Gene Summary

Gene:SSTR5; somatostatin receptor 5
Aliases: SS-5-R
Summary:Somatostatin and its related peptide cortistatin exert multiple biological actions on normal and tumoral tissue targets by interacting with somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). The protein encoded by this gene is one of the SSTRs, which is a multi-pass membrane protein and belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase, and different regions of this receptor molecule are required for the activation of different signaling pathways. A mutation in this gene results in somatostatin analog resistance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:somatostatin receptor type 5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (9)

Latest Publications: SSTR5 (cancer-related)

Ramnarine VR, Alshalalfa M, Mo F, et al.
The long noncoding RNA landscape of neuroendocrine prostate cancer and its clinical implications.
Gigascience. 2018; 7(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer (tNEPC) is an aggressive variant of late-stage metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer that commonly arises through neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NEtD). Treatment options are limited, ineffective, and, for most patients, result in death in less than a year. We previously developed a first-in-field patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of NEtD. Longitudinal deep transcriptome profiling of this model enabled monitoring of dynamic transcriptional changes during NEtD and in the context of androgen deprivation. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) are implicated in cancer where they can control gene regulation. Until now, the expression of lncRNAs during NEtD and their clinical associations were unexplored.
Results: We implemented a next-generation sequence analysis pipeline that can detect transcripts at low expression levels and built a genome-wide catalogue (n = 37,749) of lncRNAs. We applied this pipeline to 927 clinical samples and our high-fidelity NEtD model LTL331 and identified 821 lncRNAs in NEPC. Among these are 122 lncRNAs that robustly distinguish NEPC from prostate adenocarcinoma (AD) patient tumours. The highest expressed lncRNAs within this signature are H19, LINC00617, and SSTR5-AS1. Another 742 are associated with the NEtD process and fall into four distinct patterns of expression (NEtD lncRNA Class I, II, III, and IV) in our PDX model and clinical samples. Each class has significant (z-scores >2) and unique enrichment for transcription factor binding site (TFBS) motifs in their sequences. Enriched TFBS include (1) TP53 and BRN1 in Class I, (2) ELF5, SPIC, and HOXD1 in Class II, (3) SPDEF in Class III, (4) HSF1 and FOXA1 in Class IV, and (5) TWIST1 when merging Class III with IV. Common TFBS in all NEtD lncRNA were also identified and include E2F, REST, PAX5, PAX9, and STAF. Interrogation of the top deregulated candidates (n = 100) in radical prostatectomy adenocarcinoma samples with long-term follow-up (median 18 years) revealed significant clinicopathological associations. Specifically, we identified 25 that are associated with rapid metastasis following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Two of these lncRNAs (SSTR5-AS1 and LINC00514) stratified patients undergoing ADT based on patient outcome.
Discussion: To date, a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic landscape of lncRNAs during the NEtD process has not been performed. A temporal analysis of the PDX-based NEtD model has for the first time provided this dynamic landscape. TFBS analysis identified NEPC-related TF motifs present within the NEtD lncRNA sequences, suggesting functional roles for these lncRNAs in NEPC pathogenesis. Furthermore, select NEtD lncRNAs appear to be associated with metastasis and patients receiving ADT. Treatment-related metastasis is a clinical consequence of NEPC tumours. Top candidate lncRNAs FENDRR, H19, LINC00514, LINC00617, and SSTR5-AS1 identified in this study are implicated in the development of NEPC. We present here for the first time a genome-wide catalogue of NEtD lncRNAs that characterize the transdifferentiation process and a robust NEPC lncRNA patient expression signature. To accomplish this, we carried out the largest integrative study that applied a PDX NEtD model to clinical samples. These NEtD and NEPC lncRNAs are strong candidates for clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets and warrant further investigation.

Ezzat S, Wang R, Pintilie M, Asa SL
FGFR4 polymorphic alleles modulate mitochondrial respiration: A novel target for somatostatin analog action in pituitary tumors.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(2):3481-3494 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 388 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4-Gly388Arg) can result in distinct proteins that alter pituitary cell growth and function. Here, we examined the differential properties of the available therapeutic somatostatin analogs, octreotide and pasireotide, in pituitary tumor cells expressing the different FGFR4 isoforms. Consistent with their enhanced growth properties, FGFR4-R388-expressing cells show higher mitochondrial STAT3 serine phosphorylation driving basal and maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCR) than pituitary cells expressing the more common FGFR4-G388 isoform. While both somatostatin analogs reduce the OCR in FGFR4-G388 cells, pasireotide was more effective in decreasing OCR in cells expressing the variant FGFR4-R388 isoform. Down-regulation of somatostatin receptor 5 (SSTR5) abrogated the effect of pasireotide, demonstrating its involvement in mediating this action. The effects on OCR were recapitulated by introducing a constitutively active serine STAT3 but not by a tyrosine-active mutant. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition demonstrated the role for the phosphatase PP2A in mediating the dephosphorylation of STAT3-S727 by pasireotide. Our data indicate that FGFR4 polymorphic isoforms mediate signaling that yields mitochondrial therapeutic targets of relevance to the actions of different somatostatin analogs.

Würth R, Barbieri F, Pattarozzi A, et al.
Phenotypical and Pharmacological Characterization of Stem-Like Cells in Human Pituitary Adenomas.
Mol Neurobiol. 2017; 54(7):4879-4895 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence and functional role of tumor stem cells in benign tumors, and in human pituitary adenomas in particular, is a debated issue that still lacks a definitive formal demonstration. Fifty-six surgical specimens of human pituitary adenomas were processed to establish tumor stem-like cultures by selection and expansion in stem cell-permissive medium or isolating CD133-expressing cells. Phenotypic and functional characterization of these cells was performed (1) ex vivo, by immunohistochemistry analysis on paraffin-embedded tissues; (2) in vitro, attesting marker expression, proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and drug sensitivity; and (3) in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Within pituitary adenomas, we identified rare cell populations expressing stem cell markers but not pituitary hormones; we isolated and expanded in vitro these cells, obtaining fibroblast-free, stem-like cultures from 38 pituitary adenoma samples. These cells grow as spheroids, express stem cell markers (Oct4, Sox2, CD133, and nestin), show sustained in vitro proliferation as compared to primary cultures of differentiated pituitary adenoma cells, and are able to differentiate in hormone-expressing pituitary cells. Besides, pituisphere cells, apparently not tumorigenic in mice, engrafted in zebrafish embryos, inducing pro-angiogenic and invasive responses. Finally, pituitary adenoma stem-like cells express regulatory pituitary receptors (D2R, SSTR2, and SSTR5), whose activation by a dopamine/somatostatin chimeric agonist exerts antiproliferative effects. In conclusion, we provide evidence that human pituitary adenomas contain a subpopulation fulfilling biological and phenotypical signatures of tumor stem cells that may represent novel therapeutic targets for therapy-resistant tumors.

