PLA2G2A

Gene Summary

Gene:PLA2G2A; phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid)
Aliases: MOM1, PLA2, PLA2B, PLA2L, PLA2S, PLAS1, sPLA2
Location:1p35
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phospholipase A2 family (PLA2). PLA2s constitute a diverse family of enzymes with respect to sequence, function, localization, and divalent cation requirements. This gene product belongs to group II, which contains secreted form of PLA2, an extracellular enzyme that has a low molecular mass and requires calcium ions for catalysis. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 fatty acid acyl ester bond of phosphoglycerides, releasing free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, and thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants with different 5' UTRs have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:phospholipase A2, membrane associated
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Genotype
  • Sequence Analysis
  • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli
  • Alleles
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Adolescents
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Synovial Membrane
  • Pedigree
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Phospholipases A2
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism
  • RTPCR
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tumor Markers
  • ras Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Apoptosis
  • Lung Cancer
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Staging
  • Mutation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Transfection
  • Messenger RNA
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Phospholipases A
  • Chromosome 1
  • Group II Phospholipases A2
  • Gene Expression Profiling
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PLA2G2A (cancer-related)

Li C, Zhang E, Sun Y, et al.
Rapamycin-insensitive up-regulation of adipocyte phospholipase A2 in tuberous sclerosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e104809 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis syndrome (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome affecting multiple organs, including renal angiomyolipomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). LAM is a female-predominant interstitial lung disease characterized by the progressive cyst formation and respiratory failure, which is also seen in sporadic patients without TSC. Mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 cause TSC, result in hyperactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and are also seen in LAM cells in sporadic LAM. We recently reported that prostaglandin biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 were deregulated in TSC and LAM. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasma membrane phospholipids into prostaglandins. In this study, we identified upregulation of adipocyte AdPLA2 (PLA2G16) in LAM nodule cells using publicly available expression data. We showed that the levels of AdPLA2 transcript and protein were higher in LAM lungs compared with control lungs. We then showed that TSC2 negatively regulates the expression of AdPLA2, and loss of TSC2 is associated with elevated production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in cell culture models. Mouse model studies also showed increased expression of AdPLA2 in xenograft tumors, estrogen-induced lung metastatic lesions of Tsc2 null leiomyoma-derived cells, and spontaneous renal cystadenomas from Tsc2+/- mice. Importantly, rapamycin treatment did not affect the expression of AdPLA2 and the production of PGE2 by TSC2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (Tsc2-/-MEFs), rat uterine leiomyoma-derived ELT3 cells, and LAM patient-associated renal angiomyolipoma-derived "mesenchymal" cells. Furthermore, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphate (MAFP), a potent irreversible PLA2 inhibitor, selectively suppressed the growth and induced apoptosis of TSC2-deficient LAM patient-derived cells relative to TSC2-addback cells. Our findings suggest that AdPLA2 plays an important role in promoting tumorigenesis and disease progression by modulating the production of prostaglandins and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in TSC and LAM.

Dong Z, Meller J, Succop P, et al.
Secretory phospholipase A2-IIa upregulates HER/HER2-elicited signaling in lung cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):978-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is an urgent need for early diagnostic tools and novel therapies in order to increase lung cancer survival. Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (sPLA2-IIa) is involved in inflammation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. We were the first to uncover that cancer cells secrete sPLA2‑IIa. sPLA2‑IIa is overexpressed in almost all specimens of human lung cancers examined and is significantly elevated in the plasma of lung cancer patients. High levels of plasma sPLA2-IIa are significantly associated with advanced stage and decreased overall cancer survival. In this study, we further showed that elevated HER/HER2‑PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling contributes to sPLA2-IIa overexpression in lung cancer cells. sPLA2-IIa in turn phosphorylates and activates HER2 and HER3 in a time- and dose‑dependent manner in lung cancer cells. The structure and sequence‑based docking analysis revealed that sPLA2-IIa β hairpin shares structural similarity with the corresponding EGF hairpin. sPLA2-IIa forms an extensive interface with EGFR and brings the two lobes of EGFR into an active conformation. sPLA2-IIa also enhances the NF-κB promoter activity. Anti-sPLA2-IIa antibody, but not the small molecule sPLA2-IIa inhibitor LY315920, significantly inhibits sPLA2‑IIa-induced activation of NF-κB promoter. Our findings support the notion that sPLA2-IIa functions as a ligand for the EGFR family of receptors leading to an elevated HER/HER2-elicited signaling. Plasma sPLA2-IIa can potentially serve as lung cancer biomarker and sPLA2‑IIa is a potential therapeutic target against lung cancer.

Hagelgans A, Nacke B, Zamaraeva M, et al.
Silibinin down-regulates expression of secreted phospholipase A2 enzymes in cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(4):1723-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Silibinin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid produced by milk thistle, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer-preventive activities. In the current study, we examined the effects of silibinin on the expression of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes, especially those of group IIA (hGIIA), which play a crucial role in inflammation and carcinogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of silibinin on sPLA2 expressions in human HepG2 hepatoma and PC-3 prostate cancer cells were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique.
RESULTS: Silibinin inhibited the expression of hGIIA in unstimulated and cytokine-primed HepG2 and PC-3 cells. The mRNA levels of sPLA2 of groups IB, III and V were also significantly decreased by silibinin. Analyses of transcription factor activation suggest that nuclear factor-κB, but not specificity protein 1 (SP1) is implicated in the silibinin-mediated down-regulation of hGIIA.
CONCLUSION: Silibinin exhibits inhibitory effects on basal and cytokine-induced expression of sPLA2s in cancer cells and therefore, may have the potential to protect against up-regulation of hGIIA and other sPLA2 isoforms during inflammation and cancer.

