Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: GMPS (cancer-related)
Lau BW, Huh K, Madero-Marroquin R, et al.Hedgehog/GLI1 activation leads to leukemic transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome in vivo and GLI1 inhibition results in antitumor activity.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(5):687-698 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are stem cell disorders with risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Gene expression profiling reveals transcriptional expression of GLI1, of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, in poor-risk MDS/AML. Using a murine model of MDS we demonstrated that constitutive Hh/Gli1 activation accelerated leukemic transformation and decreased overall survival. Hh/Gli1 activation resulted in clonal expansion of phenotypically defined granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMPs) and acquisition of self-renewal potential in a non-self-renewing progenitor compartment. Transcriptome analysis of GMPs revealed enrichment in gene signatures of self-renewal pathways, operating via direct Gli1 activation. Using human cell lines we demonstrated that in addition to canonical Hh signaling, GLI1 is activated in a Smoothened-independent manner. GLI1 knockdown or inhibition with GANT61 resulted in decreased proliferation and clonogenic potential. Our data suggest that GLI1 activation is frequent in MDS during disease progression and inhibition of GLI1 is an attractive therapeutic target for a subset of patients.
Liver cancer is a serious threat to public health and has fairly complicated pathogenesis. Therefore, the identification of key genes and pathways is of much importance for clarifying molecular mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) initiation and progression. HCC-associated gene expression dataset was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Statistical software R was used for significance analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between liver cancer samples and normal samples. Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, based on R software, were applied for the identification of pathways in which DEGs significantly enriched. Cytoscape software was for the construction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analysis to find the hub genes and key pathways. Finally, weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was conducted to further screen critical gene modules with similar expression pattern and explore their biological significance. Significance analysis identified 1230 DEGs with fold change >2, including 632 significantly down-regulated DEGs and 598 significantly up-regulated DEGs. GO term enrichment analysis suggested that up-regulated DEG significantly enriched in immune response, cell adhesion, cell migration, type I interferon signaling pathway, and cell proliferation, and the down-regulated DEG mainly enriched in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. KEGG pathway analysis found DEGs significantly enriched in five pathways including complement and coagulation cascades, focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, antigen processing and presentation, and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. The top 10 hub genes in HCC were separately GMPS, ACACA, ALB, TGFB1, KRAS, ERBB2, BCL2, EGFR, STAT3, and CD8A, which resulted from PPI network. The top 3 gene interaction modules in PPI network enriched in immune response, organ development, and response to other organism, respectively. WGCNA revealed that the confirmed eight gene modules significantly enriched in monooxygenase and oxidoreductase activity, response to endoplasmic reticulum stress, type I interferon signaling pathway, processing, presentation and binding of peptide antigen, cellular response to cadmium and zinc ion, cell locomotion and differentiation, ribonucleoprotein complex and RNA processing, and immune system process, respectively. In conclusion, we identified some key genes and pathways closely related with HCC initiation and progression by a series of bioinformatics analysis on DEGs. These screened genes and pathways provided for a more detailed molecular mechanism underlying HCC occurrence and progression, holding promise for acting as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets.
Yang Q, Guo B, Sun H, et al.Identification of the key genes implicated in the transformation of OLP to OSCC using RNA-sequencing.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(4):2355-2365 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that may transform to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), while its carcinogenesis mechanisms are not entirely clear. This study was designed to identify the important genes involved in the malignant transformation of OLP to OSCC. After RNA-sequencing, the differently expressed genes (DEGs) in OLP vs. normal and OSCC vs. normal groups, respectively, were identified by limma package in R language, and then clustering analysis were conducted by Pheatmap package in R language. Weighed gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed for the DEGs to screen disease-associated modules. Using Cytoscape software, co-expression networks were constructed for the genes involved in the modules. Enrichment analysis was conducted for the genes involved in the co-expression networks using GOstat package in R language. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments were conducted to validate the key genes. There were, respectively, 223 and 548 DEGs in OLP vs. normal and OSCC vs. normal groups. WGCNA identified the blue modules for the DEGs in the two groups as disease-associated modules. Moreover, 19 common DEGs (including upregulated BCL9L, PER2 and TSPAN33, and downregulated GMPS and HES1) associated with both OLP and OSCC were identified. In the co-expression networks, BCL9L, HES1, PER2 and TSPAN33 might function in OLP via interactions (such as BCL9L-TSPAN33 and HES1-PER2). qRT-PCR analysis showed that BCL9L, PER2 and TSPAN33 were significantly upregulated, and GMP and HES1 were downregulated. These findings indicated that BCL9L, GMPS, HES1, PER2 and TSPAN33 affected the transformation of OLP to OSCC.