Franck SE, Gatto F, van der Lely AJ, et al.
Somatostatin Receptor Expression in GH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas Treated with Long-Acting Somatostatin Analogues in Combination with Pegvisomant.
Neuroendocrinology. 2017; 105(1):44-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas (somatotroph adenoma) predominantly express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) subtypes 2 and 5. Higher SSTR2 expression on somatotroph adenomas results in a better response to somatostatin analogues (SSAs), which preferentially bind, but also downregulate, SSTR2. The effect of the combined treatment with SSAs and the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant (PEGV) on SSTR expression in somatotroph adenomas is currently unknown.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess SSTR2 and SSTR5 expression in three groups of somatotroph adenomas: drug-naive, treated with long-acting (LA) SSA monotherapy, or LA-SSA/PEGV combination therapy before surgery. Additionally, we evaluated the required PEGV dose to achieve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) normalization in relation to the SSTR expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: At our Pituitary Center Rotterdam, we selected acromegalic patients who underwent transsphenoidal neurosurgery. All patients were eventually treated with LA-SSA/PEGV combination therapy during their medical history. SSTR2 and SSTR5 expression in somatotroph adenoma tissues was determined using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Out of 39 somatotroph adenoma tissue samples, 23 were drug-naive, 9 received pretreatment with LA-SSA and 7 LA-SSA/PEGV combined treatment. SSTR2 expression was significantly higher in treatment-naive compared to combined treatment somatotroph adenomas (p = 0.048), while SSTR5 expression did not differ. Noteworthy, SSTR2 expression in naive somatotroph adenoma tissues was inversely correlated with the required PEGV dose to achieve IGF-I normalization during postsurgical medical treatment (ρ = -0.538, p = 0.024).
CONCLUSION: In our specific cohort, the SSTR2 expression was lower in patients pretreated with LA-SSA/PEGV compared to the drug-naive acromegalic patients. Additionally, the SSTR2 expression in treatment-naive somatotroph adenoma tissues was inversely correlated with the required PEGV dose to achieve IGF-I normalization.

Peculis R, Balcere I, Rovite V, et al.
Polymorphisms in MEN1 and DRD2 genes are associated with the occurrence and characteristics of pituitary adenomas.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2016; 175(2):145-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Although pituitary adenomas (PAs) affect a significant proportion of the population, only a fraction have the potential to become clinically relevant during an individual's lifetime, causing hormonal imbalance or complications due to mass effect. The overwhelming majority of cases are sporadic and without a clear familial history, and the genotype-phenotype correlation in PA patients is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of genes known for their role in familial cases on drug response and tumor suppression in the development and pathology of PAs in a patient group from Latvia.
DESIGN: The study included 143 cases and 354 controls, we investigated the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes (SSTR2, SSTR5, DRD2, MEN1, AIP, GNAS, and PRKAR1A) associated with pituitary tumor occurrence, phenotype, and clinical symptoms.
METHODS: Genotyping of 96 tag and nonsynonymous SNPs was performed in the genomic regions of interest.
RESULTS: We discovered a significant association (OR=17.8, CI 0.95=2.18-145.5, P=0.0002) between a rare MEN1 mutation (rs2959656) and clinically active adenoma in our patients. Additionally, rs7131056 at DRD2 was associated with a higher occurrence of extrasellar growth in patients with prolactinoma and somatotropinoma (OR=2.79, CI 0.95=1.58-4.95, P=0.0004).
CONCLUSIONS: rs2959656, a nonsynonymous variant in MEN1, is associated with the development of clinically active PA. Furthermore, rs7131056 in DRD2 contributes to either faster growth of the adenoma or reduced symptomatic presentation, allowing PAs to become larger before detection.

Drastikova M, Beranek M, Gabalec F, et al.
Expression profiles of somatostatin, dopamine, and estrogen receptors in pituitary adenomas determined by means of synthetic multilocus calibrators.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016; 160(2):238-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Pituitary adenomas (PA) are non-invasive benign tumors with a high autopsy prevalence. They are classified according to the type of hormone secreted (prolactin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin, folitropin, or luteinizing hormone). Clinically non-functioning adenomas (CNFA) lacking the typical hypersecretion of hormones make up a significant portion of PA. The aim of the study was to determine the complete expression profiles of somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-SSTR5), dopamine receptors type 2 (D2R), and estrogen receptors (ER1) in various types of PA.
METHODS: Adenoma specimens were obtained from 206 patients during transsphenoidal resection. For quantitative analysis, reverse transcription and consequent real-time PCR with synthetic multilocus calibrators (SMC) were used. The obtained data were normalized to the number of transcripts of the beta-glucuronidase gene.
RESULTS: The use of SMC enabled the alignment of individual calibration functions for all the receptors. No relationships between the expression of the receptors and the tumor size, site of extension, gender or age at diagnosis were significant. In growth hormone-secreting adenomas, D2R and SSTR2 transcripts were extensively expressed, followed by ER1, SSTR5, SSTR3, and SSTR1. In patients with macroprolactinomas, transsphenoidal resection was indicated because dopamine agonists did not normalize prolactin levels. D2R, ER1 and SSTR1 transcripts were significantly transcribed. Corticotroph adenomas showed high levels of D2R and ER1 transcripts and lower amounts of SSTR2 and SSTR1 transcripts. SSTR5 transcripts were very low. Subjects with CNFA dominantly expressed D2R and ER1, followed by SSTR2 and SSTR3 mRNA.
CONCLUSION: We evaluated SSTR1-SSTR5, D2R, and ER1 expressions in a large group of pituitary adenomas and we found that determining their individual expression profiles could help when choosing the optimal postoperative treatment.

