Gene Summary

Gene:TSPYL2; TSPY like 2
Aliases: CDA1, CTCL, NP79, TSPX, CINAP, DENTT, SE204, HRIHFB2216
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the testis-specific protein Y-encoded, TSPY-like/SET/nucleosome assembly protein-1 superfamily. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleolus where it functions in chromatin remodeling and as an inhibitor of cell-cycle progression. This protein may play a role in the suppression of tumor growth. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:testis-specific Y-encoded-like protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Mutation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Sex-Determining Region Y Protein
  • X Chromosome
  • Ubiquitin
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • TFAP2A
  • ALK
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • COS Cells
  • Gonadoblastoma
  • Cell Cycle
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Endometrioid Carcinoma
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Western Blotting
  • CDC2 Protein Kinase
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Histone Chaperones
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • TGFB1
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cultured Cells
  • Chromosome Y
  • Liver Cancer
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Autoantigens
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TSPYL2 (cancer-related)

Cuevas D, Valls J, Gatius S, et al.
Targeted sequencing with a customized panel to assess histological typing in endometrial carcinoma.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(5):585-598 [PubMed] Related Publications
The two most frequent types of endometrial cancer (EC) are endometrioid (EEC) and serous carcinomas (SC). Differential diagnosis between them is not always easy. A subset of endometrial cancers shows misleading microscopical features, which cause problems in differential diagnosis, and may be a good scenario for next-generation sequencing. Previous studies have assessed the usefulness of targeted sequencing with panels of generic cancer-associated genes in EC histological typing. Based on the analysis of TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), EEC and SC have different mutational profiles. In this proof of principle study, we have performed targeted sequencing analysis with a customized panel, based on the TCGA mutational profile of EEC and SC, in a series of 24 tumors (16 EEC and 8 SC). Our panel comprised coding and non-coding sequences of the following genes: ABCC9, ARID1A, ARID5B, ATR, BCOR, CCND1, CDH19, CHD4, COL11A1, CSDE1, CSMD3, CTCF, CTNNB1, EP300, ERBB2, FBXW7, FGFR2, FOXA2, KLLN, KMT2B, KRAS, MAP3K4, MKI67, NRAS, PGAP3, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PPP2R1A, PRPF18, PTEN, RPL22, SCARNA11, SIN3A, SMARCA4, SPOP, TAF1, TP53, TSPYL2, USP36, and WRAP53. Targeted sequencing validation by Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry was performed in a group of genes. POLE mutation status was assessed by Sanger sequencing. The most mutated genes were PTEN (93.7%), ARID1A (68.7%), PIK3CA (50%), and KMT2B (43.7%) for EEC, and TP53 (87.5%), PIK3CA (50%), and PPP2R1A (25%) for SC. Our panel allowed correct classification of all tumors in the two categories (EEC, SC). Coexistence of mutations in PTEN, ARID1A, and KMT2B was diagnostic of EEC. On the other hand, absence of PTEN, ARID1A, and KMT2B mutations in the presence of TP53 mutation was diagnostic of SC. This proof of concept study demonstrates the suitability of targeted sequencing with a customized endometrial cancer gene panel as an additional tool for confirming histological typing.

Qin S, Liu D, Kohli M, et al.
TSPYL Family Regulates CYP17A1 and CYP3A4 Expression: Potential Mechanism Contributing to Abiraterone Response in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018; 104(1):201-210 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The testis-specific Y-encoded-like protein (TSPYL) gene family includes TSPYL1 to TSPYL6. We previously reported that TSPYL5 regulates cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A1 expression. Here we show that TSPYLs, especially TSPYL 1, 2, and 4, can regulate the expression of many CYP genes, including CYP17A1, a key enzyme in androgen biosynthesis, and CYP3A4, an enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of abiraterone, a CYP17 inhibitor. Furthermore, a common TSPYL1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs3828743 (G/A) (Pro62Ser), abolishes TSPYL1's ability to suppress CYP3A4 expression, resulting in reduced abiraterone concentrations and increased cell proliferation. Data from a prospective clinical trial of 87 metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone acetate/prednisone showed that the variant SNP genotype (A) was significantly associated with worse response and progression-free survival. In summary, TSPYL genes are novel CYP gene transcription regulators, and genetic alteration within these genes significantly influences response to drug therapy through transcriptional regulation of CYP450 genes.

