Gene Summary

Gene:CTBP1; C-terminal binding protein 1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that binds to the C-terminus of adenovirus E1A proteins. This phosphoprotein is a transcriptional repressor and may play a role during cellular proliferation. This protein and the product of a second closely related gene, CTBP2, can dimerize. Both proteins can also interact with a polycomb group protein complex which participates in regulation of gene expression during development. Alternative splicing of transcripts from this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-terminal-binding protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CTBP1 (cancer-related)

Cui HB, Geng CZ
Molecular mechanisms of long chain non-coding RNA CTBP1-AS in regulation of invasion and migration of breast cancer cells.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2019 May-Jun,; 33(3):773-785 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate the role of long-chain non-coding RNA CTBP1-AS in breast cancer progression and cell invasion as well as migration. Clinical data of breast cancer patients (N = 155) in our hospital was collected for further analysis. qRT-PCR was used to detect LncRNA CTBP1-AS expression levels in human normal breast epithelial cell (MCF-10A) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7, BT- 549, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435). LncRNA CTBP1-AS knock-down and overexpressed lentivirus vectors were constructed to transfect breast cancer cells. Colony formation assay was employed to detect cell proliferative abilities. Flow cytometry was performed to detect cell apoptosis ratio. Wound healing scratch assay was used to detect cell migration, and Transwell matrigel assay was used to detect cell invasion. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the downstream targets of LncRNA CTBP1-AS, which were further validated by dual-luciferase reporter gene system. The results showed that LncRNA CTBP1-AS was aberrantly overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and breast cancer cells compared to the control group. Moreover, the expression levels of LncRNA CTBP1-AS were positively related with tumor size, histological grade and the expression levels of Ki-67 and Her2. Further analysis showed that LncRNA CTBP1-AS expression levels negatively correlated with patient survival time and clinical prognosis. Of note, overexpressed LncRNA CTBP1-AS promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as migration, and decreased cell apoptosis ratio. Bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter gene system results validated that microRNA-940 was the downstream target of LncRNA CTBP1-AS. Interestingly, overexpressed microRNA-940 abrogated the effects of LncRNA CTBP1-AS on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. In conclusion, overexpressed LncRNA CTBP1- AS promoted breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion as well as migration, inhibited cell apoptosis and accelerated breast cancer development by sponging microRNA-940.

Shevchenko V, Arnotskaya N, Korneyko M, et al.
Proteins of the Wnt signaling pathway as targets for the regulation of CD133+ cancer stem cells in glioblastoma.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):3080-3088 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive types of brain tumor and is highly resistant to therapy. The median survival time for patients with GBM is 15 months. GBM resistance to treatment is associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD133 membrane glycoprotein is the best‑known marker of GBM CSCs. The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the proliferation of all stem cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to examine the expression levels of proteins associated with the Wnt signaling pathway in СD133+ CSCs of human GBM. Furthermore, potential targets that may regulate СD133+ CSCs in human GBM were investigated. The human GBM U‑87MG cell line was cultured in neurobasal medium supplemented with B27, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and no serum. Immunohistochemical characteristics of glioma spheres were investigated based on the expression of key markers of CSCs. CD133+ cells were extracted from glioma spheres by cell sorting and then lysed. High‑performance liquid chromatography‑mass spectrometry was used for proteome analysis. Lysates of CD133‑ cells in GBM were used for comparison. The present study was the first to describe the conceptual proteome differences between GBM and CD133+ CSCs of the common pool. Major differences were identified in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, focal adhesion, tight junction and Wnt signaling pathways. This study aimed to analyze the crucial role that proteins of the Wnt signaling pathway play in stem cell proliferation. The identified proteins were analyzed for their association with the Wnt signaling pathway using the international open databases PubMed, Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships, Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. An increased expression of 12 proteins associated with the Wnt signaling pathway were identified in GBM CD133+ CSCs, which included catenin β‑1, disheveled associated activator of morphogenesis 1, RAC family small GTPase 2 and RAS homolog gene family member A, a number of which are also associated with adherens junctions. The Wnt signaling pathway is not upregulated in CSCs; however, the high expression levels of adenomatous polyposis coli, β‑catenin, C‑terminal binding protein (CtBP) and RuvB‑like AAA ATPase 1 (RUVBL1 or Pontin52) proteins suggest the possibility of alternative activation of specific genes in the nuclei of these cells. Calcyclin‑binding protein, casein kinase II α, casein kinase II β, CtBP1, CtBP2, CUL1 and RUVBL1 proteins may be used as targets for the pharmaceutical regulation of CSCs in complex GBM treatment.

