Gene Summary

Gene:CCR4; chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4
Aliases: CKR4, K5-5, CD194, CMKBR4, ChemR13, CC-CKR-4, HGCN:14099
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor family . It is a receptor for the CC chemokine - MIP-1, RANTES, TARC and MCP-1. Chemokines are a group of small polypeptide, structurally related molecules that regulate cell trafficking of various types of leukocytes. The chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-C chemokine receptor type 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • CCR4
  • Disease Progression
  • Chemokines, CC
  • Fos-Related Antigen-2
  • Tumor Escape
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Skin Cancer
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
  • Xenograft Models
  • Receptors, KIR
  • Adolescents
  • Thymus Gland
  • Chromosome 3
  • Chemokine CCL17
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Messenger RNA
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • Chemokine CCL22
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • Lymph Nodes
  • Western Blotting
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Receptors, CCR4
  • siRNA
  • Stem Cells
  • Mutation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Breast Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Transduction
  • Cell Proliferation
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Up-Regulation
  • MicroRNAs
  • Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Cell Movement
  • Signal Transduction
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCR4 (cancer-related)

Jafarzadeh A, Fooladseresht H, Minaee K, et al.
Higher circulating levels of chemokine CCL22 in patients with breast cancer: evaluation of the influences of tumor stage and chemokine gene polymorphism.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):1163-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The receptor for CCL22 is named CCR4 that preferentially is expressed on the regulatory T cells (Treg), and accordingly, CCL22 acts as a chemoattractant for the intratumoral Treg migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum CCL22 levels and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in chemokine gene, [2030 G/C (rs223818)], in patients with breast cancer. Blood samples were collected from 100 women with breast cancer before receiving chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy and 100 age-matched healthy women as a control group. The serum CCL22 levels were measured by ELISA. The DNA extracted and the SNP rs223818 determined by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The mean serum CCL22 levels in patients with breast cancer (2398.5 ± 123 Pg/mL) was significantly higher in comparison to healthy control group (974.2 ± 39.9 Pg/mL; P < 0.001). According to the tumor stages, the mean serum levels of CCL22 were 999.8 ± 85.0 Pg/mL in stage I, 1718.8 ± 82.3 Pg/mL in stage II, 2846.8 ± 118.0 Pg/mL in stage III, and 3954.5 ± 245.2 Pg/mL in stage IV. There was significant difference between tumor stages regarding the serum CCL22 levels (P < 0.001). In patients with breast cancer, the frequencies of CC genotype (63%) and C allele (79%) at rs223818 were significantly higher as compared to healthy controls (31 and 52%, respectively; P < 0.001). In both patients and control groups, the mean serum levels of CCL22 in subjects with CC genotype or C allele at rs223818 were also significantly higher as compared to subjects with GG genotype or G allele (P < 0.001). Higher serum CCL22 levels were observed in patients with breast cancer that is increased with advanced stages. These findings represent that the CCL22 may contribute in tumor development. The CC genotype and C allele at rs223818 were more frequent in breast cancer patients. The serum CCL22 levels were affected by genetic variations at SNP rs223818. Accordingly, SNP rs223818 may play a role in the susceptibility to breast cancer.

Katano I, Takahashi T, Ito R, et al.
Predominant development of mature and functional human NK cells in a novel human IL-2-producing transgenic NOG mouse.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(7):3513-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
We generated a severe immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid-IL-2Rγ(null) (NOG) mouse substrain expressing the transgenic human IL-2 gene (NOG-IL-2 Tg). Upon transfer of human cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), CD3(-)CD56(high)CD16(+/-) cells developed unexpectedly, predominantly in the NOG-IL-2 Tg (hu-HSC NOG-IL-2 Tg). These cells expressed various NK receptors, including NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKG2D, and CD94, as well as a diverse set of killer cell Ig-like receptor molecules at levels comparable to normal human NK cells from the peripheral blood, which is evidence of their maturity. They produced levels of granzyme A as high as in human peripheral blood-derived NK cells, and a considerable amount of perforin protein was detected in the plasma. Human NK cells in hu-HSC NOG-IL-2 Tg produced IFN-γ upon stimulation, and IL-2, IL-15, or IL-12 treatment augmented the in vitro cytotoxicity. Inoculation of K562 leukemia cells into hu-HSC NOG-IL-2 Tg caused complete rejection of the tumor cells, whereas inoculation into hu-HSC NOG fully reconstituted with human B, T, and some NK cells did not. Moreover, when a CCR4(+) Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line was inoculated s.c. into hu-HSC NOG-IL-2 Tg, the tumor growth was significantly suppressed by treatment with a therapeutic humanized anti-CCR4 Ab (mogamulizumab), suggesting that the human NK cells in the mice exerted active Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vivo. Taken together, these data suggest that the new NOG-IL-2 Tg strain is a unique model that can be used to investigate the biological and pathological functions of human NK cells in vivo.

