Gene Summary

Gene:FRAT1; FRAT regulator of WNT signaling pathway 1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the GSK-3-binding protein family. The protein inhibits GSK-3-mediated phosphorylation of beta-catenin and positively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. It may function in tumor progression and in lymphomagenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:proto-oncogene FRAT1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
FRAT1 is implicated in:
- cytoplasm
- Wnt receptor signaling pathway
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Down-Regulation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Wnt1 Protein
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Chromosome 10
  • Cell Movement
  • Up-Regulation
  • RNA Interference
  • beta Catenin
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Mutation
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Staging
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • Phenotype
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • MicroRNAs
  • Apoptosis
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Western Blotting
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • SMAD4
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Transfection
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FRAT1 (cancer-related)

Werner TV, Hart M, Nickels R, et al.
MiR-34a-3p alters proliferation and apoptosis of meningioma cells
Aging (Albany NY). 2017; 9(3):932-954 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Micro (mi)RNAs are short, noncoding RNAs and deregulation of miRNAs and their targets are implicated in tumor generation and progression in many cancers. Meningiomas are mostly benign, slow growing tumors of the central nervous system with a small percentage showing a malignant phenotype.Following

Fan WH, Du FJ, Liu XJ, Chen N
Knockdown of FRAT1 inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2999-3004 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was investigated. Frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas-1 (FRAT1) is a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and is overexpressed in many human tumors. However, the expression and role of FRAT1 in HCC has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of FRAT1 on EMT process in HCC cells induced by hypoxia. Our results showed that FRAT1 is highly expressed in HCC tissues and cell lines. Hypoxia significantly induced FRAT1 expression in HCC cells. FRAT1 knockdown inhibited hypoxia-induced cell migration/invasion, downregulation of epithelial markers and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. Moreover, FRAT1 knockdown suppressed the expression levels of β-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-myc in HCC cells under the same hypoxic condition. Our results revealed that FRAT1 is a hypoxia factor that is critical for the induction of EMT in HCC cells. These data suggest a potential role for targeting FRAT1 in the prevention of hypoxia-induced HCC cancer progression and metastasis mediated by EMT.

Zhang W, Xiong H, Zou Y, et al.
Frequently rearranged in advanced T‑cell lymphomas‑1 demonstrates oncogenic properties in prostate cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(4):3551-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality for males worldwide. Although dysregulation of the β‑catenin/T‑cell factor (TCF) pathway has been previously reported in prostate cancer, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. Frequently rearranged in advanced T‑cell lymphomas‑1 (FRAT1) functions as a positive regulator of the β‑catenin/TCF signaling pathway. However, to the best of our knowledge, the molecular association between FRAT1 and the β‑catenin/TCF pathway in prostate cancer has not been investigated. In the present study, FRAT1 expression was analyzed in normal prostate tissues and prostate adenocarcinoma samples using publicly available databases, a commercial tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry techniques. In addition, FRAT1 expression levels were altered by overexpression or RNA interference‑mediated depletion in prostate cancer cells. The effects of FRAT1 expression on tumor growth were determined using cell growth curves in vitro and xenografts in nude mice in vivo. The effects of FRAT1 on β‑catenin/TCF activity were measured using the TOPFLASH reporter assay. FRAT1 was expressed exclusively in the nuclei of normal prostate basal cells, and nuclear FRAT1 was detected in 68% (40/59) of prostate adenocarcinoma samples. In addition, FRAT1 activated the TCF luciferase reporter gene promoter in prostate cancer cells, and was observed to promote the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, FRAT1 expression was sufficient to transform NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and lead to tumor formation in vivo. These results suggest that FRAT1 demonstrates oncogenic properties in prostate cancer, potentially by suppressing the inhibitory effect of nuclear glycogen synthase 3β against β‑catenin/TCF activity, thus activating the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway and promoting cell growth.