Scott CM, Wong EM, Joo JE, et al.
Genome-wide DNA methylation assessment of 'BRCA1-like' early-onset breast cancer: Data from the Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2018; 105(3):404-410 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Breast cancers arising in women carrying a germline mutation in BRCA1 are typically high-grade, early-onset and have distinct morphological features (BRCA1-like). However, the majority of early-onset breast cancers of this morphological type are not associated with germline BRCA1 mutations or constitutional BRCA1 promoter methylation. We aimed to assess DNA methylation across the genome for associations with the "BRCA1-like" morphology. Genome-wide methylation in blood-derived DNA was measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip assay for women under the age of 40 years participating in the Australian Breast Cancer Family Study (ABCFS) diagnosed with: i) BRCA1-like breast cancer (n = 30); and ii) breast cancer without BRCA1-like morphological features (non BRCA1-like; n = 30), and age-matched unaffected women (controls; n = 30). Corresponding tumour-derived DNA from 43 of the affected women was also assessed. Methylation of blood-derived DNA was found to be elevated across 17 consecutive marks in the BRCA1 promoter region and decreased at several other genomic regions (including TWIST2 and CTBP1) for 7 women (23%) diagnosed with BRCA1-like breast cancer compared with women in the other groups. Corresponding tumour-derived DNA available from 5 of these 7 women had elevated methylation within the BRCA1 and SPHK2 promoter region and decreased methylation within the ADAP1, IGF2BP3 and SPATA13 promoter region when compared with the other breast tumours. These methylation marks could be biomarkers of risk for BRCA1-like breast cancer, and could be responsible in part for their distinctive morphological features and biology. As such, they may assist with prevention and targeted therapies for this cancer subtype.

Deng Y, Li H, Yin X, et al.
C-Terminal Binding Protein 1 Modulates Cellular Redox via Feedback Regulation of MPC1 and MPC2 in Melanoma Cells.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:7614-7624 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND Recent studies have illustrated that the transcription co-repressor, C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), links the metabolic alterations to transcription controls in proliferation, EMT, genome stability, metabolism, and lifespan, but whether CtBP1 affects the cellular redox homeostasis is unexplored. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of CtBP1-mediated transcription repression that contributes to the metabolic reprogramming. MATERIAL AND METHODS Knockdown of CtBP1 in both mouse MEF cells and human melanoma cells changed cell redox homeostasis. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay were performed for identification of CtBP1 downstream targets, pyruvate carrier 1 and 2 genes (MPC1 and MPC2), which contribute to redox homeostasis and are transcriptionally regulated by CtBP1. Moreover, blockage of the cellular NADH level with the glycolysis inhibitor 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2-DG) rescued MPC1 and MPC2 expression. MTT assay and scratch assay were performed to investigate the effect of MPC1 and MPC2 expression on malignant properties of melanoma cells. RESULTS The data demonstrated that CtBP1 directly bound to the promoters of MPC1 and MPC2 and transcriptionally repressed them, leading to increased levels of free NADH in the cytosol and nucleus, thus positively feeding back CtBP1's functions. Consequently, restoring MPC1 and MPC2 in human tumor cells decreases free NADH and inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and migration. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that MPC1 and MPC2 are principal mediators that link CtBP1-mediated transcription regulation to NADH production. The discovery of CtBP1 as an NADH regulator in addition to being an NADH sensor shows that CtBP1 is at the center of tumor metabolism and transcription control.

Massillo C, Dalton GN, Porretti J, et al.
CTBP1/CYP19A1/estradiol axis together with adipose tissue impacts over prostate cancer growth associated to metabolic syndrome.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(5):1115-1127 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metabolic syndrome (MeS) increases prostate cancer (PCa) risk and aggressiveness. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CTBP1) is a transcriptional co-repressor of tumor suppressor genes that is activated by low NAD

Paredes R, Schneider M, Stevens A, et al.
EVI1 carboxy-terminal phosphorylation is ATM-mediated and sustains transcriptional modulation and self-renewal via enhanced CtBP1 association.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(15):7662-7674 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The transcriptional regulator EVI1 has an essential role in early hematopoiesis and development. However, aberrantly high expression of EVI1 has potent oncogenic properties and confers poor prognosis and chemo-resistance in leukemia and solid tumors. To investigate to what extent EVI1 function might be regulated by post-translational modifications we carried out mass spectrometry- and antibody-based analyses and uncovered an ATM-mediated double phosphorylation of EVI1 at the carboxy-terminal S858/S860 SQS motif. In the presence of genotoxic stress EVI1-WT (SQS), but not site mutated EVI1-AQA was able to maintain transcriptional patterns and transformation potency, while under standard conditions carboxy-terminal mutation had no effect. Maintenance of hematopoietic progenitor cell clonogenic potential was profoundly impaired with EVI1-AQA compared with EVI1-WT, in particular in the presence of genotoxic stress. Exploring mechanistic events underlying these observations, we showed that after genotoxic stress EVI1-WT, but not EVI1-AQA increased its level of association with its functionally essential interaction partner CtBP1, implying a role for ATM in regulating EVI1 protein interactions via phosphorylation. This aspect of EVI1 regulation is therapeutically relevant, as chemotherapy-induced genotoxicity might detrimentally sustain EVI1 function via stress response mediated phosphorylation, and ATM-inhibition might be of specific targeted benefit in EVI1-overexpressing malignancies.