Sicoli D, Jiao X, Ju X, et al.
CCR5 receptor antagonists block metastasis to bone of v-Src oncogene-transformed metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(23):7103-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Src family kinases (SFK) integrate signal transduction for multiple receptors, regulating cellular proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in human cancer. Although Src is rarely mutated in human prostate cancer, SFK activity is increased in the majority of human prostate cancers. To determine the molecular mechanisms governing prostate cancer bone metastasis, FVB murine prostate epithelium was transduced with oncogenic v-Src. The prostate cancer cell lines metastasized in FVB mice to brain and bone. Gene expression profiling of the tumors identified activation of a CCR5 signaling module when the prostate epithelial cell lines were grown in vivo versus tissue cultures. The whole body, bone, and brain metastatic prostate cancer burden was reduced by oral CCR5 antagonist. Clinical trials of CCR5 inhibitors may warrant consideration in patients with CCR5 activation in their tumors.

Mahalingam J, Lin CY, Chiang JM, et al.
CD4⁺ T cells expressing latency-associated peptide and Foxp3 are an activated subgroup of regulatory T cells enriched in patients with colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108554 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Latency-associated peptide (LAP) - expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important for immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. In order to investigate the role of LAP in human CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ Tregs, we designed a cross-sectional study that involved 42 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The phenotypes, cytokine-release patterns, and suppressive ability of Tregs isolated from peripheral blood and tumor tissues were analyzed. We found that the population of LAP-positive CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ Tregs significantly increased in peripheral blood and cancer tissues of CRC patients as compared to that in the peripheral blood and tissues of healthy subjects. Both LAP⁺ and LAP⁻ Tregs had a similar effector/memory phenotype. However, LAP⁺ Tregs expressed more effector molecules, including tumor necrosis factor receptor II, granzyme B, perforin, Ki67, and CCR5, than their LAP⁻ negative counterparts. The in vitro immunosuppressive activity of LAP⁺ Tregs, exerted via a transforming growth factor-β-mediated mechanism, was more potent than that of LAP⁻ Tregs. Furthermore, the enrichment of LAP⁺ Treg population in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of CRC patients correlated with cancer metastases. In conclusion, we found that LAP⁺ Foxp3⁺ CD4⁺ Treg cells represented an activated subgroup of Tregs having more potent regulatory activity in CRC patients. The increased frequency of LAP⁺ Tregs in PBMCs of CRC patients suggests their potential role in controlling immune response to cancer and presents LAP as a marker of tumor-specific Tregs in CRC patients.

Velasco-Velázquez M, Xolalpa W, Pestell RG
The potential to target CCL5/CCR5 in breast cancer.
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2014; 18(11):1265-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Chemokines play a crucial role in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression. Recently, the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), which can be secreted either by tumor cells or by mesenchymal stromal cells recruited to the tumor, has been identified as a key node in the bidirectional communication between breast cancer and normal cells.
AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors discuss the role of CCL5/chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) axis in promoting breast cancer onset and progression. Interrogation of large clinical databases has demonstrated increased expression of the CCL5/CCR5 axis in specific subtypes of breast cancer. The activation of the receptor CCR5 in breast cancer cells controls their invasiveness serving as a driver for metastasis. Furthermore, the CCL5/CCR5 axis participates in the recruitment of specific immune cells into tumors, inducing local immunosuppression and favoring tumor progression.
EXPERT OPINION: The role of CCR5 in HIV infection led to the development of specific and potent CCR5 antagonists. The data reviewed here includes basic and translational studies that support the use of such CCR5 antagonists in breast cancer patients as adjuvant therapy to block the metastasis.

Razmkhah M, Arabpour F, Taghipour M, et al.
Expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in brain tumor tissue derived cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(17):7201-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemokine and chemokine receptor expression by tumor cells contributes to tumor growth and angiogenesis and thus these factors may be considered as tumor markers. Here we aimed to characterize cells directly extracted from glioma, meningioma, and secondary brain tumors as well as non-tumoral cells in vitro. Cells were isolated from brain tissues using 0.2% collagenase and characterized by flow cytometry. Expression of SDF-1, CXCR4, CXCR7, RANTES, CCR5, MCP-1 and IP-10 was defined using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR methods. Brain tissue isolated cells were observed as spindle-shaped cell populations. No significant differences were observed for expression of SDF-1, CXCR4, CXCR7, RANTES, CCR5, and IP-10 transcripts. However, the expression of CXCR4 was approximately 13-fold and 110-fold higher than its counterpart, CXCR7, in meningioma and glioma cells, respectively. CXCR7 was not detectable in secondary tumors but CXCR4 was expressed. In non tumoral cells, CXCR7 had 1.3-fold higher mRNA expression than CXCR4. Flow cytometry analyses of RANTES, MCP- 1, IP-10, CCR5 and CXCR4 expression showed no significant difference between low and high grade gliomas. Differential expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in brain tumors derived cells compared to non-tumoral samples may have crucial impacts on therapeutic interventions targeting the SDF-1/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis.

