Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CCL17 (cancer-related)
Several factors support CLL cell survival in the microenvironment. Under different experimental conditions, IL21 can either induce apoptosis or promote CLL cell survival. To investigate mechanisms involved in the effects of IL21, we studied the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated CLL cells. IL21 was a major regulator of chemokine production in CLL cells and it modulated the expression of genes involved in cell movement, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up-regulated the Th1-related CXCL9 and CXCL10. In addition, IL21 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as CD40, DDR1 and PIK3CD. IL21 modulated a similar set of genes in CLL and normal B-cells (e.g. chemokine genes), whereas other genes, including MYC, TNF, E2F1, EGR2 and GAS-6, were regulated only in CLL cells. An integrated analysis of the miRNome and gene expression indicated that several miRNAs were under IL21 control and these could, in turn, influence the expression of potential target genes. We focused on hsa-miR-663b predicted to down-regulate several relevant genes. Transfection of hsa-miR-663b or its specific antagonist showed that this miRNA regulated CCL17, DDR1, PIK3CD and CD40 gene expression. Our data indicated that IL21 modulates the expression of genes mediating the crosstalk between CLL cells and their microenvironment and miRNAs may take part in this process.
Antonova O, Yossifova L, Staneva R, et al.Changes in the gene expression profile of the bladder cancer cell lines after treatment with Helix lucorum and Rapana venosa hemocyanin.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):180-7 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of the Helix lucorum hemocyanin (HlH), b-HlH-h, and RvH2-g hemocyanins as potential agents against bladder cancer.
METHODS: We evaluated the viability of 647-V, T-24, and CAL-29 bladder cancer cell lines after treatment with the tested hemocyanins. The cell viability was measured at 72 hrs with MTT and WST-1 assays. Acridine orange/propidium iodide double staining was used to discriminate between apoptotic and necrotic cells. Gene expression profiling of the 168 genes from human inflammatory cytokines and signal transduction pathways were performed on the tumor cells before and after hemocyanins' treatment.
RESULTS: The results showed decreased survival of cancer cells in the presence of HlH and two functional units: b-HlH-h and RvH2-g. Acridine orange/propidium iodide double staining revealed that the decreased viability was due to apoptosis. The gene expression data showed upregulation of genes involved in the apoptosis as well as of the immune system activation, and downregulation of the CCL2, CCL17, CCL21, CXCL1, and ABCF1 genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to report gene expression in human cells under the influence of hemocyanins. The mechanism of antitumor activity of the HlH, b-HlH-h, and RvH2-g hemocyanins includes induction of apoptosis. In addition to the antiproliferative effect, downregulation of the genes with metastatic potential was observed. Together with the already known immunogenic effect, these findings support further studies on hemocyanins as potential therapeutic agents against bladder cancer.
The inflamed tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms through which immune cells, particularly macrophages, promote tumorigenesis have only been partially elucidated, and the full scope of signaling pathways supplying macrophages with protumorigenic phenotypes still remain largely unknown. Here we report that germ-line absence of c-Jun N-terminal phosphorylation at serines 63 and 73 impedes inflammation-associated hepatocarcinogenesis, yet deleting c-Jun only in hepatocytes does not inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) formation. Moreover, in human HCC-bearing livers, c-Jun phosphorylation is found in inflammatory cells, whereas it is mostly absent from malignant hepatocytes. Interestingly, macrophages in livers of mice with chronic hepatitis gradually switch their phenotype along the course of disease. Macrophage phenotype and density are dictated by c-Jun phosphorylation, in vitro and in vivo. Transition of macrophage phenotype, from antitumorigenic to protumorigenic, occurs before tumorigenesis, resulting in the production of various chemokines, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) and CCL22. Such signals, emanating from the liver microenvironment, direct the recruitment of regulatory T cells, which are known to facilitate HCC growth. Our findings identify c-Jun phosphorylation as a key mediator of macrophage education and point to the recruitment of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells as a possible protumorigenic mechanism.
Yang G, Li H, Yao Y, et al.Treg/Th17 imbalance in malignant pleural effusion partially predicts poor prognosis.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(1):478-84 [PubMed
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Accumulating evidence shows that an imbalance in regulatory T cells (Tregs)/T helper IL-17-producing cells (Th17) exists in malignant pleural effusion (MPE). However, the cause of this phenomenon in MPE and the underlying mechanism remain uncertain. The percentages of Tregs and Th17 cells in MPE and parapneumonic effusion (PPE) were determined by flow cytometry. Their specific transcription factors, forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt); related cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF‑β1); and chemokines, C-C motif ligand 17 (CCL17) and CCL20, were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Compared to patients with PPE, patients with MPE presented a higher percentage of Tregs but a lower frequency of Th17 cells. Foxp3 mRNA expression level in the cells in the pleural effusion was significantly increased in patients with MPE compared to the levels in patients with PPE (MPE vs. PPE: 3.05±0.62 vs. 0.52±0.11, p=0.0012). It was also noted that high levels of IL-10, TGF-β1 and CCL17 were observed in MPE when compared to PPE (MPE vs. PPE: IL-10, 166.3±39.53 vs. 40.38±10.92 pg/ml, p=0.0307; TGF-β1, 10,720±1,274 vs. 1,747±293.2 pg/ml, p<0.0001; CCL17, 341.1±88.22 vs. 119.2±19.80 pg/ml, p=0.0427). Furthermore, a high ratio of Tregs/Th17 cells in MPE was highly correlated to poor survival. An alteration in CCL17 and CCL20 might contribute to the Treg/Th17 imbalance in MPE, which partially predicts a poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer.
