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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 1361.4m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 3,065,400
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 174.0
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:16.8%
People dying from cancer /yr: 2,205,900
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
China: Cancer Organisations and Resources
China: Cancer Centres
China: Specialist Cancer Journals
Latest Research Publications related to China

China: Cancer Organisations and Resources (10 links)

China: Cancer Centres (7 links)

This is a highly selective list including just some of the larger cancer centres in China.

China: Specialist Cancer Journals (5 links)

Latest Research Publications related to China

Ouyang DQ, Liang LZ, Zheng GS, et al.
Risk factors and prognosis for salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma in southern china: A 25-year retrospective study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(5):e5964 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is characterized by slow growth, frequent local recurrences, and high incidence of distant metastasis (DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for local-regional (LR) recurrence, DM, and survival in ACC.A retrospective review of the medical records for patients with salivary glands ACC from 1990 to 2015 was performed. The clinical parameters were assessed to identify correlations with the development of LR recurrence, DM, and survival of these patients.Among 228 patients who underwent surgery as definitive treatment, 210 (92.1%) were followed up in the study. DM was detected in 64 (30.5%) patients, LR recurrence was detected in 58 (27.6%) patients. The estimated 5, 10, and 15-year overall survival rates were 84.7%, 70.8%, and 34.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of lymphovascular invasion and a high T classification were very strong adverse factors, which independently influenced LR recurrence, DM, and survival of ACC patients. Positive/close margin and N+ status were independent risk factors for DM and LR recurrence, respectively. Survival of ACC patents was also affected by tumor location.Presence of lymphovascular invasion and a high T classification were very strong adverse factors and independent predictors for ACC patients' prognosis, which influenced LR control, DM control, and survival.

Du Z, Wan H, Chen Y, et al.
Bioimpedance spectroscopy can precisely discriminate human breast carcinoma from benign tumors.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(4):e5970 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intraoperative frozen pathology is critical when a breast tumor is not diagnosed before surgery. However, frozen tumor tissues always present various microscopic morphologies, leading to a high misdiagnose rate from frozen section examination. Thus, we aimed to identify breast tumors using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), a technology that measures the tissues' impedance. We collected and measured 976 specimens from breast patients during surgery, including 581 breast cancers, 190 benign tumors, and 205 normal mammary gland tissues. After measurement, Cole-Cole curves were generated by a bioimpedance analyzer and parameters R0/R∞, fc, and α were calculated from the curve. The Cole-Cole curves showed a trend to differentiate mammary gland, benign tumors, and cancer. However, there were some curves overlapped with other groups, showing that it is not an ideal model. Subsequent univariate analysis of R0/R∞, fc, and α showed significant differences between benign tumor and cancer. However, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated the diagnostic value of fc and R0/R∞ were not superior to frozen sections (area under curve [AUC] = 0.836 and 0.849, respectively), and α was useless in diagnosis (AUC = 0.596). After further research, we found a scatter diagram that showed a synergistic effect of the R0/R∞ and fc, in discriminating cancer from benign tumors. Thus, we used multivariate analysis, which revealed that these two parameters were independent predictors, to combine them. A simplified equation, RF = 0.2fc + 3.6R0/R∞, based on multivariate analysis was developed. The ROC curve for RF' showed an AUC = 0.939, and the sensitivity and specificity were 82.62% and 95.79%, respectively. To match a clinical setting, the diagnostic criteria were set at 6.91 and 12.9 for negative and positive diagnosis, respectively. In conclusion, RF' derived from BIS can discriminate benign tumor and cancers, and integrated criteria were developed for diagnosis.

Jiang QL, Huang XH, Chen YT, et al.
Prognostic Factors and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Primary Duodenal Adenocarcinoma: A Single-Center Experience from China.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6491049 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aim. To evaluate the clinical risk factors influencing overall survival of patients with duodenal adenocarcinoma after potentially curative resection. Methods. A series of 201 patients with primary duodenal adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery from 1999 to 2014 at Chinese Medical Academic Cancer Hospital were studied by retrospective chart review and subsequent telephone follow-up. Results. Resectional surgery was performed in 138 of the 201 patients to attempt curative treatment, while 63 patients were treated with palliative surgery. Median survival of patients who underwent resectional operation was 57 months, whereas that of patients who had palliative surgery was shorter, 7 months (p < 0.001). For patients who underwent radical resection, the overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 87.3, 59.1, and 44.1%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (HR 31.76, 2.14 to 470.8; p = 0.012) and vascular invasion (HR 3.75, 1.24 to 11.38; p = 0.020) were independent prognostic factors negatively associated with survival in patients undergoing curative resection. There was no survival difference between the groups treated by the pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 20) and limited resection (n = 10) for early-stage duodenal adenocarcinoma (p = 0.704). Conclusions. Duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare disease. Curative resection is the best treatment for appropriate patients. Lymph node metastases and vascular invasion are negative prognostic factors.

Tang XM, Chen H, Liu Y, et al.
The cardiotoxicity of cetuximab as single therapy in Chinese chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(3):e5946 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cardiac safety of cetuximab, particularly as single approach, has not been investigated extensively. This trial was designed to evaluate the cardiac safety of cetuximab as salvage monotherapy in Chinese chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients.Cetuximab was administrated at an initial dose of 400 mg/mon day 1 (week 1), followed by a maintenance dose of 250 mg/m on day 1 of each 7-day cycle. Electrocardiograph (ECG), routine laboratory tests, and troponin I (TNI) Ultra were performed at baseline, during, and after the cetuximab therapy. The incidence of abnormal ECGs, elevated TNI Ultra, cardiac events, and noncardiac events were recorded and analyzed.TNI Ultra+ was found in 20 patients (32.3%) during the cetuximab therapy.TNI Ultra+ occurred more frequently in patients with more than 3 organs affected and accepted fourth or above lines of chemotherapy. The most frequent abnormal ECG was ST depression in 24 (38.7%) patients. The elevated TNI Ultra and abnormal ECGs could recover after the cetuximab therapy. The most of cardiac adverse events were mild and transient and the noncardiac adverse events were also consistent with the known safety profile for cetuximab.Cetuximab showed its cardiac safety as a single agent for chemotherapy-refractory mCRC patients. And TNI Ultra and ECG could be sensitive and convenient approaches for the surveillance of adverse events.

