Research IndicatorsGraph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: WNT10B (cancer-related)
Zhou Y, Zhao XL, Guo RX, et al.Flow cytometer analysis of cell apoptosis of endometrial carcinoma with Wnt10b.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2016 Apr-Jun; 30(2):547-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to analyze the cell apoptosis of endometrial carcinoma (EC) with Wnt10b by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) technology. AN3CA cell lines and Ishikawa-H-12 cell lines were taken as the in-vitro cell models to observe the influence of Wnt10b on key factors of Wnt signal pathway. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) was applied for the detection of cell proliferation while FACS was used for the detection of cell apoptosis. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS14.0. After the overexpression of Wntl0b in AN3CA cells, the apoptosis rate dropped significantly compared with the two control groups (p < 0.05); while the apoptosis rate increased significantly compared with the control groups (p < 0.01) after Wntl0b knock-off in Ishikawa3-H-12 cells. In normal endometrium, Wnt10b gene expression was negative, while that in EC cells was positive. It can be concluded that Wnt10b gene can promote EC cell proliferation and inhibit its apoptosis.
Lei M, Lai X, Bai X, et al.Prolonged overexpression of Wnt10b induces epidermal keratinocyte transformation through activating EGF pathway.
Histochem Cell Biol. 2015; 144(3):209-21 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Wnt10b is a signaling protein regulating skin development and homeostasis, and the expression of Wnt10b is restricted to epidermal keratinocytes in embryonic and postnatal skin. Recent studies indicate an elevated expression of Wnt10b in skin tumors. However, how Wnt10b regulates skin tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. Here we report that continuous expression of Wnt10b mediates transformation of epidermal keratinocytes through activating genes involved in EGF/MAPK signaling pathways. We first established a prolonged Wnt10b overexpression system in JB6P- cells to represent the elevated Wnt10b expression level in skin keratinocytes. Through expression assays and observations under phase-contrast microscopy, prolonged expression of Wnt10b activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced morphological changes of cells showing longer protrusions and multilayer growth, indicating early-stage cell transformation. Wnt10b also increased cellular proliferation and migration according to BrdU incorporation and cell mobility assays. Furthermore, multi-doses of AdWnt10b treatment to JB6P- cells induced colony formation, stronger invasive ability in transwell system, and anchorage-independent growth in agar gel. In molecular level, AdWnt10b treatment induced increased transcriptional expressions of Egf, downstream Mapk pathway factors, and MMPs. Administration of Wnt antagonist DKK1 blocked the tumor promotion process induced by Wnt10b. Taken together, these findings clearly demonstrate that Wnt10b promotes epidermal keratinocyte transformation through induced Egf pathway.
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture.
PURPOSE: Marked reactive stroma formation is associated with poor outcome in clinically localized prostate cancer. We have previously identified genes with diverse functions that are upregulated in reactive stroma. This study tests the hypothesis that expression of these genes in stromal cells enhances prostate cancer growth in vivo.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression of reactive stroma genes in prostate stromal cell lines was evaluated by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and qRT-PCR. Genes were knocked down using stable expression of short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA) and the impact on tumorigenesis assessed using the differential reactive stroma (DRS) system, in which prostate stromal cell lines are mixed with LNCaP prostate cancer cells and growth as subcutaneous xenografts assessed.
RESULTS: Nine of 10 reactive stroma genes tested were expressed in one or more prostate stromal cell lines. Gene knockdown of c-Kit, Wnt10B, Bmi1, Gli2, or COMP all resulted in decreased tumorigenesis in the DRS model. In all tumors analyzed, angiogenesis was decreased and there were variable effects on proliferation and apoptosis in the LNCaP cells. Wnt10B has been associated with stem/progenitor cell phenotype in other tissue types. Using a RT-PCR array, we detected downregulation of multiple genes involved in stem/progenitor cell biology such as OCT4 and LIF as well as cytokines such as VEGFA, BDNF, and CSF2 in cells with Wnt10B knockdown.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that genes upregulated in prostate cancer-reactive stroma promote progression when expressed in prostate stromal cells. Moreover, these data indicate that the DRS model recapitulates key aspects of cancer cell/reactive stroma interactions in prostate cancer.