Bernard D, Vindrieux D
PLA2R1: expression and function in cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1846(1):40-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1 or PLA2R) was isolated twenty years ago for its ability to bind several secretory phospholipase A2 proteins (sPLA2). Since its identification, it has attracted only a limited interest, mainly in the sPLA2 biology field, as it is viewed uniquely as a regulator of sPLA2 activities. Recent discoveries outline novel important functions of this gene in cancer biology. Indeed, PLA2R1 gain or loss of function experiments in vitro and in vivo shows that this receptor promotes several tumor suppressive responses including senescence, apoptosis and inhibition of transformation. Supporting a tumor suppressive role of PLA2R1, its expression decreases in numerous cancers, and known oncogenes such as HIF2α and c-MYC repress its expression. PLA2R1 promoter methylation, a classical way to repress tumor suppressive gene expression in cancer cells, is observed in leukemia, in kidney and in breast cancer cells. Mechanistically, PLA2R1 activates the kinase JAK2 and orients its activity towards a tumor suppressive one. PLA2R1 also promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen species which induce cell death and senescence. This review compiles recent data demonstrating an unexpected tumor suppressive role of PLA2R1 and outlines the future work needed to improve our knowledge of the functions of this gene in cancer.

Liu F, Wei WQ, Cormier RT, et al.
Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and phospholipase A₂ group IIA (PLA2G2A) genes with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(4):1797-802 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) genes encode enzymes that are involved in arachidonic acid and prostaglandin biosynthesis. Dysregulation of both genes is associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We therefore hypothesized that there is an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes and susceptibility to ESCC.
METHODS: We performed a gene-wide tag SNP-based association study to examine the association of SNPs in PTGS2 and PLA2G2A with ESCC in 269 patients and 269 healthy controls from Taihangshan Mountain, Henan and Hebei Provinces, the rural area of China which has the highest incidence of esophageal cancer in the world. Thirteen tag SNPs in PLA2G2A and 4 functional SNPs in PTGS2 were selected and genotyped using a high-throughput Mass Array genotyping platform.
RESULTS: We found a modest increased risk of ESCC in subjects with the PTGS2 rs12042763 AA genotype (OR=1.23; 95% CI, 1.00- 3.04) compared with genotype GG. For PLA2G2A, a decreased risk of ESCC was observed in subjects with the rs11677 CT (OR=0.51, 95%CI, 0.29-0.85) or TT genotype (OR=0.51, 95%CI, 0.17-0.96) or the T carriers (CT+TT) (OR=0.52, 95%CI, 0.31-0.85) when compared with the CC genotype. Also for PLA2G2A, rs2236771 C allele carriers were more frequent in the control group (P=0.02). Subjects with the GC (OR=0.55, 95%CI, 0.33-0.93) or CC genotype (OR=0.38, 95% CI, 0.16-0.94) or the C carriers (GC+CC) (OR=0.52, 95%CI, 0.32- 0.85) showed a negative association with ESCC susceptibility.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that PTGS2 and PLA2G2A gene polymorphisms may modify the risk of ESCC development.

Zhu C, Sun Z, Li C, et al.
Urocortin affects migration of hepatic cancer cell lines via differential regulation of cPLA2 and iPLA2.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(5):1125-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urocortin (UCN) is a member of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family, which has been reported to play a role in many biological processes, including inflammation and cancer development. Growing evidence shows that PLA2 (phospholipase A2) enzymes also participate in inflammation and tumor development. The primary aim of the present study was to identify a novel signaling pathway of CRF receptor activation leading to migration of two kinds of hepatoma carcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and SMMC-7721, linking the stimulation of PLA2 expression by UCN to UCN-induced tumor cell migration. Pharmacological inhibitors and genetic approaches (such as stable transfection and siRNAs) were used in this study. Unlike HepG2 cells which express both CRF receptors themselves, SMMC-7721 cells which hardly express these two CRF receptors needed stable transfection with CRFR1 or CRFR2 to observe the effect of UCN. Two types of PLA2 enzymes, cPLA2 and iPLA2, were found to be regulated by UCN. Our data showed that UCN raised cPLA2 expression but lowered iPLA2 expression. Moreover, UCN was found to act on the certain region of iPLA2 promoter to reduce its transcription. UCN promoted tumor cell migration by up-regulating cPLA2 expression via CRFR1 whereas it suppressed tumor cell migration by down-regulating iPLA2 expression via CRFR2. These results indicate the dual roles for UCN in the hepatoma carcinoma cell migration, which involve the regulation of both cPLA2and iPLA2.

Brglez V, Pucer A, Pungerčar J, et al.
Secreted phospholipases A₂are differentially expressed and epigenetically silenced in human breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(1):230-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) have recently been associated with several cancers, but their role in breast cancer is unknown. Here we demonstrate that mRNA expression of group IIA, III and X sPLA2s differs both in vivo in tumour biopsies and in breast cancer cells in vitro. Their expression is differentially regulated by DNA methylation and histone acetylation and, significantly, all three genes are silenced in aggressive triple negative cells due to both mechanisms. The transcription start site promoter region and the upstream CpG islands, exclusive to the group X sPLA2 gene, have variable roles in the regulation of sPLA2 expression. Our results suggest that the differential expression of hGIIA, hGIII and hGX sPLA2s in breast cancer cells is a consequence of various degrees of epigenetic silencing due to DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation.

