explore the mechanisms associated with classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. The GES12453 microarray dataset was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database; the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between cHL samples and normal B cell samples by were identified using the limma package. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs gene were performed. Furthermore, construction and analysis of protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was performed, and co‑expression modules of DEGs were produced. A total of 450 DEGs were identified, comprising 216 upregulated and 234 downregulated genes in cHL compared with normal B cell samples. The DEGs were enriched in biological processes associated with immune response. The upregulated genes were mainly associated with the pathway of transcriptional misregulation in cancer, while downregulated genes were associated with B cell receptor signaling. PPI network analysis demonstrated that IL6 had the highest connectivity degree. Interleukin‑6 (IL6) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) were demonstrated to be involved with the response to cytokine GO term in co‑expression module 1. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), B‑cell linker protein (BLNK), CD79B, phospholipase C γ2 (PLCG2) were enriched in the B cell receptor signaling pathway in module 2. Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C had the highest connectivity degrees in module 3 and module 4, respectively. The results suggested that DEGs, including IL6, STAT1, MMP9, SYK, BLNK, PLCG2 and CD79B, and the pathways of B cell receptor signaling, Epstein‑Barr virus infection and transcriptional misregulation in cancer have strong potential to be useful as targets for diagnosis or treatment of cHL.

Casamassimi A, Federico A, Rienzo M, et al.
Transcriptome Profiling in Human Diseases: New Advances and Perspectives.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the last decades, transcriptome profiling has been one of the most utilized approaches to investigate human diseases at the molecular level. Through expression studies, many molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets have been found for several human pathologies. This number is continuously increasing thanks to total RNA sequencing. Indeed, this new technology has completely revolutionized transcriptome analysis allowing the quantification of gene expression levels and allele-specific expression in a single experiment, as well as to identify novel genes, splice isoforms, fusion transcripts, and to investigate the world of non-coding RNA at an unprecedented level. RNA sequencing has also been employed in important projects, like ENCODE (Encyclopedia of the regulatory elements) and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), to provide a snapshot of the transcriptome of dozens of cell lines and thousands of primary tumor specimens. Moreover, these studies have also paved the way to the development of data integration approaches in order to facilitate management and analysis of data and to identify novel disease markers and molecular targets to use in the clinics. In this scenario, several ongoing clinical trials utilize transcriptome profiling through RNA sequencing strategies as an important instrument in the diagnosis of numerous human pathologies.

Kunz M, Göttlich C, Walles T, et al.
MicroRNA-21 versus microRNA-34: Lung cancer promoting and inhibitory microRNAs analysed in silico and in vitro and their clinical impact.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317706430 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are well-known strong RNA regulators modulating whole functional units in complex signaling networks. Regarding clinical application, they have potential as biomarkers for prognosis, diagnosis, and therapy. In this review, we focus on two microRNAs centrally involved in lung cancer progression. MicroRNA-21 promotes and microRNA-34 inhibits cancer progression. We elucidate here involved pathways and imbed these antagonistic microRNAs in a network of interactions, stressing their cancer microRNA biology, followed by experimental and bioinformatics analysis of such microRNAs and their targets. This background is then illuminated from a clinical perspective on microRNA-21 and microRNA-34 as general examples for the complex microRNA biology in lung cancer and its diagnostic value. Moreover, we discuss the immense potential that microRNAs such as microRNA-21 and microRNA-34 imply by their broad regulatory effects. These should be explored for novel therapeutic strategies in the clinic.

Moody S, Escudero-Ibarz L, Wang M, et al.
Significant association between TNFAIP3 inactivation and biased immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region 4-34 usage in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.
J Pathol. 2017; 243(1):3-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both antigenic drive and genetic change play critical roles in the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, but neither alone is sufficient for malignant transformation, and lymphoma development critically depends on their cooperation. However, which of these different events concur and how they cooperate in MALT lymphomagenesis is totally unknown. To explore this, we investigated somatic mutations of 17 genes and immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) usage in 179 MALT lymphomas from various sites. We showed that: (1) there was a significant association between the biased usage of IGHV4-34 (binds to the carbohydrate I/i antigens) and inactivating mutation of TNFAIP3 [encoding a global negative regulator of the canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway] in ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma; (2) IGHV1-69 was significantly overrepresented (54%) in MALT lymphoma of the salivary gland, but was not associated with mutation in any of the 17 genes investigated; and (3) MALT lymphoma lacked mutations that are frequently seen in other B-cell lymphomas characterized by constitutive NF-κB activities, including mutations in CD79B, CARD11, MYD88, TNFRSF11A, and TRAF3. Our findings show, for the first time, a significant association between biased usage of autoreactive IGHV and somatic mutation of NF-κB regulators in MALT lymphoma, arguing for their cooperation in sustaining chronic B-cell receptor signalling and driving oncogenesis in lymphoma development. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Onaindia A, Medeiros LJ, Patel KP
Clinical utility of recently identified diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers in mature B-cell neoplasms.
Mod Pathol. 2017; 30(10):1338-1366 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic profiling studies have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of mature B-cell neoplasms and have identified markers with prognostic impact. Recurrent mutations in tumor-suppressor genes (TP53, BIRC3, ATM), and common signaling pathways, such as the B-cell receptor (CD79A, CD79B, CARD11, TCF3, ID3), Toll-like receptor (MYD88), NOTCH (NOTCH1/2), nuclear factor-κB, and mitogen activated kinase signaling, have been identified in B-cell neoplasms. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, hairy cell leukemia, and marginal zone lymphomas of splenic, nodal, and extranodal types represent examples of B-cell neoplasms in which novel molecular biomarkers have been discovered in recent years. In addition, ongoing retrospective correlative and prospective outcome studies have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the clinical utility of novel biomarkers. This progress is reflected in the 2016 update of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms, which lists as many as 41 mature B-cell neoplasms (including provisional categories). Consequently, molecular genetic studies are increasingly being applied for the clinical workup of many of these neoplasms. In this review, we focus on the diagnostic, prognostic, and/or therapeutic utility of molecular biomarkers in mature B-cell neoplasms.