Liang D, Liang S, Jin J, et al.
Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province): A population-based study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988-2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate of GC from 2000 (37.59/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000) and then had a sharp decrease from 2009 to 2013 (55.30/100,000), with annual percentage change of -6.69%. Gastric cardia cancer had an increasing trend from 1988 (6.88/100,000) to 2013 (26.56/100,000). Both age and birth cohort effects played important roles in these changes. In conclusion, males in rural areas had the highest risk of GC. GC mortality rate decreased from the 1990s in Hebei Province. Endoscopic screening project for GC is an effective method of controlling the disease.

Zhang A, Li J, Wang W, et al.
A comparison study between gross tumor volumes defined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, postoperative specimens, and tumor bed for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5839 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The identification and contouring of target volume is important for breast-conserving therapy. The aim of the study was to compare preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative pathology, excised specimens' (ES) size, and tumor bed (TB) delineation as methods for determining the gross tumor volume (GTV) for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS).
METHODS: Thirty-three patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MRI and radiotherapy after BCS were enrolled. The GTVs determined by MRI, pathology, and the ES were defined as GTVMRI, GTVPAT, and GTVES, respectively. GTVMRI+1 was defined as a 1.0-cm margin around the GTVMRI. The radiation oncologist delineated GTV of the TB (GTVTB) using planning computed tomography according to ≥5 surgical clips placed in the lumpectomy cavity (LC).
RESULTS: The median GTVMRI, GTVMRI+1, GTVPAT, GTVES, and GTVTB were 0.97 cm (range, 0.01-6.88), 12.58 cm (range, 3.90-34.13), 0.97 cm (range, 0.01-6.36), 15.46 cm (range, 1.15-70.69), and 19.24 cm (range, 4.72-54.33), respectively. There were no significant differences between GTVMRI and GTVPAT, GTVMRI+1 and GTVES, GTVES and GTVTB (P = 0.188, 0.070, and 0.264, respectively). GTVMRI is positively related with GTVPAT. However, neither GTVES nor GTVTB correlated with GTVMRI (P = 0.071 and 0.378, respectively). Furthermore, neither GTVES nor GTVTB correlated with GTVMRI+1 (P = 0.068 and 0.375, respectively).
CONCLUSION: When ≥5 surgical clips were placed in the LC for BCS, the volume of TB was consistent with the volume of ES. Neither the volume of TB nor the volume of ES correlated significantly with the volume of tumor defined by preoperative MRI.

Wang D, Liu Y, Chen D, et al.
Flexible transgastric endoscopic liver cyst fenestration: A feasibility study in humans (with video).
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(51):e5420 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is no clinical report on the use of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) for the management of patients with large liver cysts.This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and safety of NOTES for liver cyst fenestration in humans using a currently available technique.From February 2009 to June 2010, 4 cases of transgastric endoscopic liver cyst fenestration were performed; in which 3 cases received NOTES only, while 1 case received additional laparoscopic assistance.Mean time to endoscopically locate the liver cyst was 16 minutes (5-22 minutes). Cysts that were present in the left lobe or on the liver surface were easier to locate endoscopically. Transgastric endoscopic liver cyst fenestration was successful in all patients. The use of an occlusion balloon helped in the endoscopic clipping of the gastrotomy incision. Mean operative time was 101.3 minutes (range, 90-112 minutes), and there were no intra- or postoperative complications including infections. All patients recovered well after the surgery, with only minor postoperative throat pain. There was no recurrence at a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 6-48 months).Small sample size.It may be technically feasible and safe to perform transgastric endoscopic liver cyst fenestration in humans with no recurrence at follow up.

Song JX, Dian ZJ, Wen Y, et al.
Assessment of the Number and Phenotype of Macrophages in the Human BMB Samples of CML.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:8086398 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Macrophages have emerged as a key player in tumor biology. However, their number and phenotype in human bone marrow of biopsy (BMB) samples of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and their association with disease progression from an initial chronic phase (CP) to accelerated phase (AP) to advanced blast phase (BP) are still unclear. BMB samples from 127 CML patients and 30 patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) as control group were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of CD68, CD163, and CD206 in BMB samples of CML patients were significantly higher than those in the patients of control group (P < 0.01), and we observed that their positive expression was gradually elevated during the transformation of CML-CP to AP to BP (P < 0.01). However, the expressions of CD68, CD163, and CD206 in released group were downregulated and contrasted to these in control group; there exists statistical significance (P < 0.01). The percentage ratio of CD163 and CD206 to CD68 was pronounced to be increasing from CML-CP to AP to BP (P < 0.01). Hence, the higher proportion of CD68(+), CD163(+) and CD206(+) macrophages in BMB samples can be considered a key factor for disease progression of CML patients. Targeting macrophages, especially the M2 phenotype may help in designing therapeutic strategies for CML.

