Gene Summary

Gene:SACS; sacsin molecular chaperone
Aliases: SPAX6, ARSACS, DNAJC29, PPP1R138
Summary:This gene encodes the sacsin protein, which includes a UbL domain at the N-terminus, a DnaJ domain, and a HEPN domain at the C-terminus. The gene is highly expressed in the central nervous system, also found in skin, skeletal muscles and at low levels in the pancreas. This gene includes a very large exon spanning more than 12.8 kb. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early-onset cerebellar ataxia with spasticity and peripheral neuropathy. The authors of a publication on the effects of siRNA-mediated sacsin knockdown concluded that sacsin protects against mutant ataxin-1 and suggest that "the large multi-domain sacsin protein is able to recruit Hsp70 chaperone action and has the potential to regulate the effects of other ataxia proteins" (Parfitt et al., PubMed: 19208651). A pseudogene associated with this gene is located on chromosome 11. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: SACS (cancer-related)

Tatiana S, Marta J, Monika M, Pavel V
Noonan syndrome from a fetopathologist perspective.
Cesk Patol. 2019; 55(1):48-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present our experience with four cases of fetal autopsies with abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings and suspicion of Noonan syndrome. These were fetuses from the 17th to the 24th age of gestation (GA). In all cases, prenatal ultrasound examination recorded increased nuchal translucency (NT) and presence of lymphatic neck sacs. Some fetuses showed signs of fetal hydrops and polyhydramnion was found. Similar signs and congenital developmental defects were confirmed in the autopsy examination. These were primarily signs of developing fetal hydrops with increased nuchal edema, in some cases up to the character of cystic hygroma, pleural and abdominal effusions, congenital heart and kidney defects, skeletal defects and facial dysmorphism. A karyotype was examined in all cases without chromosome aneuploidy. The diagnosis of NS was confimed by subsequent genetic analysis of causal gene mutations (mainly PTPN11, KRAS, RAF 1,). Our cases demonstrate a wide range of signs of prenatal presentation of this syndrome. Because of wide differential diagnosis, summarizing prenatal ultrasound findings, autopsy examination and molecular genetic testing is essential.

García-Solano J, Turpin MC, Torres-Moreno D, et al.
Two histologically colorectal carcinomas subsets from the serrated pathway show different methylome signatures and diagnostic biomarkers.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):141 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Altered methylation patterns are driving forces in colorectal carcinogenesis. The serrated adenocarcinoma (SAC) and sporadic colorectal carcinoma showing histological and molecular features of microsatellite instability (hmMSI-H) are two endpoints of the so-called serrated pathological route sharing some characteristics but displaying a totally different immune response and clinical outcome. However, there are no studies comparing the methylome of these two subtypes of colorectal carcinomas. The methylation status of 450,000 CpG sites using the Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip array was investigated in 48 colorectal specimens, including 39 SACs and 9 matched hmMSI-H.
RESULTS: Microarray data comparing SAC and hmMSI-H showed an enrichment in functions related to morphogenesis, neurogenesis, cytoskeleton, metabolism, vesicle transport and immune response and also significant differential methylation of 1540 genes, including CD14 and HLA-DOA which were more methylated in hmMSI-H than in SAC and subsequently validated at the CpG, mRNA and protein level using pyrosequencing, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate particular epigenetic regulation patterns in SAC which may help to define key molecules responsible for the characteristic weak immune response of SAC and identify potential targets for treating SAC, which lacks molecular targeted therapy.

Zhu N, Hou J, Wu Y, et al.
Integrated analysis of a competing endogenous RNA network reveals key lncRNAs as potential prognostic biomarkers for human bladder cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(35):e11887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. It has high recurrence rates and low-grade malignancy, thus representing an important public health concern. An increasing number of studies suggest that long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in various biological processes and disease pathologies, including cancer.We analyzed the expression profiles of lncRNA, miRNA, and mRNA, along with the clinical information of BCa patients collected from the Cancer Genome Atlas database to identify lncRNA biomarkers for prognosis. We also constructed an lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA global triple network (competitive endogenous RNA network) by bioinformational approach.This BCa lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network consisted of 23 miRNA nodes, 52 mRNA nodes, 59 lncRNA nodes, and 365 edges. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses were performed using BinGO for Cytoscape and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integration Discovery, respectively, highlighting important GO terms and pathways that were enriched in the network. Subnetworks were created using 3 key lncRNAs (MAGI2-AS3, ADAMTS9-AS2, and LINC00330), revealing associations with BCa-linked mRNAs and miRNAs. Finally, an analysis of significantly differentiating RNAs found 6 DElncRNAs (AC112721.1, ADAMTS9-AS1, ADAMTS9-AS2, HCG22, MYO16-AS1, and SACS-AS1), 1 DEmiRNA (miRNA-195), and 6 DEmRNAs (CCNB1, FAM129A, MAP1B, TMEM100, AIFM3, and HOXB5) that correlated with BCa patient survival.Our results provide a novel perspective from which to study the lncRNA-related ceRNA network in BCa, contributing to the development of future diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Powers N, Srivastava A
The Air Sac Primordium of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The acquisition of invasive properties preceding tumor metastasis is critical for cancer progression. This phenomenon may result from mutagenic disruption of typical cell function, but recent evidence suggests that cancer cells frequently co-opt normal developmental programs to facilitate invasion as well. The signaling cascades that have been implicated present an obstacle to identifying effective therapeutic targets because of their complex nature and modulatory capacity through crosstalk with other pathways. Substantial efforts have been made to study invasive behavior during organogenesis in several organisms, but another model found in

