Gene Summary

Gene:CTBP1; C-terminal binding protein 1
Aliases: BARS
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that binds to the C-terminus of adenovirus E1A proteins. This phosphoprotein is a transcriptional repressor and may play a role during cellular proliferation. This protein and the product of a second closely related gene, CTBP2, can dimerize. Both proteins can also interact with a polycomb group protein complex which participates in regulation of gene expression during development. Alternative splicing of transcripts from this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-terminal-binding protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CTBP1 (cancer-related)

Zhao C, Shen Y, Tao X, et al.
Silencing of CtBP1 suppresses the migration in human glioma cells.
J Mol Histol. 2016; 47(3):297-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), up-regulated in various types of human cancers, has been functionally associated with proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and EMT in vitro studies. However, the functional significance of CtBP1 in the pathophysiology of glioma remains unknown. In the present study, we showed the expression of CtBP1 was markedly higher in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CtBP1 mainly localized in the nucleus of glioma cells. Statistical analysis suggested the upregulation of CtBP1 was considerably correlated with the WHO grade (P < 0.05) and those patients with high CtBP1 levels exhibited shorter survival time (P < 0.01). Silencing CtBP1 by short hairpin RNAi caused an inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, knockdown of CtBP1 increases E-cadherin expression and decreases vimentin expression. These data uncovered that CtBP1 protein is a valuable marker of glioma pathogenic process and that CtBP1 can serve as a novel prognostic marker for glioma therapy.

De Luca P, Dalton GN, Scalise GD, et al.
CtBP1 associates metabolic syndrome and breast carcinogenesis targeting multiple miRNAs.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):18798-811 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metabolic syndrome (MeS) has been identified as a risk factor for breast cancer. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a co-repressor of tumor suppressor genes that is activated by low NAD+/NADH ratio. High fat diet (HFD) increases intracellular NADH. We investigated the effect of CtBP1 hyperactivation by HFD intake on mouse breast carcinogenesis. We generated a MeS-like disease in female mice by chronically feeding animals with HFD. MeS increased postnatal mammary gland development and generated prominent duct patterns with markedly increased CtBP1 and Cyclin D1 expression. CtBP1 induced breast cancer cells proliferation. Serum from animals with MeS enriched the stem-like/progenitor cell population from breast cancer cells. CtBP1 increased breast tumor growth in MeS mice modulating multiple genes and miRNA expression implicated in cell proliferation, progenitor cells phenotype, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, mammary development and cell communication in the xenografts. These results define a novel function for CtBP1 in breast carcinogenesis.

Han Y, Bi Y, Bi H, et al.
miR-137 suppresses the invasion and procedure of EMT of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through targeting CtBP1.
Hum Cell. 2016; 29(1):30-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Distant metastasis is the predominant site of gastric cancer recurrence and the most common cause of death. Recently, accumulating evidence has established that aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal transition activation plays a crucial role in the genesis, invasion, and metastasis of various cancers, including breast cancer. In this paper, we found that miR-137, which has been reported to function as a tumor suppressor in a variety of cancers, could significantly suppress the migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells, which might be correlated with its suppressive effects on the EMT procedure. Upon transfection, the epithelial marker, E-cadherin, was up-regulated, and the mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin and Vimentin, were suppressed. Moreover, we also found that carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) was a putative target gene of miR-137 in MCF-7 cells, and might be involved in the suppressive effects, which might provide novel diagnostic and therapeutic options for human breast cancer in the future.

Patel J, Baranwal S, Love IM, et al.
Inhibition of C-terminal binding protein attenuates transcription factor 4 signaling to selectively target colon cancer stem cells.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(22):3506-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), implicated in tumor relapse, holds great promise in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Overexpression of C-terminal binding protein (CtBP), an NADH dependent transcriptional regulator, is often observed in colon cancer. Of note, TCF-4 signaling is also up-regulated in colonic CSCs. We hypothesized that CtBP, whose dehydrogenase activity is amenable to pharmacological inhibition by 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB), positively regulates TCF-4 signaling, leading to CSC growth and self-renewal. CSCs demonstrated significant upregulation of CtBP1 and CtBP2 levels (mRNA and protein) and activity partly due to increased NADH/NAD ratio, as well as increased TCF/LEF transcriptional activity, compared to respective controls. Depletion of CtBP2 inhibited, while its overexpression enhanced, CSC growth (1° spheroids) and self-renewal (2°/3° spheroids). Similarly, MTOB caused a robust inhibition of spheroid growth and self-renewal in a dose dependent manner. MTOB displayed significantly greater selectivity for growth inhibition in the spheroids, at least in part through induction of apoptosis, compared to monolayer controls. Moreover, MTOB inhibited basal as well as induced (by GSK-3β inhibitor) TCF/LEF activity while suppressing mRNA and protein levels of several β-catenin target genes (CD44, Snail, C-MYC and LGR5). Lastly, CtBP physically interacted with TCF-4, and this interaction was significantly inhibited in the presence of MTOB. The above findings point to a novel role of CtBPs in the promotion of CSC growth and self-renewal through direct regulation of TCF/LEF transcription. Moreover, small molecular inhibition of its function can selectively target CSCs, presenting a novel approach for treatment of colorectal cancer focused on targeting of CSCs.