Porretti J, Dalton GN, Massillo C, et al.
CLCA2 epigenetic regulation by CTBP1, HDACs, ZEB1, EP300 and miR-196b-5p impacts prostate cancer cell adhesion and EMT in metabolic syndrome disease.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(4):897-906 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men. Metabolic syndrome (MeS) is associated with increased PCa aggressiveness and recurrence. Previously, we proposed C-terminal binding protein 1 (CTBP1), a transcriptional co-repressor, as a molecular link between these two conditions. Notably, CTBP1 depletion decreased PCa growth in MeS mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms that explain the link between MeS and PCa mediated by CTBP1. We found that CTBP1 repressed chloride channel accessory 2 (CLCA2) expression in prostate xenografts developed in MeS animals. CTBP1 bound to CLCA2 promoter and repressed its transcription and promoter activity in PCa cell lines. Furthermore, we found that CTBP1 formed a repressor complex with ZEB1, EP300 and HDACs that modulates the CLCA2 promoter activity. CLCA2 promoted PCa cell adhesion inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activating CTNNB1 together with epithelial marker (CDH1) induction, and mesenchymal markers (SNAI2 and TWIST1) repression. Moreover, CLCA2 depletion in PCa cells injected subcutaneously in MeS mice increased the circulating tumor cells foci compared to control. A microRNA (miRNA) expression microarray from PCa xenografts developed in MeS mice, showed 21 miRNAs modulated by CTBP1 involved in angiogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, focal adhesion and adherents junctions, among others. We found that miR-196b-5p directly targets CLCA2 by cloning CLCA2 3'UTR and performing reporter assays. Altogether, we identified a new molecular mechanism to explain PCa and MeS link based on CLCA2 repression by CTBP1 and miR-196b-5p molecules that might act as key factors in the progression onset of this disease.

Wang Y, Dai C, Zhou C, et al.
Benzotriazole Enhances Cell Invasive Potency in Endometrial Carcinoma Through CTBP1-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 44(6):2357-2367 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Benzotriazole (BTR) and its derivatives, such as intermediates and UV stabilizers, are important man-made organic chemicals found in everyday life that have been recently identified as environmental toxins and a threat to female reproductive health. Previous studies have shown that BTR could act as a carcinogen by mimicking estrogen. Environmental estrogen mimics could promote the initiation and development of female cancers, such as endometrial carcinoma, a type of estrogenic-sensitive malignancy. However, there is little information on the relationship between BTR and endometrial carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the biological function of BTR in endometrial carcinoma and explored the underlying mechanism.
METHODS: The CCK-8 assay was performed to detect cell viability; transwell-filter assay was used to assess cell invasion; gene microarray analysis was employed to determine gene expression patterns in response to BTR treatment; western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were carried out to detect the expression levels of BTR-related genes.
RESULTS: Our data showed that BTR could induce the invasion and migration of endometrial carcinoma cells (Ishikawa and HEC-1-B). In addition, BTR increased the expression level of CTBP1, which could enhance the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells. Moreover, CTBP1 silencing reversed the effect of BTR on EMT progression in endometrial carcinoma cells.
CONCLUSION: This study indicates that BTR could act as a carcinogen to promote the development of endometrial carcinoma mainly through CTBP1-mediated EMT, which deserves more attention.

Sahu SK, Tiwari N, Pataskar A, et al.
FBXO32 promotes microenvironment underlying epithelial-mesenchymal transition via CtBP1 during tumour metastasis and brain development.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8(1):1523 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The set of events that convert adherent epithelial cells into migratory cells are collectively known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is involved during development, for example, in triggering neural crest migration, and in pathogenesis such as metastasis. Here we discover FBXO32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to be critical for hallmark gene expression and phenotypic changes underlying EMT. Interestingly, FBXO32 directly ubiquitinates CtBP1, which is required for its stability and nuclear retention. This is essential for epigenetic remodeling and transcriptional induction of CtBP1 target genes, which create a suitable microenvironment for EMT progression. FBXO32 is also amplified in metastatic cancers and its depletion in a NSG mouse xenograft model inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. In addition, FBXO32 is essential for neuronal EMT during brain development. Together, these findings establish that FBXO32 acts as an upstream regulator of EMT by governing the gene expression program underlying this process during development and disease.