Sako N, Schiavon V, Bounfour T, et al.
Membrane expression of NK receptors CD160 and CD158k contributes to delineate a unique CD4+ T-lymphocyte subset in normal and mycosis fungoides skin.
Cytometry A. 2014; 85(10):869-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD160 is a GPI-anchored Ig-like receptor identified by the BY55 mAb on human circulating CD56dim+ NK cells and TCRγδ lymphocytes. In addition, while most intestinal T lymphocytes express it, only a minor circulating CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte subset is CD160+. Here we describe a population of CD4+ CD160+ human blood T lymphocytes of circulating cutaneous T cells. These rare T lymphocytes represent 2.1 ± 1.9% of the circulating CD3+ CD4+ T cells, coexpress CD8αα, CD244, and perforin but lack CD28 expression, a phenotype corresponding to effector memory cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Functional studies further confirmed their cytotoxic potential. These cells lack αEβ7 integrin and CCR7 expression but do express skin-addressing molecules CLA, and CCR4. In normal human skin, CD4+ CD160+ cells represent 34.6 ± 14.7% of the CD4+ T lymphocytes extracted by collagenase treatment. These T cells coexpress CLA (81 ± 13.6%), CCR4 (62.3 ± 15.9%), and some CD8αα (19.6 ± 13%) or CCR7 (24.4 ± 11.7%) expression. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells express the natural killer receptor KIR3DL2 (CD158k) used as a tumor marker. Not only we confirmed the expression of this marker in the blood and/or skin of mycosis fungoides patients but we also show for the first time CD158k expression (often associated with CD160) on cutaneous CD4+ T cells from healthy individuals (25.3 ± 15%). Therefore, CD4+ CD160+ T cells expressing CD158k might represent specialized cutaneous lymphocytes devoted to immune surveillance, from which could originate cutaneous T-cell lymphomas such as mycosis fungoides.

Hashikawa K, Yasumoto S, Nakashima K, et al.
Microarray analysis of gene expression by microdissected epidermis and dermis in mycosis fungoides and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):1200-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The characteristic histopathological feature of mycosis fungoides (MF) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is epidermotropism. To identify the mechanism for epidermotropism of lymphoma cells, total RNAs were obtained from skin biopsies of epidermis and dermis of MF and ATLL patients by means of laser capture microdissection, and used for subsequent complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray experiments. This procedure has made it possible for us to observe and evaluate the regional environment of MF and ATLL. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the cDNAs could be clearly differentiated into MF and ATLL. CCL27 was expressed in the dermis generated from keratinocytes, CCR4/CCR6/CCR7/CCR10/cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) lymphoma cells in the dermis, and CCL21 in the extracellular matrix (stroma). Lymphotoxin (LT) β and CCL21 expression was significantly higher and that of CCR10 relatively for MF, while CCR4 and CLA expression was relatively higher for ATLL. In the epithelium, keratinocytes expressed CCL20/CCL27, and lymphoma cells CCR4/CCR6/CCR10, while CCR4, CCR6, CCL20 and CCL27 expression was relatively higher for ATLL than MF. The dermis of MF, but not that of ATLL, showed correlation between CCR7 and CCL21. These findings support the suggestion that chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of MF and ATLL, indicate that cutaneous homing seems to be different for MF and ATLL, and point to the possibility that cutaneous T-cell lymphomas originate in regulatory T cells, especially in the case of ATLL.

Pehlivan M, Sahin HH, Ozdilli K, et al.
Gene polymorphisms and febrile neutropenia in acute leukemia--no association with IL-4, CCR-5, IL-1RA, but the MBL-2, ACE, and TLR-4 are associated with the disease in Turkish patients: a preliminary study.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014; 18(7):474-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL-2), interleukin (IL)-4, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), chemokine receptor 5 (CCR-5), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA) gene polymorphisms (GPs) in acute leukemias (ALs) and to evaluate their roles in febrile neutropenia (FN) resulting from chemotherapy.
METHODS: The study included 60 AL patients hospitalized between the period of July 2001 and August 2006. Polymorphisms for the genes ACE(I/D), CCR-5, IL-1RA, MBL-2, TLR-4, and IL-4 were typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymerase. Genotype frequencies for these genes were compared in the patient and control groups. The relationships between the genotypes and the body distribution of infections, pathogens, the duration of neutropenia, and febrile episodes in AL patients were evaluated.
RESULTS: No significant differences in either the genotype distribution or the allelic frequencies of TLR-4, IL-4, CCR-5, IL-1RN GPs were observed between patients and healthy controls. The AB/BB genotype (53.3%) in the MBL-2 gene was found to be significantly higher in the AL patients compared with control groups. There were correlations between the presence of MBL-2, TLR-4, and ACE polymorphisms and clinical parameters due to FN. Overall, bacteremia was more common in MBL BB and ACE DD. Gram-positive bacteremia was more common in ACE for ID versus DD genotype. Gram-negative bacteremia was more common for both the MBL-2 AB/BB genotype and TLR-4 AG genotype. Median durations of febrile episodes were significantly shorter in ACE DD and MBL AB/BB.
CONCLUSION: Although TLR-4, ACE, and MBL-2 GPs have been extensively investigated in different clinical pictures, this is the first study to evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in the genetic etiopathogenesis of FN in patients with ALs. As a conclusion, TLR-4, ACE, and MBL-2 genes might play roles in the genetic etiopathogenesis of FN in patients with ALs.