The involvement of Bregs in cancer remains poorly understood despite their well-documented regulation of responses to the self and protection from harmful autoimmunity. We recently discovered a unique regulatory B cell subset evoked by breast cancer to mediate protection of metastasizing cancer cells. These results together with the wealth of findings of the last 40 years on B cells in tumorigenesis suggest the existence of additional cancer Bregs modulating anticancer responses. To facilitate the search for them, here we provide our detailed protocol for the characterization and generation of tumor-evoked regulatory B cells. Wherever applicable, we also discuss nuances and uniqueness of a Breg study in cancer to warn potential pitfalls.
Celegato M, Borghese C, Umezawa K, et al.The NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ decreases survival factors, overcomes the protective activity of microenvironment and synergizes with chemotherapy agents in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 349(1):26-34 [PubMed
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The NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ has shown preclinical activity in classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL). Here we evaluated if DHMEQ could affect microenvironmental interactions and formation and improve the activity of drugs used in relapsed/refractory cHL. We demonstrated that DHMEQ down-regulated the NF-κB target genes IRF4 and CD40, the secretion of IL-6, CCL5, CCL17 and generated ROS. Cytotoxicity, CD30 down-modulation and CD30 shedding by DHMEQ were prevented by ROS scavenger NAC. DHMEQ overcame stimuli from CD40 engagement and fibroblasts and enhanced doxorubicin, cisplatin and gemcitabine activity. Our results suggest that DHMEQ may be a promising agent for future therapeutic strategies in cHL.
PURPOSE: Although the International Prognostic Score (IPS) is the gold standard for risk-stratifying patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), these criteria do not accurately predict outcome. As cytokines are critically involved in driving cHL, we tested whether pretreatment serum cytokine levels could provide additional prognostic information.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty cytokines were measured in pretreatment serum from 140 patients with cHL and compared with 50 nonlymphoma controls. Patients were followed for event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS), and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of individual cytokines and the cytokine profiles with outcome via unadjusted and IPS-adjusted HR.
RESULTS: Twelve cytokines (EGF, bFGF, G-CSF, HGF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-2R, IP-10, MIG, TNF-α, and VEGF) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in patients with cHL than controls; elevated levels of HGF, IL-6, IL-2R, IP-10, and MIG were all associated with poorer EFS. Only interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R; P = 0.002) and interleukin (IL)-6 (P < 0.001) were independently prognostic. Patients with increased IL-6 and IL-2R had a significantly higher risk of early relapse and death, a finding that remained significant even after IPS-based risk stratification. Although elevated IL-6 and IL-2R correlated with the IPS, soluble CD30 (sCD30), and thymus and activation-related chemokine (TARC) levels, the two-cytokine model remained independently predictive of prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated pretreatment serum cytokines are associated with increased disease relapse and inferior survival in cHL. Thus, the pretreatment cytokine profile, particularly serum levels of IL-6 and IL-2R, may be used to identify patients with cHL at high risk for early-disease relapse.
Ghesquières H, Maurer MJ, Casasnovas O, et al.Cytokine gene polymorphisms and progression-free survival in classical Hodgkin lymphoma by EBV status: results from two independent cohorts.
Cytokine. 2013; 64(2):523-31 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytokines are important immune mediators of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) pathogenesis, and circulating levels at diagnosis may help predict prognosis. Germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune genes have been correlated with cytokine production and function.
METHODS: We investigated whether selected germline SNPs in IL10 (rs1800890, rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872), TNFA (rs1800629), IL6 (rs1800795), ILRN (rs419598), INFG (rs2430561) and CCL17 (rs223828) were associated with circulating levels of related cytokines at diagnosis and progression-free survival (PFS) in CHL. Patients were from France (GELA, N=464; median age=32years) and the United States (Iowa/Mayo Specialized Program Of Research Excellence [SPORE], N=239; median age=38years); 22% of 346 CHL cases with EBV tumor status were positive.
RESULTS: There was no association with any of the SNPs with cytokine levels. Overall, there was no association of any of the SNPs with PFS. In exploratory analyses by EBV status, TNFA rs1800629 (HRAA/AG=2.41; 95%CI, 1.17-4.94) was associated with PFS in EBV-negative GELA patients, with similar trends in the SPORE patients (HRAA/AG=1.63; 95%CI, 0.61-4.40). In a meta-analysis of the two studies, TNFA (HRAA/AG=2.11; 95%CI, 1.18-3.77; P=0.01) was statistically significant, and further adjustment for the international prognostic system did not alter this result.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that germline variation in TNFA was associated with CHL prognosis for EBV-negative patients, which will require confirmation. These results support broader studies on the differential impact of genetic variation in immune genes on EBV-positive vs. EBV-negative CHL pathogenesis.