Hayashi K, Inoshita N, Kawaguchi K, et al.
The USP8 mutational status may predict drug susceptibility in corticotroph adenomas of Cushing's disease.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2016; 174(2):213-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Somatic mutations in the ubiquitin-specific peptidase USP8 gene were recently detected in one- to two-third(s) of corticotroph adenomas of Cushing's disease (CD). These mutations may lead to the deubiquitination of EGFR, thereby increasing EGFR signaling, which has been implicated in ACTH hypersecretion.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the impact of USP8 mutations on the clinicopathological features of CD.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: USP8 mutations as well as clinicopathological characteristics were examined in 60 corticotroph adenomas including 15 Crooke's cell adenomas (CCAs), a rare histological variant presenting with generally aggressive behavior, using qRT-PCR and/or immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: USP8 mutations were exclusively detected in women, except for one case, with a prevalence of 42.2% in non-CCA and 13.3% in CCA (overall 35%). Clinically well-behaved presentations including microadenoma and curative resection were more common in mutated cases. The expression of EGFR was not associated with the mutation status. In contrast, mutated tumors expressed significantly higher levels of POMC, SSTR5, and MGMT.
CONCLUSIONS: Microadenomas that strongly express POMC were common among mutated tumors, which may lead to the mechanisms by which very small adenomas secrete excess ACTH to present overt CD. While USP8 mutations were less likely to enhance tumorous ACTH hypersecretion via EGFR-mediated activation, the presence of USP8 mutations may predict favorable responses to the somatostatin analog pasireotide, which exhibits high affinity for SSTR5. In contrast, non-mutated aggressive tumors such as CCA may respond better to the alkylating agent temozolomide because of their significantly weak expression of MGMT.

Degirmenci M, Erdogan AP, Bulut G, et al.
Octreotide in combination with AT-101 induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis through up-regulation of somatostatin receptors 2 and 5 in DU-145 prostate cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):4939-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer among males. Although survival rate of early-stage PCa is high, treatment options are very limited for recurrent disease. In this study, the possible synergistic cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of octreotide in combination with AT-101 was investigated in DU-145 hormone and drug refractory prostate cancer cell line. To enlighten the action mechanisms of the combination treatment, expression levels of somatostatin receptors 2 and 5 (SSTR2 and SSTR5) were also investigated. Cell viability was measured by XTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed through DNA fragmentation analysis and caspase 3/7 assay. mRNA and protein levels of SSTR2 and SSTR5 were evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Octreotide in combination with AT-101 inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis synergistically in DU-145 cells as compared to any agent alone. Combination treatment increased both SSTR2 and SSTR5 mRNA and protein levels in DU-145 cells. The data suggest that this combination therapy may be a good candidate for patients with advanced metastatic PCa do not respond to androgen deprivation.

Fan X, Mao Z, He D, et al.
Expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma and the regulation of miR-185.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2015; 38(10):1117-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Long-acting somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are most widely used to treat growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. However, approximately 30 % of treated patients show resistance to SSAs, which may be associated with the reduction of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) mRNA and protein expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study used immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5 in twenty human GH-secreting adenoma samples treated with SSAs and seven normal pituitary samples.
RESULTS: The staining intensities of SSTR2 and SSTR5 were stronger in most adenoma samples than in normal pituitary. The expression of SSTR2 tended to be lower in the SSA non-responder group than in responders. A search of the Bioinformatics data bank and the miRCURY™ LNA array confirmed miR-185 as the putative mircoRNA (miRNA) regulating the expression of SSTR2. An in vitro study using Dual Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-185 likely targets the 3'-UTR of SSTR2 mRNA in the rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cell line. MiR-185 also downregulated or upregulated the expression of SSTR2 mRNA and SSTR2 protein, following transfection with miR-185 mimics or inhibitors, respectively.
CONCLUSION: MiR-185 enhanced the cell proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of GH3 cells.

Kanakis G, Grimelius L, Spathis A, et al.
Expression of Somatostatin Receptors 1-5 and Dopamine Receptor 2 in Lung Carcinoids: Implications for a Therapeutic Role.
Neuroendocrinology. 2015; 101(3):211-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) and dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) in neuroendocrine tumors is of clinical importance as somatostatin analogues and dopamine agonists can be used for their localization and/or treatment. The objective of this study is to examine the expression of the five SSTR subtypes and DR2 in lung carcinoids (LCs).
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 119 LCs from 106 patients [typical carcinoids (TCs): n = 100, and atypical carcinoids (ACs): n = 19]. The expression of all five SSTR subtypes and DR2 was evaluated immunohistochemically and correlated to clinicopathological data. In a subgroup of cases, receptor expression was further analyzed using semiquantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: SSTR2A was the SSTR subtype most frequently expressed immunohistochemically (72%), followed by SSTR1 (63%), SSTR5 (40%), and SSTR3 (20%), whereas SSTR4 was negative. DR2 was expressed in 74% and co-expressed with SSTR1 in 56%, with SSTR2A in 59%, with SSTR3 in 19%, and with SSTR5 in 37% of the tumors. Receptor expression was not related to the histological subtype, tumor aggressiveness (disease extent/grading) or functionality; however, DR2 was expressed more frequently in ACs than TCs (95 vs. 70%, p = 0.017). In a subset of patients, RT-PCR findings highly suggested that the expression of SSTR2A, SSTR3, DR2, and to a lesser extent that of SSTR1 and SSTR5 is the outcome of increased gene transcription.
CONCLUSIONS: The high and variable immunohistochemical expression of the majority of SSTRs along with their co-expression with DR2 in LCs provides a rationale for their possible treatment with agents that target these receptors.

Gabalec F, Drastikova M, Cesak T, et al.
Dopamine 2 and somatostatin 1-5 receptors coexpression in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
Physiol Res. 2015; 64(3):369-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated quantitated expression of dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and somatostatin receptors of the five types (SSTR1-SSTR5) in a large series of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (CNFAs). Co-expression of these receptors in individual adenomas was studied as well as correlation between receptor types. Adenoma tissue from 198 patients who underwent surgery for CNFAs was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. D2R and SSTR1-3 mRNA was expressed in all 198 adenomas. SSTR4 and SSTR5 were detectable in 85 % and 61 % of adenomas, respectively. Expression of D2R was significantly higher than that of the somatostatin receptors. The median relative expressions were as follows from highest D2R > SSTR3 > SSTR2 > SSTR1 > SSTR5 > SSTR4. High relative expression (ratio to beta-glucuronidase mRNA > 1) of D2R was found in 60 % of tumors, high expression of SSTR1 in 7.5 %, SSTR2 in 7 %, SSTR3 in 4 % and SSTR5 in 0.5 %. The quantity of D2R correlated positively with expression of SSTR2 and SSTR3, and negatively with SSTR1 and SSTR5. Among histological adenoma types, SSTR1 was significantly higher in null-cell adenomas and SSTR3 was lower in silent corticotroph adenomas. In conclusions, in CNFAs, high expression of somatostatin receptors is much less common than that of D2R, and co-expression of both these receptors is exceptional. D2R and SSTR3 seem to be the most promising targets for pharmacological treatment.