Pucer A, Brglez V, Payré C, et al.
Group X secreted phospholipase A(2) induces lipid droplet formation and prolongs breast cancer cell survival.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alterations in lipid metabolism are inherent to the metabolic transformations that support tumorigenesis. The relationship between the synthesis, storage and use of lipids and their importance in cancer is poorly understood. The human group X secreted phospholipase A2 (hGX sPLA2) releases fatty acids (FAs) from cell membranes and lipoproteins, but its involvement in the regulation of cellular FA metabolism and cancer is not known.
RESULTS: Here we demonstrate that hGX sPLA2 induces lipid droplet (LD) formation in invasive breast cancer cells, stimulates their proliferation and prevents their death on serum deprivation. The effects of hGX sPLA2 are shown to be dependent on its enzymatic activity, are mimicked by oleic acid and include activation of protein kinase B/Akt, a cell survival signaling kinase. The hGX sPLA2-stimulated LD biogenesis is accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, up-regulation of FA oxidation enzymes and the LD-coating protein perilipin 2, and suppression of lipogenic gene expression. Prolonged activation of AMPK inhibited hGX sPLA2-induced LD formation, while etomoxir, an inhibitor of FA oxidation, abrogated both LD formation and cell survival. The hGX sPLA2-induced changes in lipid metabolism provide a minimal immediate proliferative advantage during growth under optimal conditions, but they confer to the breast cancer cells a sustained ability to resist apoptosis during nutrient and growth factor limitation.
CONCLUSION: Our results identify hGX sPLA2 as a novel modulator of lipid metabolism that promotes breast cancer cell growth and survival by stimulating LD formation and FA oxidation.

Mercader AG, Pomilio AB
Naturally-occurring dimers of flavonoids as anticarcinogens.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013; 13(8):1217-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biflavonoids are dimers of flavonoid moieties linked by a C-C or C-O-C bond. Simple, complex, rearranged, natural and ketalized Diels-Alder adducts, benzofuran derivatives, and spirobiflavonoids are some of the structural groups of biflavonoids. These compounds are mainly distributed in the Gymnosperms, Angiosperms (monocots and dicots), ferns (Pteridophyta), and mosses (Bryophyta). Biflavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, vasorelaxant, anticlotting, among others. This work is focused on probably the most potentially relevant biological activity of biflavonoids, the anticancer activity and the involved mechanisms of action, such as induction of apoptosis [inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases; effects on NF-κB family of transcription factors; activation of caspase(s); inhibition effects on bcl-2 expression, and upregulation of p53 and caspase-3 gene expression]; inhibition of angiogenesis [anti-proliferative effects; activation of Rho-GTPases and ERK signaling pathways; inhibition of FASN activity]; inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing; inhibition of human DNA topoisomerases I and II-α; anti-inflammatory/ immunoregulatory effects [inhibition of XO; inhibition of proinflammatory enzymes, such as PLA2 and COX; effects on cytokines mediated COX-2 and iNOS expression]; modulation of immune response; inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation; antioxidant and analgesic activities in relation to the anticarcinogen behavior. For that reason the structures and anticarcinogenic activities of 83 biflavonoids are thoroughly discussed. The results of this work indicate that biflavonoids strongly affect the cancer cells with little effect on normal cell proliferation, suggesting a therapeutic potential against cancer.

Li Y, Zhao H, Wang Y, et al.
Isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating arachidonic acid metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013; 272(1):37-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids and its downstream pathways have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in growth control of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid phytoestrogen from licorice, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating multiple key enzymes in AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer. Isoliquiritigenin diminished cell viability, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and clonogenic ability in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells, and induced apoptosis as evidenced by an analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and hoechst staining. Furthermore, isoliquiritigenin inhibited mRNA expression of multiple forms of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and decreased secretion of their products, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), without affecting COX-1, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). In addition, it downregulated the levels of phospho-PI3K, phospho-PDK (Ser(241)), phospho-Akt (Thr(308)), phospho-Bad (Ser(136)), and Bcl-xL expression, thereby activating caspase cascades and eventually cleaving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Conversely, the addition of exogenous eicosanoids, including PGE2, LTB4 and a 20-HETE analog (WIT003), and caspase inhibitors, or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis. Notably, isoliquiritigenin induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice, together with decreased intratumoral levels of eicosanoids and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). Collectively, these data suggest that isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer.

Li S, Zhao X, Wu Z, et al.
Polymorphisms in arachidonic acid metabolism-related genes and the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer.
Fam Cancer. 2013; 12(4):755-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) and phospholipaseA2 (PLA2) played important roles in the modulation of apoptosis, angiogenesis, carcinogenesis and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC). The polymorphisms in COX-2, 12-LOX and PLA2 may affect their roles. Therefore, we investigated if COX-2 -1195G > A, 12-LOX 261Arg > Gln and PLA2 c.349 + 191A > G polymorphisms were associated with risk and prognosis of CRC as well as possible interactions with the environmental factors on the risk of CRC in Northeast of China. A case-control study with 451 cases and 631 controls were carried out, a cohort with 386 patients were followed up. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Compared with the 261Arg/Arg genotype, 12-LOX 261Arg/Gln genotype and 261Arg/Gln + Gln/Gln genotypes reduced the risk of rectal cancer by 33% (adjusted OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.97, p = 0.03) and 32% (adjusted OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.96, p = 0.03), respectively. The adjusted HR for the association between 12-LOX 261Gln/Gln genotype and overall survival in patients with CRC was 1.68 (95% CI 1.06-2.68, p = 0.03). There was also evidence of an interaction between the PLA2 c.349 + 191 A > G genotypes and the overnight food consumption (adjusted ORi = 1.92, 95% CI 1.14-3.25, P(interaction) = 0.01). These observations indicate that 12-LOX 261Arg > Gln polymorphism may affect risk of rectal cancer, and it may be a potential predictive marker for prognosis of CRC.