Chaturvedi P, Gilkes DM, Takano N, Semenza GL
Hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent signaling between triple-negative breast cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells promotes macrophage recruitment.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(20):E2120-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Intratumoral hypoxia induces the recruitment of stromal cells, such as macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which stimulate invasion and metastasis by breast cancer cells (BCCs). Production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) by BCCs is required for macrophage recruitment, but the mechanisms underlying CSF1 expression have not been delineated. Triple-negative breast cancers have increased expression of genes regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In this study, we delineate two feed-forward signaling loops between human MDA-MB-231 triple-negative BCCs and human MSCs that drive stromal cell recruitment to primary breast tumors. The first loop, in which BCCs secrete chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) that binds to C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CXCR6) on MSCs and MSCs secrete chemokine CXCL10 that binds to receptor CXCR3 on BCCs, drives recruitment of MSCs. The second loop, in which MSCs secrete chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 that binds to C-C chemokine receptor type 5 on BCCs and BCCs secrete cytokine CSF1 that binds to the CSF1 receptor on MSCs, drives recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. These two signaling loops operate independent of each other, but both are dependent on the transcriptional activity of HIFs, with hypoxia serving as a pathophysiological signal that synergizes with chemokine signals from MSCs to trigger CSF1 gene transcription in triple-negative BCCs.

Rezaeifard S, Razmkhah M, Robati M, et al.
Adipose derived stem cells isolated from omentum: a novel source of chemokines for ovarian cancer growth.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2014 Jan-Mar; 10(1):159-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The main site of ovarian cancer metastasis is the omentum. Omental adipose tissue is known for contribution to the tumor growth and metastasis through different mechanisms.
AIMS: In the present study, adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) were isolated from the omentum of patients with ovarian cancer and those with ovarian cysts and the expression of chemokines, chemokine receptors and cytokines were analyzed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ASCs were isolated from omental adipose tissues obtained of 10 ovarian cancer and 25 ovarian benign cyst patients. Our investigations were done by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, flowcytometry, western blot and also enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULT: Expression of CXCL-10 and CCR5 showed statistically significant difference between omentum derived ASCs of ovarian cancer patients compared with those with benign cysts (P < 0.05). Expression of interleukin-10 also detected in the supernatant of cultured malignant ASCs.
CONCLUSION: Omental adipose tissue may play crucial roles for tumor promotion through the expression of tumor promoting chemokines. Accordingly, tumor surrounding adipose tissue may be a novel target for immunotherapy of cancer.

Liu Q, Rexiati M, Yang Y, et al.
Expression of chemokine receptor 4 was associated with poor survival in renal cell carcinoma.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(4):882 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemokines and their receptors are known to play important roles in tumor growth and metastasis of many malignancies. Recently, CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) has been described as a prognostic marker in various tumors. However, the possible role of CCR4 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has not been well elucidated. In this study, we detected the expression of CCR4 in 53 ccRCC by immunohistochemistry and correlated it with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of CCR4 in 53 ccRCC and 11 renal contusion tissue specimens. CCR4 expression between carcinoma and normal renal tissues was evaluated by χ(2) test. Correlation between CCR4 and clinicopathological data was tested by χ(2) test. Univariate survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences among the groups were analyzed by the log-rank test. CCR4 expression in ccRCC tissue was significantly higher compared with normal renal tissue samples (χ(2) = 4.392, P = 0.036). CCR4 was correlated with the clinicopathological features including tumor stage (P = 0.009), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003) and distant metastasis (P = 0.031). Further, CCR4 was the only dependent affecting factor in lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014). Univariate analysis showed that tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and CCR4 were influential factors for poor prognosis in ccRCC patients; multivariate analysis revealed that CCR4 (P = 0.007) was the only independent risk factor for prognosis. In addition, Kaplan-Meier curve for overall survival (OS) indicated that prognosis was unfavorable for patients who had high CCR4 expression level (P = 0.010). CCR4 was correlated with tumor aggressive behavior in ccRCC. It might be involved in lymph node metastasis and have influence on patients' OS. Further research is needed to determine the potential of CCR4.