Stankiewicz TR, Gray JJ, Winter AN, Linseman DA
C-terminal binding proteins: central players in development and disease.
Biomol Concepts. 2014; 5(6):489-511 [PubMed] Related Publications
C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) were initially identified as binding partners for the E1A-transforming proteins. Although the invertebrate genome encodes one CtBP protein, two CtBPs (CtBP1 and CtBP2) are encoded by the vertebrate genome and perform both unique and duplicative functions. CtBP1 and CtBP2 are closely related and act as transcriptional corepressors when activated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding to their dehydrogenase domains. CtBPs exert transcriptional repression primarily via recruitment of a corepressor complex to DNA that consists of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone methyltransferases, although CtBPs can also repress transcription through HDAC-independent mechanisms. More recent studies have demonstrated a critical function for CtBPs in the transcriptional repression of pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax, Puma, Bik, and Noxa. Nonetheless, although recent efforts have characterized the essential involvement of CtBPs in promoting cellular survival, the dysregulation of CtBPs in both neurodegenerative disease and cancers remains to be fully elucidated.

Chakravarthi BV, Pathi SS, Goswami MT, et al.
The miR-124-prolyl hydroxylase P4HA1-MMP1 axis plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(16):6654-69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Collagen prolyl hydroxylases (C-P4HAs) are a family of enzymes involved in collagen biogenesis. One of the isoforms of P4HA, Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha polypeptide I (P4HA1), catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline that is essential for the proper three-dimensional folding of newly synthesized procollagen chains. Here, we show the overexpression of P4HA1 in aggressive prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray demonstrated that P4HA1 expression was correlated with prostate cancer progression. Using in vitro studies, we showed that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer cell growth and tumor progression. Expression profiling studies using P4HA1 modulated prostate cells suggested regulation of Matrix metalloproteases 1. The invasive properties of P4HA1 overexpressing cells were reversed by blocking MMP1. Our studies indicate P4HA1 copy number gain in a subset of metastatic prostate tumors and its expression is also regulated by microRNA-124. MiR-124 in turn is negatively regulated by transcriptional repressors EZH2 and CtBP1, both of which are overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer. Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and mice xenograft investigations show that P4HA1 is required for tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Our observations suggest that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and could serve as a viable therapeutic target.

Moiola CP, De Luca P, Zalazar F, et al.
Prostate tumor growth is impaired by CtBP1 depletion in high-fat diet-fed mice.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(15):4086-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Clinical and epidemiologic data suggest that obesity is associated with more aggressive forms of prostate cancer, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. C-terminal-binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a transcription repressor of tumor suppressor genes and is activated by NADH binding. High calorie intake decreases intracellular NAD(+)/NADH ratio. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) and CtBP1 expression modulation over prostate xenograft growth.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We developed a metabolic syndrome-like disease in vivo model by feeding male nude mice with HFD during 16 weeks. Control diet (CD)-fed animals were maintained at the same conditions. Mice were inoculated with PC3 cells stable transfected with shCtBP1 or control plasmids. Genome-wide expression profiles and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed from PC3.shCtBP1 versus PC3.pGIPZ HFD-fed mice tumors.
RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in tumor growth on CD-fed mice; however, we found that only 60% of HFD-fed mice inoculated with CtBP1-depleted cells developed a tumor. Moreover these tumors were significantly smaller than those generated by PC3.pGIPZ control xenografts. We found 823 genes differentially expressed in shCtBP1 tumors from HFD-fed mice. GSEA from expression dataset showed that most of these genes correspond to cell adhesion, metabolic process, and cell cycle.
CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome-like diseases and CtBP1 expression cooperate to induce prostate tumor growth. Hence, targeting of CtBP1 expression might be considered for prostate cancer management and therapy in the subset of patients with metabolic syndromes.