Zhang XK, Chen QH, Wang WX, Hu Q
Evaluation of dexmedetomidine in combination with sufentanil or butorphanol for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of gastrointestinal tumors: A quasi-experimental trial.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(50):e5604 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in combination with sufentanil or butorphanol for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of a gastrointestinal tumor.This quasi-experimental trial was conducted in Nanchang, China, from January 2014 to December 2015. Eighty patients (age 27-70 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II) undergoing laparoscopic resection of a gastrointestinal tumor were randomized into 4 groups and offered intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for pain control after surgery. The patients received sufentanil 2.0 μg/kg in combination with dexmedetomidine 1.5 μg/kg (group S1) or 2.0 μg/kg (group S2), or butorphanol 0.15 mg/kg in combination with dexmedetomidine 1.5 0 μg/kg (group N1) or 2.0 μg/kg (group N2). Oxygen saturation, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, visual analog scale score, and Ramsay sedation score were recorded at enrollment (T0), at extubation (T1), and 4 (T2), 8 (T3), 12 (T4), 24 (T5), and 48 (T6) hours thereafter. Side effects and satisfaction scores were evaluated after surgery.MAP increased in all groups at T1 but not significantly so when compared with T0. Heart rate decreased significantly in group S2 when compared with the other groups at T1-T5 (P < 0.05). MAP decreased significantly in group S2 when compared with group S1 at T4-T6 (P < 0.05). MAP increased significantly in group N1 when compared with group N2 at T4-T5 (P < 0.05). There was a statistically significant decrease in mean visual analog scale score in group S2 when compared with group S1 at T2 (P < 0.05) and group N2 at T1-T2 (P < 0.05). Two patients in group S1 had vomiting. There were no reports of drowsiness, respiratory depression, or other complications. The satisfaction score was higher in group S2 than in the other groups.Dexmedetomidine in combination with sufentanil or butorphanol can be used safely and effectively for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of a gastrointestinal tumor. The combination of dexmedetomidine 2.0 μg/kg and sufentanil is particularly beneficial in these patients.

Mok TS, Wu YL, Ahn MJ, et al.
Osimertinib or Platinum-Pemetrexed in EGFR T790M-Positive Lung Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2017; 376(7):629-640 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Osimertinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that is selective for both EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The efficacy of osimertinib as compared with platinum-based therapy plus pemetrexed in such patients is unknown. Methods In this randomized, international, open-label, phase 3 trial, we assigned 419 patients with T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, who had disease progression after first-line EGFR-TKI therapy, in a 2:1 ratio to receive either oral osimertinib (at a dose of 80 mg once daily) or intravenous pemetrexed (500 mg per square meter of body-surface area) plus either carboplatin (target area under the curve, 5 [AUC5]) or cisplatin (75 mg per square meter) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles; maintenance pemetrexed was allowed. In all the patients, disease had progressed during receipt of first-line EGFR-TKI therapy. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Results The median duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer with osimertinib than with platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (10.1 months vs. 4.4 months; hazard ratio; 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 0.41; P<0.001). The objective response rate was significantly better with osimertinib (71%; 95% CI, 65 to 76) than with platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (31%; 95% CI, 24 to 40) (odds ratio for objective response, 5.39; 95% CI, 3.47 to 8.48; P<0.001). Among 144 patients with metastases to the central nervous system (CNS), the median duration of progression-free survival was longer among patients receiving osimertinib than among those receiving platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (8.5 months vs. 4.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.49). The proportion of patients with adverse events of grade 3 or higher was lower with osimertinib (23%) than with platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (47%). Conclusions Osimertinib had significantly greater efficacy than platinum therapy plus pemetrexed in patients with T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (including those with CNS metastases) in whom disease had progressed during first-line EGFR-TKI therapy. (Funded by AstraZeneca; AURA3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02151981 .).

Downward GS, Hu W, Rothman N, et al.
Quartz in ash, and air in a high lung cancer incidence area in China.
Environ Pollut. 2017; 221:318-325 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2018 Related Publications
Exposure to crystalline silica (quartz) has been implicated as a potential cause of the high lung cancer rates in the neighbouring counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, where the domestic combustion of locally sourced "smoky" coal (a bituminous coal) is responsible for some of the highest lung cancer rates in the nation, irrespective of gender or smoking status. Previous studies have shown that smoky coal contains approximately twice as much quartz when compared to alternative fuels in the area, although it is unclear how the quartz in coal relates to household air pollution. Samples of ash and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from 163 households and analysed for quartz content by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Additionally, air samples from 12 further households, were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate particle structure and silica content. The majority (89%) of household air samples had undetectable quartz levels (<0.2 μg/m(3)) with no clear differences by fuel-type. SEM analyses indicated that there were higher amounts of silica in the smoke of smoky coal than smokeless coal (0.27 μg/m(3) vs. 0.03 μg/m(3)). We also identified fibre-like particles in a higher concentration within the smoke of smoky coal than smokeless coal (5800 fibres/m(3) vs. 550 fibres/m(3)). Ash analysis suggested that the bulk of the quartz in smoky coal went on to form part of the ash. These findings indicate that the quartz within smoky coal does not become adequately airborne during the combustion process to cause significant lung cancer risk, instead going on to form part of the ash. The identification of fibre-like particles in air samples is an interesting finding, although the clinical relevance of this finding remains unclear.