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms that are involved in the growth and invasiveness of osteosarcoma, an aggressive and invasive primary bone tumor, are not fully understood. The transcriptional co-factor FHL2 (four and a half LIM domains protein 2) acts as an oncoprotein or as a tumor suppressor depending on the tissue context. In this study, we investigated the role of FHL2 in tumorigenesis in osteosarcoma model.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Western blot analyses showed that FHL2 is expressed above normal in most human and murine osteosarcoma cells. Tissue microarray analysis revealed that FHL2 protein expression is high in human osteosarcoma and correlates with osteosarcoma aggressiveness. In murine osteosarcoma cells, FHL2 silencing using shRNA decreased canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling and reduced the expression of Wnt responsive genes as well as of the key Wnt molecules Wnt5a and Wnt10b. This effect resulted in inhibition of osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro. Using xenograft experiments, we showed that FHL2 silencing markedly reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis occurence in mice. The anti-oncogenic effect of FHL2 silencing in vivo was associated with reduced cell proliferation and decreased Wnt signaling in the tumors.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that FHL2 acts as an oncogene in osteosarcoma cells and contributes to tumorigenesis through Wnt signaling. More importantly, FHL2 depletion greatly reduces tumor cell growth and metastasis, which raises the potential therapeutic interest of targeting FHL2 to efficiently impact primary bone tumors.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by two molecularly distinct self-renewing leukemic stem cell (LSC) populations most closely related to normal progenitors and organized as a hierarchy. A requirement for WNT/β-catenin signaling in the pathogenesis of AML has recently been suggested by a mouse model. However, its relationship to a specific molecular function promoting retention of self-renewing leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) in human remains elusive. To identify transcriptional programs involved in the maintenance of a self-renewing state in LICs, we performed the expression profiling in normal (n = 10) and leukemic (n = 33) human long-term reconstituting AC133(+) cells, which represent an expanded cell population in most AML patients. This study reveals the ligand-dependent WNT pathway activation in AC133(bright) AML cells and shows a diffuse expression and release of WNT10B, a hematopoietic stem cell regenerative-associated molecule. The establishment of a primary AC133(+) AML cell culture (A46) demonstrated that leukemia cells synthesize and secrete WNT ligands, increasing the levels of dephosphorylated β-catenin in vivo. We tested the LSC functional activity in AC133(+) cells and found significant levels of engraftment upon transplantation of A46 cells into irradiated Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice. Owing to the link between hematopoietic regeneration and developmental signaling, we transplanted A46 cells into developing zebrafish. This system revealed the formation of ectopic structures by activating dorsal organizer markers that act downstream of the WNT pathway. In conclusion, our findings suggest that AC133(bright) LSCs are promoted by misappropriating homeostatic WNT programs that control hematopoietic regeneration.
Wnt/β-catenin signalling has been suggested to be active in basal-like breast cancer. However, in highly aggressive metastatic triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) the role of β-catenin and the underlying mechanism(s) for the aggressiveness of TNBC remain unknown. We illustrate that WNT10B induces transcriptionally active β-catenin in human TNBC and predicts survival-outcome of patients with both TNBC and basal-like tumours. We provide evidence that transgenic murine Wnt10b-driven tumours are devoid of ERα, PR and HER2 expression and can model human TNBC. Importantly, HMGA2 is specifically expressed during early stages of embryonic mammogenesis and absent when WNT10B expression is lost, suggesting a developmentally conserved mode of action. Mechanistically, ChIP analysis uncovered that WNT10B activates canonical β-catenin signalling leading to up-regulation of HMGA2. Treatment of mouse and human triple-negative tumour cells with two Wnt/β-catenin pathway modulators or siRNA to HMGA2 decreases HMGA2 levels and proliferation. We demonstrate that WNT10B has epistatic activity on HMGA2, which is necessary and sufficient for proliferation of TNBC cells. Furthermore, HMGA2 expression predicts relapse-free-survival and metastasis in TNBC patients.
Chen H, Wang Y, Xue FExpression and the clinical significance of Wnt10a and Wnt10b in endometrial cancer are associated with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(2):507-14 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To determine the role played by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the development of endometrial cancer (EC), we examined the expression of Wnt10a and Wnt10b in EC tissues and the correlation between their expression. Furthermore, the associations between these two proteins and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of EC were also evaluated. In our search of alternative mechanisms, we investigated the impact of Wnt10b on proliferation and apoptosis of EC cells. Western blotting, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the expression of Wnt10b and some key proteins of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, proliferation and apoptosis in EC. Our results showed that Wnt10b expression in EC tissues was significantly higher compared to that in hyperplastic and normal samples. The expression of Wnt10a in endometrioid cancer tissues was higher compared to that in other types of cancerous samples. The difference in Wnt10b levels was significant among subgroups for histological type, grade of differentiation, FIGO phase and lymphovascular metastasis. Furthermore, no correlation was observed between the expression of Wnt10a and Wnt10b. In the follow-up, Wnt10b gene expression was frequently upregulated in EC and associated with better prognostic clinicopathological markers in EC patients. Collectively, the in vitro data showed that the upregulated expression of Wnt10b in Ishikawa cells promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis through β-catenin and c-myc activation and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) inhibition, which suggests that Wnt10b activates EC via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These results suggest that Wnt10b likely plays an important role in the development of EC. Furthermore, these results identify a role for Wnt10b in EC cells through promoting proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis, primarily through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The role played by Wnt10a in EC, however, still requires further investigation.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly lethal malignant tumor arising from the biliary tract epithelium. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major mediator of inflammation and contributor to carcinogenesis within the biliary tree. Previous studies suggested that enforced IL-6 contributes to cholangiocarcinogenesis through hypermethylation of several genes implicated in CCA. However, the precise mechanisms of IL-6 effects in CCA remain unclear. We now demonstrate that microRNA (miR)-370 is underexpressed in a large cohort of human CCA vs. normal liver tissues. In addition, we show that IL-6 induces a time-dependent silencing of miR-370. In addition, demethylation of CCA cells results in upregulation of miR-370. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-370 is imprinted, and that the Intergenic Differentially Methylated Region (IG-DMR) responsible for imprinting regulation of this genomic locus is hypermethylated in response to IL-6 treatment. In addition, the IG-DMR is hypermethylated in human CCA specimens compared to normal matched controls, in the same location as the IL-6 induced hypermethylation. Finally, miR-370 was found to regulate WNT10B in luciferase as well as western blotting experiments. Our data indicate that the paternal allele of miR-370 is normally silenced through genomic imprinting and that the overexpression of IL-6 in CCA effectively suppresses the expression of miR-370 from the maternal allele, lending support to the theory that miR-370 silencing in human CCA follows a classic two-hit mechanism.