Murasawa S, Kageyama K, Sugiyama A, et al.
Inhibitory effects of SOM230 on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 394(1-2):37-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by pituitary corticotroph adenomas is the main cause of Cushing's disease. A drug that targets pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas would aid treatment of Cushing's disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2)-preferring somatostatin analogue, has no effect on ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's disease. The multiligand SOM230 (pasireotide) displays a much higher affinity for SSTR1 and SSTR5 than octreotide and suppresses ACTH secretion in cultures of human corticotroph tumors to a greater extent than octreotide. In the present in vitro and in vivo study, we determined the effect of SOM230 on ACTH production and cell proliferation of AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in AtT-20 cells and ACTH levels in the culture medium of these cells, suggesting that SOM230 suppresses ACTH synthesis and secretion in corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 also decreased cell proliferation and both cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein and Akt phosphorylation in AtT-20 cells. SSTR5 knockdown inhibited the SOM230-induced decreases in cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses revealed that SOM230 did not attenuate cell cycle progression. Tumor weight in mice xenografted with AtT-20 cells and treated with SOM230 was significantly lower than in AtT-20-xenografted control mice. SOM230 also significantly decreased plasma ACTH levels, and POMC and pituitary tumor transforming gene mRNA levels in the tumor cells. Thus, SOM230 inhibits ACTH production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

Gonzalez B, Vargas G, Ramirez C, et al.
Cytoplasmic expression of SSTR2 and 5 by immunohistochemistry and by RT/PCR is not associated with the pharmacological response to octreotide.
Endocrinol Nutr. 2014; 61(10):523-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5 (SSTR 2 and 5) by RT/PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GH-secreting adenomas, seeking correlations with response to octreotide.
METHODS: SSTR2 and 5 expression was tested by IHC (n=37), RT/PCR (n=36) or both (n=13) in GH-secreting adenomas from 60 patients with acromegaly who had undergone pituitary surgery; 36 had been treated preoperatively with octreotide LAR for 3-6 months, and were categorized as responders (achievement of GH <2.5ng/mL and a normal age-adjusted IGF-1), partial responders (GH and IGF-1 reduction >50% and >30%, respectively) or non-responders. IHC was performed on a tissue microarray using specific antibodies directed to the carboxyl terminus of SSTR2 and 5.
RESULTS: SSTR5 was the predominantly expressed receptor subtype by both IHC and RT/PCR in all tumors tested, regardless of whether they came from octreotide-naïve, octreotide-responsive, or octreotide-resistant patients. Immunostaining was concentrated in the cytoplasm. Neither SSTR2 nor SSTR5 expression correlated with baseline or post-octreotide GH or IGF-1 levels or tumor volume by either method. The agreement rate between RT/PCR and IHC was 77% in all 13 adenomas in which both methods were used.
CONCLUSION: Expression of these receptors does not guarantee an adequate response to somatostatin analogs; other functional aspects of this interaction, such as receptor homo- and heterodimerization, and the resulting signaling cascade, probably play a role in determining whether a patient will respond or not to these agents.

Wang L, Huang J, Jiang M, et al.
CAMK1 phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting and transport network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by biocomputation.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014; 70(2):1011-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We data-analyzed and constructed the high-expression CAMK1 phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting and transport network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with low-expression (fold change ≥ 2) no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection) in GEO data set, using integration of gene regulatory network inference method with gene ontology (GO). Our result showed that CAMK1 transport subnetwork upstream KCNQ3, LCN2, NKX2_5, NUP62, SORT1, STX1A activated CAMK1, and downstream CAMK1-activated AFP, ENAH, KPNA2, SLC4A3; CAMK1 signal subnetwork upstream BRCA1, DKK1, GPSM2, LEF1, NR5A1, NUP62, SORT1, SSTR5, TBL3 activated CAMK1, and downstream CAMK1-activated MAP2K6, SFRP4, SSTR5, TSHB, UBE2C in HCC. We proposed that CAMK1 activated network enhanced endosome to lysosome transport, endosome transport via multivesicular body sorting pathway, Golgi to endosome transport, intracellular protein transmembrane transport, intracellular protein transport, ion transport, mRNA transport, plasma membrane to endosome transport, potassium ion transport, protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport, anion transport, intracellular transport, androgen receptor signaling pathway, cell surface receptor-linked signal transduction, hormone-mediated signaling, induction of apoptosis by extracellular signals, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in transcription of p21 class mediator, signal transduction resulting in induction of apoptosis, phosphoinositide-mediated signaling, Wnt receptor signaling pathway, as a result of inducing phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting, and transport in HCC. Our hypothesis was verified by CAMK1 functional regulation subnetwork containing positive regulation of calcium ion transport via voltage gated calcium channel, cell proliferation, DNA repair, exocytosis, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, immunoglobulin-mediated immune response, mast cell activation, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against tumor cell target, protein ubiquitination, sodium ion transport, survival gene product activity, T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, transcription, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription via serum response element binding, exit from mitosis, ubiquitin ligase activity during mitotic cell cycle, regulation of angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth, cell proliferation, cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity, gene expression, insulin secretion, steroid biosynthesis, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter, cell cycle, cell migration, DNA recombination, and protein metabolism; also by CAMK1 negative functional regulation subnetwork including negative regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation, centriole replication, fatty acid biosynthesis, lipoprotein lipase activity, MAPK activity, progression through cell cycle, transcription, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, cell growth, phosphorylation, and ubiquitin ligase activity during mitotic cell cycle in HCC.