Bruix J, Qin S, Merle P, et al.
Regorafenib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who progressed on sorafenib treatment (RESORCE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
Lancet. 2017; 389(10064):56-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There are no systemic treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) whose disease progresses during sorafenib treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with HCC who have progressed during sorafenib treatment.
METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 trial done at 152 sites in 21 countries, adults with HCC who tolerated sorafenib (≥400 mg/day for ≥20 of last 28 days of treatment), progressed on sorafenib, and had Child-Pugh A liver function were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated randomisation list and interactive voice response system and stratified by geographical region, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, macrovascular invasion, extrahepatic disease, and α-fetoprotein level to best supportive care plus oral regorafenib 160 mg or placebo once daily during weeks 1-3 of each 4-week cycle. Investigators, patients, and the funder were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival (defined as time from randomisation to death due to any cause) and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01774344.
FINDINGS: Between May 14, 2013, and Dec 31, 2015, 843 patients were screened, of whom 573 were enrolled and randomised (379 to regorafenib and 194 to placebo; population for efficacy analyses), and 567 initiated treatment (374 received regorafenib and 193 received placebo; population for safety analyses). Regorafenib improved overall survival with a hazard ratio of 0·63 (95% CI 0·50-0·79; one-sided p<0·0001); median survival was 10·6 months (95% CI 9·1-12·1) for regorafenib versus 7·8 months (6·3-8·8) for placebo. Adverse events were reported in all regorafenib recipients (374 [100%] of 374) and 179 (93%) of 193 placebo recipients. The most common clinically relevant grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent events were hypertension (57 patients [15%] in the regorafenib group vs nine patients [5%] in the placebo group), hand-foot skin reaction (47 patients [13%] vs one [1%]), fatigue (34 patients [9%] vs nine patients [5%]), and diarrhoea (12 patients [3%] vs no patients). Of the 88 deaths (grade 5 adverse events) reported during the study (50 patients [13%] assigned to regorafenib and 38 [20%] assigned to placebo), seven (2%) were considered by the investigator to be related to study drug in the regorafenib group and two (1%) in the placebo group, including two patients (1%) with hepatic failure in the placebo group.
INTERPRETATION: Regorafenib is the only systemic treatment shown to provide survival benefit in HCC patients progressing on sorafenib treatment. Future trials should explore combinations of regorafenib with other systemic agents and third-line treatments for patients who fail or who do not tolerate the sequence of sorafenib and regorafenib.

Li X, Xu H, Ding Z, et al.
Association between ABO blood group and HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma risk in China.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(49):e5587 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2018 Related Publications
The ABO blood group has previously been reported to be associated with risk for certain malignancies; however, data about the risks for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to blood type are limited. Thus, we conducted a retrospective case-control study to investigate whether the ABO blood group contributes to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection-induced HCC.From January 2010 to June 2016, 447 consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection were recruited. Of these patients, 217 had HCV-related HCC, and 230 had chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without HCC. We performed multivariate logistic regression to probe the association between the ABO blood group and HCC risk.Compared with subjects with blood type O, patients with blood type A had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 3.301 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.927-5.653) for HCC after adjusting for age and gender. We found statistically significant associations between blood type A and HCC risk for both men (AOR [95% CI] = 4.192 [1.959-8.973]) and women (AOR [95% CI] = 2.594 [1.231-5.466]), and for patients aged below 70 years (<60 years: AOR [95% CI] = 3.418 [1.338-8.734]; 60-69 years: AOR [95% CI] = 3.917 [1.730-8.867]).Thus, HCC risk is associated with ABO blood type in Chinese CHC patients, and CHC patients with blood type A are more susceptible to HCV-related HCC than patients with other blood types.

Liu S, Gu X, Zhu L, et al.
Effects of propofol and sevoflurane on perioperative immune response in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(49):e5479 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2018 Related Publications
The aim of this study is to compare the effects of propofol and sevoflurane anesthesia on perioperative immune response in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer.Sixty patients with cervical cancer scheduled for elective laparoscopic radical hysterectomy under general anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups. TIVA group received propofol induction and maintenance and SEVO group received sevoflurane induction and maintenance. Blood samples were collected at 30 min before induction (T0); the end of the operation (T1); and 24 h (T2), 48 h (T3), and 72 h (T4) after operation. The T lymphocyte subsets (including CD3+ cells, CD4+ cells, and CD8+ cells) and CD4+/CD8+ ratio, natural killer (NK) cells, and B lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry.After surgery, all immunological indicators except CD8+ cells were significantly decreased in both groups compared to basal levels in T0, and the counts of CD3+ cells, CD4+ cells, NK cells, and the CD4+/CD8+ ratios were significantly lower in the SEVO groups than that in the TIVA group. However, the numbers of B cells were comparable at all the time points between 2 groups.Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer is associated with postoperative lymphopenia. In terms of protecting circulating lymphocytes, propofol is superior to sevoflurane.

Lui KH, Bandowe BA, Tian L, et al.
Cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion in Xuanwei, China.
Chemosphere. 2017; 169:660-668 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs: OPAHs and azaarenes: AZAs) were characterized in fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. A sample from the community with the highest mortality contained the highest total concentration of PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs and posed the highest excess cancer risk from a lifetime of inhaling fine particulates. Positive correlations between total carbonyl-OPAHs, total AZAs and total PAHs implied that the emissions were dependent on similar factors, regardless of sample location and type. The calculated cancer risk ranged from 5.23-10.7 × 10(-3), which is higher than the national average. The risk in each sample was ∼1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that deemed high risk, suggesting that the safety of these households is in jeopardy. The lack of potency equivalency factors for the PAH derivatives could possibly have underestimated the overall cancer risk.