Li Y, Zhang DJ, Qiu Y, et al.
The Y-located proto-oncogene TSPY exacerbates and its X-homologue TSPX inhibits transactivation functions of androgen receptor and its constitutively active variants.
Hum Mol Genet. 2017; 26(5):901-912 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The gonadoblastoma gene, testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY), on the Y chromosome and its X-homologue, TSPX, are cell cycle regulators and function as a proto-oncogene and a tumor suppressor respectively in human oncogenesis. TSPY and TSPX competitively bind to the androgen receptor (AR) and AR variants, such as AR-V7, at their conserved SET/NAP domain, and exacerbate and repress the transactivation of the AR/AR-V7 target genes in ligand dependent and independent manners respectively. The inhibitory domain has been mapped to the carboxyl acidic domain of TSPX, truncation of which renders TSPX to be stimulatory while its transposition to the C-terminus of TSPY results in an inhibitory hybrid protein. TSPY and TSPX co-localize with the endogenous AR, in the presence of ligand, on the promoters and differentially regulate the expression of the endogenous AR target genes in the androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Transcriptome analysis shows that TSPY and TSPX expressions differentially affect significant numbers of canonical pathways, upstream regulators and cellular functions. Significantly, among the common ones, TSPY activates and TSPX inhibits numerous growth-related and oncogenic canonical pathways and cellular functions in the respective cell populations. Hence, TSPY and TSPX exert opposing effects on the transactivation functions of AR and AR-Vs important for various physiological and disease processes sensitive to male sex hormone actions, thereby not only affecting the pathogenesis of male-specific prostate cancer but also likely contributing to sex differences in the health and diseases of man.

Munkley J, Lafferty NP, Kalna G, et al.
Androgen-regulation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRR activates ERK1/2 signalling in prostate cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Androgens drive the onset and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) via androgen receptor (AR) signalling. The principal treatment for PCa is androgen deprivation therapy, although the majority of patients eventually develop a lethal castrate-resistant form of the disease, where despite low serum testosterone levels AR signalling persists. Advanced PCa often has hyper-activated RAS/ERK1/2 signalling thought to be due to loss of function of key negative regulators of the pathway, the details of which are not fully understood.
METHODS: We recently carried out a genome-wide study and identified a subset of 226 novel androgen-regulated genes (PLOS ONE 6:e29088, 2011). In this study we have meta-analysed this dataset with genes and pathways frequently mutated in PCa to identify androgen-responsive regulators of the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway.
RESULTS: We find the PTGER4 and TSPYL2 genes are up-regulated by androgen stimulation and the ADCY1, OPKR1, TRIB1, SPRY1 and PTPRR are down-regulated by androgens. Further characterisation of PTPRR protein in LNCaP cells revealed it is an early and direct target of the androgen receptor which negatively regulates the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway and reduces cell proliferation in response to androgens.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that loss of PTPRR in clinical PCa is one factor that might contribute to activation of the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway.

Amer M, Elhefnawi M, El-Ahwany E, et al.
Hsa-miR-195 targets PCMT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma that increases tumor life span.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(11):11301-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are small 19-25 nucleotides which have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Downregulation or accumulation of miRNAs implies either tumor suppression or oncogenic activation. In this study, differentially expressed hsa-miR-195 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was identified and analyzed. The prediction was done using a consensus approach of tools. The validation steps were done at two different levels in silico and in vitro. FGF7, GHR, PCMT1, CITED2, PEX5, PEX13, NOVA1, AXIN2, and TSPYL2 were detected with high significant (P < 0.005). These genes are involved in important pathways in cancer like MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathways, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, angiogenesis, Wnt signaling pathway, and TGF-beta signaling pathway. In vitro target validation was done for protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT1). The co-transfection of pmirGLO-PCMT1 and pEGP-miR-195 showed highly significant results. Firefly luciferase was detected using Lumiscensor and t test analysis was done. Firefly luciferase expression was significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in comparison to the control. The low expression of firefly luciferase validates the method of target prediction that we used in this work by working on PCMT1 as a target for miR-195. Furthermore, the rest of the predicted genes are suspected to be real targets for hsa-miR-195. These target genes control almost all the hallmarks of liver cancer which can be used as therapeutic targets in cancer treatment.