Huang SP, Lin VC, Lee YC, et al.Genetic variants in nuclear factor-kappa B binding sites are associated with clinical outcomes in prostate cancer patients.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(17):3729-37 [PubMed
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Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors have been suggested to be involved in prostate cancer progression. Activated NF-κB translocates to the nucleus, binds to NF-κB binding sites and regulates target gene expression, leading to the given physiological response. It was hypothesised that the sequence variants in NF-κB binding sites might affect prostate cancer progression. We systematically evaluated 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within NF-κB binding sites those were predicted using a genome-wide database in a cohort of 1024 prostate cancer patients. Associations of these SNPs with prostate cancer characteristics and clinical outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) for localised disease, and after androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for advanced disease were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression model. We found that PSMD7 rs2387084 and MYCN rs1429409 were significantly related to earlier onset of prostate cancer and advanced clinical stage, respectively. No SNPs were significantly associated with disease recurrence after RP. Four and three SNPs were notably associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and all-cause mortality (ACM), respectively, after ADT. LSAMP rs13088089, CCL17 rs223899, PSMD7 rs2387084 and MON1B rs284924 remained the significant predictors for PCSM whilst PSMD7 rs2387084 remained a significant predictor for ACM in multivariate models including clinical predictors. Moreover, we also noted that there were strong effects of the combined genotype on PCSM and patients with a greater number of unfavourable genotypes had a shorter time to PCSM during ADT (P for trend<0.001). It was concluded that SNPs inside NF-κB binding sites might be useful to improve outcome prediction in prostate cancer patients.
The microenvironment of human follicular lymphoma (FL), an incurable B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is thought to play a major role in its pathogenesis and course. Microenvironmental cells of likely importance include follicular Th cells (TFH) and regulatory T cells (Tregs), and understanding their interactions with FL tumor cells is necessary to develop novel therapeutic strategies. We found that IL-4 and CD40L are expressed by intratumoral TFH and induce production of CCL17 and CCL22 by FL tumor cells. IL-4 alone induces only CCL17 but enhances stimulation by CD40L of both CCL17 and CCL22. Consistent with our in vitro results, mRNA transcripts of IL-4 correlated with CCL17, but not CCL22, in gene expression profiling studies of FL biopsies, whereas CD40L correlated with both CCL17 and CCL22. Tumor supernatants induced preferential migration of Tregs and IL-4-producing T cells rather than IFN-γ-producing T cells, and Abs to CCR4 significantly abrogated the migration of Tregs. Our results suggest that through two distinct mechanisms, intratumoral TFH induce production of CCL17 and CCL22 by FL tumor cells and facilitate active recruitment of Tregs and IL-4-producing T cells, which, in turn, may stimulate more chemokine production in a feed-forward cycle. Thus, TFH appear to play a major role in generating an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that promotes immune escape and tumor survival and growth. Our results provide novel insights into the cross talk among TFH, tumor cells, and Tregs in FL, and offer potential targets for development of therapeutic strategies to overcome immune evasion.
Al-haidari AA, Syk I, Jirström K, Thorlacius HCCR4 mediates CCL17 (TARC)-induced migration of human colon cancer cells via RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2013; 28(11):1479-87 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Accumulating data suggest a role of chemokines in tumor cell metastasis. CCR4 has been implicated in hematologic malignancies and recently also in solid tumors. Herein, we hypothesized that CCR4 might be expressed and support migration of colon cancer cells.
METHODS: We used quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry to determine mRNA and surface expression of CCR4 on colon cancer cell lines (HT-29) and (AZ-97). Total RhoA and active RhoA protein levels in CCL17-stimulated colon cancer cells were quantified using ELISA and G-LISA assays. Migration assays were performed to evaluate colon cancer cells chemotaxis. In vitro tumor growth was assessed using proliferation assay.
RESULTS: Our results show clear-cut mRNA levels and surface expression of CCR4 on a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and on tumor cells (AZ-97). CCR4 ligand CCL17 (TARC) was a potent stimulator of colon cancer cell migration. This CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration was inhibited by pre-incubation of the colon cancer cells with an antibody directed against CCR4 or an antagonist against CCR4. CCL17-induced signaling in colon cancer cells revealed that CCL17 increased mRNA formation of RhoA-C in colon cancer cells. Our results also found that CCL17 increased total RhoA and active RhoA protein levels in colon cancer cells. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 abolished CCL17-induced colon cancer cell chemotaxis. In addition, inhibition of isoprenylation by GGTI-2133 markedly reduced colon cancer cell migration triggered by CCL17.
CONCLUSIONS: Our novel data indicate for the first time that the CCL17-CCR4 axis might be involved in the spread of colon cancer cells.
Despite significant attractiveness of antisense oligonucleotide/RNAi technology, its clinical application has been precluded by a lack of methods for targeted delivery and transduction of primary immune cells in vivo. Here, we devised a chemokine CCL17-based strategy (TARC-arp) that transiently silences expression of genes in immune cells by delivering inhibitory oligonucleotides through their chemokine receptors. In modeling studies using mice with established 4T1.2 breast cancer, we show that IL10 produced by CCR4 cells, in particular FoxP3 regulatory T cells (Tregs), plays an important role in lung metastasis. As such, TARC-arp-mediated silencing of IL10 or FoxP3 in CCR4 Tregs is sufficient to block lung metastasis. Thus, we provide a simple solution that circumvents the problems of RNAi use in vivo, indicating that a disease outcome can be successfully controlled by delivering inhibitory oligonucleotides with chemokines to inactivate a selective subset of immune cells.