Chakravarthi BVSK, Chandrashekar DS, Agarwal S, et al.
miR-34a Regulates Expression of the Stathmin-1 Oncoprotein and Prostate Cancer Progression.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(7):1125-1137 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
In aggressive prostate cancers, the oncoprotein STMN1 (also known as stathmin 1 and oncoprotein 18) is often overexpressed. STMN1 is involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, motility, and tumor metastasis. Here, it was found that the expression of STMN1 RNA and protein is elevated in metastatic prostate cancers. Knockdown of STMN1 resulted in reduced proliferation and invasion of cells and tumor growth and metastasis

Blevins MA, Huang M, Zhao R
The Role of CtBP1 in Oncogenic Processes and Its Potential as a Therapeutic Target.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(6):981-990 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Transcriptional corepressor proteins have emerged as an important facet of cancer etiology. These corepressor proteins are often altered by loss- or gain-of-function mutations, leading to transcriptional imbalance. Thus, research directed at expanding our current understanding of transcriptional corepressors could impact the future development of new cancer diagnostics, prognostics, and therapies. In this review, our current understanding of the CtBP corepressors, and their role in both development and disease, is discussed in detail. Importantly, the role of CtBP1 overexpression in adult tissues in promoting the progression of multiple cancer types through their ability to modulate the transcription of developmental genes ectopically is explored. CtBP1 overexpression is known to be protumorigenic and affects the regulation of gene networks associated with "cancer hallmarks" and malignant behavior, including increased cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. As a transcriptional regulator of broad developmental processes capable of promoting malignant growth in adult tissues, therapeutically targeting the CtBP1 corepressor has the potential to be an effective method for the treatment of diverse tumor types. Although efforts to develop CtBP1 inhibitors are still in the early stages, the current progress and the future perspectives of therapeutically targeting this transcriptional corepressor are also discussed.

Sumner ET, Chawla AT, Cororaton AD, et al.
Transforming activity and therapeutic targeting of C-terminal-binding protein 2 in Apc-mutated neoplasia.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(33):4810-4816 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Overexpression of the transcriptional coregulators C-terminal binding proteins 1 and 2 (CtBP1 and 2) occurs in many human solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. CtBP modulates oncogenic gene expression programs and is an emerging drug target, but its oncogenic role is unclear. Consistent with this oncogenic potential, exogenous CtBP2 transformed primary mouse and human cells to anchorage independence similarly to mutant H-Ras. To investigate CtBP's contribution to in vivo tumorigenesis, Apc

Li Y, Yan X, Ren L, Li Y
miR-644a Inhibits Cellular Proliferation and Invasion via Suppression of CtBP1 in Gastric Cancer Cells.
Oncol Res. 2018; 26(1):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the most important mechanisms in the metastasis of various cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we explored the putative significance of miR-644a and its role in EMT-mediated metastasis of GC. We first detected the expression of miR-644a in a cohort of 107 GC tissues using quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of miR-644a was suppressed in GC tissues and was associated with a later clinical stage and tumor metastasis. Restoring the expression of miR-644a could significantly suppress the migration and invasion of HGC-27 and SGC-7901 cells, which might be correlated to its suppressive effect on the EMT process. We also found that carboxyl-terminal-binding protein 1 (CtBP1) was a putative target gene of miR-644a in GC and might be involved in the suppressive effect. Collectively, through targeting CtBP1-mediated suppression of the EMT process, miR-644a might suppress the tumor metastasis of GC cells.

Ma B, Liao T, Wen D, et al.
Long intergenic non-coding RNA 271 is predictive of a poorer prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:36973 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
A number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play critical roles in oncogenesis and tumor progression. We aimed to investigate whether lncRNAs could act as prognostic biomarkers for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) that may assist us in evaluating disease status and prognosis for patients. We found 220 lncRNAs with expression alteration from the annotated 2773 lncRNAs approved by the HUGO gene nomenclature committee in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, of which FAM41C, CTBP1-AS2, LINC00271, HAR1A, LINC00310 and HAS2-AS1 were associated with recurrence. After adjusting classical clinicopathogical factors and BRAF

Raza U, Saatci Ö, Uhlmann S, et al.
The miR-644a/CTBP1/p53 axis suppresses drug resistance by simultaneous inhibition of cell survival and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(31):49859-49877 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Tumor cells develop drug resistance which leads to recurrence and distant metastasis. MicroRNAs are key regulators of tumor pathogenesis; however, little is known whether they can sensitize cells and block metastasis simultaneously. Here, we report miR-644a as a novel inhibitor of both cell survival and EMT whereby acting as pleiotropic therapy-sensitizer in breast cancer. We showed that both miR-644a expression and its gene signature are associated with tumor progression and distant metastasis-free survival. Mechanistically, miR-644a directly targets the transcriptional co-repressor C-Terminal Binding Protein 1 (CTBP1) whose knock-outs by the CRISPR-Cas9 system inhibit tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance, mimicking the phenotypes induced by miR-644a. Furthermore, downregulation of CTBP1 by miR-644a upregulates wild type- or mutant-p53 which acts as a 'molecular switch' between G1-arrest and apoptosis by inducing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21, CDKN1A, CIP1) or pro-apoptotic phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (Noxa, PMAIP1), respectively. Interestingly, an increase in mutant-p53 by either overexpression of miR-644a or downregulation of CTBP1 was enough to shift this balance in favor of apoptosis through upregulation of Noxa. Notably, p53-mutant patients, but not p53-wild type ones, with high CTBP1 have a shorter survival suggesting that CTBP1 could be a potential prognostic factor for breast cancer patients with p53 mutations. Overall, re-activation of the miR-644a/CTBP1/p53 axis may represent a new strategy for overcoming both therapy resistance and metastasis.

