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Oceania

Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, Tonga


Latest Research Publications from Oceania

Lim E, Vardy JL, Oh B, Dhillon HM
Integration of complementary and alternative medicine into cancer-specific supportive care programs in Australia: A scoping study.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2017; 13(1):6-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The main aim of this research was to describe the availability and integration of supportive care programs (SCPs), particularly complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, for adults in Australian oncology treatment centers.
METHODS: We systematically searched 124 Australian hospitals listed as having an oncology department out of a total of 1157 hospitals listed in the Australian Hospitals and Aged Care Databases (2014), and assessed their website and relevant leaflets. Direct contact was made with a relevant staff member in each hospital. Data were collected regarding the range of SCP and CAM services available.
RESULTS: Of the 124 hospitals, 89 (72%) provide nonspecific guidance to SCP or a staff member (e.g. social worker or care coordinator) who directs patients, advising them about SCP; 35 hospitals (28%) provide active referral to SCP, of which 24 of 35 (69%) include CAM in their service, with individual variation in how it is incorporated. Only 11 (46%) of these 24 CAM incorporated oncology centers in Australia provided systematically integrated CAM programs.
CONCLUSION: The majority of Australian oncology departments do not have CAM incorporated into their services. In those that do, less than half had systemically integrated CAM. The types of CAM available, how they are accessed and how they are integrated varied across hospitals. Further research is required to understand how to successfully and systematically integrate cancer-specific supportive care such as CAM into Australian cancer services.

Alzahrani N, Ferguson JS, Valle SJ, et al.
Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: long-term results at St George Hospital, Australia.
ANZ J Surg. 2016; 86(11):937-941 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) results from the secondary spread of many intraabdominal tumour types, such as colorectal malignancy (colorectal cancer, CRC), disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM), appendiceal cancer, ovarian carcinoma, sarcoma or from the occurrence of primary peritoneal disease such as peritoneal mesothelioma. The combination of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has seen improvements in survival in selected cases of these cancers.
METHODS: Between 1996 and 2014, a prospective database of 675 patients was created for the peritonectomy unit at our hospital. In total, 827 peritonectomy procedures (including redo CRS) were performed for the major subgroups of PC: DPAM 220; appendiceal cancer (peritoneal mucinous adenocarcinoma (PMCA)) 191; CRC 234; diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) 73 and others 109. There were 152 redo-peritonectomy procedures within the total mentioned earlier (CRC 26; DPAM 58; DMPM 18; appendix 40; other 10).
RESULTS: The 5-year survivals for DPAM and PMCA were 80% and 42% respectively. The 5-year survivals for appendiceal cancer with peritoneal cancer index (PCI) <10, 10-20 and >20 were 60, 57 and 37% respectively (P = 0.09). The 2- and 5-year survivals for CRC were 56 and 24% respectively. The 5-year survivals for PCI 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and >15 were 59, 15, 7 and 0% respectively (P = 0.000). The 5-year survival for DMPM with PCI < 10, 10-20 and >20 were 100, 55 and 39% respectively (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: CRS in combination with HIPEC provides a chance of long-term survival in selected cases of PC when compared with systemic therapy alone.

Ruseckaite R, Sampurno F, Millar J, et al.
Diagnostic and treatment factors associated with poor survival from prostate cancer are differentially distributed between regional and metropolitan Victoria, Australia.
BMC Urol. 2016; 16(1):54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) in specific regional areas in Victoria, Australia have a poorer five-year survival rate compared to men living elsewhere in Victoria. This study aims to describe patterns-of- presentation and -care for men diagnosed with PCa in a specific regional Victorian area, and compare the outcomes with other Victorian regions.
METHODS: Information on consecutive men diagnosed between 2008 and 2013 was extracted from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Registry-Victoria. Descriptive analyses summarized diagnostic and treatment patterns of the 7,204 men with PCa in the selected region (n = 373), metropolitan Melbourne (n = 2,565) and remaining areas of Victoria (n = 4,266) to compare risk factors, treatments and time-taken-to-treatment.
RESULTS: Men with PCa in the selected region were more likely to be diagnosed at older age (aged 68.6 vs 66 years in the rest of Victoria), and incidentally rather than through case-finding PSA blood tests. They were more likely to be presented with higher NCCN risk of the disease (High: 26 %, 24 % and 20.3 %; Very high/Metastasis: 11.8 %, 5.2 % and 5.7 % in the study region, metropolitan Melbourne and elsewhere in Victoria, respectively). Men in the selected region were also more likely to have a longer time from diagnosis to treatment (on average 15-30 days longer when compared to the rest of Victoria).
CONCLUSIONS: Poorer outcomes of men with PCa in this specific region might be explained by multiple factors, including clinical-, patient-, and health-system-related. This range of explanatory factors, occurring at multiple points along the pathway of diagnosis and detection, suggests that interventions to improve outcomes for PCa in regional areas such as this need to be systematic. Interventions specifically addressing any one factor in isolation are unlikely to have much effect.