Yu CL, Zheng-Dong, Qiao ZH, et al.
The long-term outcome of reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a matched related or unrelated donor, or haploidentical family donor in patients with leukemia: a retrospective analysis of data from the China RIC Cooperative Group.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(2):279-288 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study compared 6-year follow-up data from patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantation with an HLA-matched related donor (MRD), an HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD), or an HLA-haploidentical donor (HID) for leukemia. Four hundred and twenty-seven patients from the China RIC Cooperative Group were enrolled, including 301 in the MRD, 79 in the HID, and 47 in the MUD groups. The conditioning regimen involved fludarabine combined with anti-lymphocyte globulin and cyclophosphamide. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was administered using cyclosporin A (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Four hundred and nineteen patients achieved stable donor chimerism. The incidence of stage II-IV acute GVHD in the HID group was 44.3 %, significantly higher than that in the MRD (23.6 %) and MUD (19.1 %) groups. The 1-year transplantation-related mortality (TRM) rates were 44.3, 17.6, and 21.3, respectively. Event-free survival (EFS) at 6 years in the HID group was 36.7 %, significantly lower than that of the MRD and MUD groups (59.1 and 66.0 %, P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). For advanced leukemia, the relapse rate of the HID group was 18.5 %, lower than that of the MRD group (37.5 %, P = 0.05), but the EFS at 6 years was 31.7 and 30.4 % (P > 0.05), respectively. RIC transplantation with MRD and MUD had similar outcome in leukemia which is better than that with HID. RIC transplantation with HID had lower relapsed with higher TRM and GVHD rate, particularly in advanced leukemias. RIC transplantation with MRD and MUD had similar outcomes in leukemia and they were better than those with HID. RIC transplantation with HID had a lower relapse rate but higher TRM and GVHD rates, particularly in cases of advanced leukemia.

Sun F, Shi J, Geng C
Dexrazoxane improves cardiac autonomic function in epirubicin-treated breast cancer patients with type 2 diabetes.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(44):e5228 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to investigate the protective effects of dexrazoxane (DRZ) on the cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients with diabetes.
METHODS: A total of 110 early stage breast cancer patients with type 2 diabetes were divided randomly into 2 even groups: chemotherapy alone (Chemo) and chemotherapy + DRZ (Chemo + DRZ). All patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy (80 mg/m epirubicin and 500 mg/m cyclophosphamide) for a total of 6 cycles with 21 days/cycle. The Chemo + DRZ group patients were treated intravenously with 800 mg/m DRZ 30 minutes prior to the administration of epirubicin, while the Chemo group patients were given saline. The cardiac ANS function was evaluated for each patient before and after 6 cycles of chemotherapy by resting heart rate (RHR) and heart rate variability (HRV), which was evaluated by both time and frequency domains.
RESULTS: Before and after chemotherapy, patients in both groups showed significant decreases in HRV indices and increases in RHR and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio. There were no significant differences between Chemo and Chemo + DRZ groups in terms of RHR and HRV indices before chemotherapy; however, after chemotherapy, patients in the Chemo group had a higher average RHR and lower HRV indices compared with patients in the Chemo + DRZ group.
CONCLUSION: DRZ protects the cardiac ANS in epirubicin-treated early stage breast cancer patients with diabetes.

Li Y, Ou C, Shu H, et al.
The ERCC1-4533/8092, TNF-α 238/308 polymorphisms and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Guangxi Zhuang populations of China: Case-control study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(44):e5217 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1)-4533/8092, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-238/308 polymorphisms, and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Guangxi Zhuang population of China.
METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to detect the ERCC1-4533/8092 and TNF-α-238/308 polymorphisms in 88 cases with HCC and 82 cases of normal control.
RESULTS: There were no differences in the frequency distribution of ERCC1-4533 and TNF-α-238 polymorphisms in the HCC group and the control group (P > 0.05). The genotype frequency distributions of the ERCC1-8092 and TNF-α-308 in the HCC group and the control group were different (P < 0.05). Compared with ERCC1-8092 CC genotype, ERCC1-C8092 CA/AA genotype had higher risk of HCC (CA/AA vs CC; odds ratio 3.51, 95% confidence interval 1.03-12.016). Compared with TNF-α-308 GG genotype, TNF-α-308 GA/AA genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC (GA/AA vs GG; odds ratio 3.84, 95% confidence interval 1.011-14.57).
CONCLUSION: The genetic polymorphisms of ERCC1-8092 and TNF-α-308 are associated with the risk of HCC in Guangxi Zhuang population of China.

Li X, Dai X, Shi L, et al.
Phase II/III Study of Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Treating Colorectal Liver Metastases.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(1-2):137-145 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This phase II/III, non-randomized clinical trial aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of the combination of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells transfusion for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 60 eligible patients with CRLMs were enrolled and divided into Group A (RFA alone, n = 30) and Group B (RFA plus CIK, n = 30), and following enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay was performed in 8 patients with CEA > 50 ng/mL pre-RFA and 7 days post-RFA and CIK treatment, respectively.
RESULTS: The median progression-free survival (PFS) times of Group A and Group B were 18.5 months and 23 months, respectively (P = 0.0336). The 3-year progression-free rates were 13.3% in Group A and 20.3% in Group B, respectively. The median overall survival time was 43 months in Group A, and not reached in Group B. The 3-year survival rates were 64.6% in Group A and 81.0% in Group B, respectively (P = 0.1187). Among the 8 patients with CEA > 50ng/mL, 6 had increase of circulating CEA-specific T cells after RFA (P = 0.010). After CIK cell therapy, the number of CEA-specific T cells increased in all the 8 patients comparing with that pre-treatment (P = 0.001) and in 7 patients comparing with that post-RFA (P = 0.028).
CONCLUSIONS: We firstly confirm that the combination of RFA and CIK cells boosts CEA-specific T cell response and shows to be an efficacious and safe treatment modality for patients with CRLMs.