Roy N, Nazeem PA, Babu TD, et al.
EGFR gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells by garlic phytocompounds with special emphasis on S-Allyl-L-Cysteine Sulfoxide.
Interdiscip Sci. 2018; 10(4):686-693 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one among the most common cancers in the world and a major cause of cancer related deaths. Similar to other cancers, colorectal carcinogenesis is often associated with over expression of genes related to cell growth and proliferation, especially Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). There is an increasing attention towards the plant derived compounds in prevention of colorectal carcinogenesis by downregulating EGFR. Among plants, garlic (Allium sativum L.) is emerging with anticancer properties by virtue of its organosulfur compounds. The present study was aimed to analyze the interaction ability of garlic compounds in the active region of EGFR gene by in silico molecular docking studies and in vitro validation. This was conducted using the Discovery studio software version 4.0. Among the tested compounds, s-allyl-l-cysteine-sulfoxide (SACS)/alliin showed higher affinity towards EGFR. Furthermore, wet lab analysis using cell viability test and EGFR expression analysis in colorectal cancer cells confirmed its efficacy as a potent anticancer agent.

Ma M, Gallagher AR, Somlo S
Ciliary Mechanisms of Cyst Formation in Polycystic Kidney Disease.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2017; 9(11) [PubMed] Related Publications
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a disease of defective tissue homeostasis resulting in active remodeling of nephrons and bile ducts to form fluid-filled sacs called cysts. The causal genes

Lee S, Rho SS, Park H, et al.
Carbohydrate-binding protein CLEC14A regulates VEGFR-2- and VEGFR-3-dependent signals during angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
J Clin Invest. 2017; 127(2):457-471 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Controlled angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are essential for tissue development, function, and repair. However, aberrant neovascularization is an essential pathogenic mechanism in many human diseases, including diseases involving tumor growth and survival. Here, we have demonstrated that mice deficient in C-type lectin family 14 member A (CLEC14A) display enhanced angiogenic sprouting and hemorrhage as well as enlarged jugular lymph sacs and lymphatic vessels. CLEC14A formed a complex with VEGFR-3 in endothelial cells (ECs), and CLEC14A KO resulted in a marked reduction in VEGFR-3 that was concomitant with increases in VEGFR-2 expression and downstream signaling. Implanted tumor growth was profoundly reduced in CLEC14A-KO mice compared with that seen in WT littermates, but tumor-bearing CLEC14A-KO mice died sooner. Tumors in CLEC14A-KO mice had increased numbers of nonfunctional blood vessels and severe hemorrhaging. Blockade of VEGFR-2 signaling suppressed these vascular abnormalities and enhanced the survival of tumor-bearing CLEC14A-KO mice. We conclude that CLEC14A acts in vascular homeostasis by fine-tuning VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 signaling in ECs, suggesting its relevance in the pathogenesis of angiogenesis-related human disorders.

Tsuta K, Kohno T, Yoshida A, et al.
RET-rearranged non-small-cell lung carcinoma: a clinicopathological and molecular analysis.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(6):1571-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To elucidate clinicopathological characteristics of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cases carrying RET rearrangements causing oncogenic fusions to identify responders to therapy with RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
METHODS: We investigated 1874 patients with carcinomas, including 1620 adenocarcinomas (ADCs), 203 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 8 large cell carcinomas, and 43 sarcomatoid carcinomas (SACs). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and/or reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were performed to detect RET gene rearrangement.
RESULTS: In all, 22 cases (1.2%) showed RET rearrangements; all cases were of ADC histology. Of the 22 patients, 19 possessed KIF5B-RET fusion genes, whereas 3 possessed CCDC6-RET fusion genes. The RET-rearranged tumours were significantly more common in younger patients (P=0.038) and tended to occur in patients with no history of smoking (P=0.051). In addition, RET rearrangements were not associated with gender, occupational history (particularly radioactive exposure), tumour size, lymph node status, tumour stage, or patient survival. The predominant growth pattern in RET-rearranged ADCs was lepidic in 6 cases, papillary in 9 cases, acinar in 2 cases, micropapillary in 1 case, and solid in 4 cases. Cells with cytoplasmic mucin production were at least focally present in 12 of the 22 (54.5%) RET-rearranged ADC cases. Among the 21 analysed RET-rearranged tumours, RET immunopositivity was observed in 15 cases (71.4%), and was significantly associated with RET rearrangement (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The RET rearrangements were observed in 1.2% of NSCLCs. All cases of RET rearrangement were ADCs. The RET rearrangements were more likely to be observed in younger patients. Although cytoplasmic mucin production was at least focally present in 54.5% of RET-rearranged ADCs, specific histological features were not detected.