Karunasinghe N, Zhu Y, Han DY, et al.
Quality of life effects of androgen deprivation therapy in a prostate cancer cohort in New Zealand: can we minimize effects using a stratification based on the aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 rs12529 gene polymorphism?
BMC Urol. 2016; 16(1):48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective palliation treatment in men with advanced prostate cancer (PC). However, ADT has well documented side effects that could alter the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The current study aims to test whether a genetic stratification could provide better knowledge for optimising ADT options to minimize HRQoL effects.
METHODS: A cohort of 206 PC survivors (75 treated with and 131 without ADT) was recruited with written consent to collect patient characteristics, clinical data and HRQoL data related to PC management. The primary outcomes were the percentage scores under each HRQoL subscale assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaires (QLQ-C30 and PR25) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales developed by the University of Melbourne, Australia. Genotyping of these men was carried out for the aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 (AKR1C3) rs12529 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Analysis of HRQoL scores were carried out against ADT duration and in association with the AKR1C3 rs12529 SNP using the generalised linear model. P-values <0 · 05 were considered significant, and were further tested for restriction with Bonferroni correction.
RESULTS: Increase in hormone treatment-related effects were recorded with long-term ADT compared to no ADT. The C and G allele frequencies of the AKR1C3rs12529 SNP were 53·4 % and 46·6 % respectively. Hormone treatment-related symptoms showed an increase with ADT when associated with the AKR1C3 rs12529 G allele. Meanwhile, decreasing trends on cancer-specific symptoms and increased sexual interest were recorded with no ADT when associated with the AKR1C3 rs12529 G allele and reverse trends with the C allele. As higher incidence of cancer-specific symptoms relate to cancer retention it is possible that associated with the C allele there could be higher incidence of unresolved cancers under no ADT options.
CONCLUSIONS: If these findings can be reproduced in larger homogeneous cohorts, a genetic stratification based on the AKR1C3 rs12529 SNP, can minimize ADT-related HRQoL effects in PC patients. Our data additionally show that with this stratification it could also be possible to identify men needing ADT for better oncological advantage.

Stanbury JF, Baade PD, Yu Y, Yu XQ
Impact of geographic area level on measuring socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival in New South Wales, Australia: A period analysis.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 43:56-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Area-based socioeconomic measures are widely used in health research. In theory, the larger the area used the more individual misclassification is introduced, thus biasing the association between such area level measures and health outcomes. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival using two geographic area-based measures to see if the size of the area matters.
METHODS: We used population-based cancer registry data for patients diagnosed with one of 10 major cancers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2004-2008. Patients were assigned index measures of socioeconomic status (SES) based on two area-level units, census Collection District (CD) and Local Government Area (LGA) of their address at diagnosis. Five-year relative survival was estimated using the period approach for patients alive during 2004-2008, for each socioeconomic quintile at each area-level for each cancer. Poisson-regression modelling was used to adjust for socioeconomic quintile, sex, age-group at diagnosis and disease stage at diagnosis. The relative excess risk of death (RER) by socioeconomic quintile derived from this modelling was compared between area-units.
RESULTS: We found extensive disagreement in SES classification between CD and LGA levels across all socioeconomic quintiles, particularly for more disadvantaged groups. In general, more disadvantaged patients had significantly lower survival than the least disadvantaged group for both CD and LGA classifications. The socioeconomic survival disparities detected by CD classification were larger than those detected by LGA. Adjusted RER estimates by SES were similar for most cancers when measured at both area levels.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that classifying patient SES by the widely used Australian geographic unit LGA results in underestimation of survival disparities for several cancers compared to when SES is classified at the geographically smaller CD level. Despite this, our RER of death estimates derived from these survival estimates were generally similar for both CD and LGA level analyses, suggesting that LGAs remain a valuable spatial unit for use in Australian health and social research, though the potential for misclassification must be considered when interpreting research. While data confidentiality concerns increase with the level of geographical precision, the use of smaller area-level health and census data in the future, with appropriate allowance for confidentiality.

Rumley CN, Nedev N, Sharples K, et al.
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer: implementation and outcomes in a New Zealand community hospital.
J Med Radiat Sci. 2016; 63(2):96-103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has become the standard of care for squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (HNSCC). This report presents early outcomes of IMRT with concomitant chemotherapy in a community setting in New Zealand.
METHODS: Forty-eight patients with stage III and IV advanced HNSCC received definitive treatment with IMRT. A dose of 66 Gy in 30 fractions was delivered over 6 weeks with 3-weekly concurrent cisplatin after a single induction cycle of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Acute toxicity, locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival and overall survival (OS) outcomes were analysed.
RESULTS: Follow-up ranged from 2 to 82 months (median 34 months). Acute grade 2 toxicity was observed in 27 patients and grade 3 toxicity in 19 patients. No patients experienced grade 4 toxicity and there were no treatment-related deaths. Locoregional failures occurred in six patients and distant metastatic disease occurred in five patients. Actuarial estimates of 3-year LRC, disease-free survival and OS were 87.3%, 74.4% and 73.7% respectively.
CONCLUSION: Definitive treatment of stage III and IV cancer of the head and neck with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy was achievable in the community setting. Acute toxicities were manageable and 3-year outcomes were comparable to other published series.

Mandaliya H, Ansari Z, Evans T, et al.
Psychosocial Analysis of Cancer Survivors in Rural Australia: Focus on Demographics, Quality of Life and Financial Domains.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(5):2459-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer treatments can have long-term physical, psychological, financial, sexual and cognitive effects that may influence the quality of life. These can vary from urban to rural areas, survival period and according to the type of cancer. We here aimed to describe demographics and psychosocial analysis of cancer survivors three to five years post-treatment in rural Australia and also assess relationships with financial stress and quality of life domains.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 65 participants visiting the outpatient oncology clinic were given a self-administered questionnaire. The inclusion criteria included three to five years post-treatment. Three domains were investigated using standardised and validated tools such as the Standard Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors Scale (QLACS) and the Personal and Household Finances (HILDA) survey. Included were demographic parameters, quality of life, treatment information and well-being.
RESULTS: There was no evidence of associations between any demographic variable and either financial stress or cancer-specific quality of life domains. Financial stress was however significantly associated with the cancer-specific quality of life domains of appearance-related concerns, family related distress, and distress related to recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: This unique study effectively points to psychosocial aspects of cancer survivors in rural regions of Australia. Although the majority of demographic characteristics were not been found to be associated with financial stress, this latter itself is significantly associated with distress related to family and cancer recurrence. This finding may be of assistance in future studies and also considering plans to fulfil unmet needs.