Holzer K, Drucker E, Roessler S, et al.Proteomic Analysis Reveals GMP Synthetase as p53 Repression Target in Liver Cancer.
Am J Pathol. 2017; 187(2):228-235 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Disruption of the tumor-suppressive p53 network is a key event in human malignancies, including primary liver cancer. In response to different types of stress, p53 mediates several antiproliferative cellular outcomes, such as cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence, by activation or repression of its target genes. Metabolic alterations initiating or being part of the p53 response have become an actively studied research area in the p53 field, with several aspects that still remain to be elucidated. Herein, we identified GMP synthetase (GMPS), a key enzyme of de novo purine biosynthesis, as an important p53 repression target using a large-scale proteomics approach. This p53-mediated repression of GMPS could be validated by immunoblotting in Sk-Hep1, HepG2, and HuH6 cells. Moreover, we found GMPS transcriptionally repressed in a p21-dependent manner and its repression maintained in the context of p53-mediated cellular senescence. More important, direct knockdown of GMPS by RNA interference resulted in reduced cell viability and was sufficient to trigger cellular senescence. Finally, by comparing murine hepatocellular carcinomas, which developed in p53 wild-type (
Chesnais V, Arcangeli ML, Delette C, et al.Architectural and functional heterogeneity of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes.
Blood. 2017; 129(4):484-496 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are hematopoietic stem cell disorders in which recurrent mutations define clonal hematopoiesis. The origin of the phenotypic diversity of non-del(5q) MDS remains unclear. Here, we investigated the clonal architecture of the CD34
Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)-fusion proteins can induce acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) from either hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), but it remains unclear whether the cell of origin influences the biology of the resultant leukemia. MLL-AF9-transduced single HSCs or GMPs could be continuously replated, but HSC-derived clones were more likely than GMP-derived clones to initiate AML in mice. Leukemia stem cells derived from either HSCs or GMPs had a similar immunophenotype consistent with a maturing myeloid cell (LGMP). Gene expression analyses demonstrated that LGMP inherited gene expression programs from the cell of origin including high-level Evi-1 expression in HSC-derived LGMP. The gene expression signature of LGMP derived from HSCs was enriched in poor prognosis human MLL-rearranged AML in three independent data sets. Moreover, global 5'-mC levels were elevated in HSC-derived leukemias as compared with GMP-derived leukemias. This mirrored a difference seen in 5'-mC between MLL-rearranged human leukemias that are either EVI1 positive or EVI1 negative. Finally, HSC-derived leukemias were more resistant to chemotherapy than GMP-derived leukemias. These data demonstrate that the cell of origin influences the gene expression profile, the epigenetic state and the drug response in AML, and that these differences can account for clinical heterogeneity within a molecularly defined group of leukemias.
The proto-oncogene EVI1 (ecotropic viral integration site-1), located on chromosome band 3q26, is aberrantly expressed in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with 3q26 rearrangements. In the current study, we showed, in a large AML cohort carrying 11q23 translocations, that ∼ 43% of all mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)-rearranged leukemias are EVI1(pos). High EVI1 expression occurs in AMLs expressing the MLL-AF6, -AF9, -AF10, -ENL, or -ELL fusion genes. In addition, we present evidence that EVI1(pos) MLL-rearranged AMLs differ molecularly, morphologically, and immunophenotypically from EVI1(neg) MLL-rearranged leukemias. In mouse bone marrow cells transduced with MLL-AF9, we show that MLL-AF9 fusion protein maintains Evi1 expression on transformation of Evi1(pos) HSCs. MLL-AF9 does not activate Evi1 expression in MLL-AF9-transformed granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMPs) that were initially Evi1(neg). Moreover, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Evi1 in an Evi1(pos) MLL-AF9 mouse model inhibits leukemia growth both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that Evi1 provides a growth-promoting signal. Using the Evi1(pos) MLL-AF9 mouse leukemia model, we demonstrate increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents on reduction of Evi1 expression. We conclude that EVI1 is a critical player in tumor growth in a subset of MLL-rearranged AMLs.