Huang NS, Liu MY, Chen JJ, et al.
Surgical management of breast cancer in China: A 15-year single-center retrospective study of 18,502 patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(45):e4201 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2018 Related Publications
The aim of the study was to review the surgical trends in breast cancer treatment in China over the past 15 years and to explore the possible factors related to the choice of surgical modality.The medical records of 18,502 patients with unilateral early stage breast cancer who underwent surgery from January 1999 to December 2013 at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. The utilization of different surgical modalities and the associated clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Furthermore, the prognostic role of surgical modality was also evaluated.The median patient age was 50.0 years. According to the pTNM staging system, 12.5% of the patients were classified as stage 0; 30.2% as stage I; 40.0% as stage II; and 17.3% as stage III. In total, 9.3% of the patients could not be staged. Overall, 67.1% of the breast cancer cases were estrogen receptor (ER) positive. The pattern of breast cancer surgery has changed tremendously over the past 15 years (P < 0.001). The pattern of mastectomy has shifted from radical mastectomy to modified radical mastectomy and simple mastectomy + sentinel lymph node biopsy. A total of 81.7% of the patients underwent mastectomy without immediate reconstruction, 15.2% underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS), and 3.7% received immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Age, TNM staging, and pathological characteristics greatly affected the choice of surgical modality. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for the mastectomy, BCS, and reconstruction groups were 87.6%, 93.2%, and 91.7%, respectively (P < 0.001); the RFS rate was likely affected by distant recurrence instead of loco-regional recurrence. We also identified improved RFS over time, stratified by surgical modality and tumor stage. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that time of treatment, tumor stage, tumor grade, LVI status, and ER status were independent prognostic factors for RFS in our cohort, whereas surgical modality was not.Mastectomy remains the most prevalent surgical modality used to manage early stage breast cancer in China, although the utilization of BCS has increased in the past decade. However, surgical management was not a prognostic factor for RFS. The selection of appropriate patients depended on the assessment of multiple clinicopathological factors, which is essential for making surgical decisions.

Guo Q, Yuan Y, Jin Z, et al.
Association between Tumor Vasculogenic Mimicry and the Poor Prognosis of Gastric Cancer in China: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:2408645 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2018 Related Publications
Background. Vasculogenic mimicry can promote tumor growth and metastasis. This article is aimed at conducting a systematic meta-analysis to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of vasculogenic mimicry and gastric cancer. Methods. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the VIP and Wanfang Database for eligible studies. We manually searched for printed journals and relevant textbooks. Subgroups analyses were performed based on the region, manuscript quality, methods of vasculogenic mimicry identification, pathology, and number of patients. Results. Nine studies with 997 patients were included in this meta-analysis. A significant association was observed between vasculogenic mimicry-positive patients and those with gastric cancer with poor overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.47), poor pathological grading, high tumor node metastasis clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, deep tumor invasion, and distant metastasis. Conclusions. Vasculogenic mimicry is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer in China. Clinical studies with large samples are needed worldwide and standardized protocols should be adopted in the future to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between gastric cancer and vasculogenic mimicry.

Cheng YK, Yao SM, Xu YR, Niu RG
Life-Style Habits in a High-Risk Area for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: a Population-Based Study from Shanxi, China.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(9):4301-4306 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a burden on humanity and ranks as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in China. Shanxi province has its unique cancer patterns and the burden is increasing. In this study, we aimed to assess the pattern of dietary habits and life-style in Shanxi, a high-risk area for upper gastrointestinal cancers in China and further evaluate the trends in cancer incidence and mortality based on registered data.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on lifestyle, diet, physical activity were obtained from the household health survey at Zhongyang from 2013 to 2015. Cancer diagnoses were reported to Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDCP). Population-based cancer incidence data and mortality data of 2012 were collected from the SCDCP. All incidence and death rates were expressed per 100,000 populations. Univariate analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test or Fisherandapos;s exact test.
RESULTS: Overall, deficiencies in fresh fruits and vegetable food, and intake of hot food, salted food, or pickled food are serious problems in Shanxi, especially in rural areas. Upper gastrointestinal cancers were the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and the incidence in rural areas is higher than those in urban areas. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer for females. Moreover, the agespecific incidence exhibited an increased trend before 40 years old. Consistent with the previous literature, our epidemiological investigation results suggest that lifestyle, nutrition deficient, and infections were major risk factors for upper gastrointestinal cancers or cervical cancer in Shanxi. Facing a serious situation, we further explored defensible recommendations for the general public in order to promote changes in environments that support healthful eating and physical activity habits, to reduce cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results present the current cancer trends in Shanxi and its related etiologic risk factors and provide a theoretical basis to guide public health efforts to prevent and control cancers in the province.

Wu YL, Zhang LI, Trandafir L, et al.
Phase I Study of the Pan-PI3K Inhibitor Buparlisib in Adult Chinese Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):6185-6194 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is frequently activated in cancer. Buparlisib (BKM120), an oral pan-PI3K inhibitor, inhibits proliferation of human cancer in preclinical models. Studies of buparlisib in Western and Japanese adults with advanced solid tumors established a recommended dose of 100 mg/day and showed an acceptable safety profile and evidence of efficacy. This phase I dose-escalation/expansion study aimed to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of single-agent, once daily oral buparlisib in Chinese patients with advanced solid tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n=32; primary tumor site: lung (n=15), breast (n=10) or head and neck (n=7); ≥2 prior lines of antineoplastic therapy (n=26)) received 80 mg (n=15) or 100 mg (n=17) daily buparlisib.
RESULTS: Five patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities: grade (G)3 depression (n=1), G2 hyperglycemia (n=3) and G3 hyperglycemia (n=1). Most frequent buparlisib-related adverse events were hyperglycemia (n=18; 56%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increase (n=9; 28%), as well as anxiety (n=6; 19%); most common buparlisib-related G3/4 adverse events: hyperglycemia (n=3; 9%), ALT and AST increase (n=2; 6%), as well as gamma-glutamyltransferase increase (n=2; 6%). Best response was stable disease (SD) in 10 patients (31%).
CONCLUSION: The MTD of buparlisib was declared as 100 mg/day. Safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetic data from this study were similar to those previously reported in Western and Japanese populations.