van Leeuwen MT, Gurney H, Turner JJ, et al.
Patterns and trends in the incidence of paediatric and adult germ cell tumours in Australia, 1982-2011.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 43:15-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Germ cell tumour (GCT) aetiology is uncertain and comprehensive epidemiological studies of GCT incidence are few.
METHODS: Nationwide data on all malignant GCTs notified to Australian population-based cancer registries during 1982-2011 were obtained. Age- and sex-specific, and World age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for paediatric (0-14) and adult (15+) cases using the latest WHO subtype classification scheme. Temporal trends were examined using Joinpoint regression.
RESULTS: There were 17,279 GCTs (552 paediatric, 16,727 adult). Age-specific incidence in males (all histologies combined) was bimodal, with peaks during infancy for most sites, and second, larger, peaks during young adulthood. Incidence of ovarian tumours peaked at age 15-19. Around half of paediatric tumours were extragonadal, whereas adult tumours were mostly gonadal. Yolk sac tumours and teratomas predominated in infants, whereas germinomas became more frequent towards adulthood. Increasing incidence trends for some adult gonadal tumours have stabilised; the trend for male extragonadal tumours is also declining.
CONCLUSION: Broad similarities in the shape of age-specific incidence curves, particularly for gonadal, central nervous system, and mediastinal tumours provide epidemiological support for commonalities in aetiology among clinically disparate GCT subtypes. Differences in peak ages reflect underlying subtype-specific biological differences. Declining incidence trends for some adult gonadal tumours accords with the global transition in GCT incidence, and supports the possibility of a reduction in prevalence of shared aetiological exposures.

Baade PD, Dasgupta P, Dickman PW, et al.
Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 43:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance current strategies to further reduce the impact of the survival inequalities faced by Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer.

Chapman S, Azizi L, Luo Q, Sitas F
Has the incidence of brain cancer risen in Australia since the introduction of mobile phones 29 years ago?
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 42:199-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone use in Australia has increased rapidly since its introduction in 1987 with whole population usage being 94% by 2014. We explored the popularly hypothesised association between brain cancer incidence and mobile phone use.
STUDY METHODS: Using national cancer registration data, we examined age and gender specific incidence rates of 19,858 male and 14,222 females diagnosed with brain cancer in Australia between 1982 and 2012, and mobile phone usage data from 1987 to 2012. We modelled expected age specific rates (20-39, 40-59, 60-69, 70-84 years), based on published reports of relative risks (RR) of 1.5 in ever-users of mobile phones, and RR of 2.5 in a proportion of 'heavy users' (19% of all users), assuming a 10-year lag period between use and incidence.
SUMMARY ANSWERS: Age adjusted brain cancer incidence rates (20-84 years, per 100,000) have risen slightly in males (p<0.05) but were stable over 30 years in females (p>0.05) and are higher in males 8.7 (CI=8.1-9.3) than in females, 5.8 (CI=5.3-6.3). Assuming a causal RR of 1.5 and 10-year lag period, the expected incidence rate in males in 2012 would be 11.7 (11-12.4) and in females 7.7 (CI=7.2-8.3), both p<0.01; 1434 cases observed in 2012, vs. 1867 expected. Significant increases in brain cancer incidence were observed (in keeping with modelled rates) only in those aged ≥70 years (both sexes), but the increase in incidence in this age group began from 1982, before the introduction of mobile phones. Modelled expected incidence rates were higher in all age groups in comparison to what was observed. Assuming a causal RR of 2.5 among 'heavy users' gave 2038 expected cases in all age groups.
LIMITATIONS: This is an ecological trends analysis, with no data on individual mobile phone use and outcome.
WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: The observed stability of brain cancer incidence in Australia between 1982 and 2012 in all age groups except in those over 70 years compared to increasing modelled expected estimates, suggests that the observed increases in brain cancer incidence in the older age group are unlikely to be related to mobile phone use. Rather, we hypothesize that the observed increases in brain cancer incidence in Australia are related to the advent of improved diagnostic procedures when computed tomography and related imaging technologies were introduced in the early 1980s.

Sendall MC, Stoneham M, Crane P, et al.
Outdoor workers and sun protection strategies: two case study examples in Queensland, Australia.
Rural Remote Health. 2016 Apr-Jun; 16(2):3558 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Outdoor workers are at risk of developing skin cancer because they are exposed to high levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation. The Outdoor Workers Sun Protection Project investigated sun protection strategies for high risk outdoor workers in rural and regional Australia.
METHODS: Fourteen workplaces (recruitment rate 37%) across four industries in rural and regional Queensland, Australia were recruited to the OWSPP. In 2011-2012, data were collected using pre- and post-intervention interviews and discussion groups. This article presents two workplaces as case study examples.
RESULTS: The flat organisational structure of workplace 1 supported the implementation of the Sun Safety Action Plan (SSAP), whilst the hierarchical organisational nature of workplace 2 delayed implementation of the SSAP. Neither workplace had an existing sun protection policy but both workplaces adopted one. An effect related to the researchers' presence was seen in workplace 1 and to a lesser degree in workplace 2. Overt reciprocity was seen between management and workers in workplace 1 but this was not so evident in workplace 2. In both workplaces, the role of the workplace champion was pivotal to SSAP progression.
CONCLUSIONS: These two case studies highlight a number of contextually bound workplace characteristics related to sun safety. These issues are (1) the structure of workplace, (2) policy, (3) an effect related to the researchers' presence, (4) the workplace champion and (5) reciprocity. There are several recommendations from this article. Workplace health promotion strategies for sun safety need to be contextualised to individual workplaces to take advantage of the strengths of the workplace and to build capacity.