Liu S, Zhu P, Zhang L, et al.
Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in tumor tissues from male hepatocellular carcinoma patients with hepatitis B infection and cirrhosis.
Cancer Biomark. 2013; 13(5):345-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to quantify relative gene expression because of the high specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of this technique. However, its reliability is strongly depends on the expression stability of reference gene used for data normalization. Therefore, identification of reliable and condition specific reference genes is critical for the success of RT-qPCR.
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, male gender and the presence of cirrhosis are widely recognized as the leading independent risk factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to select reliable reference gene for RT-qPCR analysis in HCC patients with all of those risk factors.
METHODS: Six candidate reference genes were analyzed in 33 paired tumor and non-tumor tissues from untreated HCC patients. The genes expression stabilities were assessed by geNorm and NormFinder.
RESULTS: C-terminal binding protein 1(CTBP1) was the most stable gene among the 6 candidate genes evaluated by both geNorm and NormFinder. The expression stability values were 0.08 for CTBP1 and UBC, 0.09 for HPRT1, 0.12 for HMBS, 0.14 for GAPDH and 0.18 for 18S with geNorm analysis. The stability values suggested by NormFinder software were CTBP1: 0.044, UBC: 0.063, HMBS: 0.072, HPRT1: 0.072, GAPDH: 0.098 and 18S rRNA: 0.161.
CONCLUSION: This is the first systematic analysis which suggested CTBP1 as the highest expression-stable gene in human male HBV infection related-HCC with cirrhosis. We recommend CTBP1 as the best candidate reference gene when RT-qPCR was used to determine gene(s) expression in HCC. This may facilitate the relevant HBV related HCC studies in the future.

Elcombe CR, Peffer RC, Wolf DC, et al.
Mode of action and human relevance analysis for nuclear receptor-mediated liver toxicity: A case study with phenobarbital as a model constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator.
Crit Rev Toxicol. 2014; 44(1):64-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are important nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of cellular responses from exposure to many xenobiotics and various physiological processes. Phenobarbital (PB) is a non-genotoxic indirect CAR activator, which induces cytochrome P450 (CYP) and other xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and is known to produce liver foci/tumors in mice and rats. From literature data, a mode of action (MOA) for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was developed. A MOA for PXR activators was not established owing to a lack of suitable data. The key events in the PB-induced liver tumor MOA comprise activation of CAR followed by altered gene expression specific to CAR activation, increased cell proliferation, formation of altered hepatic foci and ultimately the development of liver tumors. Associative events in the MOA include altered epigenetic changes, induction of hepatic CYP2B enzymes, liver hypertrophy and decreased apoptosis; with inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication being an associative event or modulating factor. The MOA was evaluated using the modified Bradford Hill criteria for causality and other possible MOAs were excluded. While PB produces liver tumors in rodents, important species differences were identified including a lack of cell proliferation in cultured human hepatocytes. The MOA for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was considered to be qualitatively not plausible for humans. This conclusion is supported by data from a number of epidemiological studies conducted in human populations chronically exposed to PB in which there is no clear evidence for increased liver tumor risk.

Bizama C, Benavente F, Salvatierra E, et al.
The low-abundance transcriptome reveals novel biomarkers, specific intracellular pathways and targetable genes associated with advanced gastric cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(4):755-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies on the low-abundance transcriptome are of paramount importance for identifying the intimate mechanisms of tumor progression that can lead to novel therapies. The aim of the present study was to identify novel markers and targetable genes and pathways in advanced human gastric cancer through analyses of the low-abundance transcriptome. The procedure involved an initial subtractive hybridization step, followed by global gene expression analysis using microarrays. We observed profound differences, both at the single gene and gene ontology levels, between the low-abundance transcriptome and the whole transcriptome. Analysis of the low-abundance transcriptome led to the identification and validation by tissue microarrays of novel biomarkers, such as LAMA3 and TTN; moreover, we identified cancer type-specific intracellular pathways and targetable genes, such as IRS2, IL17, IFNγ, VEGF-C, WISP1, FZD5 and CTBP1 that were not detectable by whole transcriptome analyses. We also demonstrated that knocking down the expression of CTBP1 sensitized gastric cancer cells to mainstay chemotherapeutic drugs. We conclude that the analysis of the low-abundance transcriptome provides useful insights into the molecular basis and treatment of cancer.

Weichenhan D, Plass C
The evolving epigenome.
Hum Mol Genet. 2013; 22(R1):R1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic studies include the investigation of DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and gene regulation by noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Epigenetic alterations are critical for early developmental processes, the silencing of the inactive X-chromosome and tissue-specific gene regulation. A comprehensive picture of epigenetic patterns in normal cells is now emerging; these patterns are disturbed in human diseases such as cancer. In this review, we highlight some of the most recent advances and discoveries in the field. First, while DNA methylation is known for many years, we are just beginning to learn about novel modifications of the DNA such as 5-hydroxymethylation and the enzymes that establish and remove these marks (e.g. TET1, TET2, TET3). Furthermore, altered epigenetic patterns in diseases might be linked to recurrent mutations within enzymes required for the establishment, maintenance and editing of these patterns. Examples are mutations in the gene encoding chromatin remodeling factor SMARCB1 in rhabdoid tumors or mutations in one of the three histone H3.3-encoding genes, H3F3A, in pediatric glioblastomas. A further focus in this review will be on recent findings in the field of ncRNAs as exemplified by the long noncoding RNA CTBP1-AS involved in prostate cancer and circular RNA CDR1as which captures and negatively regulates microRNA mir-7. Finally, we will highlight some of the novel technologies that have recently emerged in the field and will help in the profiling of disease genomes by allowing the use of small cell numbers and a higher resolution.