Aldinucci D, Colombatti A
The inflammatory chemokine CCL5 and cancer progression.
Mediators Inflamm. 2014; 2014:292376 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Until recently, inflammatory chemokines were viewed mainly as indispensable "gate keepers" of immunity and inflammation. However, updated research indicates that cancer cells subvert the normal chemokine system and these molecules and their receptors become important constituents of the tumor microenvironment with very different ways to exert tumor-promoting roles. The CCR5 and the CCL5 ligand have been detected in some hematological malignancies, lymphomas, and a great number of solid tumors, but extensive studies on the role of the CCL5/CCR axis were performed only in a limited number of cancers. This review summarizes updated information on the role of CCL5 and its receptor CCR5 in cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and the formation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment and highlights the development of newer therapeutic strategies aimed to inhibit the binding of CCL5 to CCR5, to inhibit CCL5 secretion, or to inhibit the interactions among tumor cells and the microenvironment leading to CCL5 secretion.

Singh V, Jaiswal PK, Kapoor R, et al.
Impact of chemokines CCR5∆32, CXCL12G801A, and CXCR2C1208T on bladder cancer susceptibility in north Indian population.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4765-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemokines are small inducible pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we tested association of chemokine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) viz., CCR5∆32, CXCL12G801A and CXCR2C1208T genes in bladder cancer (BC) patients and normal healthy controls of north Indians. Genotyping of the above SNPs were done in 200 BC cases and 200 healthy controls, using RFLP and amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction methodology. A significant association was found in CXCL12G801A with BC risk. In case of CXCL12G801A polymorphism, the heterozygous (GA) genotype showed significantly high risk (p < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 2.72), whereas A allele carrier (GA + AA) also showed risk with BC (p < 0.001, OR = 2.44). In CXCR2C1208T polymorphism, the variant genotype (TT) showed significant risk for BC (p = 0.028, OR = 1.58). The variant allele (T) of CXCR2C1208T polymorphism was found to be associated with BC risk (p = 0.003, OR = 1.29). Interestingly, smoking was also found to modulate 1.16-fold risks for BC in case of CXCR2C1208T, variant genotype (TT). Upon analyzing the gene-gene interaction between CXCR2C1208T and CXCL12G801A, the combination CT-GA showed 4-fold risk for BC (p = 0.009). Our results indicated that polymorphism in CXCR2C1208T and CXCL12G801A showed high risk for BC in north Indian population. However, CCR5∆32 exhibited no association. Study with large sample size and diverse ethnicity are required to validate these observations.

Zaia JA, Forman SJ
Transplantation in HIV-infected subjects: is cure possible?
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2013; 2013:389-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
With the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy, the treatment of patients with HIV-related malignancies, especially lymphoma, has greatly improved, yielding results comparable to those seen in patients with lymphoma unrelated to HIV. The platform of transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells has facilitated studies of genetically modified stem cells engineered to express antiretroviral genes to resist infection by the HIV virus, testing the concept that engraftment of these cells will lead to HIV resistance and elimination of the reservoir of virus in the body. Results in patients with HIV and lymphoma have now led to studies that will test these principles in HIV patients without concomitant malignancy. In addition, in a patient with HIV and acute myeloid leukemia, the success of an allogeneic transplantation from an unrelated donor carrying a mutation in the CCR5 genes has demonstrated that, in principle, such an approach could also lead to cure of patients with HIV. Case studies in HIV patients with leukemia undergoing allogeneic transplantation also suggest that there may be a therapeutic effect on the HIV reservoir that could alter the natural history of HIV in the allogeneic setting.

Zhang Y, Meng FY, Li WL, et al.
Association of chemotactic factor receptor 5 gene with breast cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(4):5289-300 [PubMed] Related Publications
We designed a 2-stage study to investigate chemotactic factor receptor 5 (CCR5) gene expression in breast cancer tissues and axillary lymph nodes and analyze the association between the CCR5-Î"32 gene polymorphism and the clinical features and prognosis of breast cancer patients. The first stage examined 72 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma and axillary lymph node tissue, 50 cases of breast fibroadenoma tissue, and 40 cases of normal breast tissue. The tissues specimens were embedded in paraffin, and CCR5 expression was detected using immunohistochemical methods. C-erbB-2, p53, Ki-67, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor expression were also detected in the breast cancer tissues. The second stage examined 35 cases of surgically removed tissue. Relative expression levels of CCR5 messenger RNA (mRNA) in primary foci, axillary lymph node, and cancer-adjacent tissues of the breast cancer and breast fibroadenoma samples were detected using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. We found that 1) CCR5 mRNA relative expression levels in breast cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in adjacent normal tissue (P < 0.01) and benign tumors (P < 0.05). The relative CCR5 mRNA relative expression level between phase II and phase III breast cancer tissues was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The CCR5 mRNA relative expression level between adjacent normal tissues and fibroadenoma tissues was not significantly different (P > 0.05). 2) Relative CCR5 mRNA expression level was significantly higher in metastatic lymph node tissues than that in non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.05), and 3) CCR5 expression in breast cancer tissue was positively correlated with axillary lymph node metastasis (chi-square = 4.982, P = 0.026, r = 0.305). CCR5 expression was mildly and positively correlated with the oncogene C-erbB-2 (P < 0.05, r = 0.291). 4) CCR5 expression in breast cancer tissue was not correlated with age, menopause, maximum tumor size, tumor phase, p53, Ki-67, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or other clinical features (P > 0.05). We concluded that CCR5 expression significantly increases in breast cancer tissues and metastatic lymph nodes. CCR5 plays a role in breast cancer development and axillary lymph node metastasis. It can be used indirectly as an indicator of axillary lymph node metastasis and prognosis.