Hao S, Fan P, Chen S, et al.
Anterior approach to improve the long-term outcome in patients with large-size hepatocellular carcinoma having liver resection.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 114(7):872-878 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A prospective study was conducted to investigate the effect of anterior approach for hepatectomy on long-term outcome of HCC patients with different tumor size.
METHODS: Long-term outcomes were investigated between patients with different tumor size underwent liver resection by either anterior or conventional approach (i.e., AA or CA group).
RESULTS: The recurrence rate in AA group was much lower than that in CA group (52.4% vs.73.1%, P = 0.001). The survival rate in AA group was much higher than that in CA group (60.0% vs. 38.0%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the differences in recurrence and survival rates in patients with large-size tumor (>5 cm) between AA and CA groups were significant (80.0% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.002; 25.0% vs. 54.2%, P = 0.001, respectively), whereas the differences in tumor recurrence and survival rates in patients with small-size tumor between the two groups (≤5 cm) were not significant (64.6% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.141; 56.3% vs. 65.4%, P = 0.349, respectively). Multivariate analysis found that convention approach for hepatectomy was one of the independent risk factors for HCC recurrence and poor survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of patients with large-size HCC tumor with the anterior approach was superior to that with the conventional approach. Large-size tumor (>5 cm) could be the clinical indicator for anterior approach for hepatectomy. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:872-878. © 2016 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Gao X, Liu W, Zhang X, et al.
Genetic polymorphism of HLA-DQ confers susceptibility to hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in Han population in China.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12103-12111 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several recent genome-wide studies showed that the genetic polymorphisms in the HLA-DQ region (rs9275572 and rs2856718) were related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We analyzed the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms for major HBV outcomes in Han Chinese. A total of 1291 samples were involved and peripheral blood samples were collected in this study. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry were used to genotype the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the HLA-DQ region. Our study indicated the clear relationship between the HLA-DQ rs9275572 and HBV-related HCC after control for the effects of sex, drinking, and smoking. Health subjects with the HLA-DQ rs9275572 GA genotype would have a 0.641 (95 % CI 0.416, 0.985; P = 0.043) times lower odds of having HCC, and those with the AA genotype would have a 0.256 (95 % CI 0.106, 0.618; P = 0.002) times lower odds of having HCC, whereas the values of the other covariates were fixed. Whereas there was no significant difference found for the HLA-DQ rs2856718 AG and GG genotype. Our study suggested that HLA-DQ loci (rs9275572) were associated with HBV-related HCC as a protective factor in Han Chinese.

Jiang J, Chen Y, Shi J, et al.
Population attributable burden of Helicobacter pylori-related gastric cancer, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke in China.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017; 36(2):199-212 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori, a risk factor of cancer and chronic diseases, remains highly prevalent in China. This review aims to systematically evaluate the H. pylori-attributable burden for gastric cancer (GC), coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke (IS) in the Chinese population. Helicobacter pylori prevalence was updated by pooling the results reported in studies across China. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated based on the H. pylori prevalence 10 years ago and relative risks of specific disease by reviewing the prospective studies published from 2000 through 2015. In China, the nationwide average prevalence of H. pylori was estimated to be 42.06 % in the general population during 2009-2013. The fixed effects pooled relative risk (RR) of 1.89 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.57-2.26] was obtained for gastric cancer and H. pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori infection was responsible for around 37.38 % of noncardia GC, corresponding to about 105,536 cases in 2012. As for extra-gastric disorders, H. pylori infections had higher risk of CHD (RR = 1.55, 95 % CI: 1.37-1.76) and IS (RR = 1.54, 95 % CI: 1.42-1.66). About 23.15 % of CHD and 22.29 % of IS were attributable to H. pylori infection. The estimates of H. pylori-attributable burden reveal a great potential of reducing H. pylori-related chronic disease burden by H. pylori eradication. Large prospective studies are warranted to identify which H. pylori strains, which subtypes of the disease, and which subgroups of the population have the greatest risk of relevant diseases and the effect of H. pylori eradication on the prevention of H. pylori-related diseases.

Zhang AM, Zhang CL, Song Y, et al.
Genetic variations of the NPC1L1 gene associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and biochemical characteristics of HCV patients in China.
Int J Infect Dis. 2016; 53:6-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: About 2% of the world population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a leading cause of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 cholesterol absorption receptor (NPC1L1) was recently identified to be an important factor for HCV entry into host cells. Whether genetic variations of the NPC1L1 gene are associated with HCV infection is unknown.
METHODS: In this study, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NPC1L1 gene were analyzed in 261 HCV-infected individuals and 265 general controls from Yunnan Province, China.
RESULTS: No significant differences were identified in genotypes or alleles of the SNPs between the two groups. After constructing haplotypes based on the five SNPs, a significant difference between HCV-infected individuals and general controls was shown for two haplotypes. Haplotype GCCTT appeared to be a protective factor and haplotype GCCCT was a risk factor for HCV-infected individuals. Genotypes of four SNPs correlated with biochemical characteristics of HCV-infected persons. Genotypes of SNPs rs799444 and rs2070607 were correlated with total bilirubin. Genotype TT of rs917098 was a risk factor for the gamma-glutamyltransferase level. Furthermore, HCV-infected individuals carrying genotype GG of rs41279633 showed statistically higher gamma-glutamyltransferase levels than HCV-infected persons with GT and TT.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study identified the association between genetic susceptibility of the NPC1L1 gene and HCV infection, as well as biochemical characteristics of HCV-infected persons in Yunnan, China.