Subramanian T, Zhao LJ, Chinnadurai G
Interaction of CtBP with adenovirus E1A suppresses immortalization of primary epithelial cells and enhances virus replication during productive infection.
Virology. 2013; 443(2):313-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP-E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells.

Takayama K, Horie-Inoue K, Katayama S, et al.
Androgen-responsive long noncoding RNA CTBP1-AS promotes prostate cancer.
EMBO J. 2013; 32(12):1665-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-throughput techniques have identified numerous antisense (AS) transcripts and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). However, their significance in cancer biology remains largely unknown. Here, we report an androgen-responsive long ncRNA, CTBP1-AS, located in the AS region of C-terminal binding protein 1 (CTBP1), which is a corepressor for androgen receptor. CTBP1-AS is predominantly localized in the nucleus and its expression is generally upregulated in prostate cancer. CTBP1-AS promotes both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant tumour growth. Mechanistically, CTBP1-AS directly represses CTBP1 expression by recruiting the RNA-binding transcriptional repressor PSF together with histone deacetylases. CTBP1-AS also exhibits global androgen-dependent functions by inhibiting tumour-suppressor genes via the PSF-dependent mechanism thus promoting cell cycle progression. Our findings provide new insights into the functions of ncRNAs that directly contribute to prostate cancer progression.

Dutta P, Bui T, Bauckman KA, et al.
EVI1 splice variants modulate functional responses in ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(3):647-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Amplification of 3q26.2, found in many cancer lineages, is a frequent and early event in ovarian cancer. We previously defined the most frequent region of copy number increase at 3q26.2 to EVI1 (ecotropic viral integration site-1) and MDS1 (myelodysplastic syndrome 1) (aka MECOM), an observation recently confirmed by the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). MECOM is increased at the DNA, RNA, and protein level and likely contributes to patient outcome. Herein, we report that EVI1 is aberrantly spliced, generating multiple variants including a Del(190-515) variant (equivalent to previously reported) expressed in >90% of advanced stage serous epithelial ovarian cancers. Although EVI1(Del190-515) lacks ∼70% of exon 7, it binds CtBP1 as well as SMAD3, important mediators of TGFβ signaling, similar to wild type EVI1. This contrasts with EVI1 1-268 which failed to interact with CtBP1. Interestingly, the EVI1(Del190-515) splice variant preferentially localizes to PML nuclear bodies compared to wild type and EVI1(Del427-515). While wild type EVI1 efficiently repressed TGFβ-mediated AP-1 (activator protein-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoters, EVI1(Del190-515) elicited a slight increase in both promoter activities. Expression of EVI1 and EVI1(Del427-515) (but not EVI1(Del190-515)) in OVCAR8 ovarian cancer cells increased cyclin E1 LMW expression and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, knockdown of specific EVI1 splice variants (both MDS1/EVI1 and EVI1(Del190-515)) markedly increased claudin-1 mRNA and protein expression in HEY ovarian and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Changes in claudin-1 were associated with alterations in specific epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers concurrent with reduced migratory potential. Collectively, EVI1 is frequently aberrantly spliced in ovarian cancer with specific forms eliciting altered functions which could potentially contribute to ovarian cancer pathophysiology.

Huang Y, Kesselman D, Kizub D, et al.
Phospho-ΔNp63α/microRNA feedback regulation in squamous carcinoma cells upon cisplatin exposure.
Cell Cycle. 2013; 12(4):684-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous reports showed that the cisplatin exposure induced the ATM-dependent phosphorylation of ΔNp63a, which is subsequently involved in transcriptional regulation of gene promoters encoding mRNAs and microRNAs in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells upon cisplatin-induced cell death. We showed that phosphorylated (p)-ΔNp63a plays a role in upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, while non-p-ΔNp63a is implicated in pro-survival signaling. In contrast to non-p-ΔNp63a, p-ΔNp63a modulated expression of specific microRNAs in SCC cells exposed to cisplatin. These microRNAs were shown to attenuate the expression of several proteins involved in cell death/survival, suggesting the critical role for p-ΔNp63a in regulation of tumor cell resistance to cisplatin. Here, we studied the function of ΔNp63a in transcriptional activation and repression of the specific microRNA promoters whose expression is affected by cisplatin treatment of SCC cells. We quantitatively studied chromatin-associated proteins bound to tumor protein (TP) p63-responsive element, we found that p-ΔNp63a along with certain transcription coactivators (e.g., CARM1, KAT2B, TFAP2A, etc.) necessary to induce gene promoters for microRNAs (630 and 885-3p) or with transcription corepressors (e.g., EZH2, CTBP1, HDACs, etc.) needed to repress promoters for microRNAs (181a-5p, 374a-5p and 519a-3p) in SCC cells exposed to cisplatin.