Bégué E, Jean-Louis F, Bagot M, et al.Inducible expression and pathophysiologic functions of T-plastin in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2012; 120(1):143-54 [PubMed
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A molecular feature of Sézary syndrome (SS) is the abnormal expression of T-plastin by malignant T cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in T-plastin synthesis and the functions of this actin-binding protein, with a special interest in chemoresistance and migration. We confirm the specific expression of T-plastin in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from SS patients and its total absence in PBLs from patients with mycosis fungoides, inflammatory cutaneous or hematologic diseases, and from healthy volunteers. Only 3 of 4 SS patients did constitutively express T-plastin. To assess whether T-plastin expression was inducible, T-plastin-negative PBLs were stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin. Our results demonstrate that T-plastin synthesis was induced in negative PBLs from SS patients, other studied patients, and healthy volunteers. Both constitutive and calcium-induced T-plastin expression was down-regulated by calcineurin inhibitors and involved nuclear factor of activated T cells transcription pathway. Constitutive T-plastin expression in SS was associated with resistance to etoposide-induced apoptosis and cell migration toward chemokines (TARC/CCL17, IP-10). In conclusion, T-plastin is a marker restricted to malignant lymphocytes from SS patients and plays a role for cell survival and migration. This opens new strategies for the treatment of SS advanced stages.
Miyagaki T, Sugaya M, Suga H, et al.Increased CCL18 expression in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: association with disease severity and prognosis.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013; 27(1):e60-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 18 is expressed by monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), and has potent chemotactic activity for T cells, B cells and DCs. CCL18 expression is up-regulated in lesional skin of atopic dermatitis and bullous pemphigoid, suggesting its important roles in the development of these skin diseases.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate roles of CCL18 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL).
METHODS: The CCL18 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in CTCL skin (n = 21) and in normal skin (n = 7) was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. CCL18 expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry. Serum CCL18 levels were measured in 38 patients with CTCL and 20 healthy controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also analysed correlation between serum CCL18 levels and other clinical and laboratory data.
RESULTS: The CTCL lesional skin contained higher levels of CCL18 mRNA than normal skin. CCL18 was expressed by dermal macrophages and DCs in CTCL skin. Serum CCL18 levels in patients with CTCL were significantly higher than those of healthy controls and correlated with types of skin lesions. They also significantly correlated with modified severity-weighted assessment scores, serum sIL-2R, LDH, IL-4, IL-10, IL-31, CCL17 and CCL26 levels. Patients with high serum levels of CCL18 showed significantly poor prognosis compared with those with low CCL18 levels.
CONCLUSION: CCL18 mRNA is up-regulated in CTCL lesional skin, and serum CCL18 levels are significantly increased and correlated with the severity of CTCL. These results suggest that CCL18 may be associated with the development of CTCL.
Hatam LJ, Devoti JA, Rosenthal DW, et al.Immune suppression in premalignant respiratory papillomas: enriched functional CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and PD-1/PD-L1/L2 expression.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(7):1925-35 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Respiratory papillomas, caused by human papillomaviruses types 6 and 11 (HPV6/11), are premalignant lesions with potential for malignant conversion. The cytokine and chemokine micromilieu of papillomas is T(H)2-like with a marked absence of IFN-γ expression. To illuminate why patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) fail to effectively control their disease, we further investigated the suppressive cellular microenvironment in papillomas.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and CD4(+)CD25(-)CD127(low/-)Foxp3(-) T cells within papillomas were characterized and isolated. Their suppressor function was measured by inhibition of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation. Expression of PD-1, CD69, and Helios was identified on these T cells. PD-L1, PD-L2, CCL17, and CCL22 mRNA was also identified in papillomas by quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Functional Tregs were markedly enriched in papillomas and strongly inhibited anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibody activated PBMC proliferation. The natural Treg marker Helios was reduced on Tregs from papillomas, indicating that the majority of Tregs in papillomas are adaptive. The majority of the papilloma-derived CD4(+) T cells expressed the CD4(+)CD25(-)CD127(low/-)Foxp3(-)PD1(+)CD69(+) phenotype and failed to suppress PBMC proliferation, suggesting that they are chronically activated and exhausted. The Treg-attracting chemokine CCL22 was equally expressed by all laryngeal tissues examined. However, CCL17 was robustly expressed by papillomas compared with unaffected laryngeal tissues from RRP patients and individuals without RRP. PD-L1 was elevated in papillomas compared with control laryngeal tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Papilloma CD4(+) T cells are enriched with functional Tregs, and the adaptive Helios(-) Treg fraction was increased within the T(H)2-like papilloma micromilieu. CD4(+)CD25(-)CD127(low/-)Foxp3(-) T-cells failed to suppress PBMC proliferation and may be exhausted. The PD-1/PDL-1 pathway may represent an additional immunosuppressive mechanism that contributes to defective HPV6/11 clearance in RRP.
de Souza A, el-Azhary RA, Camilleri MJ, et al.In search of prognostic indicators for lymphomatoid papulosis: a retrospective study of 123 patients.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012; 66(6):928-37 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is a benign recurrent papulonodular skin eruption with histologically malignant features that sometimes (10%-20%) progresses to lymphoma.
OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical course of patients with LyP and identify prognostic factors possibly indicating a malignant course.
METHODS: Clinical, histopathologic, and immunologic features and molecular genetics were examined and correlated with clinical course and outcomes. Immunophenotyping and chemokine profiling were performed in select skin biopsy samples. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to patients. Clinical course and association with neoplastic disorders were correlated with LyP subtypes, molecular genetics, and immunophenotyping studies.
RESULTS: Of 123 patients with LyP (1991-2008) followed up a mean of 4 years (range, 2 months to 14 years), 17 (14%) had an associated hematologic malignancy, 8 of which were mycosis fungoides. Histopathologic analyses demonstrated classic LyP type A (n = 69), B (n = 13), or C (n = 6), and a slight predominance of T-cell CD8 marker expression for type A. More than one type of lesion was present in 9 patients with a higher incidence of hematologic malignancies. T-cell receptor gene rearrangement positivity was about two times higher, with LyP associated with hematologic malignancy (82% vs 44%; odds ratio 5.7; P = .02). Chemokine studies in a subset of 25 patients showed chemokine receptor (CCR) CCR4(+) and thymus and activation-related chemokine (TARC(+)) in all LyP types and CCR3(+) and chemokine-related receptor (CXCR) CXCR3(+) in types B and C.
LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study design is a limitation.
CONCLUSIONS: Positive T-cell receptor gene rearrangement or diagnosis of mixed-type LyP may be a prognostic indicator of disease more prone to progress to lymphoma.
de Chaisemartin L, Goc J, Damotte D, et al.Characterization of chemokines and adhesion molecules associated with T cell presence in tertiary lymphoid structures in human lung cancer.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(20):6391-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
De novo formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) has been described in lung cancers. Intratumoral TLS seem to be functional and are associated with a long-term survival for lung cancer patients, suggesting that they represent an activation site for tumor-specific T cells. Here, we characterized T-cell recruitment to TLS in human lung cancer to identify the adhesion molecules and chemoattractants orchestrating this migration. We found that most TLS T cells were CD62L+ and mainly of CD4+ memory phenotype, but naive T cells were highly enriched in these structures as compared with the rest of the tumor. A specific gene expression signature associated with T cell presence was identified in TLS, which included chemokines (CCL19, CCL21, CXCL13, CCL17, CCL22, and IL16), adhesion molecules (ICAM-2, ICAM-3, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1) and integrins (alphaL, alpha4, and alphaD). The presence of the corresponding receptors on TLS T cells was confirmed. Intratumoral PNAd+ high endothelial venules also were exclusively associated with TLS and colocalized with CD62L+ lymphocytes. Together, these data bring new insights into the T-cell recruitment to intratumoral TLS and suggest that blood T cell enter into TLS via high endothelial venules, which represent a new gateway for T cells to the tumor. Findings identify the molecules that mediate migration of tumor-specific T cells into TLS where T cell priming occurs, suggesting new strategies to enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies.
Faget J, Biota C, Bachelot T, et al.Early detection of tumor cells by innate immune cells leads to T(reg) recruitment through CCL22 production by tumor cells.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(19):6143-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In breast carcinomas, patient survival seems to be negatively affected by the recruitment of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) within lymphoid aggregates by CCL22. However, the mechanisms underpinning this process, which may be of broader significance in solid tumors, have yet to be described. In this study, we determined how CCL22 production is controlled in tumor cells. In human breast carcinoma cell lines, CCL22 was secreted at low basal levels that were strongly increased in response to inflammatory signals [TNF-α, IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β], contrasting with CCL17. Primary breast tumors and CD45(+) infiltrating immune cells appeared to cooperate in driving CCL22 secretion, as shown clearly in cocultures of breast tumor cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or their supernatants. We determined that monocyte-derived IL-1β and TNF-α are key players as monocyte depletion or neutralization of these cytokines attenuated secretion of CCL22. However, when purified monocytes were used, exogenous human IFN-γ was also required to generate this response suggesting a role for IFN-γ-producing cells within PBMCs. In this setting, we found that human IFN-γ could be replaced by the addition of (i) IL-2 or K562-activated natural killer (NK) cells or (ii) resting NK cells in the presence of anti-MHC class I antibody. Taken together, our results show a dialogue between NK and tumor cells leading to IFN-γ secretion, which in turn associates with monocyte-derived IL-1β and TNF-α to drive production of CCL22 by tumor cells and subsequent recruitment of T(reg). As one validation of this conclusion in primary breast tumors, we showed that NK cells and macrophages tend to colocalize within tumors. In summary, our findings suggest that at early times during tumorigenesis, the detection of tumor cells by innate effectors (monocytes and NK cells) imposes a selection for CCL22 secretion that recruits T(reg) to evade this early antitumor immune response.
Li JY, Ou ZL, Yu SJ, et al.The chemokine receptor CCR4 promotes tumor growth and lung metastasis in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 131(3):837-48 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Increasing evidence has shown that chemokines and chemokine receptors are associated with tumor growth and metastasis. CCR4, an important chemokine receptor for regulating immune homeostasis, is thought to be involved in hematologic malignancies and has also recently implicated in some solid tumors, such as gastric cancer. The possible role of CCR4 in breast cancer has not been well elucidated. In this study, we show that CCR4 is differentially expressed in human breast cancer cell lines. Specifically, we find that CCR4 is overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines with high metastatic potential. More importantly, we used a combination of overexpression and RNA interference to demonstrate that CCR4 promotes breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in mice. Furthermore, we find that microvessel density is significantly increased in tumors formed by CCR4-overexpressing cells and decreased in those formed by CCR4-knockdown cells. We find that overexpression of CCR4 can enhance the chemotactic response of breast cancer cells to CCL17. However, the expression of CCR4 does not affect the proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, we show that CCR4 expression is positively correlated with HER2 expression, tumor recurrence and lymph node, lung and bone metastasis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that CCR4 expression is a significant independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.036) but not for disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer (P = 0.071). Survival analysis indicated a strong association between CCR4 expression and lower overall survival (P = 0.0001) and disease-free survival (P = 0.016) in breast cancer.