Kido T, Lo RC, Li Y, et al.
The potential contributions of a Y-located protooncogene and its X homologue in sexual dimorphisms in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(9):1847-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is a significant sex disparity favoring males among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Although various risk factors have been identified, the exact etiology of such sexual dimorphism(s) in HCC is uncertain. Previous studies showed that overexpression of the Y-located protooncogene, testis-specific protein Y encoded (TSPY), promotes cell proliferation and oncogenesis whereas its X-located homologue, TSPYhomologue X (TSPX), retards cell cycle and oncogenic progression. Furthermore, TSPX promotes proteasomal degradation of hepatitis B virus-encoded X oncoprotein and hence could serve as a tumor suppressor in virus-associated HCC. Using immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, we had examined the expression of TSPY and TSPX with reference to other established biomarkers in HCC and related liver cancers. Our results demonstrated that 55 (19.2%) of 287 male cases were TSPY positive in immunohistochemistry of tissue arrays, and 15 (46.9%) of 32 male cases were TSPY positive in reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of clinical samples. TSPY expression was closely associated with the expression of HCC biomarkers, such as glypican 3. In contrast, TSPX expression was down-regulated in 54.5% of total tumor/nontumorous paired samples (18/33) and negatively associated with those of TSPY, glypican 3, and forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and was positively associated with that of a tumor suppressor, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. The present findings support the hypothesis that the oncogenic events leading to an ectopic activation of the Y-located protooncogene TSPY and/or inactivating mutation/epigenetic silencing of the X-located tumor suppressor gene TSPX could collectively contribute to the sexual dimorphism(s) in HCC and related liver cancers in male-biased manners.

Ulbright TM
Gonadoblastoma and hepatoid and endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: an update.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2014; 33(4):365-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dr Robert E. Scully greatly advanced our understanding of germ cell neoplasia to the extent that it is difficult to narrow the discussion of his contributions to this topic so that it can be covered in a brief article. This article accordingly focuses on some of the recent developments concerning 2 of his major contributions in this area-the gonadoblastoma (GB) and variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor. GB was defined by Dr Scully in 1953 and its features elaborated in detail by him in 1970. This neoplasm occurred in young patients who often displayed phenotypic sex ambiguities and frequently presented with primary amenorrhea. It was bilateral in 40%, and consisted of circumscribed nests of small sex cord cells and germinoma-like cells admixed with round deposits of eosinophilic, hyaline, often calcified material. These nests were set in a spindle cell gonadal stroma with Leydig-like or lutein-like cells. Because of his work we now understand that this precursor to invasive germ cell tumors occurs in patients with a specific form of disorder of sex development, namely gonadal dysgenesis, and only in those who have a particular portion of the Y chromosome, the GB locus/TSPY gene, within the gonadal tissue. An essential element to the development of GB appears to be a defect in the genetic pathway that leads to the development of Sertoli cells. Improperly formed Sertoli cells predispose to "delayed maturation" of the gonocytes of the gonad and predispose them to undergo malignant transformation. "Undifferentiated gonadal tissue" has been proposed as the precursor to the development of GB and consists of an unorganized mixture of apparently non-neoplastic germ cells, germ cells with delayed maturation, and neoplastic germ cells with sex cord cells and gonadal stroma. Two variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor were also recognized by Dr Scully. In the hepatoid variant features similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occurred, although primitive glandular foci and lack of liver involvement permitted its distinction in most cases. More recently this variant has been found to occasionally produce bile in canalicular-like structures and to stain strongly for both SALL4 and glypican 3, 2 recently described markers of yolk sac tumor. Recognition of hepatoid yolk sac tumor was followed by the description of a potential mimic, primary ovarian hepatoid carcinoma, which, however, occurred in a significantly older patient population and was occasionally associated with surface epithelial neoplasia. The endometrioid-like variant of yolk sac tumor simulated primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma. It can be suspected on routine stains because of primitive appearing nuclei, frequent subnuclear vacuoles, and in some cases association with more usual yolk sac tumor. Its recognition is now facilitated by a panel of immunohistochemical stains that are often expressed differentially in these 2 neoplasms--endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: positive for SALL4, glypican 3, and α-fetoprotein; endometrioid adenocarcinoma: positive for cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen. Finally, Dr Scully contributed one of the first cases in the literature of yet another nuance in the complicated world of yolk sac neoplasia, namely the development of some tumors on the background of a surface epithelial neoplasm. This is analogous to the more common development of choriocarcinoma from carcinoma and, in the case of yolk sac tumor, diagnosis is aided clinically by the usual older age of the patient and nature of the associated neoplasia.

