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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2008: 3.1m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 8,600
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 207.5
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:21.2%
People dying from cancer /yr: 6,700
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2008)

Armenia - Cancer Resources (3 links)

Latest Research Publications realated to Armenia

Tamamyan G, Kadia T, Ravandi F, et al.
Frontline treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in adults.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017; 110:20-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent years have highlighted significant progress in understanding the underlying genetic and epigenetic signatures of acute myeloid leukemia(AML). Most importantly, novel chemotherapy and targeted strategies have led to improved outcomes in selected genetic subsets. AML is a remarkably heterogeneous disease, and individualized therapies for disease-specific characteristics (considering patients' age, cytogenetics, and mutations) could yield better outcomes. Compared with the historical 5-to 10-year survival rate of 10%, the survival of patients who undergo modern treatment approaches reaches up to 40-50%, and for specific subsets, the improvements are even more dramatic; for example, in acute promyelocytic leukemia, the use of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide improved survival from 30 to 40% up to 80 to 90%. Similar progress has been documented in core-binding-factor-AML, with an increase in survival from 30% to 80% upon the use of high-dose cytarabine/fludarabine/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor combination regimens. AML treatment was also recently influenced by the discovery of the superiority of regimens with higher dose Ara-C and nucleoside analogues compared with the "7+3"regimen, with about a 20% improvement in overall survival. Despite these significant differences, most centers continue to use the "7+3" regimen, and greater awareness will improve the outcome. The discovery of targetable molecular abnormalities and recent studies of targeted therapies (gemtuzumab ozagomycin, FLT3 inhibitors, isocitrate dehydrogenase inhibitors, and epigenetic therapies), future use of checkpoint inhibitors and other immune therapies such as chimeric antigen receptor T-cells, and maintenance strategies based on the minimal residual disease evaluation represent novel, exciting clinical leads aimed to improve AML outcomes in the near future.

Kager L, Tamamyan G, Bielack S
Novel insights and therapeutic interventions for pediatric osteosarcoma.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(4):357-368 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-grade osteosarcomas are the most common primary malignant tumors of bone. With complete surgical resection and multi-agent chemotherapy up to 70% of patients with high-grade osteosarcomas and localized extremity tumors can become long-term survivors. The prognosis, however, is poor for patients with nonresectable, primary metastatic or relapsed disease. Outcome is essentially unchanged for three decades. Herein, we describe selected novel insights into the genomics, biology and immunology of the disease and discuss selected strategies, which hold promise to overcome the current stagnation in the therapeutic success in childhood osteosarcoma.

Lange I, Moschny J, Tamanyan K, et al.
Scrophularia orientalis extract induces calcium signaling and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(4):1608-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Effective neuroblastoma (NB) treatments are still limited despite treatment options available today. Therefore, this study attempted to identify novel plant extracts that have anticancer effects. Cytotoxicity and increased intracellular calcium levels were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and Fluo4-AM (acetoxymethyl) staining and fluorescence microscopy in NB cells in order to screen a library of plant extracts. The current study examined the anticancer effects of a dichloromethane extract from Scrophularia orientalis L. (Scrophulariaceae), a plant that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This extract contained highly potent agents that significantly reduced cell survival and increased calcium levels in NB cells. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by this extract was associated with intracellular calcium release, opening of the MPTP, caspase 3- and PARP-cleavage suggesting that this extract induced aberrant calcium signaling that resulted in apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, agents from Scrophularia orientalis may have the potential to lead to new chemo-therapeutic anticancer drugs. Furthermore, targeting intracellular calcium signaling may be a novel strategy to develop more effective treatments for NB.