Zheng K, Zhou X, Yu J, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of miR-490-3p promotes development of an aggressive colorectal cancer phenotype through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 376(1):178-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is known to contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, although little is known about the contribution of β-catenin on this process. We investigated the role of miR-490-3p, which was recently reported to suppress tumorigenesis through its effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We found that hypermethylation of the miR-490-3p promoter down-regulates miR-490-3p expression in CRC tissue. Gain- and loss-of-function assays in vitro and in vivo reveal that miR-490-3p suppresses cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis and inhibits cell invasiveness by repressing the initiation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key mechanism in cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis. The frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas (FRAT1) protein was identified as a direct target of miR-490-3p and contributes to its tumor-suppressing effects. miR-490-3p appears to have an inhibitory effect on β-catenin expression in nuclear fractions of CRC cells, whereas FRAT1 expression is associated with the accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus of cells, which could be weakened by transfection with miR-490-3p. Our findings suggest that the miR-490-3p/FRAT1/β-catenin axis is important in CRC progression and provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC. They may help to confirm the pathway driving CRC aggressiveness and serve for the development of a novel miRNA-targeting anticancer therapy.

Yuan Y, Yang Z, Miao X, et al.
The clinical significance of FRAT1 and ABCG2 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9961-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly malignant tumor with intrinsic resistance to cytotoxic agents. The molecular mechanisms associated with high malignancy and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy have not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the clinicopathological significances of frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas-1 (FRAT1) and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) expression in PDAC. FRAT1 and ABCG2 protein expression in 106 PDAC, 35 peritumoral tissues, 55 benign pancreatic tissues, and 13 normal pancreatic tissues was measured by immunohistochemistry. FRAT1 and ABCG2 protein was overexpressed in PDAC tumors compared to peritumoral tissues, benign pancreatic tissues, and normal pancreatic tissues (P < 0.01). The percentage of cases with positive FRAT1 and ABCG2 overexpression was significantly higher in PDAC patients with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, invasion, and TNM stage III/IV disease than in patients with well-differentiated tumor, no lymph node metastasis and invasion, and TNM stage I/II disease (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In pancreatic tissues with benign lesions, tissues with positive FRAT1 and ABCG2 protein expression exhibited dysplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that PDAC patients with positive FRAT1 and ABCG2 expression survived significantly shorter than patients with negative FRAT1 and ABCG2 expression (P < 0.05 or P < 0.001). Cox multivariate analysis revealed that positive FRAT1 and ABCG2 expression was an independent poor prognosis factor in PDAC patients. FRAT1 and ABCG2 overexpression is associated with carcinogenesis, progression, and poor prognosis in patients with PDAC.

Guo G, Zhong CL, Liu Y, et al.
Overexpression of FRAT1 is associated with malignant phenotype and poor prognosis in human gliomas.
Dis Markers. 2015; 2015:289750 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioma is the most common malignancy of the central nervous system. Approximately 40 percent of intracranial tumors are diagnosed as gliomas. Difficulties in treatment are associated closely with the malignant phenotype, which is characterized by excessive proliferation, relentless invasion, and angiogenesis. Although the comprehensive treatment level of brain glioma is continuously progressing, the outcome of this malignancy has not been improved drastically. Therefore, the identification of new biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of this malignancy is of significant scientific and clinical value. FRAT1 is a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and is overexpressed in many human tumors. In the present study, we investigated the expression status of FRAT1 in 68 patients with human gliomas and its correlation with the pathologic grade, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and prognostic significance. These findings suggest that FRAT1 may be an important factor in the tumorigenesis and progression of glioma and could be explored as a potential biomarker for pathological diagnosis, an indicator for prognosis, and a target for biological therapy of malignancy.

Goksel G, Bilir A, Uslu R, et al.
WNT1 gene expression alters in heterogeneous population of prostate cancer cells; decreased expression pattern observed in CD133+/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cell spheroids.
J BUON. 2014 Jan-Mar; 19(1):207-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Established cancer cell lines contain cancer stem cells (CSCs) which can propagate to form three dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids in vitro. Aberrant activation of WNT signaling is strongly implicated in the progression of cancer and controls CSCs properties. In this study we hypothesized that when cells were maintained as spheroids, the structure of CSCs could show differentiation between CSCs and non- CSCs.
METHODS: CD133+/CD44+ cancer-initiating cells were isolated from DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line monolayer cultures, propagated as tumor spheroids and compared with the remaining heterogeneous cancer cells bulk population. The expression levels of WNT1, FZD1, ADAR, APC, AXIN, BTRC, FRAT1 and PPARD genes were measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array assay and the protein expression levels of WNT1, FZD and AXIN by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: The expression levels of WNT pathway-related molecules were found to increase in both CSCs and non- CSCs when CSCs were maintained as spheroids. However, different expression profiles were observed when CSCs and non-CSCs were compared. In spheroids, the expression levels of FZD1, APC, ADAR, WNT1, PPARD genes in CSCs decreased when compared to non-CSCs. Interestingly, when CSCs from spheroids were compared with CSCs from monolayers the most significant decrease was observed in FZD1 and increase in APC genes.
CONCLUSION: It is possible to assume that intracellular signaling of WNT-related molecules in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm might play an important role but it is independent from increased ligand expression and this expression strongly differentiate CSCs and non-CSCs population. This unexpected expression could be important for CSCs behavior and targeting this pathway could have therapeutic implications in cancer.