Sato S, Maekawa R, Yamagata Y, et al.
Potential mechanisms of aberrant DNA hypomethylation on the x chromosome in uterine leiomyomas.
J Reprod Dev. 2014; 60(1):47-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We recently found that aberrant DNA hypomethylation is more common on the X chromosome than on other chromosomes in uterine leiomyomas by genome-wide DNA methylation profiling. To investigate the mechanism of aberrant hypomethylation on the X chromosome in uterine leiomyomas, we analyzed methylome and transcriptome data from three cases of leiomyomas and the adjacent myometrium. We found that eleven of the aberrantly hypomethylated genes on the X chromosome were common to the three cases. None of these 11 genes were transcriptionally upregulated in the leiomyoma. However, one of them, TSPYL2, was hypomethylated in 68% of multiple leiomyoma specimens. The incidence of aberrant hypomethylation of TSPYL2 was comparable to that of the MED12 mutation (68%), which is known to be detected at a high frequency in uterine leiomyomas. We also analyzed the aberration of the X chromosome inactivation (XCI) mechanism in uterine leiomyomas. Hypomethylation was not enriched in the imprinted genes, suggesting that dysfunction of polycomb repressive complexes is not involved in the aberrant hypomethylation on the X chromosome. The expression analysis of XCI-related genes revealed that the XIST and SATB1 expression was downregulated in 36% and 46% of 11 leiomyoma specimens, respectively, while the HNRNPU and SMCHD1 expression was not altered. In conclusion, the aberration of XCI-related genes such as SATB1 or XIST may be involved in aberrant hypomethylation on the X chromosome in a certain population of the patients with uterine leiomyomas. TSPYL2 of the aberrantly hypomethylated genes on the X chromosome can be used as a biomarker of uterine leiomyomas.

Le Gallo M, O'Hara AJ, Rudd ML, et al.
Exome sequencing of serous endometrial tumors identifies recurrent somatic mutations in chromatin-remodeling and ubiquitin ligase complex genes.
Nat Genet. 2012; 44(12):1310-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, causing ~74,000 deaths annually. Serous endometrial cancers are a clinically aggressive subtype with a poorly defined genetic etiology. We used whole-exome sequencing to comprehensively search for somatic mutations within ~22,000 protein-encoding genes in 13 primary serous endometrial tumors. We subsequently resequenced 18 genes, which were mutated in more than 1 tumor and/or were components of an enriched functional grouping, from 40 additional serous tumors. We identified high frequencies of somatic mutations in CHD4 (17%), EP300 (8%), ARID1A (6%), TSPYL2 (6%), FBXW7 (29%), SPOP (8%), MAP3K4 (6%) and ABCC9 (6%). Overall, 36.5% of serous tumors had a mutated chromatin-remodeling gene, and 35% had a mutated ubiquitin ligase complex gene, implicating frequent mutational disruption of these processes in the molecular pathogenesis of one of the deadliest forms of endometrial cancer.

Kido T, Ou JH, Lau YF
The X-linked tumor suppressor TSPX interacts and promotes degradation of the hepatitis B viral protein HBx via the proteasome pathway.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e22979 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and it is a serious global health problem with two billion people exposed to it worldwide. HBx, an essential factor for viral replication and a putative oncoprotein encoded by the HBV genome, has been shown to promote oncogenic properties at multiple sites in HBV-infected liver cells. The expression level of HBx closely associates with the development and progression of HCC, therefore the mechanism(s) regulating the stability of HBx is important in oncogenesis of HBV-infected cells. We demonstrate that the X-linked tumor suppressor TSPX enhances the degradation of HBx through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. TSPX interacts with both HBx and a proteasome 19S lid subunit RPN3 via its C-terminal acidic tail. Most importantly, over-expression of RPN3 protects HBx from, and hence acts as a negative regulator for, proteasome-dependent degradation. TSPX abrogates the RPN3-depedent stabilization of HBx, suggesting that TSPX and RPN3 act competitively in regulation of HBx stability. Since mutation and/or epigenetic repression of X-located tumor suppressor gene(s) could significantly predispose males to human cancers, our data suggest that TSPX-induced HBx degradation could play key role(s) in hepatocarcinogenesis among HBV-infected HCC patients.