Descotes F, Jézéquel P, Spyratos F, et al.Identification of potential prognostic biomarkers for node-negative breast tumours by proteomic analysis: a multicentric 2004 national PHRC study.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(1):92-104 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We used a 2D-electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomic approach to identify novel biomarkers in node-negative breast cancers. This retrospective study focused on a population of patients with ductal pN0M0 tumours. A subset of patients who developed metastases and in whose tumours were found high levels of uPA and PAI-1 (metastatic relapse, MR: n=20) were compared to another subset in whom no metastatic relapse occurred and whose tumours were found to have low levels of uPA and PAI-1 (no relapse, NR: n=21). We used a 2-DE coupled with MS approach to screen cytosol fractions using two pH-gradient scales, a broad scale (3.0-11.0) and a narrower scale focussing in on a protein rich region (5.0-8.0). This study was conducted on 41 cytosol specimens analyzed in duplicate on two platforms. The differential analysis of more than 2,000 spots in 2-DE gels, obtained on the two platforms, allowed the identification of 13 proteins which were confirmed by western blotting. Two proteins, GPDA and FABP4 were down-regulated in the MR subset whereas all the others were up-regulated. An in silico analysis revealed that GMPS (GUAA), GAPDH (G3P), CFL1 (COF1) and FTL (FRIL), the most informative genes, displayed a proliferation profile (high expression in basal-like, HER2+ and luminal B molecular subtypes). Inversely, similar to FABP4, GPD1 [GPDA] displayed a high expression in luminal A subtype, a profile characteristic of tumour suppressor genes. Despite the small size of our cohort, the 2-DE analysis gave interesting results which were confirmed by the in silico analysis showing that some of the corresponding genes had a strong prognostic impact in breast cancer, mostly because of their link with proliferation: GMPS, GAPDH, FTL and GPD1. A validation phase on a larger cohort is now needed before these biomarkers could be considered for use in clinical practice.
Reckzeh K, Bereshchenko O, Mead A, et al.Molecular and cellular effects of oncogene cooperation in a genetically accurate AML mouse model.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(7):1527-36 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Biallelic CEBPA mutations and FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (FLT3) length mutations are frequently identified in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with normal cytogenetics. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of oncogene cooperation remain unclear because of a lack of disease models. We have generated an AML mouse model using knockin mouse strains to study cooperation of an internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation in the Flt3 gene with commonly observed CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) mutations. This study provides evidence that FLT3 ITD cooperates in leukemogenesis by enhancing the generation of leukemia-initiating granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) otherwise prevented by a block in differentiation and skewed lineage priming induced by biallelic C/EBPα mutations. These cellular changes are accompanied by an upregulation of hematopoietic stem cell and STAT5 target genes. By gene expression analysis in premalignant populations, we further show a role of FLT3 ITD in activating genes involved in survival/transformation and chemoresistance. Both multipotent progenitors and GMP cells contain the potential to induce AML similar to corresponding cells in human AML samples showing that this model resembles human disease.
Pathways defining susceptibility of normal cells to oncogenic transformation may be valuable therapeutic targets. We characterized the cell of origin and its critical pathways in MN1-induced leukemias. Common myeloid (CMP) but not granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP) could be transformed by MN1. Complementation studies of CMP-signature genes in GMPs demonstrated that MN1-leukemogenicity required the MEIS1/AbdB-like HOX-protein complex. ChIP-sequencing identified common target genes of MN1 and MEIS1 and demonstrated identical binding sites for a large proportion of their chromatin targets. Transcriptional repression of MEIS1 targets in established MN1 leukemias demonstrated antileukemic activity. As MN1 relies on but cannot activate expression of MEIS1/AbdB-like HOX proteins, transcriptional activity of these genes determines cellular susceptibility to MN1-induced transformation and may represent a promising therapeutic target.
Notch signalling is a central regulator of differentiation in a variety of organisms and tissue types. Its activity is controlled by the multi-subunit γ-secretase (γSE) complex. Although Notch signalling can play both oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in solid tumours, in the haematopoietic system it is exclusively oncogenic, notably in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, a disease characterized by Notch1-activating mutations. Here we identify novel somatic-inactivating Notch pathway mutations in a fraction of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML). Inactivation of Notch signalling in mouse haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) results in an aberrant accumulation of granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMPs), extramedullary haematopoieisis and the induction of CMML-like disease. Transcriptome analysis revealed that Notch signalling regulates an extensive myelomonocytic-specific gene signature, through the direct suppression of gene transcription by the Notch target Hes1. Our studies identify a novel role for Notch signalling during early haematopoietic stem cell differentiation and suggest that the Notch pathway can play both tumour-promoting and -suppressive roles within the same tissue.
The pathways by which oncogenes, such as MLL-AF9, initiate transformation and leukemia in humans and mice are incompletely defined. In a study of target cells and oncogene dosage, we found that Mll-AF9, when under endogenous regulatory control, efficiently transformed LSK (Lin(-)Sca1(+)c-kit(+)) stem cells, while committed granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) were transformation resistant and did not cause leukemia. Mll-AF9 was expressed at higher levels in hematopoietic stem (HSC) than GMP cells. Mll-AF9 gene dosage effects were directly shown in experiments where GMPs were efficiently transformed by the high dosage of Mll-AF9 resulting from retroviral transduction. Mll-AF9 upregulated expression of 192 genes in both LSK and progenitor cells, but to higher levels in LSKs than in committed myeloid progenitors.