Lee WJ, Cha HW, Lim HJ, et al.The effect of sebocytes cultured from nevus sebaceus on hair growth.
Exp Dermatol. 2012; 21(10):796-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Sebaceous glands are known to affect hair growth. Nevus sebaceus, a sebaceous gland hamartomas, presents as hairless patches. In this study, cultures of nevus sebaceus sebocytes (NSS) and normal scalp hair follicle sebocytes (NS) were used in performance of microarray, RT-PCR, western blot assay and immunofluorescence staining. NSS- and NS-conditioned media were also added to the culture of outer root sheath cells (ORSCs), dermal papilla cells (DPCs) or normal scalp hair follicle sebocytes. Results of this study showed a decrease in the survival rate of ORSCs and DPCs and hair growth in the NSS-conditioned medium-treated group, compared with the control and NS-conditioned medium-treated groups. An increase in expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-5, Dickkopf-1 and inflammatory cytokines and a decrease in expression of Wnt10b and Lef1 were observed. In conclusion, NSS showed an increase in expression of hair growth-suppressing bioactive factors, including FGF-5, and a decrease in expression of hair growth-stimulating factors.
Jiang YX, Ma Y, Cheng YTranscriptome and coexpression network analysis of the human glioma cell line Hs683 exposed to candoxin.
J Int Med Res. 2012; 40(3):887-98 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gliomas are the most common primary tumours of the central nervous system. Snake venom, such as candoxin (CDX) isolated from Bungarus candidus, inhibits glioma cell proliferation. This study explored the gene regulation profile of CDX-treated human glioma Hs683 cells.
METHODS: Using microarray technology and bioinformatics analyses the underlying molecular mechanism of action of CDX was evaluated by constructing gene regulation and protein-protein interaction co expression networks.
RESULTS: CDX treatment induced a large number of related genes at the transcriptional level. The MYC gene (v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue [avian]) had a key role in the response of Hs683 cells to CDX treatment. Activation of MYC upregulated NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated 1), WNT10B (wingless-type mouse mammary tumour virus integration site family, member 10B), CASP9 (caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase) and CDKN2A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A), and downregulated ID3 (inhibitor of DNA binding 3, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein) and SLC1A4 (solute carrier family 1 [glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter], member 4). In addition, a subnetwork was constructed among SPP1 (secreted phosphoprotein 1), SDC1 (syndecan 1) and CD44 based on protein-protein interactions, and these genes were predicted to be involved in glioma cell invasion.
CONCLUSION: These findings might provide novel therapeutic targets for glioma chemotherapy.
The tumor microenvironment has an important role in cancer progression. Here we show that miR-148a is downregulated in 15 out of 16 samples (94%) of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) compared with matched normal tissue fibroblasts (NFs) established from patients with endometrial cancer. Laser-capture microdissection of stromal cells from normal tissue and endometrial cancer confirmed this observation. Treatment of cells with 5-aza-deoxycytidine stimulated the expression of miR-148a in the majority of CAFs implicating DNA methylation in the regulation of miR-148a expression. Investigation of miR-148a function in fibroblasts demonstrated that conditioned media (CM) from CAFs overexpressing miR-148a significantly impaired the migration of five endometrial cancer cell lines without affecting their growth rates in co-culture experiments. Among predicted miR-148a target genes are two WNT family members, WNT1 and WNT10B. Activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway in CAFs was confirmed by microarray analysis of gene expression and increased activity of the SuperTOPFlash luciferase reporter. We found elevated levels of WNT10B protein in CAFs and its level decreased when miR-148a was re-introduced by lentiviral infection. The 3'-UTR of WNT10B, cloned downstream of luciferase cDNA, suppressed luciferase activity when co-expressed with miR-148a indicating that WNT10B is a direct target of miR-148a. In contrast to the effect of miR-148a, WNT10B stimulated migration of endometrial cancer cell lines. Our findings have defined a molecular mechanism in the tumor microenvironment that is a novel target for cancer therapy.
Siar CH, Nagatsuka H, Han PP, et al.Differential expression of canonical and non-canonical Wnt ligands in ameloblastoma.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2012; 41(4):332-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways modulate diverse cellular processes during embryogenesis and post-natally. Their deregulations have been implicated in cancer development and progression. Wnt signaling is essential for odontogenesis. The ameloblastoma is an odontogenic epithelial neoplasm of enamel organ origin. Altered expressions of Wnts-1, -2, -5a, and -10a are detected in this tumor. The activity of other Wnt members remains unclarified.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Canonical (Wnts-1, -2, -3, -8a, -8b, -10a, and -10b), non-canonical (Wnts-4, -5a, -5b, -6, 7a, -7b, and -11), and indeterminate groups (Wnts-2b and -9b) were examined immunohistochemically in 72 cases of ameloblastoma (19 unicystic [UA], 35 solid/multicystic [SMA], eight desmoplastic [DA], and 10 recurrent [RA]).