Eyler CE, Wu Q, Yan K, et al.
Glioma stem cell proliferation and tumor growth are promoted by nitric oxide synthase-2.
Cell. 2011; 146(1):53-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant gliomas are aggressive brain tumors with limited therapeutic options, and improvements in treatment require a deeper molecular understanding of this disease. As in other cancers, recent studies have identified highly tumorigenic subpopulations within malignant gliomas, known generally as cancer stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that glioma stem cells (GSCs) produce nitric oxide via elevated nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) expression. GSCs depend on NOS2 activity for growth and tumorigenicity, distinguishing them from non-GSCs and normal neural progenitors. Gene expression profiling identified many NOS2-regulated genes, including the cell-cycle inhibitor cell division autoantigen-1 (CDA1). Further, high NOS2 expression correlates with decreased survival in human glioma patients, and NOS2 inhibition slows glioma growth in a murine intracranial model. These data provide insight into how GSCs are mechanistically distinct from their less tumorigenic counterparts and suggest that NOS2 inhibition may be an efficacious approach to treating this devastating disease.

Lau YF, Li Y, Kido T
Role of the Y-located putative gonadoblastoma gene in human spermatogenesis.
Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2011; 57(1-2):27-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gonadoblastoma locus on the human Y chromosome (GBY) is postulated to serve normal functions in spermatogenesis, but could exert oncogenic properties in predisposing susceptible germ cells to tumorigenesis in incompatible niches such as streaked gonads in XY sex reversed patients or dysfunctional testis in males. The testis-specific protein Y-linked (TSPY) repeat gene has recently been demonstrated to be the putative gene for GBY, based on its location on the GBY critical region, expression patterns in early and late stages of gonadoblastoma and ability to induce gonadoblastoma-like structures in the ovaries of transgenic female mice. Over-expression of TSPY accelerates G(2)/M progression in the cell cycle by enhancing the mitotic cyclin B-CDK1 kinase activities. Currently the normal functions of TSPY in spermatogenesis are uncertain. Expression studies of TSPY, and its X-homologue, TSPX, in normal human testis suggest that TSPY is co-expressed with cyclin B1 in spermatogonia and various stages of spermatocytes while TSPX is principally expressed in Sertoli cells in the human testis. The co-expression pattern of TSPY and cyclin B1 in spermatogonia and spermatocytes suggest respectively that 1) TSPY is important for male spermatogonial cell replication and renewal in the testis; and 2) TSPY could be a catalyst/meiotic factor essential for augmenting the activities of cyclin B-cyclin dependent kinases, important for the differentiation of the spermatocytes in prophase I and in preparation for consecutive rounds of meiotic divisions without an intermediate interphase during spermatogenesis.

Lau YF, Li Y, Kido T
Gonadoblastoma locus and the TSPY gene on the human Y chromosome.
Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2009; 87(1):114-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gonadoblastoma (GBY) locus is the only oncogenic locus on the human Y chromosome. It is postulated to serve a normal function in the testis, but could exert oncogenic effects in dysgenetic gonads of individuals with intersex and/or dysfunctional testicular phenotypes. Recent studies establish the testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY) gene to be the putative gene for GBY. TSPY serves normal functions in male stem germ cell proliferation and differentiation, but is ectopically expressed in early and late stages of gonadoblastomas, testicular carcinoma in situ (the premalignant precursor for all testicular germ cell tumors), seminomas, and selected nonseminomas. Aberrant TSPY expression stimulates protein synthetic activities, accelerates cell proliferation, and promotes tumorigenicity in athymic mice. TSPY binds to type B cyclins, enhances an activated cyclin B-CDK1 kinase activity, and propels a rapid G(2)/M transition in the cell cycle. TSPY also counteracts the normal functions of its X-homologue, TSPX, which also binds to cyclin B and modulates the cyclin B-CDK1 activity to insure a proper G(2)/M transition in the cell cycle. Hence, ectopic expression and actions of the Y-located TSPY gene in incompatible germ cells, such as those in dysgenetic or ovarian environments and dysfunctional testis, disrupt the normal cell cycle regulation and predispose the host cells to tumorigenesis. The contrasting properties of TSPY and TSPX suggest that somatic cancers, such as intracranial germ cell tumors, melanoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma, with detectable TSPY expression could exhibit sexual dimorphisms in the initiation and/or progression of the respective oncogenesis.