Human leukemias harboring chromosomal translocations involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL, HRX, ALL-1) gene possess high-level expression, and frequent activating mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3. We used a murine bone marrow transplant model to assess cooperation between MLL translocation and FLT3 activation. We demonstrate that MLL-AF9 expression induces acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in approximately 70 days, whereas the combination of MLL-AF9 and FLT3-ITD does so in less than 30 days. Secondary transplantation of splenic cells from diseased mice established that leukemia stem cells are present at a very high frequency of approximately 1:100 in both diseases. Importantly, prospectively isolated granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMPs) coinfected with MLL-AF9 and FLT3-ITD give rise to a similar AML, with shorter latency than from GMP transduced with MLL-AF9 alone. Cooperation between MLL-AF9 and FLT3-ITD was further verified by real-time assessment of leukemogenesis using noninvasive bioluminescence imaging. We used this model to demonstrate that MLL-AF9/FLT3-ITD-induced leukemias are sensitive to FLT3 inhibition in a 2-3 week in vivo assay. These data show that activated FLT3 cooperates with MLL-AF9 to accelerate onset of an AML from whole bone marrow as well as a committed hematopoietic progenitor, and provide a new genetically defined model system that should prove useful for rapid assessment of potential therapeutics in vivo.
Wang Y, Cai D, Brendel C, et al.Adaptive secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mediates imatinib and nilotinib resistance in BCR/ABL+ progenitors via JAK-2/STAT-5 pathway activation.
Blood. 2007; 109(5):2147-55 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Overcoming imatinib mesylate (IM) resistance and disease persistence in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is of considerable importance to the issue of potential cure. Here we asked whether autocrine signaling contributes to survival of BCR/ABL+ cells in the presence of IM and nilotinib (NI; AMN107), a novel, more selective Abl inhibitor. Conditioned media (CM) of IM-resistant LAMA84 cell clones (R-CM) was found to substantially protect IM-naive LAMA cells and primary CML progenitors from IM- or NI-induced cell death. This was due to an increased secretion of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which was identified as the causative factor mediating IM resistance in R-CM. GM-CSF elicited IM and NI drug resistance via a BCR/ABL-independent activation of the janus kinases 2 (JAK-2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT-5) signaling pathway in GM-CSF receptor alpha receptor (CD116)-expressing cells, including primary CD34+/CD116+ GM progenitors (GMPs). Elevated mRNA and protein levels of GM-CSF were detected in IM-resistant patient samples, suggesting a contribution of GM-CSF secretion for IM and NI resistance in vivo. Importantly, inhibition of JAK-2 with AG490 abrogated GM-CSF-mediated STAT-5 phosphorylation and NI resistance in vitro. Together, adaptive autocrine secretion of GM-CSF mediates BCR/ABL-independent IM and NI resistance via activation of the antiapoptotic JAK-2/STAT-5 pathway. Inhibition of JAK-2 overcomes GM-CSF-induced IM and NI progenitor cell resistance, providing a rationale for the application of JAK-2 inhibitors to eradicate residual disease in CML.
Pegram LD, Megonigal MD, Lange BJ, et al.t(3;11) translocation in treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia fuses MLL with the GMPS (GUANOSINE 5' MONOPHOSPHATE SYNTHETASE) gene.
Blood. 2000; 96(13):4360-2 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The partner gene of MLL was identified in a patient with treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia in which the karyotype suggested t(3;11)(q25;q23). Prior therapy included the DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors, teniposide and doxorubicin. Southern blot analysis indicated that the MLL gene was involved in the translocation. cDNA panhandle polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used, which does not require partner gene-specific primers, to identify the chimeric transcript. Reverse-transcription of first-strand cDNAs with oligonucleotides containing known MLL sequence at the 5' ends and random hexamers at the 3' ends generated templates with an intra-strand loop for PCR. In-frame fusions of either MLL exon 7 or exon 8 with the GMPS (GUANOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE SYNTHETASE) gene from chromosome band 3q24 were detected. The fusion transcript was alternatively spliced. Guanosine monophosphate synthetase is essential for de novo purine synthesis. GMPS is the first partner gene of MLL on chromosome 3q and the first gene of this type in leukemia-associated translocations. (Blood. 2000;96:4360-4362)