Gao J, Zeng J, Guo B, et al.
Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of retinoblastoma in children of South Western China.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(42):e5204 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2018 Related Publications
To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome among children in South Western China with retinoblastoma (RB) and to determine factors predictive of poor outcome.A retrospective review of children diagnosed with RB from 2006 to 2015 at West China Hospital was undertaken. Demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were studied.A total of 253 patients (unilateral 80.2%, bilateral 19.8%) were studied. Twenty six patients (10.3%) were from minority ethnic groups of China. The median onset age was 21 months. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (71%). Tumors were intraocular in 91.3% cases, extraocular in 8.7% cases. Extraocular RB patients had a longer median lag period than intraocular patients (9 months vs 2 months, P < 0.0001). In the intraocular group, 89.5% were advanced group D or E diseases. Enucleation was the major treatment for intraocular RB. However, over 10 years, the enucleation rate decreased constantly while more patients received chemotherapy. The Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 87.8%, 81.4%, and 74.8% at 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years, respectively. On Cox regression analysis, extraocular RB (P = 0.0008) and treatment abandonment (P < 0.0001) were associated with poor outcome; bilateral RB (P = 0.0116) and advanced pathological grade pT4 (P = 0.0011) were associated with poor outcome of intraocular RB.Most RB patients from South Western China were diagnosed at advanced clinical stage. Delayed presentation is related to extraocular RB which is a risk factor for poor outcome. Chemotherapy increased the eye salvage but had no effects to overall survival. Education for parents and general physicians for the early signs of RB (such as leukocoria), therapeutic strategy and treatment outcomes of RB may promote early diagnosis, improve the compliance, and outcome.

Yu W, Zhu L, Xu G, et al.
Potential role of carbon nanoparticles in protection of parathyroid glands in patients with papillary thyroid cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(42):e5002 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2018 Related Publications
As a novel type of lymphatic tracer, carbon nanoparticles (CNs) were reported not to stain parathyroid glands (PGs) into black, so it may have a clinical potential in protection of PGs during thyroidectomy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical application and significance of CN in protection of PGs from surrounding tissues.A total of 82 consecutive patients were enrolled into this study and were divided into CN group and control group. Parathyroid function (hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia) was evaluated.The identification rates of PGs (≤2) and PGs (≥3) were 24.4% and 75.6% in the CN group and 46.3% and 53.7% in the control group, respectively. The difference in the identification rates between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P = 0.038). Pathological results revealed 3 accidental PGs resection occurred in the CN group, whereas 9 accidental PGs removal occurred in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.046). Moreover, the incidence of the patients with hypoparathyroidism was statistically significant between the 2 groups (36.6% in CN group vs 53.7% in control group, P = 0.043) at day 1, but not at day 7 (P = 0.424).CN may have a potential in protecting PGs clinically.

Qu Y, Huang R, Li L
Low- and high-dose radioiodine therapy for low-/intermediate-risk differentiated thyroid cancer: a preliminary clinical trial.
Ann Nucl Med. 2017; 31(1):71-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To compare the ablation results, therapeutic responses and adverse reactions between a low dose (1.1 GBq) or high dose (3.7 GBq) of (131)I in low-/intermediate-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. The factors influencing the ablation result and therapeutic response were also analyzed.
METHODS: The researchers used a random number table to randomly assign the enrolled patients to the low-dose group or high-dose group at a 1:1 ratio, and assessment of ablation result, therapeutic response, and adverse reactions evaluated 6 ± 3 months after therapy.
RESULTS: A total of 140 patients were enrolled in the study through October 2014-June 2015. Until February 2016, 132 patients completed the trial. 99 patients were re-examined under thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation 3-9 months after (131)I therapy. For the low-dose and high-dose groups, the success rates of ablation were 52.7 % (29/55) and 59.1 % (26/44), respectively. The ablation results did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.548). One hundred and thirty two patients were re-examined 2-9 months after (131)I therapy. The low-dose group had an excellent response rate of ~80 % (53/66), an indeterminate response rate of ~20 % (13/66), and no cases with a biochemical incomplete response. The high-dose group had an excellent response rate of ~85 % (56/66), an indeterminate response rate of ~11 % (7/66), and a biochemical incomplete response rate of ~4 % (3/66). No significant differences in the therapeutic response were observed between the two groups (P = 0.087). Patients in stage N1b had a significantly lower success rate of ablation than those in stage N0 (P = 0.000). The success rate of ablation increased significantly with lower thyroglobulin (Tg) levels (P = 0.000). A pre-treatment Tg level was significantly associated with a higher excellent response rate (P = 0.002). Pre-treatment-stimulated Tg of 0.47 and 3.09 μg/L were identified as cut-off values for predicting the ablation result and therapeutic response, respectively. The incidences of adverse reactions were 18 % (12/66) and 39 % (26/66) in the low-dose and high-dose groups, respectively, and this difference between the two groups was significant (P = 0.007).
CONCLUSIONS: The result of thyroid remnant ablation and the response to therapy did not differ significantly between the two groups. The low-dose group had a lower incidence of adverse reactions than the high-dose group. N1b and pre-treatment-stimulated Tg were factors influencing the ablation result, whereas pre-treatment-stimulated Tg was a factor influencing the therapeutic response. Pre-treatment-stimulated Tg of 0.47 and 3.09 μg/L were identified as cut-off values for predicting the ablation result and therapeutic response, respectively. The study protocol was approved by the Clinical Trials and Biomedical Ethics Committee of our hospital and registered on the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry under the registration number ChiCTR-IOR-15006139.

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