Avagyan A, Danielyan S, Voskanyan A, et al.
Treating Adults with Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Developing World: a Hospital-Based Cohort Study from Armenia.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(1):101-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: With advances in diagnostics and treatment approaches, patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in developed countries can nowadays expect to have excellent outcomes. However, information about the characteristics and outcomes in the developing world is very scarce, and this is important given the fact that there are several reports about differences of disease characteristics depending on geographic location and the development level of the country.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study we assessed the features of 36 adult (≥18 years old) patients with HL and their diagnosis and treatment and outcomes in the Clinic of Chemotherapy of Muratsan University Hospital of Yerevan State Medical University, Armenia, between 2008- 2014.
RESULTS: All patients had classic HL and among them 19 (53%) had nodular sclerosis subtype, 8 (22%) mixed cellularity and 9 (25%) lymphocyte-rich. 16 (44.5%) patients were at stage II, 13 (36%) stage III and 7 (19.5%) stage IV. Median follow-up time was 24.5 months (range 1-71 months) and during the whole follow- up period only two relapses (early) were documented and there were no deaths. Twenty-three (64%) patients received a BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) regimen, and 13 (36%) ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) regimen. A total of 25 (69.5%) patients received radiation in addition to chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of patients involved in the study is small and the median follow-up time was just two years, this retrospective study shows that treatment of HL can be successfully organized in a resource-limited setting.

Tamamyan G, Danielyan S, Lambert MP
Chemotherapy induced thrombocytopenia in pediatric oncology.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016; 99:299-307 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thrombocytopenia has long been recognized as a significant problem of cancer therapy, but there is still lack of consensus about the optimal approach to prophylaxis and/or treatment of this important complication. In pediatric oncology, since there are very few studies dedicated to this problem, the knowledge gap is even larger and no final conclusions or pediatric evidence based guidelines are available. Those guidelines that are available consist mostly of experts' personal opinions and data extrapolated from the adult studies. In this review we tried to summarize the existing data and approaches in chemotherapy induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) in pediatric oncology.

Quagliariello V, Armenia E, Aurilio C, et al.
New Treatment of Medullary and Papillary Human Thyroid Cancer: Biological Effects of Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Loaded With Quercetin Alone or in Combination to an Inhibitor of Aurora Kinase.
J Cell Physiol. 2016; 231(8):1784-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this paper is based on the use of a hyaluronic acid hydrogel of Quercetin tested alone and in combination to an inhibitor of Aurora Kinase type A and B (SNS-314) on human medullary and papillary thyroid cancer cells. Biological investigations were focused on the cellular uptake of the hydrogel, cell viability, antioxidant, and cytokines secretion studies. Quercetin delivered from hydrogel show a time and CD44 dependent interaction with both cell lines with significant anti-inflammatory effects. Combination of Quercetin and SNS-314 leads to a synergistic cytotoxic effect on medullary TT and papillary BCPAP cell lines with a significant reduction of the IC50 value. These results, highlights the importance of synergistic effect of the hyaluronic acid hydrogel of Quercetin with SNS-314 in the regulation of human thyroid cancer cell proliferation and emphasize the anti-tumor activity of these molecules. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1784-1795, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The Molecular Taxonomy of Primary Prostate Cancer.
Cell. 2015; 163(4):1011-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is substantial heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, evident in the spectrum of molecular abnormalities and its variable clinical course. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we present a comprehensive molecular analysis of 333 primary prostate carcinomas. Our results revealed a molecular taxonomy in which 74% of these tumors fell into one of seven subtypes defined by specific gene fusions (ERG, ETV1/4, and FLI1) or mutations (SPOP, FOXA1, and IDH1). Epigenetic profiles showed substantial heterogeneity, including an IDH1 mutant subset with a methylator phenotype. Androgen receptor (AR) activity varied widely and in a subtype-specific manner, with SPOP and FOXA1 mutant tumors having the highest levels of AR-induced transcripts. 25% of the prostate cancers had a presumed actionable lesion in the PI3K or MAPK signaling pathways, and DNA repair genes were inactivated in 19%. Our analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, as well as potentially actionable molecular defects.