Slovak ML, Bedell V, Hsu YH, et al.Molecular karyotypes of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells at disease onset reveal distinct copy number alterations in chemosensitive versus refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(10):3443-54 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the recurring DNA copy number alterations (CNA) in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using laser capture microdissected CD30(+) Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Archived tissues from 27 CD30(+) HL plus control samples were analyzed by DNA microarrays. The HL molecular karyotypes were compared with the genomic profiles of germinal center B cells and treatment outcome (chemotherapy responsive vs. primary refractory disease).
RESULTS: Gains and losses observed in more than 35% of HL samples were localized to 22 and 12 chromosomal regions, respectively. Frequent gains (>65%) were associated with growth and proliferation, NF-κB activation, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and immune and lymphoid development. Frequent losses (>40%) observed encompassed tumor suppressor genes (SPRY1, NELL1, and ID4, inhibitor of DNA binding 4), transcriptional repressors (TXNIP, thioredoxin interacting protein), SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2; ubiquitin ligase component), and an antagonist of NF-κB activation (PPARGC1A). In comparison to the germinal center profiles, the most frequent imbalances in HL were losses in 5p13 (AMACR, GDNF, and SKP2), and gains in 7q36 (SHH, sonic hedgehog homolog) and 9q34 (ABL1, CDK9, LCN2, and PTGES). Gains (>35%) in the HL chemoresponsive patients housed genes known to regulate T-cell trafficking or NF-κB activation (CCL22, CX3CL1, CCL17, DOK4, and IL10), whereas the refractory samples showed frequent loss of 4q27 (interleukin; IL21/IL2) and 17p12, and gain of 19q13.3 (BCL3/RELB).
CONCLUSION: We identified nonrandom CNAs in the molecular karyotypes of classical HL. Several recurring genetic lesions correlated with disease outcome. These findings may be useful prognostic markers in the counseling and management of patients and for the development of novel therapeutic approaches in primary refractory HL.
Coffelt SB, Chen YY, Muthana M, et al.Angiopoietin 2 stimulates TIE2-expressing monocytes to suppress T cell activation and to promote regulatory T cell expansion.
J Immunol. 2011; 186(7):4183-90 [PubMed
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Angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) is a proangiogenic cytokine whose expression is often upregulated by endothelial cells in tumors. Expression of its receptor, TIE2, defines a highly proangiogenic subpopulation of myeloid cells in circulation and tumors called TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs). Genetic depletion of TEMs markedly reduces tumor angiogenesis in various tumor models, emphasizing their essential role in driving tumor progression. Previously, we demonstrated that ANGPT2 augments the expression of various proangiogenic genes, the potent immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and a chemokine for regulatory T cells (Tregs), CCL17 by TEMs in vitro. We now show that TEMs also express higher levels of IL-10 than TIE2(-) macrophages in tumors and that ANGPT2-stimulated release of IL-10 by TEMs suppresses T cell proliferation, increases the ratio of CD4(+) T cells to CD8(+) T cells, and promotes the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) Tregs. Furthermore, syngeneic murine tumors expressing high levels of ANGPT2 contained not only high numbers of TEMs but also increased numbers of Tregs, whereas genetic depletion of tumor TEMs resulted in a marked reduction in the frequency of Tregs in tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that ANGPT2-stimulated TEMs represent a novel, potent immunosuppressive force in tumors.
Sorrentino C, Musiani P, Pompa P, et al.Androgen deprivation boosts prostatic infiltration of cytotoxic and regulatory T lymphocytes and has no effect on disease-free survival in prostate cancer patients.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(6):1571-81 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The value of neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) prior to radical prostatectomy as a means of restraining prostate cancer (PCa) and strengthening its immunotherapy is still uncertain. This article asks whether it subverts immunoregulatory pathways governing tumor microenvironments, and has an impact on patient outcome.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We microdissected epithelium and stroma from cancerous and normal prostate specimens from 126 prostatectomized patients, of whom 76 had received NHT, to detect cytokine/chemokine gene expression levels by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Confocal microscopy was used to identify cytokine/chemokine cell sources, and immunostainings to characterize lymphocyte subsets whose prognostic effects were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analyses.
RESULTS: NHT boosted the expression of IL-7 in the stroma and that of IFNγ-inducible protein-10/CXCL10 in the glandular epithelium of normal prostate tissue, and restored the CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion occurring in PCa, whereas it significantly increased the CD4(+) lymphocyte infiltrate. Lymphocytes, mostly with CD8(+) phenotype, expressed the T-cell intracellular antigen-1, granzyme-B, and perforin, typical of cytotoxic-effector T cells. NHT also induced thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 production by monocytes/macrophages in the prostate and draining lymph nodes, and increased the number of their Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) T regulatory (Treg) cells. The χ(2) test disclosed the lack of association (P = 0.27) between NHT and the high intratumoral CD8(+)/Treg ratio indicative of a good prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Androgen withdrawal regulates cytokine/chemokine gene expression in normal prostate and lymphoid tissues, and this probably favors both CD8(+) and Treg infiltrates, leaves their intratumoral balance unchanged, and thus has no impact on disease-free survival.
Aldinucci D, Celegato M, Borghese C, et al.IRF4 silencing inhibits Hodgkin lymphoma cell proliferation, survival and CCL5 secretion.