RESULTS: Canonical Wnt proteins (except Wnt-10b) were heterogeneously expressed in ameloblastoma. Their distribution patterns were distinctive with some overlap. Protein localization was mainly membranous and/or cytoplasmic. Overexpression of Wnt-1 in most subsets (UA = 19/19; SMA = 35/35; DA = 5/8; RA = 7/10) (P < 0.05), Wnt-3 in granular cell variant (n = 3/3), and Wnt-8b in DA (n = 8/8) was key observations. Wnts-8a and -10a demonstrated enhanced expression in tumoral buddings and acanthomatous areas. Non-canonical and indeterminate Wnts were absent except for limited Wnt-7b immunoreactivity in UA (n = 1/19) and SMA (n = 1/35). Stromal components expressed variable Wnt positivity.
CONCLUSION: Differential expression of Wnt ligands in different ameloblastoma subtypes suggests that the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are selectively activated or repressed depending on the tumor cell differentiation status. Canonical Wnt pathway is most likely the main transduction pathway while Wnt-1 might be the key signaling molecule involved in ameloblastoma tumorigenesis.
Thiele S, Rauner M, Goettsch C, et al.Expression profile of WNT molecules in prostate cancer and its regulation by aminobisphosphonates.
J Cell Biochem. 2011; 112(6):1593-600 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Skeletal metastases represent a frequent complication in patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and often require bisphosphonate treatment to limit skeletal-related events. Metastasized PCa cells disturb bone remodeling. Since the WNT signaling pathway regulates bone remodeling and has been implicated in tumor progression and osteomimicry, we analyzed the WNT profile of primary PCa tissues and PCa cell lines and assessed its regulation by bisphosphonates. Prostate tissue (n = 18) was obtained from patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and PCa patients with different disease stages. Serum samples were collected from 62 patients. Skeletal metastases were present in 17 patients of whom 6 had been treated with zoledronic acid. The WNT profile and its regulation by bisphoshonates were analyzed in tissue RNA extracts and serum samples as well as in osteotropic (PC3) and non-osteotropic (DU145, LNCaP) PCa cell lines. Several members of the WNT pathway, including WNT5A, FZD5, and DKK1 were highly up-regulated in PCa tissue from patients with advanced PCa. Interestingly, osteotropic cells showed a distinct WNT profile compared to non-osteotropic cells. While WNT5A, FZD5, and DKK1 were highly expressed in PC3 cells, WNT1 and SFRP1 mRNA levels were higher in DU145 cells. Moreover, zoledronic acid down-regulated mRNA levels of WNT5A (-34%), FZD5 (-60%), and DKK1 (-46%) in PC3 cells. Interestingly, patients with skeletal metastases who received zoledronic acid had twofold higher DKK1 serum levels compared to bisphosphonate-naive patients. The WNT signaling pathway is up-regulated in advanced PCa, differentially expressed in osteotropic versus non-osteotropic cells, and is regulated by zoledronic acid.
Although osteosarcoma represents the most common bone malignancy, the molecular and cellular mechanisms influencing its pathogenesis have remained elusive. Recent evidence has suggested that the Wnt signaling pathway may play a crucial role in osteosarcoma. This study employed a microarray approach to discover novel genes and pathways involved in Wnt signaling in osteosarcoma. We developed a Wnt10b-expressing cell line using the human U2OS osteosarcoma model (U2OS-Wnt10b) and performed microarray and pathway analyses using parental U2OS cells as control. Differential expression of 1,003 genes encompassing 28 pathways was noted. The Wnt, NFκB, and Notch pathways were chosen for further study based on their known importance in bone biology. Known Wnt-responsive genes Axin-2 (4.9-fold), CD44 (2.1-fold), endothelin-1 (4.2-fold) and sclerostin domain containing-1 (43-fold) were regulated by Wnt10b. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1α and tumor necrosis factor-α, known inducers of NFκB, were upregulated both at the transcript and protein level, and NFκB reporter activity was stimulated 3.8-fold, confirming NFκB activation. Interestingly, genes involved in Notch signaling [Notch-1 (2.4-fold) and Jagged-1 (3.1-fold)] were upregulated, whereas the Notch inhibitor, lunatic fringe, was downregulated (8.2-fold). This resulted in the activation of the classic Notch-responsive genes, hairy and enhancer of split-1 (Hes-1; 2.2-fold) and hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-1 (Hey-1; 2.5-fold). A Hey-1 reporter construct was regulated 9.1-fold in U2OS-Wnt10b cells, confirming Notch activation. Interestingly, Wnt3a failed to induce the Notch and NFκB pathways, demonstrating Wnt-specificity. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Wnt10b, but not Wnt3a, stimulates the NFκB and Notch pathways in U2OS osteosarcoma cells.
Ren TN, Wang JS, He YM, et al.Effects of SMYD3 over-expression on cell cycle acceleration and cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.
Med Oncol. 2011; 28 Suppl 1:S91-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone methyltransferase that plays an important role in transcriptional regulation in human carcinogenesis. It can specifically methylate histone H3 at lysine 4 and activate the transcription of a set of downstream genes, including several oncogenes (e.g., N-myc, CrkL, Wnt10b, RIZ and hTERT) and genes involved in the control of cell cycle (e.g., CyclinG1 and CDK2) and signal transduction (e.g., STAT1, MAP3K11 and PIK3CB). To determine the effects of SMYD3 over-expression on cell proliferation, we transfected SMYD3 into MDA-MB-231 cells and found that these cells showed several transformed phenotypes as demonstrated by colony growth in soft agar. Besides, we show here that down-regulation of SMYD3 could induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest, indicating the potent induction of apoptosis by SMYD3 knockdown. These results suggest the regulatory mechanisms of SMYD3 on the acceleration of cell cycle and facilitate the development of strategies that may inhibit the progression of cell cycle in breast cancer cells.
