Gene Summary

Gene:RNF217-AS1; RNF217 antisense RNA 1 (head to head)
Aliases: STL
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RNF217-AS1 (cancer-related)

Ha YJ, Kim CW, Roh SA, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of KLHL34 predictive of pathologic response to preoperative chemoradiation therapy in rectal cancer patients.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(3):650-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Prediction of individual responsiveness to preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is urgently needed in patients with poorly responsive locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC).
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Candidate methylation genes associated with radiosensitivity were identified using a 3-step process. In the first step, genome-wide screening of methylation genes was performed in correlation with histopathologic tumor regression grade in 45 patients with LARC. In the second step, the methylation status of selected sites was analyzed by pyrosequencing in 67 LARC patients, including 24 patients analyzed in the first step. Finally, colorectal cancer cell clones with stable KLHL34 knockdown were generated and tested for cellular sensitivity to radiation.
RESULTS: Genome-wide screening identified 7 hypermethylated CpG sites (DZIP1 cg24107021, DZIP1 cg26886381, ZEB1 cg04430381, DKK3 cg041006961, STL cg00991794, KLHL34 cg01828474, and ARHGAP6 cg07828380) associated with preoperative CRT responses. Radiosensitivity in patients with hypermethylated KLHL34 cg14232291 was confirmed by pyrosequencing in additional cohorts. Knockdown of KLHL34 significantly reduced colony formation (KLHL34 sh#1: 20.1%, P=.0001 and KLHL34 sh#2: 15.8%, P=.0002), increased the cytotoxicity (KLHL34 sh#1: 14.8%, P=.019 and KLHL34 sh#2: 17.9%, P=.007) in LoVo cells, and increased radiation-induced caspase-3 activity and the sub-G1 population of cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The methylation status of KLHL34 cg14232291 may be a predictive candidate of sensitivity to preoperative CRT, although further validation is needed in large cohorts using various cell types.

Fontanari Krause LM, Japp AS, Krause A, et al.
Identification and characterization of OSTL (RNF217) encoding a RING-IBR-RING protein adjacent to a translocation breakpoint involving ETV6 in childhood ALL.
Sci Rep. 2014; 4:6565 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genomic aberrations involving ETV6 on band 12p13 are amongst the most common chromosomal abnormalities in human leukemia. The translocation t(6;12)(q23;13) in a childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line fuses ETV6 with the putative long non-coding RNA gene STL. Linking STL properties to leukemia has so far been difficult. Here, we describe a novel gene, OSTL (annotated as RNF217 in Genbank), which shares the first exon and a CpG island with STL but is transcribed in the opposite direction. Human RNF217 codes for a highly conserved RING finger protein and is mainly expressed in testis and skeletal muscle with different splice variants. RNF217 shows regulated splicing in B cell development, and is expressed in a number of human B cell leukemia cell lines, primary human chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype and acute T-ALL samples. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the anti-apoptotic protein HAX1 to interact with RNF217. This interaction could be mapped to the C-terminal RING finger motif of RNF217. We propose that some of the recurring aberrations involving 6q might deregulate the expression of RNF217 and result in imbalanced apoptosis signalling via HAX1, promoting leukemia development.

Park C, Ahn J, Kim H, Park S
Integrative gene network construction to analyze cancer recurrence using semi-supervised learning.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86309 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of cancer recurrence is an important research area in bioinformatics and is challenging due to the small sample sizes compared to the vast number of genes. There have been several attempts to predict cancer recurrence. Most studies employed a supervised approach, which uses only a few labeled samples. Semi-supervised learning can be a great alternative to solve this problem. There have been few attempts based on manifold assumptions to reveal the detailed roles of identified cancer genes in recurrence.
RESULTS: In order to predict cancer recurrence, we proposed a novel semi-supervised learning algorithm based on a graph regularization approach. We transformed the gene expression data into a graph structure for semi-supervised learning and integrated protein interaction data with the gene expression data to select functionally-related gene pairs. Then, we predicted the recurrence of cancer by applying a regularization approach to the constructed graph containing both labeled and unlabeled nodes.
CONCLUSIONS: The average improvement rate of accuracy for three different cancer datasets was 24.9% compared to existing supervised and semi-supervised methods. We performed functional enrichment on the gene networks used for learning. We identified that those gene networks are significantly associated with cancer-recurrence-related biological functions. Our algorithm was developed with standard C++ and is available in Linux and MS Windows formats in the STL library. The executable program is freely available at: http://embio.yonsei.ac.kr/~Park/ssl.php.