Iancu EM, Gannon PO, Laurent J, et al.
Persistence of EBV antigen-specific CD8 T cell clonotypes during homeostatic immune reconstitution in cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e78686 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Persistent viruses are kept in check by specific lymphocytes. The clonal T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), once established following primary infection, exhibits a robust stability over time. However, the determinants contributing to this long-term persistence are still poorly characterized. Taking advantage of an in vivo clinical setting where lymphocyte homeostasis was transiently perturbed, we studied EBV antigen-specific CD8 T cells before and after non-myeloablative lympho-depleting chemotherapy of melanoma patients. Despite more advanced T cell differentiation, patients T cells showed clonal composition comparable to healthy individuals, sharing a preference for TRBV20 and TRBV29 gene segment usage and several co-dominant public TCR clonotypes. Moreover, our data revealed the presence of relatively few dominant EBV antigen-specific T cell clonotypes, which mostly persisted following transient lympho-depletion (TLD) and lymphocyte recovery, likely related to absence of EBV reactivation and de novo T cell priming in these patients. Interestingly, persisting clonotypes frequently co-expressed memory/homing-associated genes (CD27, IL7R, EOMES, CD62L/SELL and CCR5) supporting the notion that they are particularly important for long-lasting CD8 T cell responses. Nevertheless, the clonal composition of EBV-specific CD8 T cells was preserved over time with the presence of the same dominant clonotypes after non-myeloablative chemotherapy. The observed clonotype persistence demonstrates high robustness of CD8 T cell homeostasis and reconstitution.

Mango RL, Wu QP, West M, et al.
C-C chemokine receptor 5 on pulmonary mesenchymal cells promotes experimental metastasis via the induction of erythroid differentiation regulator 1.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(2):274-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: C-C Chemokine receptor 5 knockout (Ccr5(-/-)) mice develop fewer experimental pulmonary metastases than wild-type (WT) mice. This phenomenon was explored by applying gene expression profiling to the lungs of mice with these metastases. Consequently, erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (Erdr1) was identified as upregulated in the WT mice. Though commonly associated with bone marrow stroma, Erdr1 was differentially expressed in WT pulmonary mesenchymal cells (PMC) and murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Moreover, the Ccr5 ligand Ccl4 increased its expression by 3.36 ± 0.14-fold. Ccr5 signaling was dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k) but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Pi3k) pathway because treatment with U0126 inhibited upregulation of Erdr1, but treatment with LY294002 increased the expression by 3.44 ± 0.92-fold (P < 0.05). The effect Erdr1 on B16-F10 melanoma metastasis was verified by the adoptive transfer of WT MEFs into Ccr5(-/-) mice. In this model, MEFs that had been transduced with Erdr1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lowered metastasis by 33% compared with control transduced MEFs. The relevance of ERDR1 on human disease was assessed by coculturing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells with M2-10B4 stromal cells that had been transfected with shRNA or control plasmids. After 96 hours of coculture, the cell counts were higher with control cell lines than with Erdr1 knockdown lines [odds ratio (OR), 1.88 ± 0.27, 2.52 ± 0.66, respectively]. This increase was associated with a decrease in apoptotic cells (OR, 0.69 ± 0.18, 0.58 ± 0.12, respectively).
IMPLICATIONS: Therefore, ERDR1 is a stromal-derived factor that promotes cancer cell survival in vitro and in an experimental metastasis model.

Baba T, Naka K, Morishita S, et al.
MIP-1α/CCL3-mediated maintenance of leukemia-initiating cells in the initiation process of chronic myeloid leukemia.
J Exp Med. 2013; 210(12):2661-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
In the initiation process of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a small number of transformed leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) coexist with a large number of normal hematopoietic cells, gradually increasing thereafter and eventually predominating in the hematopoietic space. However, the interaction between LICs and normal hematopoietic cells at the early phase has not been clearly delineated because of the lack of a suitable experimental model. In this study, we succeeded in causing a marked leukocytosis resembling CML from restricted foci of LICs in the normal hematopoietic system by direct transplantation of BCR-ABL gene-transduced LICs into the bone marrow (BM) cavity of nonirradiated mice. Herein, we observed that BCR-ABL(+)lineage(-)c-kit(-) immature leukemia cells produced high levels of an inflammatory chemokine, MIP-1α/CCL3, which promoted the development of CML. Conversely, ablation of the CCL3 gene in LICs dramatically inhibited the development of CML and concomitantly reduced recurrence after the cessation of a short-term tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Finally, normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells can directly impede the maintenance of LICs in BM in the absence of CCL3 signal.