Wang S, Bao Z, Liang QM, et al.
Octreotide stimulates somatostatin receptor-induced apoptosis of SW480 colon cancer cells by activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, A Wnt/β-catenin pathway modulator.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2013; 60(127):1639-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide hormone somatostatin and its receptors (SSTRs) have a wide range of physiological functions and play a role in the treatment of numerous human diseases, including colorectal cancer. Octreotide, a somatostatin-analog peptide, inhibits growth of colonic cancer SW480 cells through Wnt/β-catenin pathway modulation. However, the specific octreotide-stimulating SSTR subtypes and the signal-transduction mechanism responsible for the negative regulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway by octreotide have not been fully elucidated.
METHODOLOGY: Octreotide-induced apoptosis in SW480 colon cancer cells mediated by SSTR2,SSTR5-dependent regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway components GSK-3β and β-catenin was investigated. Cell apoptosis of SW480 cells was measured by apoptosis-DNA ladder assay. SSTR1, SSTR2, SSTR3, SSTR4, and SSTR5 mRNA expression levels were confirmed by RT-PCR; β-catenin, TCF-4, cyclin D1, c-Myc, and GSK-3β protein levels were examined by Western blot. The distribution of β-catenin in the cell was analyzed with immunocytochemistry.
RESULTS: Octreotide treatment increased SSTR2,SSTR5-induced apoptosis of SW480 colon cancer cells, promoted the plasma membrane accumulation of β-catenin, inactivated T-cell factor-dependent transcription, and downregulated Wnt target genes cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Further, octreotide treatment mediated the activation of GSK-3.
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings showed the negative regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by peptide hormone G protein-coupled receptors SSTRs.

Mayr B, Buslei R, Theodoropoulou M, et al.
Molecular and functional properties of densely and sparsely granulated GH-producing pituitary adenomas.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2013; 169(4):391-400 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: GH-producing pituitary adenomas display two distinct morphological patterns of cytoplasmic GH-containing secretory granules, namely the densely and sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma subtype. It is unknown whether these morphological variants reflect distinct pathophysiological entities at the molecular level.
METHODS: In 28 GH-producing adenoma tissues from a consecutive set of patients undergoing pituitary surgery for acromegaly, we studied the GH granulation pattern, the expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR) as well as the calcium, cAMP and ZAC1 pathways in primary adenoma cell cultures.
RESULTS: The expression of GSP oncogene was similar between densely and sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma cells. There were no differences in the calcium, cAMP and ZAC1 pathways as well as in their regulation by SSTR agonists. SSTR2 was exclusively expressed in densely but not in sparsely granulated tumours (membrane expression 86 vs 0%; cytoplasmic expression 67 vs 0%). By contrast, expression of SSTR5 was only found in sparsely but not in densely granulated somatotroph adenomas (membrane expression 29 vs 0%; cytoplasmic expression 57 vs 0%).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that different granulation patterns in GH-producing adenomas do not reflect differences in pathways and factors pivotal for somatotroph differentiation and function. In vitro, the vast majority of both densely and sparsely granulated tumour cells were responsive to SSTR activation at the molecular level. Sparsely granulated adenomas lacking SSTR2, but expressing SSTR5, might be responsive to novel SSTR agonists with increased affinity to SSTR5.

Tsilidis KK, Travis RC, Appleby PN, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(2):495-504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), but none of these SNPs was associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined whether an association between 16 SNPs associated with circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations and prostate cancer exists within subgroups defined by dietary protein intake in 5,253 cases and 4,963 controls of European ancestry within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The BPC3 includes nested case-control studies within large North-American and European cohorts. Per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for the SNPs were compared across tertiles of protein intake, which was expressed as the percentage of energy derived from total, animal, dairy or plant protein sources, using conditional logistic regression models. Total, animal, dairy and plant protein intakes were significantly positively associated with blood IGF-1 (p < 0.01), but not with IGFBP-3 concentrations (p > 0.10) or with risk of prostate cancer (p > 0.20). After adjusting for multiple testing, the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by intakes of protein, although two interactions by intake of plant protein were of marginal statistical significance [SSTR5 (somatostatin receptor 5)-rs197056 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.001); SSTR5-rs197057 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.002)]. We found no strong evidence that the associations between 16 IGF pathway SNPs and prostate cancer differed by intakes of dietary protein.

Lattanzio L, Tonissi F, Monteverde M, et al.
Differential molecular mechanism of docetaxel-octreotide combined treatment according to the docetaxel-resistance status in PC3 prostate cancer cells.
Anticancer Drugs. 2013; 24(2):120-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
To examine the effect and the molecular mechanisms of the combined treatment of the somatostatin (SST) analogue octreotide with docetaxel: analysis of proliferation, apoptosis and migration in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3, either sensitive (PC3wt) or made resistant to docetaxel (PC3R). We examined the effect of the two drugs individually or in combination on cell proliferation and migration by analysis of apoptosis and cell cycle proteins. The role of octreotide in modulating P-glycoprotein function was examined together with the modulation of SST receptors type 2 and 5 (SSTR2 and SSTR5). We observed an enhanced effect of docetaxel and octreotide given in combination or in sequence compared with either agent alone; this result was particularly evident when docetaxel was given before octreotide in PC3wt and when the two drugs were given together in PC3R cells. In contrast to lanreotide, our data indicate that octreotide does not act as a P-glycoprotein inhibitor in PC3R cells. A role of docetaxel and combined treatment in regulating SSTR2, SSTR5, proliferation and apoptosis gene expression is suggested as the possible mechanism for the enhanced effect observed. In addition, an evaluation of the effect of the combined treatment on cellular migration was examined, showing a moderate loss of invasive properties in PC3R cells. The present results confirm that SST analogues may be combined with docetaxel to increase the antitumour effect in patients with advanced prostate carcinoma.

Ramírez C, Cheng S, Vargas G, et al.
Expression of Ki-67, PTTG1, FGFR4, and SSTR 2, 3, and 5 in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a high throughput TMA, immunohistochemical study.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(5):1745-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are the most common pituitary neoplasms. There is no clinical, biochemical, or histopathological marker that would accurately predict recurrence of NFPA.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a large group of NFPA for the presence of potential markers of biological behavior.
DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study using a high throughput tissue microarray technology was conducted at tertiary care centers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four gonadotroph and null cell adenomas were included in the tissue microarray. Using highly specific antibodies and appropriate controls, we determined the expression of Ki-67, pituitary tumor transforming gene 1, the N-terminally truncated pituitary tumor-derived fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR4), as well as somatostatin receptor subtypes 2, 3, and 5 (SSTR2, -3, and -5), in an attempt to establish correlations and/or associations with clinical characteristics of the patients.
RESULTS: Median Ki-67 index was 1.49 (interquartile range, 0.62-2.49). Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 nuclear immunoreactivity was found in all but one tumor (median percentage of positive nuclei, 11.44); immunopositivity for FGFR4 was found in the majority of the tumors, with variable levels of expression. The immunostaining score for SSTR2 was significantly higher than that for SSTR3 or SSTR5. FGFR4 expression correlated positively with SSTR2 and SSTR5 immunostaining scores (r = 0.59; P < 0.001; and r = 0.46; P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the Ki-67 index was significantly associated with a tumor size greater than 3 cm (odds ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-4.58) as well as with tumor recurrence (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.89).
CONCLUSIONS: Ki-67 is the most consistent marker of biological behavior in NFPA. The finding of significant amounts of SSTR2 and SSTR5 may have therapeutic implications regarding the use of somatostatin analogs in preventing tumor recurrence.