Guo G, Kuai D, Cai S, et al.
Knockdown of FRAT1 expression by RNA interference inhibits human glioblastoma cell growth, migration and invasion.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61206 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: FRAT1 positively regulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by inhibiting GSK-3-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin. It was originally characterized as a protein frequently rearranged in advanced T cell lymphoma, but has recently also been identified as a proto-oncogene involved in tumorigenesis. Our previous studies showed that FRAT1 was dramatically overexpressed in gliomas and its expression level was significantly increased along with clinicopathological grades.
METHODS: In the current study, we used RT-PCR and Western blotting to assess the mRNA and protein levels of FRAT1 in three glioma cell lines. In addition, to evaluate its functional role in gliomas, we examined the effects of FRAT1 knockdown on proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo using glioblastoma U251 cells and RNAi.
RESULTS: FRAT1 was highly expressed in all three glioma cell lines. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of endogenous FRAT1 in human glioblastoma U251 cells resulted in suppression of cell proliferation, arrest of cell cycle, inhibition of cell migration and invasion in vitro. Moreover, FRAT1 depletion significantly impaired tumor xenograft growth in nude mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the potential role of FRAT1 in tumorigenesis and progression of glioblastoma. These findings provide a biological basis for FRAT1 as a potential molecular marker for improved pathological grading and as a novel candidate therapeutic target for glioblastoma management.

Walf-Vorderwülbecke V, de Boer J, Horton SJ, et al.
Frat2 mediates the oncogenic activation of Rac by MLL fusions.
Blood. 2012; 120(24):4819-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion genes arise from chromosomal translocations and induce acute myeloid leukemia through a mechanism involving transcriptional deregulation of differentiation and self-renewal programs. Progression of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia is associated with increased activation of Rac GTPases. Here, we demonstrate that MLL fusion oncogenes maintain leukemia-associated Rac activity by regulating Frat gene expression, specifically Frat2. Modulation of FRAT2 leads to concomitant changes in Rac activity, and transformation of Frat knockout hematopoietic progenitor cells by MLL fusions results in leukemias displaying reduced Rac activation and increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. FRAT2 activates Rac through a signaling mechanism that requires glycogen synthase kinase 3 and DVL. Disruption of this pathway abrogates the leukemogenic activity of MLL fusions. This suggests a rationale for the paradoxical requirement of canonical Wnt signaling and glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity for MLL fusion oncogenicity and identifies novel therapeutic targets for this disease.

Zhang Y, Han Y, Zheng R, et al.
Expression of Frat1 correlates with expression of β-catenin and is associated with a poor clinical outcome in human SCC and AC.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(5):1437-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 1 (Frat1) has been reported in several human malignant tumors, but the relationship between Frat1 and β-catenin in lung cancer is still unclear. Our goal was to investigate the correlation between Frat1 and β-catenin in patients with lung cancers. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 110 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with clinical follow-up. Results showed that both Frat1 and β-catenin were overexpressed in NSCLC. The expression of Frat1 and β-catenin was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis. Interestingly, the overexpression of β-catenin was positively correlated with the overexpression of Frat1 (correlation coefficient = 0.285; P = 0.003). In addition, overexpression of Frat1 and abnormal expression of β-catenin were found to represent a poor prognosis for the patients. Furthermore, based on the transfection of Frat1 and β-catenin, we found that Frat1 can upregulate the expression of β-catenin in BE1 cells.