Deng H, Liu J, Deng Y, et al.
CtBP1 is expressed in melanoma and represses the transcription of p16INK4a and Brca1.
J Invest Dermatol. 2013; 133(5):1294-301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) has been shown to suppress the transcription of several tumor suppressors in vitro. Paradoxically, a previous report showed that CtBP1 mRNA was downregulated in melanoma. Using immunostaining, we found that a large percentage of human melanomas were positive for CtBP1 protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CtBP1 expression in melanoma cells contributes to cell proliferation and genome instability, two aspects promoting melanoma initiation and progression. Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (Brca1), a core protein in DNA-damage repair, was repressed by CtBP1 in melanoma cells. Consistently, Brca1 loss in human malignant melanoma tissues was found to be inversely correlated with CtBP1 expression levels. In addition, the inhibitor of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs), p16INK4a, whose loss has been related to the pathogenesis of melanoma, was repressed by CtBP1 as well. Our findings suggest an important role of CtBP1 in the transcriptional control of p16INK4a and Brca1, with CtBP1 overexpression potentially contributing to increased proliferation and DNA damage in melanoma.

Wang R, Asangani IA, Chakravarthi BV, et al.
Role of transcriptional corepressor CtBP1 in prostate cancer progression.
Neoplasia. 2012; 14(10):905-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcriptional repressors and corepressors play a critical role in cellular homeostasis and are frequently altered in cancer. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), a transcriptional corepressor that regulates the expression of tumor suppressors and genes involved in cell death, is known to play a role in multiple cancers. In this study, we observed the overexpression and mislocalization of CtBP1 in metastatic prostate cancer and demonstrated the functional significance of CtBP1 in prostate cancer progression. Transient and stable knockdown of CtBP1 in prostate cancer cells inhibited their proliferation and invasion. Expression profiling studies of prostate cancer cell lines revealed that multiple tumor suppressor genes are repressed by CtBP1. Furthermore, our studies indicate a role for CtBP1 in conferring radiation resistance to prostate cancer cell lines. In vivo studies using chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, xenograft studies, and murine metastasis models suggested a role for CtBP1 in prostate tumor growth and metastasis. Taken together, our studies demonstrated that dysregulated expression of CtBP1 plays an important role in prostate cancer progression and may serve as a viable therapeutic target.

Dorman K, Shen Z, Yang C, et al.
CtBP1 interacts with Ikaros and modulates pituitary tumor cell survival and response to hypoxia.
Mol Endocrinol. 2012; 26(3):447-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional corepressor that plays an important role in mammalian development and tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that CtBP is expressed in adenohypophyseal cells and is expressed at high levels in human corticotroph, somatotroph, and lactotroph pituitary adenomas. CtBP interacts with Ikaros isoforms in GH4 and AtT20 pituitary tumor cells. Ikaros and CtBP1 expression is coordinately induced by hypoxia, and this response is abrogated by CtBP1 deficiency. Forced reduction of CtBP1 leads to reduced cell growth, up-regulation of Sprouty 2, and down-regulation of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2). Consistent with diminished Enpp2 activity, CtBP1-deficient pituitary cells are more susceptible to hypoxia-induced apoptosis, which is rescued by Enpp2-derived lysophosphatidic acid treatment. These results identify putative oncogenic properties of CtBP1 and provide new insights into the overlapping functions of two members of the chromatin remodeling network in the response to hypoxic pituitary tumor cell drive.

Xi R, Hadjipanayis AG, Luquette LJ, et al.
Copy number variation detection in whole-genome sequencing data using the Bayesian information criterion.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108(46):E1128-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA copy number variations (CNVs) play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer and confer susceptibility to a variety of human disorders. Array comparative genomic hybridization has been used widely to identify CNVs genome wide, but the next-generation sequencing technology provides an opportunity to characterize CNVs genome wide with unprecedented resolution. In this study, we developed an algorithm to detect CNVs from whole-genome sequencing data and applied it to a newly sequenced glioblastoma genome with a matched control. This read-depth algorithm, called BIC-seq, can accurately and efficiently identify CNVs via minimizing the Bayesian information criterion. Using BIC-seq, we identified hundreds of CNVs as small as 40 bp in the cancer genome sequenced at 10× coverage, whereas we could only detect large CNVs (> 15 kb) in the array comparative genomic hybridization profiles for the same genome. Eighty percent (14/16) of the small variants tested (110 bp to 14 kb) were experimentally validated by quantitative PCR, demonstrating high sensitivity and true positive rate of the algorithm. We also extended the algorithm to detect recurrent CNVs in multiple samples as well as deriving error bars for breakpoints using a Gibbs sampling approach. We propose this statistical approach as a principled yet practical and efficient method to estimate CNVs in whole-genome sequencing data.