Ghoncheh M, Mohammadian-Hafshejani A, Salehiniya H
Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer and their Relationship to Development in Asia.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(14):6081-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer, and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its details that include: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and gross national income (GNI) per capita. Data about SIR and SMR for every Asian country for the year 2012 were obtained from the global cancer project. We used a bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between SIR and SMR and HDI and its individual components. Statistical significance was assumed if P<0.05. All reported P-values are two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.).
RESULTS: In 2012, 639,824 cases of breast cancer were recorded in Asian countries. Countries with the highest standardized incidence rate (ASIR) (per 100,000) were Israel (80.5), Lebanon (78.7), Armenia (74.1) and the highest standard mortality rate (ASMR) was observed in Pakistan (25.2), Armenia (24.2), and Lebanon (24). There was a positive correlation between the ASIR of breast cancer and HDI (r = 0.556, p <0.001), whereas there was a negative correlation between the ASMR of breast cancer and HDI (r = -0.051).
CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer incidence in countries with higher development is greater, while mortality is greatest in countries with less development. There was a positive and significant relationship between the ASIR of breast cancer and HDI and its components. Also there was a negative but non significant relationship between the ASMR of breast cancer and HDI.

Segatto I, Berton S, Sonego M, et al.
p70S6 kinase mediates breast cancer cell survival in response to surgical wound fluid stimulation.
Mol Oncol. 2014; 8(3):766-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
In early breast cancer, local relapses represent a determinant and not simply an indicator of risk for distant relapse and death. Notably, 90% of local recurrences occur at or close to the same quadrant of the primary cancer. Relevance of PI3K/mTOR/p70S6K signaling in breast tumorigenesis is very well documented. However, the pathway/s involved in the process of breast cancer local relapse are not well understood. The ribosomal protein p70S6K has been implicated in breast cancer cell response to post-surgical inflammation, supporting the hypothesis that it may be crucial also for breast cancer recurrence. Here, we show that p70S6K activity is required for the survival of breast cancer cells challenged in "hostile" microenvironments. We found that impairment of p70S6K activity in breast cancer cells strongly decreased their tumor take rate in nude mice. In line with this observation, if cells were challenged to grow in anchorage independence or in clonogenic assay, growth of colonies was strongly dependent on an intact p70S6K signaling. This in vitro finding was particularly evident when breast cancer cells were grown in the presence of wound fluids harvested following surgery from breast cancer patients, suggesting that the stimuli present in the post-surgical setting at least partially relied on activity of p70S6K to stimulate breast cancer relapse. From a mechanistic point of view, our results indicated that p70S6K signaling was able to activate Gli1 and up-regulate the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, thereby activating a survival response in breast cancer cells challenged in hostile settings. Our work highlights a previously poorly recognized function of p70S6K in preserving breast cancer cell survival, which could eventually be responsible for local relapse and opens the way to the design of new and more specific therapies aiming to restrain the deleterious effects of wound response.

Sakanyan V, Angelini M, Le Béchec M, et al.
Screening and discovery of nitro-benzoxadiazole compounds activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cancer cells.
Sci Rep. 2014; 4:3977 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peptide ligand-induced dimerization of the extracellular region of the epidermal growth factor receptor (sEGFR) is central to the signal transduction of many cellular processes. A small molecule microarray screen has been developed to search for non-peptide compounds able to bind to sEGFR. We describe the discovery of nitro-benzoxadiazole (NBD) compounds that enhance tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR and thereby trigger downstream signaling pathways and other receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer cells. The protein phosphorylation profile in cells exposed to NBD compounds is to some extent reminiscent of the profile induced by the cognate ligand. Experimental studies indicate that the small compounds bind to the dimerization domain of sEGFR, and generate stable dimers providing allosteric activation of the receptor. Moreover, receptor phosphorylation is associated with inhibition of PTP-1B phosphatase. Our data offer a promising paradigm for investigating new aspects of signal transduction mediated by EGFR in cancer cells exposed to electrophilic NBD compounds.

Atasoy A, Bogdanovic G, Aladashvili A, et al.
An international survey of practice patterns and difficulties in cancer pain management in Southeastern Europe: a Turkish & Balkan Oncology Group common initiative.
J BUON. 2013 Oct-Dec; 18(4):1082-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: While pain is highly prevalent in cancer patients and its management is universally challenging, it is more commonly undertreated in the developing world. Southeastern European countries have limited resources and manpower to allocate for delivery of effective care for cancer-related pain. The purpose of this study was to explore the practice methods and the barriers to effective pain management in Southeastern Europe.
METHODS: We conducted a Web-based survey using a specially designed questionnaire among physicians practicing in member countries of the Balkan Union of Oncology (BUON).
RESULTS: A representative from each of the member countries of BUON (including Armenia and Georgia) and close to 100 physicians from 8 countries responded. The majority (89%) of respondents were medical oncologists and had been practising for 10 years on average. For pain assessment, only 35.4% of the physicians used a formal pain scale. Of the respondents 34.1% were not able to reach the optimal doses of narcotic medications while managing cancer pain, mostly due to concerns about toxicity, such as constipation and nausea. Most physicians listed their inability to consult sub-specialists to seek assistance for improving pain management cases as one of the major difficulties in day-to- day clinical practice, along with lack of time.
CONCLUSIONS: The limitations faced by our respondents seem to be related mostly to the shortcomings of the respective health care systems, along with the need for more experience and knowledge about the titration of pain medications and dealing with toxicities.