Gibberd A, Supramaniam R, Dillon A, et al.
Lung cancer treatment and mortality for Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia: results from a population-based record linkage study and medical record audit.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:289 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare surgical treatment received by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia and to examine whether patient and disease characteristics are associated with any disparities found. An additional objective was to describe the adjuvant treatments received by Aboriginal people diagnosed with NSCLC in NSW. Finally, we compared the risk of death from NSCLC for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.
METHODS: We used logistic regression and competing risks regression to analyse population-based cancer registry records for people diagnosed with NSCLC in NSW, 2001-2007, linked to hospital inpatient episodes and deaths. We also analysed treatment patterns from a medical record audit for 170 Aboriginal people diagnosed with NSCLC in NSW, 2000-2010.
RESULTS: Of 20,154 people diagnosed with primary lung cancer, 341 (1.7%) were Aboriginal. Larger proportions of Aboriginal people were younger, female, living outside major cities or in areas of greater socioeconomic disadvantage, smoking at the time of diagnosis and had comorbidities. Although Aboriginal people were, on average, younger at diagnosis with non-metastatic NSCLC than non-Aboriginal people, only 30.8% of Aboriginal people received surgery, compared with 39.5% of non-Aboriginal people. Further, Aboriginal people who were not receiving surgery, at the time of diagnosis, were more likely to be younger, live in major cities and have no comorbidities. The observed risk of death from NSCLC 5 years after diagnosis was higher for 266 Aboriginal people (83.3% 95% CI 77.5-87.7) than for 15,491 non-Aboriginal people (77.6% 95% CI 76.9-78.3) and the adjusted subhazard ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.14-1.52). From the medical record audit, 29% of Aboriginal people with NSCLC had potentially curative treatment, 45% had palliative radiotherapy/chemotherapy and 26% had no active treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: There are disparities in NSCLC surgical treatment and mortality for Aboriginal people compared with non-Aboriginal people in NSW. It is imperative that Aboriginal people are offered active lung cancer treatment, particularly those who are younger and without comorbidities and are therefore most likely to benefit, and are provided with assistance to access it if required.

Gannan E, Khoo J, Nightingale S, et al.
Management of Early Node-Positive Breast Cancer in Australia: A Multicentre Study.
Breast J. 2016; 22(4):413-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
To examine practice patterns for breast cancer patients with limited sentinel node (SN) disease in light of the ACOSOG Z0011 results. Retrospective analysis of patients with T1-2 breast cancer and positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) admitted between January 2009 and December 2012. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatments were recorded. Eight hundred positive SLNBs were identified. A total of 452 (56.5%) proceeded to completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND). cALND rate decreased from 65.1% to 49.7% from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. cALND was performed for micrometastasis or isolated tumor cells in 39.3% in 2009-2010 and 22.2% in 2011-2012, whereas for macrometastases the rates were 83.1% and 68.6%, respectively. cALND rates diminished for both Z0011-eligible and -ineligible patients. The ACOSOG Z0011 trial presentation and publication coincided with a reduction in cALND for breast cancer with limited nodal disease. There appears equipoise regarding management of macrometastatic SN disease.

Tin Tin S, Elwood JM, Lawrenson R, et al.
Differences in Breast Cancer Survival between Public and Private Care in New Zealand: Which Factors Contribute?
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153206 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients who received private health care appear to have better survival from breast cancer compared to those who received public care. This study investigated if this applied to New Zealand women and identified factors that could explain such disparities.
METHODS: This study involved all women who were diagnosed with primary breast cancer in two health regions in New Zealand, covering about 40% of the national population, between June 2000 and May 2013. Patients who received public care for primary treatment, mostly surgical treatment, were compared with those who received private care in terms of demographics, mode of presentation, disease factors, comorbidity index and treatment factors. Cox regression modelling was performed with stepwise adjustments, and hazards of breast cancer specific mortality associated with the type of health care received was assessed.
RESULTS: Of the 14,468 patients, 8,916 (61.6%) received public care. Compared to patients treated in private care facilities, they were older, more likely to be Māori, Pacifika or Asian and to reside in deprived neighbourhoods and rural areas, and less likely to be diagnosed with early staged cancer and to receive timely cancer treatments. They had a higher risk of mortality from breast cancer (hazard ratio: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.75, 2.17), of which 80% (95% CI: 63%, 100%) was explained by baseline differences, particularly related to ethnicity, stage at diagnosis and type of loco-regional therapy. After controlling for these demographic, disease and treatment factors, the risk of mortality was still 14% higher in the public sector patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Ethnicity, stage at diagnosis and type of loco-regional therapy were the three key contributors to survival disparities between patients treated in public and private health care facilities in New Zealand. The findings underscore the need for more efforts to improve the quality, timeliness and equitability of public cancer care services.