Deng Y, Deng H, Liu J, et al.
Transcriptional down-regulation of Brca1 and E-cadherin by CtBP1 in breast cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2012; 51(6):500-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a transcriptional co-repressor with oncogenic potential. Immunohistochemistry staining using human breast cancer tissue arrays revealed that 92% of invasive ductal breast cancer cases have CtBP1-positive staining compared to 4% CtBP1-positive in normal breast tissue. To explore the functional impact of CtBP1 in breast cancer, we examined CtBP1's transcriptional regulation of known tumor suppressors, breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (Brca1), and E-cadherin. We found CtBP1 was recruited to the promoter regions of Brca1 and E-cadherin genes in breast cancer cells. Concomitantly, Brca1 loss was detected in 57% and E-cadherin loss was detected in 76% of human invasive ductal breast cancers, and correlated with CtBP1 nuclear staining in these lesions. Importantly, siRNA knock down of CtBP1 restored Brca1 and E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines, implying CtBP1 down-regulates Brca1 and E-cadherin genes in human breast cancer. This study provides evidence that although genetic loss of Brca1 and E-cadherin are infrequent in breast cancer, they are down-regulated at the transcriptional level by CtBP1 expression. Thus, CtBP1 activation could be a potential biomarker for breast cancer development.

Deng Y, Deng H, Bi F, et al.
MicroRNA-137 targets carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 in melanoma cell lines.
Int J Biol Sci. 2011; 7(1):133-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a transcriptional co-repressor that represses expression of various tumor suppressor genes. In the present study, we identified miR-137 as a potential regulator of CtBP1 expression in melanoma cells. Expression of miR-137 in melanoma cell lines was found to inversely correlate with CtBP1 levels. Target Scan predicted a putative site for miR-137 within the CtBP1 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) at nt 710-716, which is highly conserved across species. To explore the mechanism of miR-137 targeting CtBP1, we performed an Argonaute 2 (Ago2)-pull down assay, and miR-137 was identified in complex with CtBP1 mRNA. miR-137 suppressed CtBP1 3' UTR luciferase-reporter activity, and this effect was lost with deletion of the putative 3' UTR target-site. Consistent with the results of the reporter assay, ectopic expression of miR-137 reduced expression levels of CtBP1. Furthermore, expression of miR-137 increased the immediate downstream effectors of CtBP1, such as E-cadherin and Bax. The human miR-137 gene is located at chromosome 1p22, which has previously been determined to be a susceptive region for melanoma. This study suggests miR-137 may act as a tumor suppressor by directly targeting CtBP1 to inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inducing apoptosis of melanoma cells, thus illustrating a functional link between miR-137 and CtBP1 in melanoma development.

Shirakihara T, Horiguchi K, Miyazawa K, et al.
TGF-β regulates isoform switching of FGF receptors and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
EMBO J. 2011; 30(4):783-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial event in wound healing, tissue repair, and cancer progression in adult tissues. Here, we demonstrate that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induced EMT and that long-term exposure to TGF-β elicited the epithelial-myofibroblastic transition (EMyoT) by inactivating the MEK-Erk pathway. During the EMT process, TGF-β induced isoform switching of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, causing the cells to become sensitive to FGF-2. Addition of FGF-2 to TGF-β-treated cells perturbed EMyoT by reactivating the MEK-Erk pathway and subsequently enhanced EMT through the formation of MEK-Erk-dependent complexes of the transcription factor δEF1/ZEB1 with the transcriptional corepressor CtBP1. Consequently, normal epithelial cells that have undergone EMT as a result of combined TGF-β and FGF-2 stimulation promoted the invasion of cancer cells. Thus, TGF-β and FGF-2 may cooperate with each other and may regulate EMT of various kinds of cells in cancer microenvironment during cancer progression.

Mittal MK, Singh K, Misra S, Chaudhuri G
SLUG-induced elevation of D1 cyclin in breast cancer cells through the inhibition of its ubiquitination.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(1):469-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UbcH5c, a member of the UbcH5 family of protein ubiquitin conjugase E2 enzymes, is a critical component of biological processes in human cells, being the initial ubiquitinating enzyme of substrates like IκB, TP53, and cyclin D1. We report here that the metastasis regulator protein SLUG inhibits the expression of UbcH5c directly through chromatin remodeling and thus, among other downstream effects, elevates the level of cyclin D1, thus enhancing the growth rates of breast cancer cells. Overexpression of SLUG in the SLUG-deficient breast cancer cells significantly decreased the levels of mRNA and protein of UbcH5c but only elevated the protein levels of cyclin D1. On the contrary, knockdown of SLUG in SLUG-high breast cancer cells elevated the levels of UbcH5c while decreasing the level of cyclin D1 protein. SLUG is recruited at the E2-box sequence at the UbcH5c gene promoter along with the corepressor CtBP1 and the effector HDAC1 to silence the expression of this gene. Knockdown of UbcH5c in the SLUG-deficient human breast cells elevated the level of cyclin D1 as well as the rates of proliferation and invasiveness of these cells. Whereas the growth rates of the cells are enhanced due to overexpression of SLUG or knockdown of UbcH5c in the breast cancer cells tested, ER(+) cells also acquire resistance to the anti-estrogen 4-hydroxytamoxifen due to the rise of cyclin D1 levels in these cells. This study thus implicates high levels of SLUG and low levels of UbcH5c as a determinant in the progression of metastatic breast cancer.