Li Y, Lau YF
TSPY and its X-encoded homologue interact with cyclin B but exert contrasting functions on cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activities.
Oncogene. 2008; 27(47):6141-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY) is the putative gene for the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome (GBY). TSPY and an X-homologue, TSPX, harbor a conserved domain, designated as SET/NAP domain, but differ at their C termini. Ectopic expression of TSPY accelerates cell proliferation by abbreviating the G(2)/M stage, whereas overexpression of TSPX retards cells at the same stage of the cell cycle. Previous studies demonstrated that the SET oncoprotein is capable of binding to cyclin B. Using various protein interaction techniques, we demonstrated that TSPY and TSPX indeed bind competitively to cyclin B at their SET/NAP domains in vitro and in vivo. TSPY colocalizes with cyclin B1 during the cell cycle, particularly on the mitotic spindles at metaphase. TSPY enhances while TSPX represses the cyclin B1-CDK1 phosphorylation activity. The inhibitory effect of TSPX on the cyclin B1-CDK1 complex has been mapped to its carboxyl acidic domain that is absent in TSPY, suggesting that TSPX could serve a normal function in modulating cell-cycle progression at the G(2)/M stage, whereas TSPY has acquired a specialized function in germ cell renewal and differentiation. Epigenetic dysregulation of TSPY in incompatible germ or somatic cells could promote cell proliferation and predispose susceptible cells to tumorigenesis.

Kandalaft LE, Zudaire E, Portal-Núñez S, et al.
Differentially expressed nucleolar transforming growth factor-beta1 target (DENTT) exhibits an inhibitory role on tumorigenesis.
Carcinogenesis. 2008; 29(6):1282-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Differentially expressed nucleolar transforming growth factor-beta1 target (DENTT), also known as testis-specific protein Y-encoded-like (TSPYL-2) and cell division autoantigen-1, is a member of the testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY)/TSPY-L/SET/nucleosome assembly protein-1 superfamily. DENTT is expressed in various tissues including normal human lung. Here, we investigate the involvement of DENTT in cancer promotion and progression. DENTT messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were shown to be markedly downregulated in human and mouse primary tumors and in human tumor cell lines. Overexpression of DENTT in human lung (A549-DENTT) and breast (MCF-7-DENTT) cancer cells resulted in diminished growth potential in anchorage-dependent growth assays and reduced capacity to form colonies under anchorage-independent culture conditions. The migratory potential of A549-DENTT and MCF-7-DENTT cells was reduced when compared with empty vector control cells. Treating human lung cell lines with demethylating agents increased DENTT expression significantly. DENTT expression pattern paralleled that of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in normal and malignant tissue and ectopic expression or treatment with TGF-beta1 in lung cancer cells was followed by increased DENTT mRNA and protein levels. Collectively, our results suggest a role for DENTT as a suppressor of the tumorigenic phenotype.