Rogovskaya SI, Shabalova IP, Mikheeva IV, et al.
Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.
Vaccine. 2013; 31 Suppl 7:H46-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well defined vaccination policies are needed. This article forms part of a Regional Report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

Bray F, Lortet-Tieulent J, Znaor A, et al.
Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Vaccine. 2013; 31 Suppl 7:H32-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of cervical cancer in the countries within the two regions. It is hoped that the expanded second edition of the European Guidelines will finally kick-start effective interventions in many of these countries that still lack organised programmes. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

Kuzhan A, Adli M, Eryigit Alkis H, Caglayan D
Hormone receptor and HER2 status in patients with breast cancer by races in southeastern Turkey.
J BUON. 2013 Jul-Sep; 18(3):619-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Hormone receptor (HR) status is a prognostic factor in women with breast cancer and differs among different ethnic groups. HR status among Turkish, Kurdish and Arabic women with breast cancer living in Turkey is unknown and in this study we investigated the relationship between HR and HER2 status and race.
METHODS: FA total of 648 women with breast cancer (Turkish 438, Kurdish 174, Arabic 35 and Armenian 1) living in southeastern Turkey and referred to the Department of Radiation Oncology between July 2006-July 2012 were included in the study. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to their HR status. Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive (ER+/PR+), ER positive and PR negative (ER+/PR-), ER negative and PR positive (ER-/PR+) and ER and PR negative (ER-/PR-). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status was recorded immunohistochemically (IHC) as negative (0 and 1+), and positive (3+). Statistical analysis included ER, PR, HER2, triple subtypes (combination of ER, PR and HER2), and race.
RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 48 years (range 20-83). ER+, PR+ and HER2+ patients were 453 (70%), 470 (72.6%) and 206 (32.1%), respectively. ER+/PR+ rates among Turkish and Arabic patients were similar, but were higher than Kurdish patients (p<0.002). Triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) rates among Kurdish and Arabic patients were similar, but were higher than Turkish patients (p=0.04).
CONCLUSION: Turkish, Kurdish and Arabic women with breast cancer in southeastern Turkey differed by HR status. Compared to Turkish and Arabic patients, Kurdish patients had more unfavorable prognostic factors.

Arevian M, Noureddine S, Abboud S
Beliefs related to breast cancer and breast cancer screening among Lebanese Armenian women.
Health Care Women Int. 2011; 32(11):972-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our purpose of this article was to investigate women's beliefs about breast cancer, breast cancer screening, and intervention programs. We designed the study using a cross-sectional/descriptive correlation. The participants were drawn from a convenience sample (N=94). The instrument included Champion's Revised Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Analysis was performed using SPSS (2005), 15.0. More than sixty-four percent (64.8%) of women surveyed were over 41. Results showed that 80.9% of women surveyed had heard of breast self-exams (BSEs), while 76.6% had heard of mammography. However, 53.2% never practiced breast self-examinations, and 79.6% never underwent mammography. Mean belief scores follow: low susceptibility (14.32), barriers to BSE (15.24), barriers to mammography (14.85), high seriousness (23.42), benefits to breast self-examination (22.7), confidence (36.45), health motivation (27.27), and benefits to mammography (24.28). Significant relationships included the relationship between barriers to breast self-examination and whether women had heard about breast self-examinations (p=.02); the relationship between susceptibility and whether women had heard of or underwent mammography (p=.027); the relationship between confidence and whether women had heard of mammography (p=.056); the relationship between confidence and perceived financial status (p=.05); and benefits of mammography (p=.05). Appropriate interventions are developed.