Miura M, Yasunaga J, Tanabe J, et al.
Characterization of simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 in naturally infected Japanese macaques as a model of HTLV-1 infection.
Retrovirology. 2013; 10:118 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes chronic infection leading to development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and inflammatory diseases. Non-human primates infected with simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) are considered to constitute a suitable animal model for HTLV-1 research. However, the function of the regulatory and accessory genes of STLV-1 has not been analyzed in detail. In this study, STLV-1 in naturally infected Japanese macaques was analyzed.
RESULTS: We identified spliced transcripts of STLV-1 corresponding to HTLV-1 tax and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ). STLV-1 Tax activated the NFAT, AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways, whereas STLV-1 bZIP factor (SBZ) suppressed them. Conversely, SBZ enhanced TGF-β signaling and induced Foxp3 expression. Furthermore, STLV-1 Tax activated the canonical Wnt pathway while SBZ suppressed it. STLV-1 Tax enhanced the viral promoter activity while SBZ suppressed its activation. Then we addressed the clonal proliferation of STLV-1⁺ cells by massively sequencing the provirus integration sites. Some clones proliferated distinctively in monkeys with higher STLV-1 proviral loads. Notably, one of the monkeys surveyed in this study developed T-cell lymphoma in the brain; STLV-1 provirus was integrated in the lymphoma cell genome. When anti-CCR4 antibody, mogamulizumab, was administered into STLV-1-infected monkeys, the proviral load decreased dramatically within 2 weeks. We observed that some abundant clones recovered after discontinuation of mogamulizumab administration.
CONCLUSIONS: STLV-1 Tax and SBZ have functions similar to those of their counterparts in HTLV-1. This study demonstrates that Japanese macaques naturally infected with STLV-1 resemble HTLV-1 carriers and are a suitable model for the investigation of persistent HTLV-1 infection and asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier state. Using these animals, we verified that mogamulizumab, which is currently used as a drug for relapsed ATL, is also effective in reducing the proviral load in asymptomatic individuals.

Bedognetti D, Spivey TL, Zhao Y, et al.
CXCR3/CCR5 pathways in metastatic melanoma patients treated with adoptive therapy and interleukin-2.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(9):2412-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adoptive therapy with tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) induces durable complete responses (CR) in ∼20% of patients with metastatic melanoma. The recruitment of T cells through CXCR3/CCR5 chemokine ligands is critical for immune-mediated rejection. We postulated that polymorphisms and/or expression of CXCR3/CCR5 in TILs and the expression of their ligands in tumour influence the migration of TILs to tumours and tumour regression.
METHODS: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from 142 metastatic melanoma patients enrolled in adoptive therapy trials were genotyped for CXCR3 rs2280964 and CCR5-Δ32 deletion, which encodes a protein not expressed on the cell surface. Expression of CXCR3/CCR5 in TILs and CXCR3/CCR5 and ligand genes in 113 available parental tumours was also assessed. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte data were validated by flow cytometry (N=50).
RESULTS: The full gene expression/polymorphism model, which includes CXCR3 and CCR5 expression data, CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism data and their interaction, was significantly associated with both CR and overall response (OR; P=0.0009, and P=0.007, respectively). More in detail, the predicted underexpression of both CXCR3 and CCR5 according to gene expression and polymorphism data (protein prediction model, PPM) was associated with response to therapy (odds ratio=6.16 and 2.32, for CR and OR, respectively). Flow cytometric analysis confirmed the PPM. Coordinate upregulation of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL5 in pretreatment tumour biopsies was associated with OR.
CONCLUSION: Coordinate overexpression of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL5 in pretreatment tumours was associated with responsiveness to treatment. Conversely, CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism and CXCR3/CCR5 underexpression influence downregulation of the corresponding receptors in TILs and were associated with likelihood and degree of response.

Sugiyama D, Nishikawa H, Maeda Y, et al.
Anti-CCR4 mAb selectively depletes effector-type FoxP3+CD4+ regulatory T cells, evoking antitumor immune responses in humans.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(44):17945-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
CD4(+) Treg cells expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 (forkhead box P3) are abundant in tumor tissues and appear to hinder the induction of effective antitumor immunity. A substantial number of T cells, including Treg cells, in tumor tissues and peripheral blood express C-C chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4). Here we show that CCR4 was specifically expressed by a subset of terminally differentiated and most suppressive CD45RA(-)FOXP3(hi)CD4(+) Treg cells [designated effector Treg (eTreg) cells], but not by CD45RA(+)FOXP3(lo)CD4(+) naive Treg cells, in peripheral blood of healthy individuals and cancer patients. In melanoma tissues, CCR4(+) eTreg cells were predominant among tumor-infiltrating FOXP3(+) T cells and much higher in frequency compared with those in peripheral blood. With peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy individuals and melanoma patients, ex vivo depletion of CCR4(+) T cells and subsequent in vitro stimulation of the depleted cell population with the cancer/testis antigen NY-ESO-1 efficiently induced NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells. Nondepletion failed in the induction. The magnitude of the responses was comparable with total removal of FOXP3(+) Treg cells by CD25(+) T-cell depletion. CCR4(+) T-cell depletion also augmented in vitro induction of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T cells in melanoma patients. Furthermore, in vivo administration of anti-CCR4 mAb markedly reduced the eTreg-cell fraction and augmented NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in an adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma patient whose leukemic cells expressed NY-ESO-1. Collectively, these findings indicate that anti-CCR4 mAb treatment is instrumental for evoking and augmenting antitumor immunity in cancer patients by selectively depleting eTreg cells.