Yuan F, Zhou W, Zou C, et al.Expression of Oct4 in HCC and modulation to wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β signal pathways.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2010; 343(1-2):155-62 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered as a disease of dysfunction of the stem cells. Studies on stem cells have demonstrated that Oct4 plays a pivotal role in embryo regulation. In order to understand the role of Oct4 in HCC and the relationship among Oct4 and wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β signal pathways, we have detected the expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, STAT3 as well as the genes in wnt/β-catenin, and TGF-β families in HCC cell lines and in tumor specimens from HCC patients. The authors found that Oct4 was expressed in all of the four HCC cell lines and the tumor specimens from HCC patients. Some other genes were also expressed in them with different level including Nanog, Sox2, STAT3 and TCF3, wnt10b, β-catenin, ELF, Smad3 and Smad4. The ability of the clone formation and migration of the HepG2 decreased after Oct4 was knockdowned. Silencing of Oct4 and TCF3 in HCC cell line HepG2 revealed that there were complicated relationships among Oct4, wnt/β-catenin family and TGF-β family genes. Knockdowning Oct4 reduced the expression of TGF-β family genes ELF, Smad3, Smad4 and wnt/β-catenin family genes, wnt10b, and β-catenin but increased TCF3. In reverse, knockdowning TCF3 led to the increased expression of Oct4 and TGF-β family genes. In conclusion, the expression of Oct4 in HCC may play an important role as in stem cell. Because Oct4 improves not only the function of wnt/β-catenin, but also the TGF-β signal pathways, the significance of its expression in HCC might be more complicated than we evinced before.
Bellodi-Privato M, Kubrusly MS, Stefano JT, et al.Differential gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinomas associated or not with viral infection.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2009; 42(12):119-1127 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infections are the most important factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but tumor prognosis remains poor due to the lack of diagnostic biomarkers. In order to identify novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets, the gene expression profile associated with viral and non-viral HCC was assessed in 9 tumor samples by oligo-microarrays. The differentially expressed genes were examined using a z-score and KEGG pathway for the search of ontological biological processes. We selected a non-redundant set of 15 genes with the lowest P value for clustering samples into three groups using the non-supervised algorithm k-means. Fisher's linear discriminant analysis was then applied in an exhaustive search of trios of genes that could be used to build classifiers for class distinction. Different transcriptional levels of genes were identified in HCC of different etiologies and from different HCC samples. When comparing HBV-HCC vs HCV-HCC, HBV-HCC/HCV-HCC vs non-viral (NV)-HCC, HBC-HCC vs NV-HCC, and HCV-HCC vs NV-HCC of the 58 non-redundant differentially expressed genes, only 6 genes (IKBKbeta, CREBBP, WNT10B, PRDX6, ITGAV, and IFNAR1) were found to be associated with hepatic carcinogenesis. By combining trios, classifiers could be generated, which correctly classified 100% of the samples. This expression profiling may provide a useful tool for research into the pathophysiology of HCC. A detailed understanding of how these distinct genes are involved in molecular pathways is of fundamental importance to the development of effective HCC chemoprevention and treatment.
Luo XG, Xi T, Guo S, et al.Effects of SMYD3 overexpression on transformation, serum dependence, and apoptosis sensitivity in NIH3T3 cells.
IUBMB Life. 2009; 61(6):679-84 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) gene was found to encode a novel histone methyltransferase involved in human cancer cells. It could specifically methylate histone H3 at lysine 4 and activate the transcription of a set of downstream genes, including of several oncogenes (e.g., N-Myc, CrkL, Wnt10b, RIZ, and hTERT) and genes involved in the control of cell cycle (e.g., Cyclin G1 and CDK2) and signal transduction (e.g., STAT1, MAP3K11, and PIK3CB). To determine the effects of SMYD3 overexpression on cell transformation, serum dependence and apoptosis sensitivity, we expressed SMYD3 in NIH3T3 cells, and these cells showed several transformed phenotypes as demonstrated by foci formation and colony growth in soft agar. Besides, these transfectants also showed increased serum dependence and depression of sensitivity to apoptosis induced by dexamethasone. These findings lend further understanding to the role of SMYD3 in the genesis of human cancers and might throw light on the development of novel therapeutic approaches to human cancers.
Loss of the CDK inhibitor p27(KIP1) is widely linked with poor prognosis in human cancer. In Wnt10b-expressing mammary tumors, levels of p27(KIP1) were extremely low; conversely, Wnt10b-null mammary cells expressed high levels of this protein, suggesting Wnt-dependent regulation of p27(KIP1). Interestingly we found that Wnt-induced turnover of p27(KIP1) was independent from classical SCF(SKP2)-mediated degradation in both mouse and human cells. Instead, turnover required Cullin 4A and Cullin 4B, components of an alternative E3 ubiquitin ligase induced in response to active Wnt signaling. We found that CUL4A was a novel Wnt target gene in both mouse and human cells and that CUL4A physically interacted with p27(KIP1) in Wnt-responding cells. We further demonstrated that both Cul4A and Cul4B were required for Wnt-induced p27(KIP1) degradation and S-phase progression. CUL4A and CUL4B are therefore components of a conserved Wnt-induced proteasome targeting (WIPT) complex that regulates p27(KIP1) levels and cell cycle progression in mammalian cells.