Wang X, Huang CJ, Yu GZ, et al.
Expression of group IIA phospholipase A2 is an independent predictor of favorable outcome for patients with gastric cancer.
Hum Pathol. 2013; 44(10):2020-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Growing evidence suggests that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays a pivotal role in tumorigenesis in human gastrointestinal cancer. One of the well-studied isoforms of PLA2, group IIA PLA2 (PLA2G2A), appears to exert its protumorigenic or antitumorigenic effects in a tissue-specific manner. The present study was designed to determine the expression profile and prognostic value of PLA2G2A in gastric cancer in a large Chinese cohort. By using real-time polymerase chain reaction, the amount of PLA2G2A messenger RNA in 60 pairs of fresh gastric tumors and adjacent noncancerous mucosa was measured. The immunostaining of PLA2G2A in 866 gastric cancers with paired noncancerous tissues was assayed. No expression of PLA2G2A was found in normal gastric mucosa, and focal expression of PLA2G2A was noticed in intestinal metaplasia, whereas significantly increased expression of PLA2G2A was observed in the cytoplasm of gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, the extent of PLA2G2A expression was associated with tumor size (P < .001), tumor differentiation (P = .001), T class (P < .001), N class (P < .001), and TNM stage (P < .001) of gastric cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that PLA2G2A expression was an independent predictor of survival for patients with gastric cancer (P = .024). Expression of PLA2G2A seems to be protective for patients with gastric cancer (hazard ratio, 1.423; 95% confidence interval, 1.047-1.935), and it may be a target for achieving better treatment outcomes.

Ward CS, Eriksson P, Izquierdo-Garcia JL, et al.
HDAC inhibition induces increased choline uptake and elevated phosphocholine levels in MCF7 breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e62610 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as effective antineoplastic agents in the clinic. Studies from our lab and others have reported that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-detectable phosphocholine (PC) is elevated following SAHA treatment, providing a potential noninvasive biomarker of response. Typically, elevated PC is associated with cancer while a decrease in PC accompanies response to antineoplastic treatment. The goal of this study was therefore to elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanism by which HDAC inhibition leads to elevated PC. We investigated the effect of SAHA on MCF-7 breast cancer cells using (13)C MRS to monitor [1,2-(13)C] choline uptake and phosphorylation to PC. We found that PC synthesis was significantly higher in treated cells, representing 154±19% of control. This was within standard deviation of the increase in total PC levels detected by (31)P MRS (129±7% of control). Furthermore, cellular choline kinase activity was elevated (177±31%), while cytidylyltransferase activity was unchanged. Expression of the intermediate-affinity choline transporter SLC44A1 and choline kinase α increased (144% and 161%, respectively) relative to control, as determined by mRNA microarray analysis with protein-level confirmation by Western blotting. Taken together, our findings indicate that the increase in PC levels following SAHA treatment results from its elevated synthesis. Additionally, the concentration of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) increased significantly with treatment to 210±45%. This is likely due to the upregulated expression of several phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms, resulting in increased PLA2 activity (162±18%) in SAHA-treated cells. Importantly, the levels of total choline (tCho)-containing metabolites, comprised of choline, PC and GPC, are readily detectable clinically using (1)H MRS. Our findings thus provide an important step in validating clinically translatable non-invasive imaging methods for follow-up diagnostics of HDAC inhibitor treatment.

Yu JA, Mauchley D, Li H, et al.
Knockdown of secretory phospholipase A2 IIa reduces lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012; 144(5):1185-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Group IIa secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 IIa) plays a role in the malignant potential of several epithelial cancers. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulates cancer cell growth and is modulated by phospholipase activity in many cancer cells. We hypothesized that knockdown of sPLA2 in lung cancer cells would reduce cell proliferation and NF-κB activity in vitro and attenuate tumor growth in vivo.
METHODS: Two human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (A549 and H358) were transduced with short hairpin RNA targeting sPLA2 group IIa. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting confirmed knockdown of sPLA2 IIa messenger RNA and protein, respectively. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine DNA labeling assay. NF-κB phosphorylation was assayed by western blot. 1 × 10(6) of A549 or A549 sPLA2 knockdown cells were injected into the left flanks of nude mice (aged 6 to 8 weeks). Tumors were followed for 23 days, then removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, stained with Ki-67, and analyzed for sPLA2 IIa messenger RNA expression.
RESULTS: sPLA2 knockdown reduced NF-κB phosphorylation and tumor growth in vivo. A549 wild-type tumors grew twice as fast as knockdown tumors. Ki-67 staining was more prominent throughout the wild-type tumors compared with knockdown tumors. Explanted knockdown tumors maintained lower sPLA2 levels compared with wild-type, confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
CONCLUSIONS: Knockdown of sPLA2 IIa suppresses lung cancer growth in part by attenuating NF-κB activity. These findings justify further investigation into the cellular mechanisms of sPLA2 in lung cancer and its potential role as a therapeutic target.

Yu JA, Li H, Meng X, et al.
Group IIa secretory phospholipase expression correlates with group IIa secretory phospholipase inhibition-mediated cell death in K-ras mutant lung cancer cells.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012; 144(6):1479-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: There are currently no targeted therapies against lung tumors with oncogenic K-ras mutations that are found in 25% to -40% of lung cancers and are characterized by their resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. The isozyme group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)IIa) is a potential biomarker and regulator of lung cancer cell invasion; however, the relationship between K-ras mutations and sPLA(2)IIa has yet to be investigated. We hypothesize that sPLA(2)IIa modulates lung cancer cell growth in K-ras mutant cells and that sPLA(2)IIa expression in human lung tumors is increased in K-ras mutant tumors.
METHODS: Baseline sPLA(2)IIa expression in K-ras mutant lung cancer cell lines (A549, SW1573, H358, H2009) was assessed. Cells were treated with a specific sPLA(2)IIa inhibitor and evaluated for apoptosis and cell viability. Nuclear factor kappa-b (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity were detected by Western blot. Human tumor samples were evaluated for sPLA(2)IIa mRNA expression by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Cytotoxicity of sPLA(2)IIa inhibition correlates with sPLA(2)IIa expression. Apoptosis in response to sPLA(2) inhibition parallels attenuation in NF-κB activity. In addition, sPLA(2)IIa expression in human tumors correlates with squamous cell pathology and increasing stage of K-ras mutant lung tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Baseline sPLA(2)IIa expression predicts response to sPLA(2)IIa inhibition in some K-ras mutant lung cancer cells. This finding is independent of p53 mutation status. Furthermore, squamous tumors and advanced-stage K-ras mutant tumors express more sPLA(2)IIa. These data support a role for sPLA(2)IIa as a potential global therapeutic target in the treatment of lung cancer.