Song JH, Kim SH, Cho KM, et al.
Analysis of gene profiles involved in the enhancement of all-trans retinoic acid-induced HL-60 cell differentiation by sesquiterpene lactones identifies asparagine synthetase as a novel target for differentiation-inducing therapy.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(3):970-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is one of the most useful drugs in the treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but its adverse effects, which include drug resistance and hypercalcemia are obstacles to achieving complete remission. Our previous study showed that some sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), i.e., helenalin (HE) and parthenolide (PA) but not sclareolide (SC), enhance ATRA-induced differentiation of HL-60 APL cells with no unexpected effects, but the precise mechanism on underlying this synergism is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the distinctive transcriptional profile of cells treated with effective STL compounds, which were identified by comparing the profile with that of cells treated with SC. Genome-wide approaches using cDNA microarrays showed that co-treatment with the differentiation-enhancing STLs HE and PA maximized the transcriptional variation regulated by the suboptimal concentration of ATRA in HL-60 cells. Of the genes of interest, asparagine synthetase was remarkably downregulated by ATRA co-treated with either HE or PA, but not with SC. In an additional analysis for the role of asparagine synthetase, ATRA-mediated HL-60 cell differentiation was enhanced when asparagine in the culture media was depleted by an addition of L-asparaginase, indicating that downregulation of asparagine synthetase gene expression may be involved in the enhanced cell differentiation by STL compounds. These results provide useful insight into differentiation-inducing therapy in the treatment of leukemia.

Bujnicki T, Wilczek C, Schomburg C, et al.
Inhibition of Myb-dependent gene expression by the sesquiterpene lactone mexicanin-I.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(4):615-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The c-myb proto-oncogene encodes a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the progenitor cells of the hematopoietic system, where it regulates the expression of genes important for lineage determination, cell proliferation and differentiation. There is strong evidence that deregulation of c-myb expression is involved in the development of human tumors, particularly of certain types of leukemia, and breast and colon cancer. The c-Myb protein is therefore an interesting therapeutic target. Here, we have investigated the potential of natural sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), a class of compounds that are active constituents of a variety of medicinal plants, to suppress Myb-dependent gene expression. We have developed a test system that allows screening of compounds for their ability to interfere with the activation of Myb target genes. Using this assay system, we have identified the STL mexicanin-I as the first cell-permeable, low-molecular-weight inhibitor of Myb-induced gene expression.

Panagopoulos I, Strömbeck B, Isaksson M, et al.
Fusion of ETV6 with an intronic sequence of the BAZ2A gene in a paediatric pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with a cryptic chromosome 12 rearrangement.
Br J Haematol. 2006; 133(3):270-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETV6 at 12p13 is rearranged in a variety of haematological malignancies and solid tumours, with more than 20 different partners having been reported. These fusions result in either chimeric proteins or activation of the partner gene. However, there are a few examples of abnormalities resulting in truncated and, most likely, unproductive ETV6 proteins, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of ETV6 and/or the partner is leukaemogenic. We present a novel ETV6 rearrangement, identified in a paediatric pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and molecular genetic analyses revealed a fusion of ETV6 and BAZ2A (at 12q13), generated through a cryptic rearrangement between 12p13 and 12q13, consisting of exons 1 and 2 of ETV6 and a sequence from intron 1 of BAZ2A. This transcript is not expected to produce any chimeric protein, but may encode a truncated form of ETV6, containing the first 54 amino acids (aa), followed by 16 aa from the 3' fusion sequence, reminiscent of ETV6 fusions with MDS2, LOC115548, PER1, and STL. The rearrangement might also modify the regulation of BAZ2A by either activating a cryptic promoter or by coming under the control of the ETV6 promoter. The present case emphasises that 'unproductive' ETV6 rearrangements may play an important pathogenetic role in leukaemia.

Nevo I, Sagi-Assif O, Meshel T, et al.
The tumor microenvironment: CXCR4 is associated with distinct protein expression patterns in neuroblastoma cells.
Immunol Lett. 2004; 92(1-2):163-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In previous studies, we demonstrated that human neuroblastoma cells are equipped with the machinery to direct their homing to bone marrow. These tumor cells express the CXCR4 receptor for the bone marrow stroma-derived chemokine CXCL12 (SDF-1) and secrete the CXCL12 ligand. The present study was undertaken to explore possible differences in gene-expression patterns between neuroblastoma variants that over-express CXCR4 (designated STH cells) and those which express very little of this receptor (STL cells). The results of the study clearly indicate that these variants show a differential gene-expression profile. They differ in expression of some integrins such as VLA2, VLA3 and VLA6, of neuroendocrine-markers such as CD56 and synaptophysin, in the expression of c-kit and in the secretion of certain cytokines and growth factors such as TNFalpha, SDF-1, VEGF, IL-8, GM-CSF and IP-10. We hypothesize that these differences are due to an autocrine SDF-1alpha-CXCR4 axis.