Denost Q, Saillour F, Masya L, et al.
Benchmarking trial between France and Australia comparing management of primary rectal cancer beyond TME and locally recurrent rectal cancer (PelviCare Trial): rationale and design.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:262 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Among patients with rectal cancer, 5-10% have a primary rectal cancer beyond the total mesorectal excision plane (PRC-bTME) and 10% recur locally following primary surgery (LRRC). In both cases, patients 'care remains challenging with a significant worldwide variation in practice regarding overall management and criteria for operative intervention. These variations in practice can be explained by structural and organizational differences, as well as cultural dissimilarities. However, surgical resection of PRC-bTME and LRRC provides the best chance of long-term survival after complete resection (R0). With regards to the organization of the healthcare system and the operative criteria for these patients, France and Australia seem to be highly different. A benchmarking-type analysis between French and Australian clinical practice, with regards to the care and management of PRC-bTME and LRRC, would allow understanding of patients' care and management structures as well as individual and collective mechanisms of operative decision-making in order to ensure equitable practice and improve survival for these patients.
METHODS/DESIGN: The current study is an international Benchmarking trial comparing two cohorts of 120 consecutive patients with non-metastatic PRC-bTME and LRRC. Patients with curative and palliative treatment intent are included. The study design has three main parts: (1) French and Australian cohorts including clinical, radiological and surgical data, quality of life (MOS SF36, FACT-C) and distress level (Distress thermometer) at the inclusion, 6 and 12 months; (2) experimental analyses consisting of a blinded inter-country reading of pelvic MRI to assess operatory decisions; (3) qualitative analyses based on MDT meeting observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups of health professional attendees and conducted by a research psychologist in both countries using the same guides. The primary endpoint will be the clinical resection rate. Secondary end points will be concordance rate between French and Australian operative decisions based on the inter-country reading MRI, post-operative mortality and morbidity rates, oncological outcomes based on resection status and one-year overall and disease-free survival, patients' quality of life and distress level. Qualitative analysis will compare obstacles and facilitators of operative decision-making between both countries.
DISCUSSION: Benchmarking can be defined as a comparison and learning process which will allow, in the context of PRC-bTME and LRRC, to understand and to share the whole process management of these patientsbetween Farnce and Australia.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02551471 . (date of registration: 09/14/2015).

Ghanouni A, Meisel SF, Hersch J, et al.
Information on 'Overdiagnosis' in Breast Cancer Screening on Prominent United Kingdom- and Australia-Oriented Health Websites.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0152279 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Health-related websites are an important source of information for the public. Increasing public awareness of overdiagnosis and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in breast cancer screening may facilitate more informed decision-making. This study assessed the extent to which such information was included on prominent health websites oriented towards the general public, and evaluated how it was explained.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Websites identified through Google searches in England (United Kingdom) and New South Wales (Australia) for "breast cancer screening" and further websites included based on our prior knowledge of relevant organisations.
MAIN OUTCOMES: Content analysis was used to determine whether information on overdiagnosis or DCIS existed on each site, how the concepts were described, and what statistics were used to quantify overdiagnosis.
RESULTS: After exclusions, ten UK websites and eight Australian websites were considered relevant and evaluated. They originated from charities, health service providers, government agencies, and an independent health organisation. Most contained some information on overdiagnosis (and/or DCIS). Descriptive information was similar across websites. Among UK websites, statistical information was often based on estimates from the Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening; the most commonly provided statistic was the ratio of breast cancer deaths prevented to overdiagnosed cases (1:3). A range of other statistics was included, such as the yearly number of overdiagnosed cases and the proportion of women screened who would be overdiagnosed. Information on DCIS and statistical information was less common on the Australian websites.
CONCLUSIONS: Online information about overdiagnosis has become more widely available in 2015-16 compared with the limited accessibility indicated by older research. However, there may be scope to offer more information on DCIS and overdiagnosis statistics on Australian websites. Moreover, the variability in how estimates are presented across UK websites may be confusing for the general public.

Wilson N, Selak V, Blakely T, et al.
Decision-making in an era of cancer prevention via aspirin: New Zealand needs updated guidelines and risk calculators.
N Z Med J. 2016; 129(1431):85-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Based on new systematic reviews of the evidence, the US Preventive Services Task Force has drafted updated guidelines on the use of low-dose aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The Task Force generally recommends consideration of aspirin in adults aged 50-69 years with 10-year CVD risk of at least 10%, in who absolute health gain (reduction of CVD and cancer) is estimated to exceed absolute health loss (increase in bleeds). With the ongoing decline in CVD, current risk calculators for New Zealand are probably outdated, so it is difficult to be precise about what proportion of the population is in this risk category (roughly equivalent to 5-year CVD risk ≥5%). Nevertheless, we suspect that most smokers aged 50-69 years, and some non-smokers, would probably meet the new threshold for taking low-dose aspirin. The country therefore needs updated guidelines and risk calculators that are ideally informed by estimates of absolute net health gain (in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) per person) and cost-effectiveness. Other improvements to risk calculators include: epidemiological rigour (eg, by addressing competing mortality); providing enhanced graphical display of risk to enhance risk communication; and possibly capturing the issues of medication disutility and comparison with lifestyle changes.