Birts CN, Harding R, Soosaipillai G, et al.
Expression of CtBP family protein isoforms in breast cancer and their role in chemoresistance.
Biol Cell. 2010; 103(1):1-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: CtBPs [C-terminal (of E1A) binding protein] have roles in the nucleus as transcriptional co-repressors, and in the cytoplasm in the maintenance of vesicular membranes. CtBPs are expressed from two genes, CTBP1 and CTBP2, mRNA products of which are alternatively spliced at their 5'-ends to generate distinct protein isoforms. Extensive molecular and cellular analyses have identified CtBPs as regulators of pathways critical for tumour initiation, progression and response to therapy. However, little is known of the expression or regulation of CtBP isoforms in human cancer, nor of the relative contributions of CTBP1 and CTBP2 to the tumour cell phenotype.
RESULTS: Expression of CtBP proteins and CTBP1 and CTBP2 mRNA splice forms in breast cancer cell lines and tumour tissue was examined. CtBP1 proteins are identifiable as a single band on Western blots and are ubiquitously detectable in breast tumour samples, by both Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. CtBP1 is present in six of six breast cancer cell lines, although it is barely detectable in SKBr3 cells due to reduced CTBP1 mRNA expression. In the cell lines, the predominant CTBP1 mRNA splice form encodes CtBP1-S protein; in tumours, both major CTBP1 mRNA splice forms are variably expressed. CtBP2 proteins are ubiquitously expressed in all lines and tumour samples. The predominant CTBP2 mRNA encodes CtBP2-L, although an alternatively spliced form that encodes CtBP2-S, previously unidentified in humans, is expressed at low abundance. Both CtBP2-L and CtBP2-S are readily detectable as two distinct bands on Western blots; here we show that the CTBP2-L mRNA is translated from two AUG codons to generate both CtBP2-L and CtBP2-S. We have also identified an autoregulatory feedback mechanism whereby CtBP protein abundance is maintained in proliferating breast cancer cells through the post-transcriptional regulation of CtBP2. This feedback is disrupted by UV-C radiation or exposure to cisplatin. Finally, we demonstrate that CtBP1 and CtBP2 both have p53-dependent and -independent roles in suppressing the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to mechanistically diverse cancer chemotherapeutic agents.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies support recent evidence that CtBP family proteins represent potential targets for therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer in general, and breast cancer in particular.

Rai K, Sarkar S, Broadbent TJ, et al.
DNA demethylase activity maintains intestinal cells in an undifferentiated state following loss of APC.
Cell. 2010; 142(6):930-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although genome-wide hypomethylation is a hallmark of many cancers, roles for active DNA demethylation during tumorigenesis are unknown. Here, loss of the APC tumor suppressor gene causes upregulation of a DNA demethylase system and the concomitant hypomethylation of key intestinal cell fating genes. Notably, this hypomethylation maintained zebrafish intestinal cells in an undifferentiated state that was released upon knockdown of demethylase components. Mechanistically, the demethylase genes are directly activated by Pou5f1 and Cebpβ and are indirectly repressed by retinoic acid, which antagonizes Pou5f1 and Cebpβ. Apc mutants lack retinoic acid as a result of the transcriptional repression of retinol dehydrogenase l1 via a complex that includes Lef1, Groucho2, Ctbp1, Lsd1, and Corest. Our findings imply a model wherein APC controls intestinal cell fating through a switch in DNA methylation dynamics. Wild-type APC and retinoic acid downregulate demethylase components, thereby promoting DNA methylation of key genes and helping progenitors commit to differentiation.

Deng Y, Liu J, Han G, et al.
Redox-dependent Brca1 transcriptional regulation by an NADH-sensor CtBP1.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(50):6603-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a transcriptional co-repressor and metabolic sensory protein, which often represses tumor suppressor genes. Hence, we sought to determine if CtBP1 affects expression of the tumor suppressor Brca1 in head and neck tissue, as downregulation of Brca1 begins at the early stages of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). We found that CtBP1 represses Brca1 transcription by binding to the E2F4 site of the Brca1 promoter. Additionally, the recruitment of CtBP1 to the Brca1 promoter is redox-dependent, that is, increased at high NADH levels in hypoxic conditions. Further, immunostaining using a human HNSCC tissue array revealed that nuclear CtBP1 staining began to accumulate in hyperplasic lesions and HNSCCs, this staining correlated with Brca1 downregulation in these lesions. Pharmacological disruption of CtBP1 binding to Brca1 promoter by the antioxidant Tempol, which reduces NADH levels, relieved CtBP1-mediated repression of Brca1, leading to increased DNA repair in HNSCC cells. As tumor cells are generally hypoxic with increased NADH levels, the dynamic control of Brca1 by a 'metabolic switch' found in this study not only provides an important link between tumor metabolism and tumor suppressor expression but also suggests a potential chemo preventative or therapeutic strategy for HNSCC by blocking NADH-dependent CtBP1 activity at early stages of HNSCC carcinogenesis.