Zhao C, Shen Y, Tao X, et al.
Silencing of CtBP1 suppresses the migration in human glioma cells.
J Mol Histol. 2016; 47(3):297-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), up-regulated in various types of human cancers, has been functionally associated with proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and EMT in vitro studies. However, the functional significance of CtBP1 in the pathophysiology of glioma remains unknown. In the present study, we showed the expression of CtBP1 was markedly higher in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CtBP1 mainly localized in the nucleus of glioma cells. Statistical analysis suggested the upregulation of CtBP1 was considerably correlated with the WHO grade (P < 0.05) and those patients with high CtBP1 levels exhibited shorter survival time (P < 0.01). Silencing CtBP1 by short hairpin RNAi caused an inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, knockdown of CtBP1 increases E-cadherin expression and decreases vimentin expression. These data uncovered that CtBP1 protein is a valuable marker of glioma pathogenic process and that CtBP1 can serve as a novel prognostic marker for glioma therapy.

De Luca P, Dalton GN, Scalise GD, et al.
CtBP1 associates metabolic syndrome and breast carcinogenesis targeting multiple miRNAs.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):18798-811 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Metabolic syndrome (MeS) has been identified as a risk factor for breast cancer. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a co-repressor of tumor suppressor genes that is activated by low NAD+/NADH ratio. High fat diet (HFD) increases intracellular NADH. We investigated the effect of CtBP1 hyperactivation by HFD intake on mouse breast carcinogenesis. We generated a MeS-like disease in female mice by chronically feeding animals with HFD. MeS increased postnatal mammary gland development and generated prominent duct patterns with markedly increased CtBP1 and Cyclin D1 expression. CtBP1 induced breast cancer cells proliferation. Serum from animals with MeS enriched the stem-like/progenitor cell population from breast cancer cells. CtBP1 increased breast tumor growth in MeS mice modulating multiple genes and miRNA expression implicated in cell proliferation, progenitor cells phenotype, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, mammary development and cell communication in the xenografts. These results define a novel function for CtBP1 in breast carcinogenesis.

Zhang Y, Kwok JS, Choi PW, et al.
Pinin interacts with C-terminal binding proteins for RNA alternative splicing and epithelial cell identity of human ovarian cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(10):11397-411 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Unlike many other human solid tumors, ovarian tumors express many epithelial markers at a high level for cell growth and local invasion. The phosphoprotein Pinin plays a key role in epithelial cell identity. We showed that clinical ovarian tumors and ovarian cancer cell lines express a high level of Pinin when compared with normal ovarian tissues and immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Pinin co-localized and physically interacted with transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, in the nuclei of cancer cells. Knockdown of Pinin in ovarian cancer cells resulted in specific reduction of CtBP1 protein expression, cell adhesion, anchorage-independent growth, and increased drug sensitivity. Whole transcriptomic comparison of next-generation RNA sequencing data between control ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer cell lines with respective knockdown of Pinin, CtBP1, and CtBP2 expression also showed reduced expression of CtBP1 mRNA in the Pinin knockdown cell lines. The Pinin knockdown cell lines shared significant overlap of differentially expressed genes and RNA splicing aberrations with CtBP1 knockdown and in a lesser degree with CtBP2 knockdown cancer cells. Hence, Pinin and CtBP are oncotargets that closely interact with each other to regulate transcription and pre-mRNA alternative splicing and promote cell adhesion and other epithelial characteristics of ovarian cancer cells.

Han Y, Bi Y, Bi H, et al.
miR-137 suppresses the invasion and procedure of EMT of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through targeting CtBP1.
Hum Cell. 2016; 29(1):30-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Distant metastasis is the predominant site of gastric cancer recurrence and the most common cause of death. Recently, accumulating evidence has established that aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal transition activation plays a crucial role in the genesis, invasion, and metastasis of various cancers, including breast cancer. In this paper, we found that miR-137, which has been reported to function as a tumor suppressor in a variety of cancers, could significantly suppress the migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells, which might be correlated with its suppressive effects on the EMT procedure. Upon transfection, the epithelial marker, E-cadherin, was up-regulated, and the mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin and Vimentin, were suppressed. Moreover, we also found that carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) was a putative target gene of miR-137 in MCF-7 cells, and might be involved in the suppressive effects, which might provide novel diagnostic and therapeutic options for human breast cancer in the future.