Lin PC, Liu TC, Chang CC, et al.
High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA target sites.
Clin Chim Acta. 2012; 413(13-14):1092-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The function of microRNAs (miRNAs) depends on the binding of miRNAs to their target sequences in the 3'UTR of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which enhances the degradation of mRNAs and consequently, represses their expression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the miRNA target sequences may affect or impair the binding of miRNAs. Studies have shown that SNPs in miRNA target sites (miR-TS-SNPs) have a great influence on diverse biological functions, including pharmacogenomics and disease susceptibilities in human.
METHODS: High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied for investigating the allele frequencies of 3 miR-TS-SNPs (PLA2G2A, IL-16, and NOD2) in acute leukemia. We also compared the genotypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients at initial diagnosis and complete remission.
RESULTS: HRM analysis revealed 3 genotypes (both homozygous and heterozygous) in the 3 miR-TS-SNPs. The allele frequencies of all 3 miR-TS-SNPs were similar in normal individuals and patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Most patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had the same genotypes at initial diagnosis and complete remission.
CONCLUSIONS: Large scale scanning of case-control studies for miR-TS-SNPs may contribute to the investigation of their roles and pathogenesis mechanisms in human diseases. Our study showed that HRM analysis can be an efficient tool for studies of miR-TS-SNPs.

Oleksowicz L, Liu Y, Bracken RB, et al.
Secretory phospholipase A2-IIa is a target gene of the HER/HER2-elicited pathway and a potential plasma biomarker for poor prognosis of prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2012; 72(10):1140-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that prostate cancer cells overexpress and secrete secretory phospholipases A2 group IIa (sPLA2-IIa) and plasma sPLA2-IIa was elevated in prostate cancer patients. The current study further explored the underlying mechanism of sPLA2-IIa overexpression and the potential role of sPLA2-IIa as a prostate cancer biomarker.
METHODS: Plasma and tissue specimens from prostate cancer patients were analyzed for sPLA2-IIa levels. Regulation of sPLA2-IIa expression by Heregulin-α was determined by Western blot and reporter assay.
RESULTS: We found that Heregulin-α enhanced expression of the sPLA2-IIa gene via the HER2/HER3-elicited pathway. The EGFR/HER2 dual inhibitor Lapatinib and the NF-kB inhibitor Bortezomib inhibited sPLA2-IIa expression induced by Heregulin-α. Heregulin-α upregulated expression of the sPLA2-IIa gene at the transcriptional level. We further confirmed that plasma sPLA2-IIa secreted by mouse bearing human prostate cancer xenografts reached detectable plasma concentrations. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of patient plasma specimens revealed that high levels of plasma sPLA2-IIa, with the optimum cutoff value of 2.0 ng/ml, were significantly associated with high Gleason score (8-10) relative to intermediate Gleason score (6-7) prostate cancers and advanced relative to indolent cancers. The area under the ROC curve (area under curve, AUC) was 0.73 and 0.74, respectively.
CONCLUSION: We found that Heregulin-α, in addition to EGF, contributes to sPLA2-IIa overexpression in prostate cancer cells. Our findings support the notion that high levels of plasma sPLA2-IIa may serve as a poor prognostic biomarker capable of distinguishing aggressive from indolent prostate cancers, which may improve decision-making and optimize patient management.

Oršolić N
Bee venom in cancer therapy.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2012; 31(1-2):173-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bee venom (BV) (api-toxin) has been widely used in the treatment of some immune-related diseases, as well as in recent times in treatment of tumors. Several cancer cells, including renal, lung, liver, prostate, bladder, and mammary cancer cells as well as leukemia cells, can be targets of bee venom peptides such as melittin and phospholipase A2. The cell cytotoxic effects through the activation of PLA2 by melittin have been suggested to be the critical mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of BV. The induction of apoptotic cell death through several cancer cell death mechanisms, including the activation of caspase and matrix metalloproteinases, is important for the melittin-induced anti-cancer effects. The conjugation of cell lytic peptide (melittin) with hormone receptors and gene therapy carrying melittin can be useful as a novel targeted therapy for some types of cancer, such as prostate and breast cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding potential of bee venom and its compounds such as melittin to induce cytotoxic, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and apoptotic effects in different tumor cells in vivo or in vitro. The recent applications of melittin in various cancers and a molecular explanation for the antiproliferative properties of bee venom are discussed.

Claerhout S, Lim JY, Choi W, et al.
Gene expression signature analysis identifies vorinostat as a candidate therapy for gastric cancer.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e24662 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer-specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A) whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment.