Khachatryan L, Scharpf R, Kagan S
Influence of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prolonged estrogen exposure on risk of breast cancer among women in Armenia.
Health Care Women Int. 2011; 32(11):953-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and breast cancer (BrCa) are prevalent in Armenia. We investigated DM2, reproductive factors, and BrCa in a case control study of 302 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed DM2 increased adjusted odds of BrCa by 5.53 (95% CI 1.34-22.81). Any birth was protective (adjusted OR=0.36, 95% CI 0.20-0.66). Each year delay in first pregnancy increased risk (adjusted OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27) as did induced abortions (adjusted OR=2.86, 95% CI 1.02-8.04). Odds ratios were adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI), which confounded associations between DM2 and BrCa. We suggest our findings imply the need for further investigation in Armenian and in other populations with similar characteristics.

Nersesyan A, Chobanyan N
Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies levels in exfoliated buccal cells and DNA damage in leukocytes of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
J BUON. 2010 Apr-Jun; 15(2):337-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate the genetic instability in somatic cells of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by means of study of micronuclei (MN) level in exfoliated buccal cells and DNA damage in leukocytes.
METHODS: The levels of MN in exfoliated buccal cells and DNA damage in leukocytes of 17 PCOS patients and 17 healthy women were studied. Except MN, other nuclear anomalies connected both with genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were evaluated. DNA damage was evaluated by means of the comet or singlecell gel electrophoresis assay in leukocytes.
RESULTS: The results of our study showed significantly increased frequencies of MN but not of other nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells of PCOS patients. DNA in leukocytes was also found significantly damaged compared with healthy females.
CONCLUSION: Genetic instability can have very serious consequences for PCOS patients because of established correlations of increased levels of MN and chromosomal aberration with cancer incidence. Hence, more scrupulous investigations in this area are certainly warranted.

Moore MA, Eser S, Igisinov N, et al.
Cancer epidemiology and control in North-Western and Central Asia - past, present and future.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010; 11 Suppl 2:17-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
The North-Western and Central region of Asia stretches from Turkey through Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, to Iran and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan and Afghanistan. These countries in the main share Turkic, Iranian or Caucasus ethnicity and culture and can be considered as a regional entity for cooperation in control of cancer. The present review of cancer registry and other epidemiological data was undertaken to provide an evidence base for cancer control programs and pointers to possible research collaboration. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung in the Western part of the region and the stomach in most of Iran and Central Asia, followed by the oesophagus in the latter two. Bladder cancer is comparatively frequent throughout. In females breast cancer is number one, generally followed by gastric, oesophageal or cervical lesions. However, there are interesting differences between countries or regions, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control, underlying the necessity for cooperation.

Hovhannisyan G, Aroutiounian R, Glei M
Butyrate reduces the frequency of micronuclei in human colon carcinoma cells in vitro.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2009; 23(6):1028-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Butyrate, formed by bacterial fermentation of plant foods, has been shown to protect human colon cells from selected genotoxic substances. The mechanism for this effect could be the enhancement of toxicological defence leading to an increased detoxification of genotoxic risk factors and thus to a reduction of DNA and chromosome damage. Previous protective properties of butyrate against DNA damage induction in colon cells were demonstrated using the comet assay. In the present study the effect of butyrate on chromosome damage induced by ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (suggested to be putative risk factors of colorectal carcinogenesis) was investigated using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) test. It was possible to reveal that pre-treatment of HT29 colon carcinoma cells with butyrate (2 and 4mM) for 15 min caused a reduction of micronuclei induced with H(2)O(2) (75 microM; p<0.01) and Fe-NTA (500 and 1000 microM; p<0.05). The decrease in the level of Fe-NTA- and H(2)O(2)-induced micronuclei was also confirmed in most of the corresponding variants of 24h pre-treatment of cells with butyrate. The results obtained demonstrate for the first time protective properties of butyrate against chromosome damage induced by H(2)O(2) and Fe-NTA in human colon carcinoma cells.