Tan J, Joblin L, Davenport E
Accuracy of frozen sections for breast cancer sentinel lymph node biopsies within a peripheral New Zealand hospital.
N Z Med J. 2016; 129(1431):46-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Intra-operative frozen section is a commonly-used technique for evaluating sentinel lymph node biopsies in breast cancer to determine the need for an axillary node dissection (AND). Frozen section does have drawbacks, including cost and uncertainty around operating time. In addition, recent studies have questioned the benefit of AND in certain cases. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the accuracy of frozen section at our institution.
METHODS: All patients who had a sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer in the Hawke's Bay District Health Board region over a 1-year period were included in the study. Results of intra-operative frozen section were compared to routine paraffin histological analysis.
RESULTS: Eighty patients were eligible. Eighteen had a positive frozen section. There were two false negatives. The sensitivity of frozen section for metastases was 90%, specificity was 100%, and the false negative rate was 2.5%.
CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of frozen section section for sentinel lymph node biopsies in breast cancer at Hawke's Bay District Health Board is acceptable by international standards. However, as further evidence against axillary node dissections in those with sentinel node positive disease mounts, their use in the future may be limited.

Kladnitski M, Kenwright D
Management of gestational trophoblastic disease: a survey of New Zealand O&G practice.
N Z Med J. 2016; 129(1431):38-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of the study was to obtain information on pathways for diagnosis and management of molar pregnancy/gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) across New Zealand, the protocols used, and, in addition, to consider the view of O&G Specialists on a national GTD reference centre.
METHOD: An electronic survey approved by the RANZCOG Continues Professional Development Committee was distributed amongst registered O&G Specialists currently working in New Zealand. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2011. Frequency distributions were used to determine the percentage of participants responding to the listed alternatives for each question.
RESULTS: There were 234 potential responders, but only 68 complete questionnaires were received and available for analysis. The diagnosis of GTD requires histopathological analysis of pregnancy tissue, however only 79.7% of participants request this test routinely. Sixty-five percent of Fellows thought that a number of molar pregnancies can be missed with increasing proportion of medically-managed miscarriages, reliance on ultrasound and appearance of the tissue being contributing factors. Sixty-six percent of specialists were directly involved in the management of patients with GTD to various degrees. Follow-up responsibilities were divided between designated O&G specialists (52.3%), specialised gynaecology clinics (29.2%), acute assessment units (13.8%), nurse specialists (12%), O&G registrars (10.8%), GPs (6.2%), and others (6.2%). NZGCG guidelines were used by the majority of responders (54.8%), followed by local (29%) and RCOG (27.4%) guidelines. Seventy-two percent of specialists felt that some form of centralisation in the management of GTD is needed.
CONCLUSION: In spite of the low response rate, our research demonstrates existing practice heterogeneity at every level of care. It also confirms that there is a desire for some form of centralisation in diagnosis and management of GTD, and a definite need for data collection in the form of a national register.

Pockett R, Peate M, Hobbs K, et al.
The characteristics of oncology social work in Australia: Implications for workforce planning in integrated cancer care.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2016; 12(4):444-452 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To describe the demographics, professional characteristics, self-reported professional development needs and research involvement of oncology social workers in Australia and to describe perceived barriers to provision of quality psychosocial care.
METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was administered to social workers working in the oncology field who were contacted through three professional organizations; the Australian Association of Social Workers, Oncology Social Work Australia and the Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research Group, the University of Sydney. A snowball recruitment method was adopted to maximize the sample size.
RESULTS: Two thirds of respondents had over 10 years professional practice experience but with lesser experience in oncology settings. Twenty-eight percent had post-graduate qualifications. Professional development needs were reported as moderate or high by 68% of respondents. No association between professional needs and work setting was found. Years of experience in oncology practice and living in an urban area increased the likelihood of involvement in research. Barriers to psychosocial care included poor understandings of the social work role, time constraints and an inadequate number of social work positions.
CONCLUSION: In this first Australian study of the social work oncology workforce, the results demonstrated active, well-qualified and experienced social workers providing frontline services to people with cancer and their caregivers in geographically diverse locations across Australia. Inadequate resources and a lack of integrated psychosocial care were identified as barriers to comprehensive cancer care. The need for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social workers was identified as an urgent workforce priority.

James ML, Dehn G, Robinson BA
Hypofractionated radiation treatment in early breast cancer: Results in a New Zealand setting.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2016; 12(3):248-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: High-quality evidence supports that hypofractionated radiation treatment (HFRT) is as effective and safe in early breast cancer as conventionally fractionated radiation treatment. HFRT with fewer treatments has potential benefits for both patients and radiation departments. Despite this, concerns about local control and toxicity with HFRT persist, such that many eligible patients do not receive HFRT. The local recurrence rates and acute toxicity after HFRT was analyzed in our center in Christchurch, New Zealand.
METHODS: An audit was undertaken of all early breast cancer (T1-2 and N0-1) patients treated with HFRT from Jan 21, 2004, to December 31, 2006, dating from the adoption of HFRT in our department. Sixty-eight percent of the patients during this time received HFRT (274/402). Acute toxicity was prospectively recorded and local, regional and distant recurrences were documented.
RESULTS: A total of 274 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up of 7 years (range 0.55-9.5 years). Eleven of 274 patients had local recurrence only. The local recurrence-free survival was 97.2% and 95.8% at 7 years. The skin, lethargy and breast pain acute toxicity was less than grade 3, except for one patient experiencing grade 3 breast pain.
CONCLUSION: Low local recurrence rates and acceptably low acute toxicity were achieved in a local setting with HFRT, comparable to results achieved in large randomized controlled trials. HFRT is a valid option for eligible patients and its use should be encouraged.