Xing XF, Li H, Zhong XY, et al.
Phospholipase A2 group IIA expression correlates with prolonged survival in gastric cancer.
Histopathology. 2011; 59(2):198-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS:   The secreted phospholipase A2 type IIA (PLA2G2A) gene has been identified as a modifier of intestinal adenoma multiplicity in Apc(Min/+) mice. The aim of the present study was to analyse the clinical significance of PLA2G2A expression in human gastric cancer.
METHODS AND RESULTS:   Using immunohistochemistry, cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of PLA2G2A was observed in 27% (40 of 149) of gastric cancer tissues compared with negative staining in normal mucosa. The PLA2G2A expression rate in well-differentiated carcinoma was elevated significantly compared with that in poorly differentiated carcinoma (46% versus 19%, P = 0.001). Statistical analysis also revealed that PLA2G2A expression correlated negatively with depth of mural invasion, lymph node metastasis and tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P < 0.05). Patients with positive PLA2G2A expression showed higher 5-year overall survival than those with negative expression (P = 0.0004). In intestinal metaplasia, PLA2G2A was found to be abundant in Paneth cells. The coexistence of PLA2G2A and lysozyme was observed in Paneth cell-rich gastric cancer (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS:   PLA2G2A may predict survival and might be a potential biomarker for early detection and individualized therapy.

Dong Z, Liu Y, Levin L, et al.
Vav3 oncogene is involved in regulation of secretory phospholipase A2-IIa expression in prostate cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 25(6):1511-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study revealed that Vav3 oncogene and secretory phospholipase A2-IIa (sPLA2-IIa) are overexpressed in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells relative to their androgen-dependent counterparts and contribute to development of hormone refractory prostate cancer. Vav3 is a multiple function protein with both signaling molecule and coactivator activities. sPLA2-IIa is a downstream effector of HER/HER2-PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling and involved in inflammatory response and tumorigenesis. The aim of the current study was to determine whether Vav3 is involved in up-regulation of sPLA2-IIa expression, given that Vav3 signals in the HER/HER2-elicited pathway. Among 46 prostate cancer specimens examined, Vav3 and sPLA2-IIa are overexpressed in 48 and 83% human prostate cancers, respectively. Vav3 overexpression is significantly associated with a high level expression of sPLA2-IIa. In addition, significant Vav3 nuclear localization is observed in two prostate cancer specimens, supporting a coactivator activity in prostate cancer cells. Further analysis revealed that Vav3 up-regulates expression of the sPLA2-IIa gene at the transcriptional level via HER/HER2-PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling. These data revealed that Vav3 overexpression as an additional underlying mechanism contributes to elevated sPLA2-IIa expression in prostate cancer.

Brandes AH, Ward CS, Ronen SM
17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin treatment results in a magnetic resonance spectroscopy-detectable elevation in choline-containing metabolites associated with increased expression of choline transporter SLC44A1 and phospholipase A2.
Breast Cancer Res. 2010; 12(5):R84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a small molecule inhibitor of Hsp90, is currently in clinical trials in breast cancer. However, 17-AAG treatment often results in inhibition of tumor growth rather than shrinkage, making detection of response a challenge. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) are noninvasive imaging methods than can be used to monitor metabolic biomarkers of drug-target modulation. This study set out to examine the MRS-detectable metabolic consequences of Hsp90 inhibition in a breast cancer model.
METHODS: MCF-7 breast cancer cells were investigated, and MRS studies were performed both on live cells and on cell extracts. (31)P and (1)H MRS were used to determine total cellular metabolite concentrations and (13)C MRS was used to probe the metabolism of [1,2-(13)C]-choline. To explain the MRS metabolic findings, microarray and RT-PCR were used to analyze gene expression, and in vitro activity assays were performed to determine changes in enzymatic activity following 17-AAG treatment.
RESULTS: Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 17-AAG for 48 hours caused a significant increase in intracellular levels of choline (to 266 ± 18% of control, P = 0.05) and phosphocholine (PC; to 181 ± 10% of control, P = 0.001) associated with an increase in expression of choline transporter SLC44A1 and an elevation in the de novo synthesis of PC. We also detected an increase in intracellular levels of glycerophosphocholine (GPC; to 176 ± 38% of control, P = 0.03) associated with an increase in PLA2 expression and activity.
CONCLUSIONS: This study determined that in the MCF-7 breast cancer model inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-AAG results in a significant MRS-detectable increase in choline, PC and GPC, which is likely due to an increase in choline transport into the cell and phospholipase activation. (1)H MRSI can be used in the clinical setting to detect levels of total choline-containing metabolite (t-Cho, composed of intracellular choline, PC and GPC). As Hsp90 inhibitors enter routine clinical use, t-Cho could thus provide an easily detectable, noninvasive metabolic biomarker of Hsp90 inhibition in breast cancer patients.