Kato M, Inoshita N, Sugiyama T, et al.
Differential expression of genes related to drug responsiveness between sparsely and densely granulated somatotroph adenomas.
Endocr J. 2012; 59(3):221-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are two main subtypes of GH-producing pituitary adenoma: densely granulated (DG-type) and sparsely granulated (SG-type). Despite the difference in drug responsiveness between the two subtypes, their molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differential expression of genes related to drug responsiveness between the two subtypes of somatotroph adenoma, and their relationship to the clinical characteristics. Eighty-two acromegaly patients (44 DG-type, 38 SG-type) were studied retrospectively. Clinical characteristics were compared between the two subtypes. Among them, 36 tumor tissue specimens (19 DG-type, 17 SG-type) were available for investigation of the expression of SSTR2, SSTR5 and D2R that are reported to be involved in drug responsiveness by realtime RT-PCR. Protein level was evaluated by immunohistochemical study. Patients with SG-type adenomas were younger in age and showed greater GH suppression by octreotide, but not by bromocriptin, and bigger in size and more invasiveness than DG-type adenomas. The mRNA expression of SSTR2 in DG-type adenomas were greater than those in SG-type adenomas and showed significantly positive correlation with GH suppression by octreotide. There was positive correlation between mRNA and protein levels of SSTR2. These data suggested that the differences of responsiveness to octreotide between DG- and SG-type adenomas are based on the expression levels of SSTR2.

Syro LV, Sundsbak JL, Scheithauer BW, et al.
Somatotroph pituitary adenoma with acromegaly and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: SSTR5 polymorphism and PKD1 mutation.
Pituitary. 2012; 15(3):342-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A 39-year-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) presented with acromegaly and a pituitary macroadenoma. There was a family history of this renal disorder. She had undergone surgery for pituitary adenoma 6 years prior. Physical examination disclosed bitemporal hemianopsia and elevation of both basal growth hormone (GH) 106 ng/mL (normal 0-5) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) 811 ng/mL (normal 48-255) blood levels. A magnetic resonance imaging scan disclosed a 3.0 cm sellar and suprasellar mass with both optic chiasm compression and left cavernous sinus invasion. Pathologic, cytogenetic, molecular and in silico analysis was undertaken. Histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies of the lesion disclosed a sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma. Standard chromosome analysis on the blood sample showed no abnormality. Sequence analysis of the coding regions of PKD1 and PKD2 employing DNA from both peripheral leukocytes and the tumor revealed the most common PKD1 mutation, 5014_5015delAG. Analysis of the entire SSTR5 gene disclosed the variant c.142C>A (p.L48M, rs4988483) in the heterozygous state in both blood and tumor, while no pathogenic mutations were noted in the MEN1, AIP, p27Kip1 and SSTR2 genes. To our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of a GH-producing pituitary adenoma associated with ADPKD, but the first subjected to extensive morphological, ultrastructural, cytogenetic and molecular studies. The physical proximity of the PKD1 and SSTR5 genes on chromosome 16 suggests a causal relationship between ADPKD and somatotroph adenoma.

Li D, Tanaka M, Brunicardi FC, et al.
Association between somatostatin receptor 5 gene polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer risk and survival.
Cancer. 2011; 117(13):2863-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin (SST) inhibited cell proliferation and negatively regulated the release of growth hormones by means of specific receptors (SSTR). Genetic variation in SSTR had been associated with risk of human cancers but had never been investigated in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: In this retrospective study the SSTR5 gene in paired tumor and blood samples from 33 pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using the Sanger method were sequenced. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in samples from 863 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 876 healthy controls using the TaqMan method were analyzed. The associations between gene polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer risk and survival were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively.
RESULTS: No somatic mutations were identified, but 3 nonsynonymous SSTR5 SNPs (P109S, L48M, and P335L) in pancreatic tumors were identified. The SSTR5 P109S variant allele was associated with a 1.62-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.43, P = 0.019). Furthermore, the SSTR5 L48M AC variant and smoking had a joint effect on pancreatic cancer risk (p(interaction) = 0.035). The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.58 (0.34-0.97), 1.49 (1.18-1.89), and 2.27 (1.35-3.83) for the variant genotype alone, smoking alone, and both factors, respectively, compared with no factors. Finally, SSTR5 P335L CC and P109S CC combined were associated with lower overall survival durations in patients with resectable disease.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that SSTR5 genetic variants play a role in pancreatic cancer development and progression.

Kaemmerer D, Peter L, Lupp A, et al.
Molecular imaging with ⁶⁸Ga-SSTR PET/CT and correlation to immunohistochemistry of somatostatin receptors in neuroendocrine tumours.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011; 38(9):1659-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are known for an overexpression in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET). The aim of the present study was to find out if the receptor density predicted by the semi-quantitative parameters generated from the static positron emission tomography (PET/CT) correlated with the in vitro immunohistochemistry using a novel rabbit monoclonal anti-SSTR2A antibody (clone UMB-1) for specific SSTR2A immunohistochemistry and polyclonal antibodies for SSTR1 and 3-5.
METHODS: Overall 14 surgical specimens generated from 34 histologically documented GEP-NET patients were correlated with the preoperative (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT. Quantitative assessment of the receptor density was done using the immunoreactive score (IRS) of Remmele and Stegner; the additional 4-point IRS classification for immunohistochemistry and standardized uptake values (SUV(max) and SUV(mean)) were used for PET/CT.
RESULTS: The IRS for SSTR2A and SSTR5 correlated highly significant with the SUV(max) on the PET/CT (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) and the IRS for SSTR2A with the SUV(mean) (p < 0.013). The level of SSTR2A score correlated significantly with chromogranin A staining and indirectly to the tumour grading.
CONCLUSION: The highly significant correlation between SSTR2A and SSTR5 and the SUV(max) on the (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT scans is concordant with the affinity profile of (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC to the SSTR subtypes and demonstrates the excellent qualification of somatostatin analogues in the diagnostics of NET. This study correlating somatostatin receptor imaging using (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT with immunohistochemically analysed SSTR also underlines the approval of therapy using somatostatin analogues, follow-up imaging as well as radionuclide therapy.