Br J Haematol. 2011; 152(2):182-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) expression is detected in many lymphoid and myeloid malignancies, and may be a promising therapeutic target. IRF4 is strongly expressed in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and its expression is up-regulated by CD40L and down-regulated by both anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic stimuli. This study analysed the effects of IRF4 silencing in a panel of HL-derived cell lines. We demonstrated that IRF4 down-modulation determined a remarkable decrease of both cell number and clonogenic growth in L-1236, L-428, KM-H2 and HDLM-2 cells, but not in IRF4-negative L-540 cells. IRF4 silencing induced apoptosis, as evaluated by caspase-3 activation and Annexin-V staining and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bax. CD40 engagement by both soluble and membrane bound-CD40L almost totally reduced IRF4 down-modulation and growth inhibition by IRF4 silencing in both L-1236 and L-428 cells. Finally, IRF4 silencing decreased CCL5 secretion in all HL cell lines tested and CCL17 in KM-H2 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IRF4 down-modulation by IRF4 silencing was reversed by CD40 engagement, inhibited HL cells proliferation, induced apoptosis and decreased CCL5 secretion, thus suggesting that IRF4 may be involved in HL pathobiology.
Hiraoka N, Yamazaki-Itoh R, Ino Y, et al.CXCL17 and ICAM2 are associated with a potential anti-tumor immune response in early intraepithelial stages of human pancreatic carcinogenesis.
Gastroenterology. 2011; 140(1):310-21 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND & AIMS: Anti-tumor immunity changes over the course of tumor progression; it is not clear how or when the developing tumor overcomes immune surveillance. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is an intraepithelial precursor lesion of pancreatic cancer that progresses from adenoma to carcinoma. We investigated when and how the human anti-tumor immune reaction changes during pancreatic tumor development.
METHODS: Using immunohistochemical analysis of cells isolated from patients with IPMN, the numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and dendritic cells and the maturation state of dendritic cells in the regional lymph nodes were investigated during tumor progression. Gene expression profiles were compared among epithelial neoplastic cells at each stage of tumor development. Biological functions of the selected gene products were analyzed using syngeneic mouse models.
RESULTS: The anti-tumor immune reaction changed from an immune response to immune tolerance between the stages of intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma (IPMA) and intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (IPMC). Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 17 (CXCL17) and intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM2) were involved in immune surveillance during tumor development-their expression levels were up-regulated exclusively in IPMA and disappeared from IPMC. CXCL17 and ICAM2 induced infiltration and accumulation of the tumor epithelial layer by immature myeloid dendritic cells. This was followed by a cellular immune reaction and ICAM2 simultaneously promoted the susceptibility of the tumor cells to cytotoxic T-cell-mediated cytolysis. These processes had a synergistic effect to increase the anti-tumor immune response.
CONCLUSIONS: Immune surveillance occurs during the early intraepithelial stages of human pancreatic carcinogenesis and is mediated by expression of CXCL17 and ICAM2.
Coffelt SB, Tal AO, Scholz A, et al.Angiopoietin-2 regulates gene expression in TIE2-expressing monocytes and augments their inherent proangiogenic functions.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(13):5270-80 [PubMed
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TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) are a highly proangiogenic subset of myeloid cells in tumors. Here, we show that circulating human TEMs are already preprogrammed in the circulation to be more angiogenic and express higher levels of such proangiogenic genes as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), VEGFA, COX-2, and WNT5A than TIE2(-) monocytes. Additionally, angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) markedly enhanced the proangiogenic activity of TEMs and increased their expression of two proangiogenic enzymes: thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and cathepsin B (CTSB). Three "alternatively activated" (or M2-like) macrophage markers were also upregulated by ANG-2 in TEMs: interleukin-10, mannose receptor (MRC1), and CCL17. To investigate the effects of ANG-2 on the phenotype and function of TEMs in tumors, we used a double-transgenic (DT) mouse model in which ANG-2 was specifically overexpressed by endothelial cells. Syngeneic tumors grown in these ANG-2 DT mice were more vascularized and contained greater numbers of TEMs than those in wild-type (WT) mice. In both tumor types, expression of MMP-9 and MRC1 was mainly restricted to tumor TEMs rather than TIE2(-) macrophages. Furthermore, tumor TEMs expressed higher levels of MRC1, TP, and CTSB in ANG-2 DT tumors than WT tumors. Taken together, our data show that although circulating TEMs are innately proangiogenic, exposure to tumor-derived ANG-2 stimulates these cells to exhibit a broader, tumor-promoting phenotype. As such, the ANG-2-TEM axis may represent a new target for antiangiogenic cancer therapies.
The use of siRNA mediated gene knockdown is continuing to be an important tool in studies of gene expression. siRNA studies are being conducted not only to study the effects of downregulating single genes, but also to interrogate signaling pathways and other complex interaction networks. These pathway analyses require both the use of relevant cellular models and methods that cause less perturbation to the cellular physiology. Electroporation is increasingly being used as an effective way to introduce siRNA and other nucleic acids into difficult to transfect cell lines and primary cells without altering the signaling pathway under investigation. There are multiple critical steps to a successful siRNA experiment, and there are ways to simplify the work while improving the data quality at several experimental stages. To help you get started with your siRNA mediated gene knockdown project, we will demonstrate how to perform a pathway study complete from collecting and counting the cells prior to electroporation through post transfection real-time PCR gene expression analysis. The following study investigates the role of the transcriptional activator STAT6 in IL-4 dependant gene expression of CCL17 in a Burkitt lymphoma cell line (Namalwa). The techniques demonstrated are useful for a wide range of siRNA-based experiments on both adherent and suspension cells. We will also show how to streamline cell counting with the TC10 automated cell counter, how to electroporate multiple samples simultaneously using the MXcell electroporation system, and how to simultaneously assess RNA quality and quantity with the Experion automated electrophoresis system.