Misregulation of the Wnt pathway is a common route to cancer, including primary breast cancers. In this issue of Genes & Development, Miranda-Carboni and colleagues (3121-3134) demonstrate that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) is ubiquitylated for proteasomal degradation in Wnt10b-induced mammary tumors exclusively by the Cul4A E3 ligase, which is strongly induced by Wnt signaling. The discovery of a new Wnt-induced proteolytic targeting system has important implications for the mechanism of Wnt-initiated tumorigenesis.
Katoh MNetworking of WNT, FGF, Notch, BMP, and Hedgehog signaling pathways during carcinogenesis.
Stem Cell Rev. 2007; 3(1):30-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The biological functions of some orthologs within the human genome and model-animal genomes are evolutionarily conserved, but those of others are divergent due to protein evolution and promoter evolution. Because WNT signaling molecules play key roles during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and carcinogenesis, the author's group has carried out a human WNT-ome project for the comprehensive characterization of human genes encoding WNT signaling molecules. From 1996 to 2002, we cloned and characterized WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT9A/WNT14, WNT9B/WNT14B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, FZD1, FZD2, FZD3, FZD4, FZD5, FZD6, FZD7, FZD8, FZD10, FRAT1, FRAT2, NKD1, NKD2, VANGL1, RHOU/ARHU, RHOV/ARHV, GIPC2, GIPC3, FBXW11/betaTRCP2, SOX17, TCF7L1/TCF3, and established a cDNA-PCR system for snap-shot and dynamic analyses on the WNT-transcriptome. In 2003, we identified and characterized PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, DACT1/DAPPER1, DACT2/DAPPER2, DAAM2, and BCL9L. After completion of the human WNT-ome project, we have been working on the stem cell signaling network. WNT signals are transduced to beta-catenin, NLK, NFAT, PKC, JNK and RhoA signaling cascades. FGF20, JAG1 and DKK1 are target genes of the WNT-beta-catenin signaling cascade. Cross-talk of WNT and FGF signaling pathways potentiates beta-catenin and NFAT signaling cascades. BMP signals induce IHH upregulation in co-operation with RUNX. Hedgehog signals induce upregulation of SFRP1, JAG2 and FOXL1, and then FOXL1 induces BMP4 upregulation. The balance between WNT-FGF-Notch and BMP-Hedgehog signaling networks is important for the maintenance of homoestasis among stem and progenitor cells. Disruption of the stem cell signaling network results in pathological conditions, such as congenital diseases and cancer.
Liu X, Mazanek P, Dam V, et al.Deregulated Wnt/beta-catenin program in high-risk neuroblastomas without MYCN amplification.
Oncogene. 2008; 27(10):1478-88 [PubMed
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Neuroblastoma (NB) is a frequently lethal tumor of childhood. MYCN amplification accounts for the aggressive phenotype in a subset while the majority have no consistently identified molecular aberration but frequently express MYC at high levels. We hypothesized that activated Wnt/beta-catenin (CTNNB1) signaling might account for this as MYC is a beta-catenin transcriptional target and multiple embryonal and neural crest malignancies have oncogenic alterations in this pathway. NB cell lines without MYCN amplification express higher levels of MYC and beta-catenin (with aberrant nuclear localization) than MYCN-amplified cell lines. Evidence for aberrant beta-catenin-TCF transcriptional activity was demonstrated using expression profiles from 73 primary NBs. Findings included increased WNT ligands (WNT1, WNT6, WNT7A, WNT10B), DVL1 and TCF7 expression in high-risk NBs without MYCN amplification, consistent with canonical beta-catenin signaling. More directly, Patterns of Gene Expression and Gene Set Enrichment Analyses demonstrated beta-catenin target genes (for example, MYC, PPARD, NRCAM, CD44, TCF7) as coordinately upregulated in high-risk NBs without MYCN amplification in comparison to high-risk MYCN-amplified or intermediate-risk NBs, supporting pathway activation in this subset. Thus, high-risk NBs without MYCN amplification may deregulate MYC and other oncogenic genes via altered beta-catenin signaling providing a potential candidate pathway for therapeutic inhibition.
Khan NI, Bradstock KF, Bendall LJActivation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway mediates growth and survival in B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2007; 138(3):338-48 [PubMed
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This study investigated the response of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells to Wnt proteins. Accumulation of beta-catenin was measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells revealed expression of Wnt genes, including WNT2B in 33%, WNT5A in 42%, WNT10B in 58% and WNT16B in 25% of cases. The Wnt receptors, (Frizzled) FZD7 and FZD8 were also expressed in most cases while FZD3, FZD4 and FZD9 were occasionally detected. Stimulation of ALL cells with Wnt-3a activated canonical Wnt signalling with increased expression and nuclear translocation of beta-catenin. This resulted in a 1.7- to 5.3-fold increase in cell proliferation, which was associated with enhanced cell cycle entry. A significant increase in the survival of ALL cells under conditions of serum deprivation was also observed. Microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway led to altered expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in normal and leukaemic B-cell progenitors. Our results demonstrate that Wnt-3a provides proliferative and survival cues in ALL cells. This data suggests that targeting the Wnt signalling pathway may be a useful therapeutic strategy in ALL.