Magakian YA, Karalova EM, Abroyan LO, Akopyan LA
Behavior of lymphoid cell population, cell nuclei and nucleoli in periodic disease and leukemia.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008; 145(2):202-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Similar behavior of lymphoid cells, their nuclei and nucleoli in periodic disease and leukemia attest to nonspecific reaction of the immune system to these diseases, but the intensity of this reaction and mechanisms of the population recovery are different. DNA hyperreplication plays an important role in this process: in periodic disease it is realized via gene amplification, which manifests by the formation of H2c nuclei and increase in the number of nucleoli, while in leukemia bone marrow lymphoblasts double the DNA content during S phase, maturate during G2 phase, and then divide. We called this mechanism "reserve lymphopoiesis" by analogy with reserve erythropoiesis discovered previously by us.

Melkonyan VZ, Dagbashyan SS, Melkikyan NA, Gasparyan VK
Diagnosis of multiple myeloma using enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibodies to N-acetyl glucosamine on microparticles.
Hematology. 2008; 13(2):128-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunoassay on polymeric particles with covalently bound N-acetyl glucosamine was applied for detection of appropriate antibodies. Antibodies to N-acetyl glucosamine were detected in sera of patients with multiple myeloma. The assay was conducted on polymeric microparticles by enzyme immunoassay. The sensitivities of the assays on microparticles and on glass microtubes were compared. It was shown that the level of antibodies to N-acetyl glucosamine correlated with the number of myeloma cells. The comparison of assays on microparticles and glass tubes demonstrate the advantage of microparticle technology.

Nersesyan A, Martirosyan A, Parsadanyan G, Zalinyan G
Chromosomal aberrations level in peripheral blood lymphocytes of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
J BUON. 2006 Oct-Dec; 11(4):477-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and hirsutism, is a common endocrine disease in females worldwide. Many investigations have shown oxidative stress in such patients and the relationship between genetic instability and oxidative stress is well known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the background chromosomal aberrations (CAs) level in lymphocytes of females with PCOS.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen females, diagnosed with PCOS (hirsutism score >6; significantly increased level of testosterone in blood; increased ovarian volume) and 15 healthy women of similar physical parameters (controls) were included in this investigation. The frequency of CAs in cultures lymphocytes was used as a biomarker of cytogenetic damage.
RESULTS: The frequencies of all types of CAs were significantly higher in patients with PCOS, and the mitotic index was significantly lower.
CONCLUSION: Females with PCOS have increased CAs level in lymphocytes which is a sign of genetic instability.

Mkrtchyan H, Glaser M, Gross M, et al.
Multicolor-FISH applied to resolve complex chromosomal changes in a case of T-ALL (FAB L2).
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006; 114(3-4):270-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report on a patient with a clinically diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with partial unrecorded complex translocation events especially involving chromosomes 5, 9 and 18. At the GTG-band level the karyotype was abnormal in 20% of the analyzed cells. The complex karyotype was studied in more detail by spectral karyotyping (SKY) and multicolor banding (MCB) to characterize it in more detail. Thus, the karyotype could be described very accurately and in summary three different clones were detected, reflecting a high rate of karyotypic evolution in this patient.

Mirzoyan N, Pepoyan A, Trchounian A
Modification of the biophysical characteristics of membranes in commensal Escherichia coli strains from breast cancer patients.
FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006; 254(1):81-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Escherichia coli G35 N49 strain, from the gut of breast cancer patients, in comparison with the E. coli G35 N61 strain, from the gut of healthy people, shows in vitro reduction in growth rates and maximal growth yield. The changes in certain membrane characteristics, such as low membrane potential and disturbance in intramembrane interaction of H+ -ATPase F0F1 with the TrkA system, indicate a dysfunction in ion transport and enzymatic activity. These changes can be detected during fermentation and in anaerobic conditions (in the gut, for example) and may be influenced by unfavorable conditions in the gut of cancer patients.

Hakobyan G
Bone grifting procedures for osseous defects associated with dental implants.
J Oral Implantol. 2005; 31(3):145-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate the use of bone grafting therapy for treatment of osseous defects before implant surgery. After bone graft reconstruction, implants may be placed in previous areas of osseous defect with the expectation of long-term positive results.