Kang S, Xie J, Ma S, et al.Targeted knock down of CCL22 and CCL17 by siRNA during DC differentiation and maturation affects the recruitment of T subsets.
Immunobiology. 2010; 215(2):153-62 [PubMed
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Chemokines secreted by DC are instrumental for DC to regulate their own migratory capacities and to recruit T lymphocytes during local tumour immune response. Using the recently developed chemokine protein arrays, we analyzed 38 chemokines associated with monocyte-derived DC (MoDC), including the CC family (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CCL23, CCL24, CCL27) and the CXC family (CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL7, CXCL8, CXCL16) chemokines. Our results indicate that MoDC largely inherit the chemokines constitutively expressed by monocytes, with a significant induction of CCL17, CCL22 and CCL23. Spent culture supernatant collected from MoDC exhibited chemotatic abilities to activate CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Selective knock down of CCL22 and CCL17 expression by siRNA decreased the ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+), as well as the frequency of Tregs recruited by MoDC. Intratumoural injection of MoDC transfected with siCCL22 and siCCL17, significantly reduced the number of Tregs while increasing the number of infiltrating CD8(+) T cells in human tumour xenografts in athymic nude mice. This study demonstrates that chemokine expression of MoDC is complex and may change dynamically. Using siRNA to selectively knock down chemokines which are highly chemoattractive to Tregs may consequentially alter the lymphocyte populations recruited into the tumour microenvironment, therefore has the potency to provide insight into cellular interactions in cancer immunology. This may lead to a new strategy for DC vaccine development to improve cancer immunobiotherapy.
Di Stasi A, De Angelis B, Rooney CM, et al.T lymphocytes coexpressing CCR4 and a chimeric antigen receptor targeting CD30 have improved homing and antitumor activity in a Hodgkin tumor model.
Blood. 2009; 113(25):6392-402 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
For the adoptive transfer of tumor-directed T lymphocytes to prove effective, there will probably need to be a match between the chemokines the tumor produces and the chemokine receptors the effector T cells express. The Reed-Stemberg cells of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) predominantly produce thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine/CC chemokine ligand 17 (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), which preferentially attract type 2 T helper (Th2) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) that express the TARC/MDC-specific chemokine receptor CCR4, thus generating an immunosuppressed tumor environment. By contrast, effector CD8(+) T cells lack CCR4, are nonresponsive to these chemokines and are rarely detected at the tumor site. We now show that forced expression of CCR4 by effector T cells enhances their migration to HL cells. Furthermore, T lymphocytes expressing both CCR4 and a chimeric antigen receptor directed to the HL associated antigen CD30 sustain their cytotoxic function and cytokine secretion in vitro, and produce enhanced tumor control when infused intravenously in mice engrafted with human HL. This approach may be of value in patients affected by HL.
Gustafsson K, Ingelsten M, Bergqvist L, et al.Recruitment and activation of natural killer cells in vitro by a human dendritic cell vaccine.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(14):5965-71 [PubMed
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Recruitment of circulating natural killer (NK) cells into inflamed lymph nodes is known to provide a potent, IFN-gamma-dependent boost for Th1-polarized immune responses in mouse models. Such NK cell recruitment into draining lymph nodes is induced by certain s.c. injected adjuvants, including mature vaccine dendritic cells (DC), and is mediated by a CXCR3-dependent pathway. Here, we show that monocyte-derived immature human DCs stimulated with polyinosinic acid:polycytidylic acid, IFN-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and IFN-gamma, alpha-type 1-polarized DC (alpha DC1), secrete profuse amounts of the CXCR3 ligand CXCL9/MIG and substantial amounts of CXCL10/IP-10 and CXCL11/I-TAC after withdrawal of maturation stimuli. In sharp contrast, no measurable production of these chemokines was found in DCs after maturation with the current gold standard maturation cocktail for human DC-based cancer vaccines consisting of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)-DC). PGE(2)-DCs preferentially produced the Th2 and regulatory T-cell-attracting chemokines CCL17/TARC and CCL22/MDC, whereas only marginal levels of these chemokines were produced by alpha DC1s. Functional studies in vitro showed that supernatants from mature alpha DC1s actively recruited CD3(-)CD56(+) NK cells and that adding anti-CXCL9/MIG antibodies to the alpha DC1 supernatant substantially reduced this recruitment. Finally, alpha DC1s were able to induce IFN-gamma production when cocultured with resting autologous NK cells, but only if concurrent CD40 ligation was provided. These novel findings indicate that injected human alpha DC1-based vaccines have the potential to recruit and activate NK cells during their arrival to draining lymph nodes and that this feature may be of relevance for efficient priming of Th1 cells and CTLs.
Epigenetic changes have been implicated in silencing several B-cell genes in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells (HRS) of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and this mechanism has been proposed to promote HRS survival and escape from immunosurveillance. However, the molecular and functional consequences of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in HL have not been previously described. In this study, we report that the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat induced p21 expression and decreased Bcl-xL levels causing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, vorinostat inhibited STAT6 phosphorylation and decreased its mRNA levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was associated with a decrease in the expression and secretion of Thymus and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and interleukin (IL)-5 and an increase in IP-10 levels. Moreover, vorino-stat inhibited TARC secretion by dendritic cells that were activated by the thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Collectively, these data suggest that pharmacologic HDAC inhibition in HL may induce favorable antitumor activity by a direct antiproliferative effect on HRS cells, and possibly by an immune mediated effect by altering cytokine and chemokines secretion in the microenvironment.