Choi HJ, Lee JM, Kim H, et al.
Bcl3-dependent stabilization of CtBP1 is crucial for the inhibition of apoptosis and tumor progression in breast cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 400(3):396-402 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-cell lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) is a proto-oncogene upregulated in a wide range of cancers, including breast cancer. Although Bcl3 is known to promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, the molecular mechanisms underlying the proto-oncogenic function of Bcl3 have not been completely elucidated. To gain insight into the oncogenic role of Bcl3, we applied a proteomic approach, which led to the identification of C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) as a binding partner of Bcl3. A PXDLS/R motif embedded in Bcl3 was found to mediate the interaction between Bcl3 and CtBP1, which caused the stabilization of CtBP1 by blocking proteasome-dependent degradation. Apoptotic stimuli-induced degradation of CtBP1 was significantly abolished by the upregulation of Bcl3, leading to the sustained repression of pro-apoptotic gene expression and subsequent inhibition of apoptosis. Intriguingly, a strong positive correlation between the protein levels of Bcl3 and CtBP1 was detected in breast cancer patient samples. Our study reveals a novel combinatorial role for Bcl3 and CtBP1, providing an explanation for the acquisition of resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells, which is a major requirement for cancer development.

Krig SR, Miller JK, Frietze S, et al.
ZNF217, a candidate breast cancer oncogene amplified at 20q13, regulates expression of the ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinase in breast cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(40):5500-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Understanding the mechanisms underlying ErbB3 overexpression in breast cancer will facilitate the rational design of therapies to disrupt ErbB2-ErbB3 oncogenic function. Although ErbB3 overexpression is frequently observed in breast cancer, the factors mediating its aberrant expression are poorly understood. In particular, the ErbB3 gene is not significantly amplified, raising the question as to how ErbB3 overexpression is achieved. In this study we showed that the ZNF217 transcription factor, amplified at 20q13 in ∼20% of breast tumors, regulates ErbB3 expression. Analysis of a panel of human breast cancer cell lines (n = 50) and primary human breast tumors (n = 15) showed a strong positive correlation between ZNF217 and ErbB3 expression. Ectopic expression of ZNF217 in human mammary epithelial cells induced ErbB3 expression, whereas ZNF217 silencing in breast cancer cells resulted in decreased ErbB3 expression. Although ZNF217 has previously been linked with transcriptional repression because of its close association with C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP)1/2 repressor complexes, our results show that ZNF217 also activates gene expression. We showed that ZNF217 recruitment to the ErbB3 promoter is CtBP1/2-independent and that ZNF217 and CtBP1/2 have opposite roles in regulating ErbB3 expression. In addition, we identify ErbB3 as one of the mechanisms by which ZNF217 augments PI-3K/Akt signaling.

Fodde R, Tomlinson I
Nuclear beta-catenin expression and Wnt signalling: in defence of the dogma.
J Pathol. 2010; 221(3):239-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inactivation of the APC tumour suppressor gene represents the rate-limiting event in colorectal cancer. Loss of APC function leads to constitutive activation of the canonical Wnt-beta-catenin signalling pathway, thus resulting into a broad spectrum of cellular defects, ranging from stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, apoptosis, migration and proliferation. Recently, Phelps et al presented an alternative model where loss of APC does not primarily result in Wnt signalling activation but rather involves the transcriptional co-repressor CtBP1. According to this alternative scenario, oncogenic KRAS activation represents a conditio sine qua non for nuclear beta-catenin translocation and Wnt activation. In a recent issue of the Journal of Pathology, Obrador-Hevia and collaborators reaffirmed the broadly accepted textbook model by showing the presence of nuclear beta-catenin in both the presence and, more often, the absence of KRAS mutations.

Gujral TS, MacBeath G
A system-wide investigation of the dynamics of Wnt signaling reveals novel phases of transcriptional regulation.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(4):e10024 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant Wnt signaling has been implicated in a wide variety of cancers and many components of the Wnt signaling network have now been identified. Much less is known, however, about how these proteins are coordinately regulated. Here, a broad, quantitative, and dynamic study of Wnt3a-mediated stimulation of HEK 293 cells revealed two phases of transcriptional regulation: an early phase in which signaling antagonists were downregulated, providing positive feedback, and a later phase in which many of these same antagonists were upregulated, attenuating signaling. The dynamic expression profiles of several response genes, including MYC and CTBP1, correlated significantly with proliferation and migration (P<0.05). Additionally, their levels tracked with the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cell lines and they were significantly overexpressed in colorectal adenocarcinomas (P<0.05). Our data highlight CtBP1 as a transcription factor that contributes to positive feedback during the early phases of Wnt signaling and serves as a novel marker for colorectal cancer progression.

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