Wang J, Blakey GL, Zhang L, et al.
Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor: report of a case with t(X;6)(p22.3;q23.1) and t(4;18)(q21.1;q21.3).
Diagn Mol Pathol. 2003; 12(3):174-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) is a rare tumor of reproductive-age and postmenopausal women. We present the first case of UTROSCT with cytogenetic analysis. The tumor occurred in a 34-year-old woman who presented with menorrhagia and a uterine mass. Histologic examination showed tumor with features of sex cord-like epithelium and abundant fibromuscular stroma without an endometrial stromal sarcoma component. The tumor cells expressed cytokeratin, CD99, vimentin, desmin, smooth muscle actin, and estrogen and progesterone receptors. The majority of the cells analyzed by cytogenetic studies showed two balanced chromosomal translocations: t(X;6)(p22.3;q23.1) and t(4;18)(q21.1;q21.3). Several known tumor-related genes (bcl-2, MALT-1, FVT1, SCCA1, SCCA2, and DCC at 18q21; RAP1 at 4q21; and STL at 6q23) and a gonadal-development related gene (H-Y regulator gene at Xp22.3) are located at or near the translocation breakpoints. The tumor cells of sex cord-like elements were strongly and diffusely immunoreactive for bcl-2 antibody. These cytogenetic and immunohistochemical data may suggest potential molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis of UTROSCT.

Iijima Y, Ito T, Oikawa T, et al.
A new ETV6/TEL partner gene, ARG (ABL-related gene or ABL2), identified in an AML-M3 cell line with a t(1;12)(q25;p13) translocation.
Blood. 2000; 95(6):2126-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ETV6/TEL gene has been reported to fuse to PDGFRbetab MDS1/EVI1, BTL, ACS2, STL, JAK2, ABL, CDX2, TRKC, AML1, and MN1. Among them, PDGFRbeta, ABL, JAK2, and TRKC are tyrosine kinases (TK). We identified a novel ETV6 partner gene, ARG (ABL-related gene or ABL2), another TK gene in a cell line established from a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M3) with a t(15;17)(q22;q11.2) and a t(1;12)(q25;p13), which has the remarkable feature to differentiate to mature eosinophils in culture with all-trans retinoic acid and cytokines. The ETV6/ARG transcripts consisted of exon 1 to 5 of ETV6 and the 3' portion of ARG starting from exon 1B or exon 2, resulting in an open reading frame for a fusion protein consisting of the entire PNT oligomerization domain of ETV6 and all of the functional domains of ARG including the TK domain. This is the same protein structure as identified in the other ETV6 TK fusion proteins. The reciprocal ARG/ETV6 transcript was not expressed, and the normal ETV6 allele was not deleted or rearranged. Although the ABL is known to be involved in various human malignancies, ARG has not been involved in human malignancies despite its high homology to ABL. Thus, this is the first report showing involvement of ARG in human leukemia. The ETV6/ARG protein may be involved in the unique differentiation capacity of this cell line. (Blood. 2000;95:2126-2131)

Suto Y, Sato Y, Smith SD, et al.
A t(6;12)(q23;p13) results in the fusion of ETV6 to a novel gene, STL, in a B-cell ALL cell line.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1997; 18(4):254-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETV6 (TEL) is rearranged in various types of hematologic malignancies. The B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line SUP-B2 has a t(6;12)(q23;p13) involving ETV6 at 12p13 and a submicroscopic deletion of the other ETV6 allele. The reciprocal translocation results in the fusion of ETV6 to a previously unknown gene at 6q23, which we named STL (six-twelve leukemia gene). Both reciprocal fusion transcripts can be detected: On the der(6) chromosome, the ETV6/STL mRNA shows an apparently out of frame fusion of ETV6 at nucleotide 187 to STL, which would result in the addition of 14 amino acids to the first 54 amino acids of ETV6. On the der(12) chromosome three different variants of the STL/ETV6 fusion mRNA could be detected; variable size segments were inserted at the breakpoint between STL and ETV6 exon 3. One of these variants could give rise to a protein in which the first 54 amino acids of ETV6 are replaced by 12 amino acids from one of the STL short open reading frames. Sequence analysis of a 1.4 kb STL cDNA clone from a skeletal muscle library revealed no long open reading frames. This cell line will be very useful in studying the different mechanisms by which alterations of ETV6 contribute to leukemogenesis and in testing the hypothesis that ETV6 might act as a tumor suppressor gene.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. STL, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/STL.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 16 March, 2017     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999