Hoei-Hansen CE, Kraggerud SM, Abeler VM, et al.
Ovarian dysgerminomas are characterised by frequent KIT mutations and abundant expression of pluripotency markers.
Mol Cancer. 2007; 6:12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian germ cell tumours (OGCTs) typically arise in young females and their pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We investigated the origin of malignant OGCTs and underlying molecular events in the development of the various histological subtypes of this neoplasia.
RESULTS: We examined in situ expression of stem cell-related (NANOG, OCT-3/4, KIT, AP-2gamma) and germ cell-specific proteins (MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, TSPY) using a tissue microarray consisting of 60 OGCT tissue samples and eight ovarian small cell carcinoma samples. Developmental pattern of expression of NANOG, TSPY, NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A4 was determined in foetal ovaries (gestational weeks 13-40). The molecular genetic part of our study included search for the presence of Y-chromosome material by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and mutational analysis of the KIT oncogene (exon 17, codon 816), which is often mutated in testicular GCTs, in a subset of tumour DNA samples. We detected a high expression of transcription factors related to the embryonic stem cell-like pluripotency and undifferentiated state in OGCTs, but not in small cell carcinomas, supporting the view that the latter do not arise from a germ cell progenitor. Bilateral OGCTs expressed more stem cell markers than unilateral cases. However, KIT was mutated in 5/13 unilateral dysgerminomas, whereas all bilateral dysgerminomas (n = 4) and all other histological types (n = 22) showed a wild type sequence. Furthermore, tissue from five phenotypic female patients harbouring combined dysgerminoma/gonadoblastoma expressed TSPY and contained Y-chromosome material as confirmed by FISH.
CONCLUSION: This study provides new data supporting two distinct but overlapping pathways in OGCT development; one involving spontaneous KIT mutation(s) leading to increased survival and proliferation of undifferentiated oogonia, the other related to presence of Y chromosome material and ensuing gonadal dysgenesis in phenotypic females.

Delbridge ML, Longepied G, Depetris D, et al.
TSPY, the candidate gonadoblastoma gene on the human Y chromosome, has a widely expressed homologue on the X - implications for Y chromosome evolution.
Chromosome Res. 2004; 12(4):345-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
TSPY, a candidate gene for a factor that promotes gonadoblastoma formation (GBY), is a testis-specific multicopy gene family in the male-specific region of the human Y (MSY) chromosome. Although it was originally proposed that male-specific genes on the Y originated from a transposed copy of an autosomal gene (Lahn & Page 1999b), at least two male-specific genes (RBMY and SRY) descended from a formerly recombining X-Y identical gene pair. Here we show that a TSPY homologue with similar gene structure lies in conserved positions, close to SMCX, on the X chromosome in human (TSPX ) and mouse (Tspx). TSPX is widely expressed and subject to X inactivation. TSPX and TSPY therefore evolved from an identical gene pair on the original mammalian sex chromosomes. This supports the hypothesis that even male-specific genes on the Y chromosome may have their origin in ubiquitously expressed genes on the X. It also strengthens the case for TSPY as a candidate for GBY, since independent functional studies link TSPX to cell cycle regulation.

Ozbun LL, You L, Kiang S, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed nucleolar TGF-beta1 target (DENTT) in human lung cancer cells that is a new member of the TSPY/SET/NAP-1 superfamily.
Genomics. 2001; 73(2):179-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) responsive epithelial non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line NCI-H727 was used to identify potential target genes involved in TGF-beta1-mediated responses. Comparative cDNA expression patterns between cells treated with TGF-beta1 and those treated with vehicle were generated by differential mRNA display. One 496-bp fragment, differentially increased threefold by TGF-beta1 and hybridizing to a 2.7-kb mRNA species in NCI-H727 cells by Northern analysis, revealed no significant match to any known gene sequence. The mRNA transcript of this novel gene that we named differentially expressed nucleolar TGF-beta1 target (DENTT) is expressed in several normal human tissues, with the highest level of expression in brain. Human brain cDNA library screening and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends yielded full-length DENTT cDNA containing an 1899-bp open reading frame encoding a predicted 633-amino-acid protein with four potential nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and two coiled-coil regions. DENTT contains a conserved 191-residue domain that shows significant identity to, and defines, the TSPY/TSPY-like/SET/NAP-1 superfamily. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged full-length DENTT transfected into COS-7 cells showed nucleolar and cytoplasmic localization. Transfection of EGFP-tagged DENTT NLS deletion constructs lacking the bipartite NLS-1 were excluded from the nucleolus. While NLS-1 is necessary for nucleolar localization of DENTT, it is not sufficient for sole nucleolar localization. Our data show that DENTT mRNA induction by TGF-beta1 correlates with induction of TGF-beta1 mRNA, induction of extracellular matrix gene expression, and inhibition of colony formation in soft agarose in TGF-beta1 responsive NSCLC cells when exposed to TGF-beta1. TGF-beta1 does not induce DENTT mRNA expression in TGF-beta1 nonresponsive NSCLC cells. Our data suggest that this novel TGF-beta1 target gene has distinct domains for direction to different subnuclear locations.

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