Katoh MDysregulation of stem cell signaling network due to germline mutation, SNP, Helicobacter pylori infection, epigenetic change and genetic alteration in gastric cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2007; 6(6):832-9 [PubMed
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Genetic factors, Helicobacter pylori infection, salt over-uptake, decreased vegetable/fruit consumption, smoking, and metabolic syndrome are risk factors of human gastric cancer. Germline mutations of CDH1 gene, and SNPs of PTPN11 (SHP2), TLR4, IL1B, TNFA, BMP6, GDF15 and RUNX3 genes are associated with gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori activates CagA-SHP2-ERK and peptidoglycan-NOD1-NFkappaB signaling cascades in gastric epithelial cells using type IV secretion system, and also TRAF6-MAP3K7-NFkappaB and TRAF6-MAP3K7-AP-1 signaling cascades in epithelial and immune cells through lipopolysaccharide recognition by TLR2 or TLR4. IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNFalpha and IFNgamma are elevated in gastric mucosa with Helicobacter pylori infection. IL-6 and TNFalpha induce upregulation of WNT5A and WNT10B, respectively. WNT signals are transduced to beta-catenin-TCF/LEF, RhoA, JNK, PKC, NFAT, and NLK signaling cascades. WNT-beta-catenin-TCF/LEF signaling induces upregulation of MYC, CCND1, WISP1, FGF20, JAG1 and DKK1 genes. Notch signals are transduced to CSL-NICD-MAML and NFkappaB signaling cascades. FGF signals are transduced to ERK, PI3K-AKT, PKC, and NFAT signaling cascades. Helicobacter pylori infection induces SHH upregulation in parietal cell lineage, while BMP signals induce IHH upregulation in pit cell lineage. Hedgehog signals induce upregulation of GLI1, PTCH1, CCND2, FOXL1, JAG2 and SFRP1 genes. JAG1 and JAG2 activate Notch signaling, while DKK1 and SFRP1 inhibit WNT signaling. Stem cell signaling network, consisting of WNT, Notch, FGF, Hedgehog and BMP signaling pathways, is activated during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Epigenetic silencing of SFRP1 gene occurs in the earlier stage of carcinogenesis in the stomach, while amplification and overexpression of FGFR2 gene in the later stage. Dysregulation of the stem cell signaling network due to the accumulation of germline mutation, SNP, Helicobacter pylori infection, epigenetic change and genetic alteration gives rise to gastric cancer. SNP typing and custom-made microarray analyses on genes encoding stem cell signaling molecules could be utilized for the personalized medicine.
Katoh M, Katoh MAP1- and NF-kappaB-binding sites conserved among mammalian WNT10B orthologs elucidate the TNFalpha-WNT10B signaling loop implicated in carcinogenesis and adipogenesis.
Int J Mol Med. 2007; 19(4):699-703 [PubMed
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WNT signals are context-dependently transduced to canonical and non-canonical signaling cascades. We cloned and characterized wild-type human WNT10B, while another group cloned aberrant human WNT10B with Gly60Asp amino-acid substitution. Proto-oncogene WNT10B is expressed in gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, and cervical cancer. Because WNT10B blocks adipocyte differentiation, coding SNP of WNT10B gene is associated with familial obesity. In 2001, we reported WNT10B upregulation by TNFalpha. Here, comparative integromics analyses on WNT10B orthologs were performed to elucidate the transcriptional mechanism of WNT10B. Chimpanzee WNT10B and cow Wnt10b genes were identified within NW_001223159.1 and AC150975.2 genome sequences, respectively, by using bioinformatics (Techint) and human intelligence (Humint). Chimpanzee WNT10B and cow Wnt10b showed 98.7% and 95.1% total-amino-acid identity with human WNT10B, respectively. N-terminal signal peptide, 24 Cys residues, two Asn-linked glycosylation sites, and Gly60 of human WNT10B were conserved among mammalian WNT10B orthologs. Transcription start site of human WNT10B gene was 106-bp upstream of NM_003394.2 RefSeq 5'-end. Number of GC di-nucleotide repeats just down-stream of WNT10B transcription start site varied among primates and human population. Comparative genomics analyses revealed that double AP1-binding sites in the 5'-flanking promoter region and NF-kappaB-binding site in intron 3 were conserved among human, chimpanzee, cow, mouse, and rat WNT10B orthologs. Because TNFalpha signaling through TNFR1 and TRADD/RIP/TRAF2 complex activates JUN kinase (JNK) and IkappaB kinase (IKK) signaling cascades, conserved AP1- and NF-kappaB-binding sites explain the mechanism of TNFalpha-induced WNT10B upregulation. TNFalpha-WNT10B signaling loop is the negative feedback mechanism of adipogenesis to prevent obesity and metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, TNFalpha-WNT10B signaling loop is implicated in carcinogenesis. Inhibitors of TNFalpha-WNT10B signaling loop could be utilized for the prevention or treatment of cancer associated with chronic inflammation, such as gastric, liver, breast and pancreatic cancer.
Benhaj K, Akcali KC, Ozturk MRedundant expression of canonical Wnt ligands in human breast cancer cell lines.