Muscarella LA, D'Alessandro V, la Torre A, et al.
Gene expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes SSTR2a, SSTR3 and SSTR5 in peripheral blood of neuroendocrine lung cancer affected patients.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2011; 34(5):435-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin (SS) acts as a universal endocrine off-switch, and also inhibits the growth of neuroendocrine tumours through its specific receptors (SSTRs). Somatostatin receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors, which are encoded by five separate genes (SSTR1-5). Short peptide analogues demonstrate specific binding only for the subgroup consisting of SSTR2a, SSTR3 and SSTR5. Moreover, previous studies reported that expression of mRNA for SSTR2a correlated with therapeutic outcome in patients with carcinoid tumours treated with somatostatin analogs.
PURPOSE: To develop and apply a Real Time Quantitative PCR technique (RT-qPCR) to compare and contrast the mRNA levels of SSTR2a, SSTR3 and SSTR5 in Neuroendocrine Lung Cancer affected patients.
METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from 21 neuroendocrine lung cancer affected patients (14 SCLC, 6 LC and 1 LCNEC) subjected to scintigraphy with (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide (OctreoScan) and 24 healthy blood donors were investigated by RT-qPCR. mRNA levels for SSTR2a, SSTR3 and SSTR5 were measured in peripheral blood samples with a relative quantification method using plasmid dilutions as calibration curves and GAPDH as reference gene.
RESULTS: A statistically significant increase in target genes/GAPDH copy number ratio was found for SSTR2a (median 38; IQR 22-141) and SSTR5 (median 51; IQR 19-499) in neuroendocrine lung cancer affected patients as compared with samples from healthy blood donors (P ≤ 0.0003 and P ≤ 0.0005). Since low levels of expression were detected in the control group for all three genes, optimal cut-off values were assessed using ROC curve analyses and were equal to 9.05 for SSTR2a and 16.97 for SSTR5. These cut off values resulted in a sensitivity of 86% (95%IC 65-95) for both markers and a specificity of 83% (95%IC 64-93%) and 79% (95%IC 60-91%) for SSTR2a and SSTR5 respectively. Comparison between OctreoScan results and RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated agreement in 76% of the cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SSTR2a and SSTR5 mRNAs are detectable in peripheral blood of neuroendocrine lung cancer affected patients using real-time quantitative PCR, with a good agreement with OctreoScan. The high sensitivity of this non-invasive molecular technique suggests that this method could represent a useful tool in the clinical management of neuroendocrine lung cancers.

Zhou G, Gingras MC, Liu SH, et al.
The hypofunctional effect of P335L single nucleotide polymorphism on SSTR5 function.
World J Surg. 2011; 35(8):1715-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (SSTR5) mediates the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on insulin expression/secretion and cell proliferation. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SSTR5 have been identified, including P335L, a nonsynonymous SNP located in the protein C-terminal region and encrypted by the codon CCG (proline) or the codon CTG (leucine). In the present study we sought to determine the distribution of the SSTR5 P335L SNP in a cohort of pancreatic cancer patients and whether the P335L SNP affected cellular function of SSTR5 in human pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: The P335L germline genotype of 246 patients with pancreatic cancer (213 Caucasians, 16 Hispanics, and 17 African Americans) and 17 human pancreatic cell lines was determined with the TaqMan SNP Genotyping assay. Human SSTR5 leucine variant (L335) was generated by performing site-directed mutagenesis using SSTR5 proline variant (P335) as a template. Transient transfections were performed in HEK293, Mia PaCa-2, and β-TC-6 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. The expression of SSTR5 L335 was determined with a mouse monoclonal anti-SSTR5 L335 antibody generated in our laboratory. The cell proliferation rate was measured by performing MTS assays. Insulin concentration was measured by performing ELISA assays.
RESULTS: Genotyping of the patients' blood indicated that the frequency of the T allele (CT and TT genotypes) in codon 335 of SSTR5 in Caucasians, Hispanics, and African Americans was 52, 69, and 35%, respectively, which was race-dependent. Statistical analysis indicated that association between the frequency of the T allele and the existence of pancreatic cancer in each race missed significance perhaps due to limited sample size. In 17 tested human pancreatic cancer cell lines, 5 (Capan-2, HPAF-II, Panc03.27, Panc-1, and -3) were homozygous (TT genotype) and 9, including Mia PaCa-2, were heterozygous (CT genotype). Overexpression of SSTR5 L335 in Mia PaCa-2 cells enhanced cell proliferation compared to overexpression of SSTR5 P335. Overexpression of SSTR5 P335 enhanced the inhibitory effect of SSTR5 agonist RPL-1980 on cell proliferation of Mia PaCa-2 cells and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse insulinoma cells, while overexpression of SSTR5 L335 blocked the inhibitory effect of RPL-1980. Overexpression of SSTR5 L335 enhanced PDX-1 expression in Mia PaCa-2 cells. A specific monoclonal antibody was generated to detect SSTR5 P335L.
CONCLUSION: SSTR5 P335L SNP widely exists in the human population, in patients with pancreatic cancer, and is race-dependent. The SNP is also present in selected human pancreatic cancer cell lines. In contrast to SSTR5 P335, overexpression of the SSTR5 L335 variant resulted in cellular proliferation and PDX-1 overexpression in human pancreatic cancer cells. Its overexpression blocked the inhibitory effect of an SSTR5-specific analog on human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse insulinoma cells. These data suggest that SSTR5 P335L is a hypofunctional protein with a potentially harmful effect on function, as well as potential latent effect, and therefore it could affect the clinical response to somatostatin analog therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer.