Grommes C, Pastore A, Palaskas N, et al.
Ibrutinib Unmasks Critical Role of Bruton Tyrosine Kinase in Primary CNS Lymphoma.
Cancer Discov. 2017; 7(9):1018-1029 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) links the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) and Toll-like receptors with NF-κB. The role of BTK in primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) is unknown. We performed a phase I clinical trial with ibrutinib, the first-in-class BTK inhibitor, for patients with relapsed or refractory CNS lymphoma. Clinical responses to ibrutinib occurred in 10 of 13 (77%) patients with PCNSL, including five complete responses. The only PCNSL with complete ibrutinib resistance harbored a mutation within the coiled-coil domain of CARD11, a known ibrutinib resistance mechanism. Incomplete tumor responses were associated with mutations in the B-cell antigen receptor-associated protein CD79B.

Gupta N, Nasim M, Spitzer SG, Zhang X
Primary Central Nervous System T-Cell Lymphoma With Aberrant Expression of CD20 and CD79a: A Diagnostic Pitfall.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2017; 25(7):599-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma (PCNSTCL) is rare, accounting for 2% of CNS lymphomas. We report the first case of PCNSTCL with aberrant expression of CD20 and CD79a in an 81-year-old man with a left periventricular brain mass. A biopsy revealed dense lymphoid infiltrate consisting of medium-sized cells in a background of gliosis and many histiocytes. The lymphoid cells were positive for CD2, CD3, CD7, CD8, T-cell intracellular antigen-1, granzyme B, CD20, and CD79a and negative for CD4, CD5, PAX-5, OCT-2, BOB-1, human herpes virus-8, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs. Molecular studies revealed clonal TCR-β and TCR-γ gene rearrangements and negative immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (vincristine and methotrexate) and rituximab, but he died 1 month after the diagnosis. This is a unique case that emphasizes the use of a multimodal approach, including a broad immunohistochemical panel and molecular studies in lineage determination for lymphomas with ambiguous phenotype.

Lionakis MS, Dunleavy K, Roschewski M, et al.
Inhibition of B Cell Receptor Signaling by Ibrutinib in Primary CNS Lymphoma.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 31(6):833-843.e5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) harbors mutations that reinforce B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, targets BCR signaling and is particularly active in lymphomas with mutations altering the BCR subunit CD79B and MYD88. We performed a proof-of-concept phase Ib study of ibrutinib monotherapy followed by ibrutinib plus chemotherapy (DA-TEDDi-R). In 18 PCNSL patients, 94% showed tumor reductions with ibrutinib alone, including patients having PCNSL with CD79B and/or MYD88 mutations, and 86% of evaluable patients achieved complete remission with DA-TEDDi-R. Increased aspergillosis was observed with ibrutinib monotherapy and DA-TEDDi-R. Aspergillosis was linked to BTK-dependent fungal immunity in a murine model. PCNSL is highly dependent on BCR signaling, and ibrutinib appears to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy.

Mareschal S, Pham-Ledard A, Viailly PJ, et al.
Identification of Somatic Mutations in Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Leg Type by Massive Parallel Sequencing.
J Invest Dermatol. 2017; 137(9):1984-1994 [PubMed] Related Publications
To determine whether the mutational profile of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL-LT) is unique by comparison with other diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtypes, we analyzed a total cohort of 20 PCLBCL-LT patients by using next-generation sequencing with a lymphoma panel designed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We also analyzed 12 pairs of tumor and control DNA samples by whole-exome sequencing, which led us to perform resequencing of three selected genes not included in the lymphoma panel: TBL1XR1, KLHL6, and IKZF3. Our study clearly identifies an original mutational landscape of PCLBCL-LT with a very restricted set of highly recurrent mutations (>40%) involving MYD88 (p.L265P variant), PIM1, and CD79B. Other genes involved in B-cell signaling, NF-κB activation, or DNA modeling were found altered, notably TBL1XR1 (33%), MYC (26%) CREBBP (26%), and IRF4 (21%) or HIST1H1E (41%). MYD88

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