Tervonen HE, Aranda S, Roder D, et al.
Differences in impact of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status on cancer stage and survival by level of socio-economic disadvantage and remoteness of residence-A population-based cohort study in Australia.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 41:132-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (referred to in this paper as "Aboriginal people") generally have lower cancer survivals and more advanced stages at diagnosis than non-Aboriginal people. There is conflicting evidence on whether these disparities vary by socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. This study examines variations in these disparities in New South Wales (NSW), Australia.
METHODS: Data for cancers diagnosed in 2000-2008 were extracted from the NSW Cancer Registry (n=264,219). Missing Aboriginal status (13.3%) was multiply imputed. Logistic regression and competing risk regression models were used to examine likelihood of advanced summary stage and risk of cancer death among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people by socio-economic disadvantage (categorised into quintiles 1: least disadvantaged-5: most disadvantaged) and remoteness.
RESULTS: Aboriginal people showed a general pattern of more advanced stage at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal people across socio-economic disadvantage and remoteness categories. After adjusting for demographic factors, year of diagnosis, summary stage and cancer site, Aboriginal people living outside the least disadvantaged areas had an increased risk of cancer death compared with non-Aboriginal people living in similar areas (sub-hazard ratio SHR 1.41, 95% confidence interval CI 1.09-1.81; SHR 1.59, 95%CI 1.31-1.93; SHR 1.42, 95%CI 1.22-1.64 and SHR 1.34, 95%CI 1.22-1.48 for quintiles 2-5, respectively). Compared with non-Aboriginal people, Aboriginal people had an elevation in the risk of cancer death irrespective of the remoteness, with the most pronounced elevations detected in remote/very remote areas (SHR 1.56, 95%CI 1.10-2.21).
CONCLUSION: Compared with non-Aboriginal people, Aboriginal people had a higher risk of cancer death and higher likelihood of more advanced stage across socio-economic disadvantage and remoteness categories. All areas appear to require attention in endeavours to improve cancer survival outcomes for Aboriginal people.

Elwood JM, Aye PS, Tin Tin S
Increasing Disadvantages in Cancer Survival in New Zealand Compared to Australia, between 2000-05 and 2006-10.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150734 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
New Zealand has lower cancer survival compared to its neighbour Australia. If this were due to long established differences between the two patient populations, it might be expected to be either constant in time, or decreasing, as improving health services deals with inequities. In this study we compared trends in relative cancer survival ratios in New Zealand and Australia between 2000-05 and 2006-10, using data from the New Zealand Cancer Registry and the Australian Institute for Health and Welfare. Over this period, Australia showed significant improvements (6.0% in men, 3.0% in women) in overall 5-year cancer survival, with substantial increases in survival from major cancer sites such as lung, bowel, prostate, and breast cancers. New Zealand had only a 1.8% increase in cancer survival in men and 1.3% in women, with non-significant changes in survival from lung and bowel cancers, although there were increases in survival from prostate and breast cancers. For all cancers combined, and for lung and bowel cancer, the improvements in survival and the greater improvements in Australia were mainly in 1-year survival, suggesting factors related to diagnosis and presentation. For breast cancer, the improvements were similar in each country and seen in survival after the first year. The findings underscore the need to accelerate the efforts to improve early diagnosis and optimum treatment for New Zealand cancer patients to catch up with the progress in Australia.

Lao C, Obertová Z, Brown C, et al.
Differences in survival between Māori and New Zealand Europeans with prostate cancer.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2016; 25(2):262-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to examine the survival disparity between Māori men and New Zealand (NZ) Europeans diagnosed with prostate cancer. We identified men aged 40+ years in the Midland Cancer Network region registered with prostate cancer in 2007-2010 in the Cancer Registry. Data were extracted from patient notes of all Māori men and a sample of NZ Europeans. The survival disparity between Māori men and Europeans was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models after adjusting for other factors. This study included 535 men with prostate cancer (135 Māori men and 400 Europeans). The 5-year cancer-specific survival was 98.6% for men diagnosed with localised cancer, 88.8% for locally advanced disease and 19.1% for metastatic cancer. The all-cause survival and the cancer-specific survival were both significantly poorer for Māori men than for NZ Europeans (log rank test: P = 0.004, 0.006 respectively). The hazard ratio of cancer-specific survival for Māori men was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.21-3.36) compared with NZ Europeans. Māori men with prostate cancer had poorer all-cause survival and cancer-specific survival than NZ Europeans. Māori men were at risk of having more advanced disease at diagnosis, which explains most of the survival inequity between Māori men and NZ Europeans.

Diaz A, Bernardes CM, Garvey G, Valery PC
Supportive care needs among Indigenous cancer patients in Queensland, Australia: less comorbidity is associated with greater practical and cultural unmet need.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2016; 25(2):242-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Little is known about the supportive care needs (SCN) of Australian Indigenous cancer patients. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between comorbidity and SCN among newly diagnosed Indigenous cancer patients in Queensland. Comorbidity was ascertained from medical chart review using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and SCN were measured using the Supportive Care Needs Assessment Tool for Indigenous Peoples (SCNAT-IP). Of 183 participants, 76 (42%) had no comorbidity (CCI = 0), 60 (33%) had had a CCI score of 1 and 47 (26%) had a CCI of two or more, with the most common condition being diabetes (30%). The most common moderate-high unmet need items varied between comorbidity groups, although all patients most frequently reported moderate-high unmet need in the Physical and Psychological and the Practical and Cultural needs domains. Patients with the greatest comorbidity (CCI ≥ 2) had significantly more reduced odds of practical and cultural needs than patients without comorbidity (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.75). This appeared to be partially explained by time since diagnosis, age, whether they were receiving current treatment and residential remoteness. Patients' experience of chronic disease, hospitals and the healthcare system may better prepare them for the practical and cultural aspects of their cancer journey.