Gatto F, Barbieri F, Castelletti L, et al.
In vivo and in vitro response to octreotide LAR in a TSH-secreting adenoma: characterization of somatostatin receptor expression and role of subtype 5.
Pituitary. 2011; 14(2):141-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism and account for less than 2% of pituitary adenomas. Medical therapy with somatostatin analogues (SSAs) effectively reduces TSH secretion in approximately 80% of patients and induces shrinkage in about 45% of tumors. According with previous data, resistance to SSA treatment might be due to heterogeneity in somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) expression. We report the case of TSHoma in a 41-year-old man treated with octreotide LAR that caused a dramatic decrease of TSH and thyroid hormones and tumor shrinkage already after 3 months of pre-surgical therapy. In search of potential molecular determinants of octreotide effectiveness, we measured, in primary cultures from this tumor, SSTR and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression, and octreotide and/or cabergoline effects on TSH secretion and cell proliferation. SSTR5 and D2R expression was higher than SSTR2. Octreotide significantly inhibited TSH secretion more effectively than cabergoline (P<0.001), whereas the combined treatment was comparable with cabergoline alone. Similarly, octreotide resulted more effective than cabergoline on cell proliferation, while the combination did not show any additive or synergistic effects. In conclusion, the significant antisecretive and antiproliferative effect of octreotide in this patient might be related to the high expression of SSTR5, in the presence of SSTR2. After reviewing the literature, indeed, in line with previous observations, we hypothesize that SSTR5/SSTR2 ratio in TSHomas may represent a useful marker in predicting the outcome of therapy with SSAs. The role of D2R should be further explored considering that the presence of D2R can influence SSTRs functionality.

Gu F, Schumacher FR, Canzian F, et al.
Eighteen insulin-like growth factor pathway genes, circulating levels of IGF-I and its binding protein, and risk of prostate and breast cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19(11):2877-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its main binding protein, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), have been associated with risk of several types of cancer. Heritable factors explain up to 60% of the variation in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in studies of adult twins.
METHODS: We systematically examined common genetic variation in 18 genes in the IGF signaling pathway for associations with circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. A total of 302 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped in >5,500 Caucasian men and 5,500 Caucasian women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.
RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple testing, SNPs in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes were significantly associated with circulating IGF-I (P < 2.1 × 10(-4)); SNPs in the IGFBP3 and IGFALS genes were significantly associated with circulating IGFBP-3. Multi-SNP models explained R(2) = 0.62% of the variation in circulating IGF-I and 3.9% of the variation in circulating IGFBP-3. We saw no significant association between these multi-SNP predictors of circulating IGF-I or IGFBP-3 and risk of prostate or breast cancers.
CONCLUSION: Common genetic variation in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes seems to influence circulating IGF-I levels, and variation in IGFBP3 and IGFALS seems to influence circulating IGFBP-3. However, these variants explain only a small percentage of the variation in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in Caucasian men and women.
IMPACT: Further studies are needed to explore contributions from other genetic factors such as rare variants in these genes and variation outside of these genes.

Nishioka H, Tamura K, Iida H, et al.
Co-expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes and estrogen receptor-α mRNAs by non-functioning pituitary adenomas in young patients.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011; 331(1):73-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The expression by non-functioning adenomas (NFoma) of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes and estrogen receptor (ERα) is poorly understood. Consequently, the mRNAs of SSTR subtypes (SSTR) 1, 2, 3, and 5, dopamine receptor (D2R), and ERα were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in 59 NFomas and 50 functioning adenomas; the latter included 30 GH-secreting adenomas (GHomas) and 20 prolactinomas (PRLomas). NFomas expressed higher levels of SSTR3 than functioning adenomas but had lower levels of SSTR2, SSTR5 and D2R mRNAs than GHomas. Their ERα levels were higher than those of GHomas. The SSTR subtype mRNA levels in NFomas correlated significantly with each other; there was also a good correlation between the SSTR subtypes and ERα in NFomas. These correlations were largely only observed in younger patients (<50 years). The present study describes the differential expression of SSTR subtypes in the largest number of NFoma patients studied thus far, and further proposes possible involvements of SSTR3 and estrogen in the pathophysiology of NFomas.

Nakayama Y, Wada R, Yajima N, et al.
Profiling of somatostatin receptor subtype expression by quantitative PCR and correlation with clinicopathological features in pancreatic endocrine tumors.
Pancreas. 2010; 39(8):1147-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) presents variable clinical features. Five subtypes of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) are involved in hormone secretion and cell proliferation. In this paper, we explore the correlation between the SSTR subtype messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and clinicopathological features of PET.
METHODS: Twenty-one cases of PET and 5 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (AC) were studied. Using total RNA extracted from paraffin sections and fresh tissues, SSTR subtype mRNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The hormones and MIB1 index were examined using immunohistochemical techniques.
RESULTS: The mRNA levels of SSTR1, SSTR2, SSTR3, and SSTR5 were high in PET compared with AC, whereas the expression of SSTR4 was low in PET and AC. Levels of each subtype did not vary with histological grades. Somatostatin receptor 2 levels in functioning tumors were slightly low compared with nonfunctioning tumors. Four distinct groups of PET were identified by hierarchical cluster analysis, and two of these groups showed reduced SSTR5 with elevation of MIB1 index.
CONCLUSIONS: The study showed a heterogeneous expression profile of SSTR subtype mRNA and the association of reduction in SSTR5 with high proliferative activity. Such profiling of SSTR subtypes may provide useful information on tumor biology and treatment of PET.

Ishii A, Imanishi Y, Kobayashi K, et al.
The levels of somatostatin receptors in causative tumors of oncogenic osteomalacia are insufficient for their agonist to normalize serum phosphate levels.
Calcif Tissue Int. 2010; 86(6):455-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM) is a rare disease characterized by renal phosphate wasting and osteomalacia and is caused by the secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) from causative tumors. Scintigraphy with octreotide, which binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), is a useful way to locate causative tumors in OOM patients. However, the therapeutic effects of octreotide acetate are still controversial. Two OOM patients were administered octreotide acetate intramuscularly. Ten causative OOM tumors, including two resected from the patients participating in the octreotide administration study, were examined for expression of genes encoding SSTRs by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Octreotide therapy did not improve hypophosphatemia in either case, despite temporal decreases in FGF-23 levels in one patient. The mean expression levels of SSTR1, SSTR3, and SSTR5 were similar in the OOM and non-OOM tumors. Expression of SSTR2 was significantly higher in the OOM tumors than in the non-OOM tumors. Immunohistochemical examinations revealed the presence of SSTR2A, SSTR2B, and SSTR5 in both the OOM and non-OOM tumors. The expression of SSTR genes in OOM tumors contributes to positive imaging using octreotide scintigraphy. However, the levels of SSTRs seem to be insufficient for the octreotide therapy to improve hypophosphatemia. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms by which FGF-23 secretion from OOM tumors is suppressed by octreotide acetate.

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