Wang Y, Liu S, Zhu H, et al.
FRAT1 overexpression leads to aberrant activation of beta-catenin/TCF pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(3):561-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Although aberrant activation of beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) pathway has been observed in ESCC, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. Frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas-1 (FRAT1), overexpressed in some ESCC lines, is a positive regulator of beta-catenin/TCF pathway. However, little is known about the molecular relationship between FRAT1 and beta-catenin/TCF in ESCC. In this study, we analyzed freshly resected ESCC specimens and demonstrated that FRAT1 was overexpressed in approximately 74% of tumor samples compared with matched normal tissue. Overexpression of FRAT1 significantly promoted esophageal cancer cells growth, whereas suppression of FRAT1 level by RNAi markedly inhibited their growth. In addition, FRAT1 overexpression induced the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and promoted the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin/TCF. These effects were reversed by coexpression of GSK 3beta or DeltaN TCF4. Furthermore, accumulation of beta-catenin was correlated with FRAT1 overexpression in ESCC and the basal layer of normal esophageal epithelium. Finally, continued expression of c-Myc is necessary and sufficient for maintenance of the growth state in cells expressing FRAT1. Taken together, these results support the novel hypothesis that aberrant activation of beta-catenin/TCF pathway in esophageal cancer appears to be due to upstream events such as FRAT1 overexpression, and c-Myc may be an important element in oncogenesis of human ESCC induced by FRAT1.

Katoh M
Networking of WNT, FGF, Notch, BMP, and Hedgehog signaling pathways during carcinogenesis.
Stem Cell Rev. 2007; 3(1):30-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological functions of some orthologs within the human genome and model-animal genomes are evolutionarily conserved, but those of others are divergent due to protein evolution and promoter evolution. Because WNT signaling molecules play key roles during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and carcinogenesis, the author's group has carried out a human WNT-ome project for the comprehensive characterization of human genes encoding WNT signaling molecules. From 1996 to 2002, we cloned and characterized WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT9A/WNT14, WNT9B/WNT14B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, FZD1, FZD2, FZD3, FZD4, FZD5, FZD6, FZD7, FZD8, FZD10, FRAT1, FRAT2, NKD1, NKD2, VANGL1, RHOU/ARHU, RHOV/ARHV, GIPC2, GIPC3, FBXW11/betaTRCP2, SOX17, TCF7L1/TCF3, and established a cDNA-PCR system for snap-shot and dynamic analyses on the WNT-transcriptome. In 2003, we identified and characterized PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, DACT1/DAPPER1, DACT2/DAPPER2, DAAM2, and BCL9L. After completion of the human WNT-ome project, we have been working on the stem cell signaling network. WNT signals are transduced to beta-catenin, NLK, NFAT, PKC, JNK and RhoA signaling cascades. FGF20, JAG1 and DKK1 are target genes of the WNT-beta-catenin signaling cascade. Cross-talk of WNT and FGF signaling pathways potentiates beta-catenin and NFAT signaling cascades. BMP signals induce IHH upregulation in co-operation with RUNX. Hedgehog signals induce upregulation of SFRP1, JAG2 and FOXL1, and then FOXL1 induces BMP4 upregulation. The balance between WNT-FGF-Notch and BMP-Hedgehog signaling networks is important for the maintenance of homoestasis among stem and progenitor cells. Disruption of the stem cell signaling network results in pathological conditions, such as congenital diseases and cancer.

Wang Y, Hewitt SM, Liu S, et al.
Tissue microarray analysis of human FRAT1 expression and its correlation with the subcellular localisation of beta-catenin in ovarian tumours.
Br J Cancer. 2006; 94(5):686-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer are poorly understood, but evidence suggests that aberrant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway plays a significant role in this malignancy. However, the molecular defects that contribute to the activation of this pathway have not been elucidated. Frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas-1 (FRAT1) is a candidate for the regulation of cytoplasmic beta-catenin. In this study, we developed in situ hybridisation probes to evaluate the presence of FRAT1 and used an anti-beta-catenin antibody to evaluate by immunohistochemistry the expression levels and subcellular localisation of beta-catenin in ovarian cancer tissue microarrays. Expression of FRAT1 was found in some human normal tissues and 47% of ovarian adenocarcinomas. A total of 46% of ovarian serous adenocarcinomas were positive for FRAT1 expression. Accumulation of beta-catenin in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm was observed in 55% ovarian adenocarcinomas and in 59% of serous adenocarcinomas. A significant association was observed in ovarian serous adenocarcinomas between FRAT1 and beta-catenin expression (P<0.01). These findings support that Wnt/beta-catenin signalling may be aberrantly activated through FRAT1 overexpression in ovarian serous adenocarcinomas. The mechanism behind the overexpression of FRAT1 in ovarian serous adenocarcinomas and its significance is yet to be investigated.