Patel J, Baranwal S, Love IM, et al.
Inhibition of C-terminal binding protein attenuates transcription factor 4 signaling to selectively target colon cancer stem cells.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(22):3506-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), implicated in tumor relapse, holds great promise in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Overexpression of C-terminal binding protein (CtBP), an NADH dependent transcriptional regulator, is often observed in colon cancer. Of note, TCF-4 signaling is also up-regulated in colonic CSCs. We hypothesized that CtBP, whose dehydrogenase activity is amenable to pharmacological inhibition by 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB), positively regulates TCF-4 signaling, leading to CSC growth and self-renewal. CSCs demonstrated significant upregulation of CtBP1 and CtBP2 levels (mRNA and protein) and activity partly due to increased NADH/NAD ratio, as well as increased TCF/LEF transcriptional activity, compared to respective controls. Depletion of CtBP2 inhibited, while its overexpression enhanced, CSC growth (1° spheroids) and self-renewal (2°/3° spheroids). Similarly, MTOB caused a robust inhibition of spheroid growth and self-renewal in a dose dependent manner. MTOB displayed significantly greater selectivity for growth inhibition in the spheroids, at least in part through induction of apoptosis, compared to monolayer controls. Moreover, MTOB inhibited basal as well as induced (by GSK-3β inhibitor) TCF/LEF activity while suppressing mRNA and protein levels of several β-catenin target genes (CD44, Snail, C-MYC and LGR5). Lastly, CtBP physically interacted with TCF-4, and this interaction was significantly inhibited in the presence of MTOB. The above findings point to a novel role of CtBPs in the promotion of CSC growth and self-renewal through direct regulation of TCF/LEF transcription. Moreover, small molecular inhibition of its function can selectively target CSCs, presenting a novel approach for treatment of colorectal cancer focused on targeting of CSCs.

Stankiewicz TR, Gray JJ, Winter AN, Linseman DA
C-terminal binding proteins: central players in development and disease.
Biomol Concepts. 2014; 5(6):489-511 [PubMed] Related Publications
C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) were initially identified as binding partners for the E1A-transforming proteins. Although the invertebrate genome encodes one CtBP protein, two CtBPs (CtBP1 and CtBP2) are encoded by the vertebrate genome and perform both unique and duplicative functions. CtBP1 and CtBP2 are closely related and act as transcriptional corepressors when activated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding to their dehydrogenase domains. CtBPs exert transcriptional repression primarily via recruitment of a corepressor complex to DNA that consists of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone methyltransferases, although CtBPs can also repress transcription through HDAC-independent mechanisms. More recent studies have demonstrated a critical function for CtBPs in the transcriptional repression of pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax, Puma, Bik, and Noxa. Nonetheless, although recent efforts have characterized the essential involvement of CtBPs in promoting cellular survival, the dysregulation of CtBPs in both neurodegenerative disease and cancers remains to be fully elucidated.

Chakravarthi BV, Pathi SS, Goswami MT, et al.
The miR-124-prolyl hydroxylase P4HA1-MMP1 axis plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(16):6654-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Collagen prolyl hydroxylases (C-P4HAs) are a family of enzymes involved in collagen biogenesis. One of the isoforms of P4HA, Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha polypeptide I (P4HA1), catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline that is essential for the proper three-dimensional folding of newly synthesized procollagen chains. Here, we show the overexpression of P4HA1 in aggressive prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray demonstrated that P4HA1 expression was correlated with prostate cancer progression. Using in vitro studies, we showed that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer cell growth and tumor progression. Expression profiling studies using P4HA1 modulated prostate cells suggested regulation of Matrix metalloproteases 1. The invasive properties of P4HA1 overexpressing cells were reversed by blocking MMP1. Our studies indicate P4HA1 copy number gain in a subset of metastatic prostate tumors and its expression is also regulated by microRNA-124. MiR-124 in turn is negatively regulated by transcriptional repressors EZH2 and CtBP1, both of which are overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer. Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and mice xenograft investigations show that P4HA1 is required for tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Our observations suggest that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and could serve as a viable therapeutic target.