D'Souza-Schorey C, Clancy JW
Tumor-derived microvesicles: shedding light on novel microenvironment modulators and prospective cancer biomarkers.
Genes Dev. 2012; 26(12):1287-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent advances in the study of tumor-derived microvesicles reveal new insights into the cellular basis of disease progression and the potential to translate this knowledge into innovative approaches for cancer diagnostics and personalized therapy. Tumor-derived microvesicles are heterogeneous membrane-bound sacs that are shed from the surfaces of tumor cells into the extracellular environment. They have been thought to deposit paracrine information and create paths of least resistance, as well as be taken up by cells in the tumor microenvironment to modulate the molecular makeup and behavior of recipient cells. The complexity of their bioactive cargo-which includes proteins, RNA, microRNA, and DNA-suggests multipronged mechanisms by which microvesicles can condition the extracellular milieu to facilitate disease progression. The formation of these shed vesicles likely involves both a redistribution of surface lipids and the vertical trafficking of cargo to sites of microvesicle biogenesis at the cell surface. Current research also suggests that molecular profiling of these structures could unleash their potential as circulating biomarkers as well as platforms for personalized medicine. Thus, new and improved strategies for microvesicle identification, isolation, and capture will have marked implications in point-of-care diagnostics for cancer patients.

Conesa-Zamora P, García-Solano J, García-García F, et al.
Expression profiling shows differential molecular pathways and provides potential new diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal serrated adenocarcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(2):297-307 [PubMed] Related Publications
Serrated adenocarcinoma (SAC) is a recently recognized colorectal cancer (CRC) subtype accounting for 7.5 to 8.7% of CRCs. It has been shown that SAC has a poorer prognosis and has different molecular and immunohistochemical features compared with conventional carcinoma (CC) but, to date, only one previous study has analyzed its mRNA expression profile by microarray. Using a different microarray platform, we have studied the molecular signature of 11 SACs and compared it with that of 15 matched CC with the aim of discerning the functions which characterize SAC biology and validating, at the mRNA and protein level, the most differentially expressed genes which were also tested using a validation set of 70 SACs and 70 CCs to assess their diagnostic and prognostic values. Microarray data showed a higher representation of morphogenesis-, hypoxia-, cytoskeleton- and vesicle transport-related functions and also an overexpression of fascin1 (actin-bundling protein associated with invasion) and the antiapoptotic gene hippocalcin in SAC all of which were validated both by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry. Fascin1 expression was statistically associated with KRAS mutation with 88.6% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity for SAC diagnosis and the positivity of fascin1 or hippocalcin was highly suggestive of SAC diagnosis (sensitivity = 100%). Evaluation of these markers in CRCs showing histological and molecular characteristics of high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H) also helped to distinguish SACs from MSI-H CRCs. Molecular profiling demonstrates that SAC shows activation of distinct signaling pathways and that immunohistochemical fascin1 and hippocalcin expression can be reliably used for its differentiation from other CRC subtypes.

Miao Y, Cai B, Liu L, et al.
Annexin IV is differentially expressed in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009; 19(9):1545-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genes that were differentially expressed between clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and serous carcinoma (SAC) of the ovary with complementary DNA microarray.
METHODS: Complementary DNA microarray was carried out in 8 CCCs and 8 SACs of the ovary. Differentially expressed genes were identified and verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of the protein was also verified with immunohistochemistry and Western blot in cells and tissues of ovarian CCC.
RESULTS: Comparison of the gene expression profiling identified 21 genes with more than 2-fold different expression between CCC and SAC of the ovary. The up-regulated and down-regulated genes were 9 and 12, respectively. The verification of Annexin IV in the cell line and tissues was in accordance with the result of the microarray.
CONCLUSIONS: The complementary DNA microarray technique is a feasible way to explore the difference of the gene expression profiling between the 2 types of ovarian carcinoma. The overexpression of Annexin IV may be an ovarian CCC-specific molecular marker.