Kirikoshi H, Katoh M
Expression of WNT7A in human normal tissues and cancer, and regulation of WNT7A and WNT7B in human cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2002; 21(4):895-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
WNT signals are transduced through seven-transmembrane-type WNT receptors encoded by Frizzled (FZD) genes to the beta-catenin - TCF pathway, the JNK pathway or the Ca2+-releasing pathway. WNT signaling molecules are potent targets for diagnosis of cancer (susceptibility, metastasis, and prognosis), for prevention and treatment of cancer, and for regenerative medicine or tissue engineering. We have so far cloned and characterized human WNT signaling molecules WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14, WNT14B/WNT15, FZD1, FZD2, FZD3, FZD4, FZD5, FZD6, FZD7, FZD8, FZD10, FRAT1, FRAT2, NKD1, NKD2, VANGL1/STB2, ARHU/WRCH1, ARHV/WRCH2, GIPC2, GIPC3, betaTRCP2/FBXW1B, SOX17, and TCF-3 using bioinformatics, cDNA-library screening, and cDNA-PCR. Here, expression of WNT7A in human normal tissues and cancer, and regulation of WNT7A and WNT7B in human cancer were investigated. WNT7A was highly expressed in fetal lung, adult testis, lymph node, and peripheral blood leukocytes. WNT7A was relatively highly expressed in temporal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, paracentral gyrus of cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, medulla oblongata and putamen within adult brain. WNT7A was highly expressed in SW480 (colorectal cancer), BxPC-3 and Hs766T (pancreatic cancer), and was also expressed in MKN7 and MKN45 (gastric cancer). WNT7B rather than WNT7A was expressed in MCF-7 (breast cancer) and NT2 (embryonal tumor). beta-estradiol did not affect expression levels of WNT7A and WNT7B in MCF-7 cells. WNT7B, but not WNT7A, was slightly up-regulated by all-trans retinoic acid in NT2 cells.

Katoh M
WNT3-WNT14B and WNT3A-WNT14 gene clusters (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2002; 9(6):579-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
WNT signals are transduced to beta-catenin - TCF pathway, JNK pathway, or Ca2+-releasing pathway through WNT receptors. FRAT1, FRAT2, and PAR-1 are positive regulators of WNT - beta-catenin pathway. APC, AXIN, NKD1, NKD2, and Strabismus (STB1, STB2) are negative regulators of WNT - beta-catenin pathway. Here, biological significance of WNT3-WNT14B/WNT15 gene cluster (human chromosome 17q21) and WNT3A-WNT14 gene cluster (human chromosome 1q42) will be reviewed. Total-amino-acid identity between WNT3 and WNT3A is 84.2%, and that between WNT14 and WNT14B is 61.4%. WNT3A and WNT14B show reciprocal regulation by all-trans retinoic acid in NT2 cells and by beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. Exon-intron structures are well conserved between WNT3-WNT14B gene cluster and WNT3A-WNT14 gene cluster, except for the existence of an additional intron in 3'-UTR of WNT3. Capicua pseudogene and AK024248-related sequence are located within intergenic region of human WNT3A-WNT14 gene cluster, but not within intergenic regions of human WNT3-WNT14B gene cluster and mouse Wnt3a-Wnt14 gene cluster. Integration of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) into mouse Wnt3-Wnt14b gene cluster leads to carcinogenesis. Because these WNT gene clusters might be fragile sites in the human genome, implication of WNT3 or WNT3A in cancer as well as implication of WNT14 or WNT14B in connective tissue disease and congenital joint malformation should be elucidated in the future. WNT3, WNT3A, WNT14, and WNT14B might be applicable to tissue engineering of neuron and joint in the field of regenerative medicine, and as an early diagnostic marker in the field of clinical oncology.