Mauchley D, Meng X, Johnson T, et al.
Modulation of growth in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells by group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2).
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010; 139(3):591-9; discussion 599 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Esophageal adenocarcinoma is thought to arise from lesions produced by chronic esophageal inflammation. Secretory phospholipase A(2) is an important mediator of mucosal response to gastroesophageal reflux, but its role in the function of mature cancer cells is unclear. We sought to determine the influence of group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) on proliferation of human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells.
METHODS: FLO-1 and OE33 cells derived from human esophageal adenocarcinoma were cultured with standard techniques. Cells were treated with 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-mumol/L doses of 5-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-4S-(7-phenylheptanoylamino)pentanoic acid, a specific inhibitor of group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2), for 72 hours. Gene for group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2)(PLA2G2A) was overexpressed and silenced with lentiviral infection techniques. Cell proliferation and viability were measured with standard 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. All assays were performed in triplicate. PLA2G2A expression was measured with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; protein levels were detected with immunofluorescence microscopy. Statistical analysis was by analysis of variance with Fisher post hoc analysis.
RESULTS: Secretory phospholipase A(2) protein was found in both malignant esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Treatment with specific group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) inhibitor resulted in dose-dependent reductions in growth and cell number in both cell lines. Overexpression of PLA2G2A resulted in enhanced cancer cell growth, whereas gene knockdown attenuated growth.
CONCLUSIONS: Group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) appears significant in growth and proliferation of human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Secretory phospholipase A(2) inhibition should be studied further regarding potential chemopreventive and therapeutic properties in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Das A, Bortner J, Desai D, et al.
The selenium analog of the chemopreventive compound S,S'-(1,4-phenylenebis[1,2-ethanediyl])bisisothiourea is a remarkable inducer of apoptosis and inhibitor of cell growth in human non-small cell lung cancer.
Chem Biol Interact. 2009; 180(2):158-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer deaths throughout the world and conventional therapy remains largely unsuccessful. Although, chemoprevention is a plausible alternative approach to curb the lung cancer epidemic, clinically there are no effective chemopreventive agents. Thus, development of novel compounds that can target cellular and molecular pathways involved in the multistep carcinogenesis process is urgently needed. Previous studies have suggested that substitution of sulfur by selenium in established cancer chemopreventive agents may result in more effective analogs. Thus in the present study we selected the chemopreventive agent S,S'-(1,4-phenylenebis[1,2-ethanediyl])bisisothiourea (PBIT), also known to inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), synthesized its selenium analog (Se-PBIT) and compared both compounds in preclinical model systems using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (NCI-H460 and A549); NSCLC is the most common histologic type of all lung cancer cases. Se-PBIT was found to be superior to PBIT as an inducer of apoptosis and inhibitor of cell growth. Se-PBIT arrested cell cycles at G1 and G2-M stage in both A549 and H460 cell lines. Although both compounds are weakly but equally effective inhibitors of iNOS protein expression and activity, only Se-PBIT significantly enhanced the levels of p53, p38, p27 and p21 protein expression, reduced levels of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) but had no effect on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels; such molecular targets are involved in cell growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. The results indicate that Se-PBIT altered molecular targets that are involved in the development of human lung cancer. Although, the mechanisms that can fully account for these effects remain to be determined, the results are encouraging to further evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of Se-PBIT against the development of NSCLC in a well-defined animal model.

Murayama M, Okamoto R, Tsuchiya K, et al.
Musashi-1 suppresses expression of Paneth cell-specific genes in human intestinal epithelial cells.
J Gastroenterol. 2009; 44(3):173-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Musashi-1 (Msi-1) is a RNA-binding protein, known as a putative marker of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). However, little is known about the function of Msi-1 within human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Thus, the present study aimed to clarify the role of Msi-1 in differentiation and proliferation of IECs.
METHODS: A human intestinal epithelial cell line stably expressing Msi-1 was established. Proliferation of the established cell lines was measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, whereas differentiation were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of lineage-specific genes. Activities of the Notch and Wnt pathways were examined either by reporter assays or expression of downstream target genes. The distribution of Msi-1 and PLA2G2A expression in vivo was determined by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Constitutive expression of Msi-1 in IECs had no significant effect on cell proliferation, but suppressed expression of Paneth cell-specific genes, including PLA2G2A. Msi-1 appeared to suppress expression of the PLA2G2A gene at the mRNA level. Analysis of Notch and Wnt pathway activity, however, revealed no significant change upon Msi-1 expression. The expression of Msi-1 and PLA2G2A in vivo was restricted to IECs residing at the lowest part of the human intestinal crypt, but was clearly separated to within basal columnar cells or mature Paneth cells, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Msi-1 suppresses expression of Paneth cell-specific genes in IECs, presumably through a pathway independent from Notch or Wnt. These findings suggest Msi-1 is a negative regulator of Paneth cell differentiation, an may contribute to maintain the undifferentiated phenotype of ISCs.

Denizot Y, De Armas R, Durand K, et al.
Analysis of several PLA2 mRNA in human meningiomas.
Mediators Inflamm. 2009; 2009:689430 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In view of the important oncogenic action of phospholipase A(2)(PLA(2)) we investigated PLA(2) transcripts in human meningiomas. Real-time PCR was used to investigate PLA(2) transcripts in 26 human meningioma tumors. Results indicated that three Ca(2+)-dependent high molecular weight PLA(2) (PLA(2)-IVA, PLA(2)-IVB, PLA(2)-IVC), one Ca(2+)-independent high molecular weight PLA(2) (PLA(2)-VI) and five low molecular weight secreted forms of PLA(2) (PLA(2)-IB, PLA(2)-IIA, PLA(2)-III, PLA(2)-V, and PLA(2)-XII) are expressed with PLA(2)-IVA, PLA(2)-IVB, PLA(2)-VI, and PLA(2)-XIIA as the major expressed forms. PLA(2)-IIE, PLA(2)-IIF, PLA(2)-IVD, and PLA(2)-XIIB are not detected. Plasma (PLA(2)-VIIA) and intracellular (PLA(2)-VIIB) platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase transcripts are expressed in human meningiomas. However no difference was found for PLA(2) transcript amounts in relation to the tumor grade, the subtype of meningiomas, the presence of inflammatory infiltrated cells, of an associated edema, mitosis, brain invasion, vascularisation or necrosis. In conclusion numerous genes encoding multiples forms of PLA(2) are expressed in meningiomas where they might act on the phospholipid remodeling and on the local eicosanoid and/or cytokine networks.