Karalyan ZA, Jaghatspanyan NG, Gasparyan MH, et al.
Comparison of impact of EMCV replication on the nuclear apparatus of NIH 3T3 and HEp-2 cells.
Cell Biol Int. 2005; 29(7):586-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have investigated differences between the actions of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) on cytometric indices in cultured NIH 3T3 and HEp-2 cells, which are characterized by different levels of transformation. HEp-2 cells surviving 48 h after EMCV infection showed lower nuclear ploidy, reduced nuclear area, fewer nucleoli and a higher percentage of euploid cells. There was a significant increase of nucleolar/nuclear DNA 6-24 h after EMCV infection. However, EMCV had markedly different effects on NIH 3T3 cells: there was a consistent increase in population ploidy, but the average number of nucleoli and the number of euploid cells in the population remained constant. The nucleolar/nuclear DNA ratio was almost unchanged. These different viral effects might be explained by the contrasting levels of differentiation of the cultured cell lines. The number of nucleoli does not depend on the amount of nuclear DNA in either viral-infected or intact cells but on the euploidy-to-aneuploidy ratio. The ratio of the sums of the nucleolar perimeters to the nuclear perimeter increases linearly with the number of nucleoli per nucleus in both intact and virus-infected cells. In both cell lines, the amount of DNA per nucleolus decreases as the number of nucleoli increases.

Nersesyan AK, Adamyan RT
Micronuclei level in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells of patients with benign and malignant tumors of female reproductive organs and breast.
Tsitol Genet. 2004 May-Jun; 38(3):72-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Micronucleus (MN) levels in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells of primary breast, cervix and corpus uteri cancer patients, and patients with benign tumors of uterus (myoma) and breast (fibroadenoma) were studied. Significantly increased number of MN in cells of cancer patients was observed compared to both healthy persons and patients with benign tumors. In patients with benign tumors no increase in MN quantity was observed. The evaluation of MN number in buccal mucosa cells shows genomic instability caused by malignant tumor in somatic cells of humans.

Karalova EM, Kamalyan LA, Abroyan LO, et al.
Comparative analysis of effects of various types of double-stranded RNA on cultured human laryngeal cancer cells.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2004; 137(6):601-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
We compared the effects of Na+ and Ca2+ double-stranded RNA on cultured human laryngeal cancer cells by cytomorphometry and cytophotometry. Both agents inhibited proliferation and other cell functions, but to a different extent: Ca2+ double-stranded RNA was more active than Na+ double-stranded RNA.

Nersesyan AK, Collins AR
Possible genotoxic activity of extracts of Bryonia alba roots on human lymphocytes and transformed cells.
Neoplasma. 2002; 49(2):114-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bryonia alba roots (BAR) are widely used as an adaptogenic and restorative drug with immunomodulatory and stress-protective properties that increase the non-specific resistance of an organism toward harmful stimuli. Potential genotoxic activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of BAR was studied on human normal (lymphocytes) and transformed (HeLa and Caco-2) cells using single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay). The results obtained did not show any evidence of genotoxic effects of BAR.

Danielyan AA, Mirakyan MM, Grigoryan GY, Ayrapetyan SN
The static magnetic field effects on ouabain H3 binding by cancer tissue.
Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR. 1999; 31(2):139-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radioactive labeled ouabain was used for estimating the static magnetic field (SMF) induced cell volume changes. Ouabain is a specific inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase, and can be used for estimating its quantity--thus giving information about the cell volume changes. Ouabain binding by cancer and normal glandular tissues of breast cancer patients and normal glandular tissues of healthy women was measured after exposure of tissues to SMF 0.2T. SMF exposure led to a decrease of ouabain binding in both normal and cancer tissues when ouabain concentration in the external medium was 10(-9) M, while in the case of higher concentrations of ouabain (10(-7) M, 10(-6) M) an increase of ouabain binding was seen. The normal glandular tissues of healthy women were sensitive to SMF only at the highest concentrations of ouabain used in our experiments. The SMF-induced decrease of binding at low ouabain concentrations was considered as an evidence for the dehydration effect of SMF. It is suggested that the SMF could influence the cancer cell metabolism through cell hydration changes.

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