Moiola CP, De Luca P, Zalazar F, et al.
Prostate tumor growth is impaired by CtBP1 depletion in high-fat diet-fed mice.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(15):4086-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Clinical and epidemiologic data suggest that obesity is associated with more aggressive forms of prostate cancer, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. C-terminal-binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a transcription repressor of tumor suppressor genes and is activated by NADH binding. High calorie intake decreases intracellular NAD(+)/NADH ratio. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) and CtBP1 expression modulation over prostate xenograft growth.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We developed a metabolic syndrome-like disease in vivo model by feeding male nude mice with HFD during 16 weeks. Control diet (CD)-fed animals were maintained at the same conditions. Mice were inoculated with PC3 cells stable transfected with shCtBP1 or control plasmids. Genome-wide expression profiles and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed from PC3.shCtBP1 versus PC3.pGIPZ HFD-fed mice tumors.
RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in tumor growth on CD-fed mice; however, we found that only 60% of HFD-fed mice inoculated with CtBP1-depleted cells developed a tumor. Moreover these tumors were significantly smaller than those generated by PC3.pGIPZ control xenografts. We found 823 genes differentially expressed in shCtBP1 tumors from HFD-fed mice. GSEA from expression dataset showed that most of these genes correspond to cell adhesion, metabolic process, and cell cycle.
CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome-like diseases and CtBP1 expression cooperate to induce prostate tumor growth. Hence, targeting of CtBP1 expression might be considered for prostate cancer management and therapy in the subset of patients with metabolic syndromes.

Liu S, Zhu P, Zhang L, et al.
Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in tumor tissues from male hepatocellular carcinoma patients with hepatitis B infection and cirrhosis.
Cancer Biomark. 2013; 13(5):345-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to quantify relative gene expression because of the high specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of this technique. However, its reliability is strongly depends on the expression stability of reference gene used for data normalization. Therefore, identification of reliable and condition specific reference genes is critical for the success of RT-qPCR.
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, male gender and the presence of cirrhosis are widely recognized as the leading independent risk factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to select reliable reference gene for RT-qPCR analysis in HCC patients with all of those risk factors.
METHODS: Six candidate reference genes were analyzed in 33 paired tumor and non-tumor tissues from untreated HCC patients. The genes expression stabilities were assessed by geNorm and NormFinder.
RESULTS: C-terminal binding protein 1(CTBP1) was the most stable gene among the 6 candidate genes evaluated by both geNorm and NormFinder. The expression stability values were 0.08 for CTBP1 and UBC, 0.09 for HPRT1, 0.12 for HMBS, 0.14 for GAPDH and 0.18 for 18S with geNorm analysis. The stability values suggested by NormFinder software were CTBP1: 0.044, UBC: 0.063, HMBS: 0.072, HPRT1: 0.072, GAPDH: 0.098 and 18S rRNA: 0.161.
CONCLUSION: This is the first systematic analysis which suggested CTBP1 as the highest expression-stable gene in human male HBV infection related-HCC with cirrhosis. We recommend CTBP1 as the best candidate reference gene when RT-qPCR was used to determine gene(s) expression in HCC. This may facilitate the relevant HBV related HCC studies in the future.

Elcombe CR, Peffer RC, Wolf DC, et al.
Mode of action and human relevance analysis for nuclear receptor-mediated liver toxicity: A case study with phenobarbital as a model constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator.
Crit Rev Toxicol. 2014; 44(1):64-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are important nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of cellular responses from exposure to many xenobiotics and various physiological processes. Phenobarbital (PB) is a non-genotoxic indirect CAR activator, which induces cytochrome P450 (CYP) and other xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and is known to produce liver foci/tumors in mice and rats. From literature data, a mode of action (MOA) for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was developed. A MOA for PXR activators was not established owing to a lack of suitable data. The key events in the PB-induced liver tumor MOA comprise activation of CAR followed by altered gene expression specific to CAR activation, increased cell proliferation, formation of altered hepatic foci and ultimately the development of liver tumors. Associative events in the MOA include altered epigenetic changes, induction of hepatic CYP2B enzymes, liver hypertrophy and decreased apoptosis; with inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication being an associative event or modulating factor. The MOA was evaluated using the modified Bradford Hill criteria for causality and other possible MOAs were excluded. While PB produces liver tumors in rodents, important species differences were identified including a lack of cell proliferation in cultured human hepatocytes. The MOA for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was considered to be qualitatively not plausible for humans. This conclusion is supported by data from a number of epidemiological studies conducted in human populations chronically exposed to PB in which there is no clear evidence for increased liver tumor risk.

Bizama C, Benavente F, Salvatierra E, et al.
The low-abundance transcriptome reveals novel biomarkers, specific intracellular pathways and targetable genes associated with advanced gastric cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(4):755-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies on the low-abundance transcriptome are of paramount importance for identifying the intimate mechanisms of tumor progression that can lead to novel therapies. The aim of the present study was to identify novel markers and targetable genes and pathways in advanced human gastric cancer through analyses of the low-abundance transcriptome. The procedure involved an initial subtractive hybridization step, followed by global gene expression analysis using microarrays. We observed profound differences, both at the single gene and gene ontology levels, between the low-abundance transcriptome and the whole transcriptome. Analysis of the low-abundance transcriptome led to the identification and validation by tissue microarrays of novel biomarkers, such as LAMA3 and TTN; moreover, we identified cancer type-specific intracellular pathways and targetable genes, such as IRS2, IL17, IFNγ, VEGF-C, WISP1, FZD5 and CTBP1 that were not detectable by whole transcriptome analyses. We also demonstrated that knocking down the expression of CTBP1 sensitized gastric cancer cells to mainstay chemotherapeutic drugs. We conclude that the analysis of the low-abundance transcriptome provides useful insights into the molecular basis and treatment of cancer.