Küry S, Buecher B, Robiou-du-Pont S, et al.
Low-penetrance alleles predisposing to sporadic colorectal cancers: a French case-controlled genetic association study.
BMC Cancer. 2008; 8:326 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC) are multifactorial diseases resulting from the combined effects of numerous genetic, environmental and behavioral risk factors. Genetic association studies have suggested low-penetrance alleles of extremely varied genes to be involved in susceptibility to CRC in Caucasian populations.
METHODS: Through a large genetic association study based on 1023 patients with sporadic CRC and 1121 controls, we tested a panel of these low-penetrance alleles to find out whether they could determine "genotypic profiles" at risk for CRC among individuals of the French population. We examined 52 polymorphisms of 35 genes - drawn from inflammation, xenobiotic detoxification, one-carbon, insulin signaling, and DNA repair pathways - for their possible contribution to colorectal carcinogenesis. The risk of cancer associated with these polymorphisms was assessed by calculation of odds ratios (OR) using multivariate analyses and logistic regression.
RESULTS: Whereas all these polymorphisms had previously been found to be associated with CRC risk, especially in Caucasian populations, we were able to replicate the association for only five of them. Three SNPs were shown to increase CRC risk: PTGS1 c.639C>A (p.Gly213Gly), IL8 c.-352T>A, and MTHFR c.1286A>C (p.Ala429Glu). On the contrary, two other SNPs, PLA2G2A c.435+230C>T and PPARG c.1431C>T (p.His477His), were associated with a decrease in CRC risk. Further analyses highlighted genotypic combinations having a greater predisposing effect on CRC (OR 1.97, 95%CI 1.31-2.97, p = 0.0009) than the allelic variants that were examined separately.
CONCLUSION: The identification of CRC-predisposing combinations, composed of alleles PTGS1 c.639A, PLA2G2A c.435+230C, PPARG c.1431C, IL8 c.-352A, and MTHFR c.1286C, highlights the importance of inflammatory processes in susceptibility to sporadic CRC, as well as a possible crosstalk between inflammation and one-carbon pathways.

Ganesan K, Ivanova T, Wu Y, et al.
Inhibition of gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by PLA2G2A, a novel beta-catenin/TCF target gene.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(11):4277-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elevated expression of the PLA2G2A phospholipase in gastric cancer (GC) is associated with improved patient survival. To elucidate function and regulation of PLA2G2A in GC, we analyzed a panel of GC cell lines. PLA2G2A was specifically expressed in lines with constitutive Wnt activity, implicating beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling as a major upstream regulator of PLA2G2A expression. The invasive ability of PLA2G2A-expressing AGS cells was enhanced by PLA2G2A silencing, whereas cellular migration in non-PLA2G2A-expressing N87 cells was inhibited by enforced PLA2G2A expression, indicating that PLA2G2A is both necessary and sufficient to function as an inhibitor of GC invasion in vitro. We provide evidence that antiinvasive effect of PLA2G2A occurs, at least in part, through its ability to inhibit the S100A4 metastasis mediator gene. Consistent with its invasion inhibitor role, PLA2G2A expression was elevated in primary gastric, colon, and prostrate early-stage tumors, but was decreased in metastatic and late-stage tumors. There was a strong association between PLA2G2A promoter methylation status and PLA2G2A expression, suggesting that the loss of PLA2G2A expression in late-stage cancers may be due to epigenetic silencing. Supporting this, among the non-PLA2G2A-expressing lines, pharmacologic inhibition of epigenetic silencing reactivated PLA2G2A in Wnt-active lines, but in non-Wnt-active lines, a combination of Wnt hyperactivation and inhibition of epigenetic silencing were both required for PLA2G2A reactivation. Our results highlight the complexity of PLA2G2A regulation and provide functional evidence for PLA2G2A as an important regulator of invasion and metastasis in GC.

Fijneman RJ, Cormier RT
The roles of sPLA2-IIA (Pla2g2a) in cancer of the small and large intestine.
Front Biosci. 2008; 13:4144-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mouse secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) gene Pla2g2a has been identified as a susceptibility gene for cancer of the small and large intestine. Interestingly, unlike most previously identified tumor susceptibility genes, Pla2g2a does not behave like a classical oncogene or tumor suppressor gene. Hence, identification of its biological functions in tumor development may shed new light on general mechanisms that modulate colon cancer risk. So far, sPLA2-IIA has been proposed to play a role in anti-bacterial defense, inflammation and eicosanoid generation, in clearance of apoptotic cells, and in the Wnt signaling pathway. More recently, comparison of RNA expression profiles of colon from Pla2g2a-transgenic to Pla2g2a-deficient mice confirmed and even extended sPLA2-IIA's diverse biological effects. In this review we aim to summarize current knowledge about the various links of sPLA2-IIA to cancer of the gastro-intestinal tract, and propose several models to illustrate its putative biological effects on tumor development.

Mounier CM, Wendum D, Greenspan E, et al.
Distinct expression pattern of the full set of secreted phospholipases A2 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas: sPLA2-III as a biomarker candidate.
Br J Cancer. 2008; 98(3):587-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies suggest that secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) represent attractive potential tumour biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various cancers. As a first step to address this issue in human colorectal cancer, we examined the expression of the full set of sPLA2s in sporadic adenocarcinomas and normal matched mucosa from 21 patients by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. In normal colon, PLA2G2A and PLA2G12A were expressed at high levels, PLA2G2D, PLA2G5, PLA2G10 and PLA2G12B at moderate levels, and PLA2G1B, PLA2G2F and PLA2G3 at low levels. In adenocarcinomas from left and right colon, the expression of PLA2G3 was increased by up to 40-fold, while that of PLA2G2D and PLA2G5 was decreased by up to 23- and 14-fold. The variations of expression for sPLA2-IID, sPLA2-III and sPLA2-V were confirmed at the protein level. The expression pattern of these sPLA2s appeared to be linked respectively to the overexpression of interleukin-8, defensin alpha6, survivin and matrilysin, and downregulation of SFRP-1 and RLPA-1, all these genes being associated to colon cancer. This original sPLA2 profile observed in adenocarcinomas highlights the potential role of certain sPLA2s in colon cancer and suggests that sPLA2-III might be a good candidate as a novel biomarker for both left and right colon cancers.

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