Lawrenson R, Seneviratne S, Scott N, et al.
Breast cancer inequities between Māori and non-Māori women in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2016; 25(2):225-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Māori women have one of the highest incidences of breast cancer in the world. This high incidence is generally unexplained although higher rates of obesity and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors that may be important. Māori women are less likely to attend mammographic breast screening and are likely to be diagnosed with more advanced disease. This is one of the reasons for the excess mortality. Another factor is differences in the treatment pathway. Māori women are more likely to experience delay in receiving treatment, are less likely to receive radiotherapy, are more likely to be treated with a mastectomy and are less likely to adhere to long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy. However, genetic factors in Māori women do not seem to impact significantly on mortality. This review looks at the inequity between Māori and non-Māori women and addresses the causes. It proposes ways of reducing inequity through primary prevention, increased participation in breast screening and greater standardisation of the treatment pathway for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. We believe that health system improvements will decrease barriers to health care participation for Māori women and suggest that further research into identifying and modifying obstacles within health systems is required.

Slater T, Matheson A, Davies C, et al.
The role and potential of community-based cancer care for Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
N Z Med J. 2016; 129(1430):29-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the contribution to cancer care and prevention by Māori health provider organisations (MHPs) in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
METHODS: A nationwide postal survey of all MHPs (n=253) was undertaken in 2011. The response rate was 55%.
RESULTS: We found that MHPs are delivering a wide range of programmes including cancer prevention services focussed on health promotion, advocacy, information and support. MHPs identified financial hardship, transport difficulties, and lack of information as the greatest barriers to cancer care. Culturally safe care by mainstream providers would improve cancer service provision overall. The importance of trust and long-term relationships, with a focus on families rather than individual-based care, was highlighted.
CONCLUSION: These findings could lead to substantial improvements in quality of life for Māori cancer patients. This is the first study to show how indigenous health providers contribute to cancer care and prevention in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

Boyd M, Blakely T, Atkinson J
Ethnic counts on mortality, New Zealand Cancer Registry and census data: 2006-2011.
N Z Med J. 2016; 129(1429):22-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the effects on lung function of IV magnesium in acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), when given in conjunction with standard bronchodilator therapy.
METHODS: This was a pilot study to a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. 30 patients presenting to ED with AECOPD were included. In addition to standard bronchodilator therapy, 17 patients were given saline, and 13 received 2 g of magnesium sulphate intravenously. Spirometry was carried out at presentation (TA), after initial standard bronchodilator therapy (TB) and immediately (T0), at 60 minutes (T60) and 120 minutes (T120) after trial drug infusion. Primary outcomes were percentage change in FEV1 and FVC at T0, T60 and T120. Secondary outcomes were admission rates, length of stay and requirement for NIV or mechanical ventilation. Trial registration (ANZCTR), ACTRN12613000837729.
RESULTS: Greater improvements were seen in FEV1 at T0, T60 and T120 compared to TB in magnesium group (at T120, mean percentage change in FEV1 was 27.07% with magnesium versus 11.39% in the placebo group, 95%CI 3.7 to 27.7, p=0.01). Similar significantly greater improvements were noted with FVC in the magnesium group, compared to TB.
CONCLUSIONS: IV magnesium sulphate used as an adjunct therapy to standard bronchodilators in AECOPD presenting to ED may improve lung function in the short term.

Seneviratne S, Lawrenson R, Harvey V, et al.
Stage of breast cancer at diagnosis in New Zealand: impacts of socio-demographic factors, breast cancer screening and biology.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:129 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Examination of factors associated with late stage diagnosis of breast cancer is useful to identify areas which are amenable to intervention. This study analyses trends in cancer stage at diagnosis and impact of socio-demographic, cancer biological and screening characteristics on cancer stage in a population-based series of women with invasive breast cancer in New Zealand.
METHODS: All women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 were identified from two regional breast cancer registries. Factors associated with advanced (stages III and IV) and metastatic (stage IV) cancer at diagnosis were analysed in univariate and multivariate models adjusting for covariates.
RESULTS: Of the 12390 women included in this study 2448 (19.7%) were advanced and 575 (4.6%) were metastatic at diagnosis. Māori (OR = 1.86, 1.39-2.49) and Pacific (OR = 2.81, 2.03-3.87) compared with NZ European ethnicity, other urban (OR = 2.00, 1.37-2.92) compared with main urban residency and non-screen (OR = 6.03, 4.41-8.24) compared with screen detection were significantly associated with metastatic cancer at diagnosis in multivariate analysis. A steady increase in the rate of metastatic cancer was seen which has increased from 3.8% during 2000-2003 to 5.0% during 2010-2013 period (p = 0.042).
CONCLUSIONS: Providing equitable high quality primary care and increasing mammographic screening coverage needs to be looked at as possible avenues to reduce late-stage cancer at diagnosis and to reduce ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical disparities in stage of breast cancer at diagnosis in New Zealand.

Foo EW, Moore T, Harris D, et al.
Long-term outcomes of hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases at a New Zealand tertiary level public hospital.
ANZ J Surg. 2016; 86(4):285-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is common with half of all patients developing metastases to the liver. The aim of this study was to document the survival for patients undergoing liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases.
METHOD: A review of all patients undergoing hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases at a New Zealand tertiary level public hospital over a 9-year period was performed.
RESULTS: Primary survival outcomes assessed were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Of the 116 patients followed-up with a median (range) of 53 (10-116) months, the OS at 5 years was 53%. Median survival was 6.5 years. At end of follow-up, 57% of patients were alive and 49% were alive without recurrence. The overall rate of recurrence was 39%.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms that excellent long term survival can be achieved with hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases.

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