Selaru FM, Xu Y, Yin J, et al.
Artificial neural networks distinguish among subtypes of neoplastic colorectal lesions.
Gastroenterology. 2002; 122(3):606-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is a subtle distinction between sporadic colorectal adenomas and cancers (SAC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated dysplasias and cancers. However, this distinction is clinically important because sporadic adenomas are usually managed by polypectomy alone, whereas IBD-related high-grade dysplasias mandate subtotal colectomy. The current study evaluated the ability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray data to discriminate between these 2 types of colorectal lesions.
METHODS: We hybridized cDNA microarrays, each containing 8064 cDNA clones, to RNAs derived from 39 colorectal neoplastic specimens. Hierarchical clustering was performed, and an ANN was constructed and trained on a set of 5 IBD-related dysplasia or cancer (IBDNs) and 22 SACs.
RESULTS: Hierarchical clustering based on all 8064 clones failed to correctly categorize the SACs and IBDNs. However, the ANN correctly diagnosed 12 of 12 blinded samples in a test set (3 IBDNs and 9 SACs). Furthermore, using an iterative process based on the computer programs GeneFinder, Cluster, and MATLAB, we reduced the number of clones used for diagnosis from 8064 to 97. Even with this reduced clone set, the ANN retained its capacity for correct diagnosis. Moreover, cluster analysis performed with these 97 clones now separated the 2 types of lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ANNs have the potential to discriminate among subtly different clinical entities, such as IBDNs and SACs, as well as to identify gene subsets having the power to make these diagnostic distinctions.

Arias IM, Gatmaitan Z, Mazzanti R, et al.
Structure and function of P-glycoprotein in the normal liver and intestine.
Princess Takamatsu Symp. 1990; 21:229-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) genes encode a family of membrane glycoproteins of approximately 170 kD (P-glycoproteins). In man and mouse, the MDR 1 (mdr 1) genes confer resistance to relatively hydrophobic cationic anti-cancer drugs (i.e., vinblastin, adriamycin). Anti-cancer drug sensitivity is restored by addition of other drugs (i.e., verapamil, reserpine) which are also P-glycoprotein substrates. Transfection of MDR 1 genes produces the resistance phenotype and overexpression of P-glycoprotein. Parenchymal cells in several normal tissues express P-glycoprotein in the secretory domain of the plasma membrane (i.e., bile canaliculus of hepatocytes, brush border of proximal tubular, and small intestinal cells). Studies using plasma membrane vesicles of different sidedness derived from the bile canaliculus and small intestinal brush border permit characterization of P-glycoprotein as a unidirectional, temperature dependent, saturable, ATP-dependent transporter which is competitively inhibited by various anti-cancer drugs and other compounds. Transport studies using single cell fluorescence microscopy with image analysis confirm observations in vesicles. No natural substrate has been identified. Structural studies indicate that the requirements for substrates are molecular weight of 350 to 100, hydrophobicity, two planar rings, and a weak cationic charge. Alternative mechanisms of transport function are considered. The identity of P-glycoproteins in normal rat and human tissues has not been established. Antibody reactions suggest that they may belong to the MDR 2 or 3 class. Studies using everted gut sacs suggest that inhibition of P-glycoprotein may facilitate accumulation of anti-cancer drugs in the tissue.

Sikora K, Evan G, Stewart J, Watson JV
Detection of the c-myc oncogene product in testicular cancer.
Br J Cancer. 1985; 52(2):171-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A set of monoclonal antibodies was constructed by immunising mice with peptide fragments of the c-myc oncogene product. One such antibody, Myc 1-6E10 was shown to bind to a 62,000 dalton protein identifiable with the c-myc product (p62c-myc). The antigen recognised was not destroyed by paraffin wax embedding. Myc 1-6E10 was used to characterise the distribution of p62c-myc in archival testicular tumour material. Normal testes expressed only small amounts of p62c-myc. Seminomas showed increased nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. Undifferentiated teratoma showed little activity, whereas p62c-myc was abundant in the nuclei of differentiating epithelial structures, yolk sacs and embryoid bodies. Only small amounts of p62c-myc were seen in the tumours of 5 patients who subsequently died from their disease.

Cowchock FS, Wapner RJ, Kurtz A, et al.
Brief clinical report: not all cystic hygromas occur in the Ullrich-Turner syndrome.
Am J Med Genet. 1982; 12(3):327-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report two sib fetuses with nuchal systic hygroma and cleft palate. This condition is probably recessively inherited as the parents have normal chromosomes (G-banded) and the fetuses were of opposite sex. Nuchal cystic hygroma is a nonspecific malformation, which reflects a delay in development of the connection between the jugular lymph sacs and the internal jugular vein. This fetal malformation and its equivalent in the adult, neck webbing, has been reported to be a part of a variety of genetic malformation syndromes. Some suggestions for counseling parents of an affected fetus are made: If the chromosome karyotype of an affected fetus is unknown, ultrasound examination, rather than AFP studies, is suggested for future pregnancies.

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