Saitoh T, Mine T, Katoh M
Molecular cloning and expression of proto-oncogene FRAT1 in human cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2002; 20(4):785-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
FRAT1 and FRAT2 genes, clustered in human chromosome 10q24, are human homologues to mouse proto-oncogene Frat1, which promotes carcinogenesis through activation of the WNT - beta-catenin - TCF signaling pathway. FRAT1 and FRAT2 mRNAs are up-regulated together in a gastric cancer cell line TMK1, and also in 2 out of 10 cases of primary gastric cancer. Here, we isolated FRAT1 cDNA (AB074890), which showed two amino-acid substitutions (Gln57X and His58Asp) compared with human FRAT1 cDNA previously reported by another group (U58975). The Gln57-His58 FRAT1 allele isolated in this study was also identified in human genome draft sequences. FRAT1 mRNA was almost ubiquitously expressed in human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Expression level of FRAT1 mRNA was relatively higher in esophageal cancer cell lines TE2, TE3, TE4, a cervical cancer cell line SKG-IIIa, and breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T-47D. Expression level of FRAT1 mRNA was not significantly changed after all-trans retinoic-acid treatment in NT2 cells with the potential of neuronal differentiation. Expression of FRAT1 mRNA in MCF-7 cells derived from breast cancer was down-regulated by beta-estradiol. This is the first report on isolation of FRAT1 cDNA derived from the more common FRAT1 allele, and also on regulation of FRAT1 mRNA in human cancer cells.

Saitoh T, Katoh M
FRAT1 and FRAT2, clustered in human chromosome 10q24.1 region, are up-regulated in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2001; 19(2):311-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
FRAT1 and FRAT2 are cancer-associated genes encoding GSK-3beta-binding proteins. Over-expression of FRAT1 or FRAT2 lead to carcinogenesis through activation of WNT--beta-catenin--TCF signaling pathway. We have previously cloned and characterized FRAT2. Here, we found that FRAT1 and FRAT2 genes were clustered in the human chromosome 10q24.1 region. Blast search revealed that FRAT1 and FRAT2 genes, consisting of a single exon, were located together on human genome draft sequences AC006098.1 and AL355490.7, corresponding to the human chromosome 10q24.1 region. FRAT1 and FRAT2 genes were clustered in a tail to tail manner with an interval of about 10.7 kb. The 2.7-kb FRAT1 mRNA was relatively highly expressed in fetal brain, adult spleen, pancreas, HeLa S3 (cervical cancer), and K-562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia). FRAT1 and FRAT2 were co-expressed in 7 gastric cancer cell lines and 10 cases of primary gastric cancer, and were up-regulated together in gastric cancer cell line TMK1 and 2 cases of primary gastric cancer. These results indicated that FRAT1 and FRAT2 genes were up-regulated together in several cases of human gastric cancer. Up-regulation of FRAT1 and FRAT2 in gastric cancer might lead to carcinogenesis through activation of WNT--beta-catenin--TCF signaling pathway.

Webster MT, Rozycka M, Sara E, et al.
Sequence variants of the axin gene in breast, colon, and other cancers: an analysis of mutations that interfere with GSK3 binding.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000; 28(4):443-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Axin is a recently discovered component of a multiprotein complex containing APC, beta-catenin, GSK3, and PP2A, which functions in the degradation of the beta-catenin protein. As part of WNT signal transduction, the function of the Axin complex is inhibited, leading to the accumulation of beta-catenin. The inappropriate stabilization of beta-catenin has been implicated in a range of human tumors. Two oncogenic mechanisms leading to beta-catenin stabilization are the loss of the APC tumor suppressor protein and the mutational activation of beta-catenin, such that the Axin/APC complex can no longer regulate it. Studies in Drosophila and mammalian tissue culture showed loss of Axin function interfered with beta-catenin turnover and activated beta-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription. Based on these observations, Axin was screened for mutations in a range of human tumor cell lines and primary breast tumor samples. We identified two sequence variants causing amino acid substitutions in four colon cancer cell lines, a Ser-to-Leu at residue 215 in LS513 and a Leu-to-Met at residue 396 in HCT-8, HCT-15, and DLD-1. The Axin L396M mutation was selected for further study since it lay within a region that was shown to interact with glycogen synthase kinase-3. Biochemical and functional studies showed that the L396M change interfered with Axin's ability to bind GSK3. Interestingly, this mutation and a neighboring L392M change differentially altered Axin's ability to interfere with two upstream activators of TCF-dependent transcription, Frat1 and Disheveled.

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