Weichenhan D, Plass C
The evolving epigenome.
Hum Mol Genet. 2013; 22(R1):R1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic studies include the investigation of DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and gene regulation by noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Epigenetic alterations are critical for early developmental processes, the silencing of the inactive X-chromosome and tissue-specific gene regulation. A comprehensive picture of epigenetic patterns in normal cells is now emerging; these patterns are disturbed in human diseases such as cancer. In this review, we highlight some of the most recent advances and discoveries in the field. First, while DNA methylation is known for many years, we are just beginning to learn about novel modifications of the DNA such as 5-hydroxymethylation and the enzymes that establish and remove these marks (e.g. TET1, TET2, TET3). Furthermore, altered epigenetic patterns in diseases might be linked to recurrent mutations within enzymes required for the establishment, maintenance and editing of these patterns. Examples are mutations in the gene encoding chromatin remodeling factor SMARCB1 in rhabdoid tumors or mutations in one of the three histone H3.3-encoding genes, H3F3A, in pediatric glioblastomas. A further focus in this review will be on recent findings in the field of ncRNAs as exemplified by the long noncoding RNA CTBP1-AS involved in prostate cancer and circular RNA CDR1as which captures and negatively regulates microRNA mir-7. Finally, we will highlight some of the novel technologies that have recently emerged in the field and will help in the profiling of disease genomes by allowing the use of small cell numbers and a higher resolution.

Subramanian T, Zhao LJ, Chinnadurai G
Interaction of CtBP with adenovirus E1A suppresses immortalization of primary epithelial cells and enhances virus replication during productive infection.
Virology. 2013; 443(2):313-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP-E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells.

Takayama K, Horie-Inoue K, Katayama S, et al.
Androgen-responsive long noncoding RNA CTBP1-AS promotes prostate cancer.
EMBO J. 2013; 32(12):1665-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
High-throughput techniques have identified numerous antisense (AS) transcripts and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). However, their significance in cancer biology remains largely unknown. Here, we report an androgen-responsive long ncRNA, CTBP1-AS, located in the AS region of C-terminal binding protein 1 (CTBP1), which is a corepressor for androgen receptor. CTBP1-AS is predominantly localized in the nucleus and its expression is generally upregulated in prostate cancer. CTBP1-AS promotes both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant tumour growth. Mechanistically, CTBP1-AS directly represses CTBP1 expression by recruiting the RNA-binding transcriptional repressor PSF together with histone deacetylases. CTBP1-AS also exhibits global androgen-dependent functions by inhibiting tumour-suppressor genes via the PSF-dependent mechanism thus promoting cell cycle progression. Our findings provide new insights into the functions of ncRNAs that directly contribute to prostate cancer progression.

Dutta P, Bui T, Bauckman KA, et al.
EVI1 splice variants modulate functional responses in ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(3):647-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Amplification of 3q26.2, found in many cancer lineages, is a frequent and early event in ovarian cancer. We previously defined the most frequent region of copy number increase at 3q26.2 to EVI1 (ecotropic viral integration site-1) and MDS1 (myelodysplastic syndrome 1) (aka MECOM), an observation recently confirmed by the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). MECOM is increased at the DNA, RNA, and protein level and likely contributes to patient outcome. Herein, we report that EVI1 is aberrantly spliced, generating multiple variants including a Del(190-515) variant (equivalent to previously reported) expressed in >90% of advanced stage serous epithelial ovarian cancers. Although EVI1(Del190-515) lacks ∼70% of exon 7, it binds CtBP1 as well as SMAD3, important mediators of TGFβ signaling, similar to wild type EVI1. This contrasts with EVI1 1-268 which failed to interact with CtBP1. Interestingly, the EVI1(Del190-515) splice variant preferentially localizes to PML nuclear bodies compared to wild type and EVI1(Del427-515). While wild type EVI1 efficiently repressed TGFβ-mediated AP-1 (activator protein-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoters, EVI1(Del190-515) elicited a slight increase in both promoter activities. Expression of EVI1 and EVI1(Del427-515) (but not EVI1(Del190-515)) in OVCAR8 ovarian cancer cells increased cyclin E1 LMW expression and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, knockdown of specific EVI1 splice variants (both MDS1/EVI1 and EVI1(Del190-515)) markedly increased claudin-1 mRNA and protein expression in HEY ovarian and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Changes in claudin-1 were associated with alterations in specific epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers concurrent with reduced migratory potential. Collectively, EVI1 is frequently aberrantly spliced in ovarian cancer with specific forms eliciting altered functions which could potentially contribute to ovarian cancer pathophysiology.

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