Oncol Rep. 2006; 15(3):701-7 [PubMed
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Human breast cancer displays nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and induction of cyclin D1 expression, which suggests that canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated. In other cancers, the activation of canonical wnt/beta-catenin signaling is associated with APC, CTNNB1 or AXIN1 mutations. However, these mutations are rare or absent in breast cancer. In search of alternative mechanisms, we performed comprehensive expression analysis of Wnt signaling molecules, including 19 Wnt ligands, ten Frizzled receptors, two co-receptors and four Lef/TCF transcription factors in immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and six breast cancer cell lines. HMEC expressed all Frizzled receptors except FZD9 and FZD10. They also expressed LRP5 and LRP6 co-receptors, as well as four Lef/TCF transcription factors. HMEC cells also expressed many Wnt ligands, including WNT1, WNT2B, WNT3, WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT7B, WNT9A, WNT10B and WNT16. Redundant expression of Wnt ligands, Frizzled receptors, co-receptors and Lef/TCF transcription factors was maintained in breast cancer cell lines with some exceptions. The most important changes in cancer cell lines concerned Wnt ligand expression. We noticed that most breast cancer cell lines overexpressed WNT3A, WNT4, WNT6, WNT8B, WNT9A and WNT10B. In contrast, the expression of WNT5A, WNT5B and WNT16 was usually down-regulated. It is noteworthy that all six Wnt ligands that are overexpressed in malignant cell lines are known to signal through the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, whereas down-regulated WNT5A and WNT5B ligands signal via the non-canonical pathway. The expression of both canonical Wnt ligands and most Frizzled receptors in breast cancer cell lines suggests that canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in these cell lines by an autocrine/paracrine mechanism. In support of this prediction, we observed nuclear beta-catenin accumulation and cyclin D1 induction in breast cancer cell lines, but not in HMEC. These results imply that ligand-dependent canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is active in human breast cancer.
Hamamoto R, Silva FP, Tsuge M, et al.Enhanced SMYD3 expression is essential for the growth of breast cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2006; 97(2):113-8 [PubMed
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We previously reported that upregulation of SMYD3, a histone H3 lysine-4-specific methyltransferase, plays a key role in the proliferation of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we reveal that SMYD3 expression is also elevated in the great majority of breast cancer tissues. Similarly to CRC and HCC, silencing of SMYD3 by small interfering RNA to this gene resulted in the inhibited growth of breast cancer cells, suggesting that increased SMYD3 expression is also essential for the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Moreover, we show here that SMYD3 could promote breast carcinogenesis by directly regulating expression of the proto-oncogene WNT10B. These data imply that augmented SMYD3 expression plays a crucial role in breast carcinogenesis, and that inhibition of SMYD3 should be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of breast cancer.
WNT family ligands transduce signals through FZD1, FZD2, FZD3, FZD4, FZD5, FZD6, FZD7, FZD8, FZD9, FZD10, LRP5, LRP6, ROR1, ROR2 and RYK. WNT1, WNT2, WNT2B, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A and WNT10B are canonical WNTs to activate WNT - beta-catenin pathway. Human WNT8A mRNA is expressed in NT2 cells with neuronal differentiation potential, while human WNT8B mRNA in diffuse type gastric cancer. Here, we identified and characterized the rat Wnt8a and Wnt8b genes by using bioinformatics. The rat Wnt8a gene, consisting of six exons, was located within AC134361.2 genome sequence. The rat Wnt8b gene, consisting of six exons, was located within AC105487.6 and AC103018.7 genome sequences. The rat Wnt8a (355 aa) and Wnt8b (350 aa) with 60.0% total-amino-acid identity were secreted-type proteins with 22 conserved Cys residues and two Asn-linked glycosylation sites. Wnt8b orthologs were more conserved than Wnt8a orthologs. GATA-binding site was located within conserved region of rat Wnt8b and human WNT8B promoters. GATA6 ESTs were expressed in diffuse type gastric cancer, and FGFR2 gene is reported preferentially amplified in diffuse type gastric cancer. KGF-FGFR2-PI3K-GATA6-WNT8B signaling cascade is predicted to play important roles in diffuse type gastric cancer. This is the first report on the rat Wnt8a and Wnt8b genes as well as on the conserved GATA-binding site within rat Wnt8b and human WNT8B promoters.
Milovanovic T, Planutis K, Nguyen A, et al.Expression of Wnt genes and frizzled 1 and 2 receptors in normal breast epithelium and infiltrating breast carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2004; 25(5):1337-42 [PubMed
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The Wnt genes encode a family of related, secreted proteins which initiate a signal cascade upon binding to cell surface receptor molecules. The signaling pathway has been shown to be critical for normal growth and development in model organisms and is implicated in the genesis of numerous human cancers. Wnt proteins regulate mammary development in the mouse but their precise role in normal breast development and malignant transformation in humans remains poorly defined. In this study, we have examined the expression of several Wnt ligands by in situ anti-sense RNA hybridization in normal and malignant human breast tissue, as well as in several estrogen-responsive and estrogen-independent human breast cancer cell lines. The specific Wnt genes tested included Wnt1, Wnt2, Wnt4, Wnt5a, Wnt5b, Wnt6, Wnt7b and Wnt10b. We have also studied the expression of frizzled receptors 1 and 2 by immunohistochemistry in these tissues. Our results indicate that several of the Wnt ligands, especially Wnt1 and Wnt6, are strongly expressed in both normal and malignant breast tissue and that Wnt7b is down-regulated in breast cancer, compared to normal breast epithelium. The expression of frizzled 1 and 2 receptors was found to be up-regulated in breast cancer. These studies provide additional support to the hypothesis that the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in human breast cancer.