Rawal S, Chu F, Zhang M, et al.
Cross talk between follicular Th cells and tumor cells in human follicular lymphoma promotes immune evasion in the tumor microenvironment.
J Immunol. 2013; 190(12):6681-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
The microenvironment of human follicular lymphoma (FL), an incurable B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is thought to play a major role in its pathogenesis and course. Microenvironmental cells of likely importance include follicular Th cells (TFH) and regulatory T cells (Tregs), and understanding their interactions with FL tumor cells is necessary to develop novel therapeutic strategies. We found that IL-4 and CD40L are expressed by intratumoral TFH and induce production of CCL17 and CCL22 by FL tumor cells. IL-4 alone induces only CCL17 but enhances stimulation by CD40L of both CCL17 and CCL22. Consistent with our in vitro results, mRNA transcripts of IL-4 correlated with CCL17, but not CCL22, in gene expression profiling studies of FL biopsies, whereas CD40L correlated with both CCL17 and CCL22. Tumor supernatants induced preferential migration of Tregs and IL-4-producing T cells rather than IFN-γ-producing T cells, and Abs to CCR4 significantly abrogated the migration of Tregs. Our results suggest that through two distinct mechanisms, intratumoral TFH induce production of CCL17 and CCL22 by FL tumor cells and facilitate active recruitment of Tregs and IL-4-producing T cells, which, in turn, may stimulate more chemokine production in a feed-forward cycle. Thus, TFH appear to play a major role in generating an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that promotes immune escape and tumor survival and growth. Our results provide novel insights into the cross talk among TFH, tumor cells, and Tregs in FL, and offer potential targets for development of therapeutic strategies to overcome immune evasion.

Al-haidari AA, Syk I, Jirström K, Thorlacius H
CCR4 mediates CCL17 (TARC)-induced migration of human colon cancer cells via RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2013; 28(11):1479-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accumulating data suggest a role of chemokines in tumor cell metastasis. CCR4 has been implicated in hematologic malignancies and recently also in solid tumors. Herein, we hypothesized that CCR4 might be expressed and support migration of colon cancer cells.
METHODS: We used quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry to determine mRNA and surface expression of CCR4 on colon cancer cell lines (HT-29) and (AZ-97). Total RhoA and active RhoA protein levels in CCL17-stimulated colon cancer cells were quantified using ELISA and G-LISA assays. Migration assays were performed to evaluate colon cancer cells chemotaxis. In vitro tumor growth was assessed using proliferation assay.
RESULTS: Our results show clear-cut mRNA levels and surface expression of CCR4 on a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and on tumor cells (AZ-97). CCR4 ligand CCL17 (TARC) was a potent stimulator of colon cancer cell migration. This CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration was inhibited by pre-incubation of the colon cancer cells with an antibody directed against CCR4 or an antagonist against CCR4. CCL17-induced signaling in colon cancer cells revealed that CCL17 increased mRNA formation of RhoA-C in colon cancer cells. Our results also found that CCL17 increased total RhoA and active RhoA protein levels in colon cancer cells. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 abolished CCL17-induced colon cancer cell chemotaxis. In addition, inhibition of isoprenylation by GGTI-2133 markedly reduced colon cancer cell migration triggered by CCL17.
CONCLUSIONS: Our novel data indicate for the first time that the CCL17-CCR4 axis might be involved in the spread of colon cancer cells.

Chen Q, Zheng T, Lan Q, et al.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding for CC chemokines were not associated with the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22(7):1332-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemokines play a pivotal role in immune regulation and response, and previous studies suggest an association between immune deficiency and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
METHODS: We evaluated the association between NHL and polymorphisms in 18 genes (CCL1, CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL18, CCL20, CCL24, CCL26, CCR1, CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR7, CCR8, and CCR9) encoding for the CC chemokines using data from a population-based case-control study of NHL conducted in Connecticut women.
RESULTS: CCR8 was associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; P = 0.012), and CCL13 was associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL; P = 0.003) at gene level. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, none of the genes or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were associated with risk of overall NHL or NHL subtypes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the genes encoding for CC chemokines are not significantly associated with the risk of NHL, and further studies are needed to verify these findings.
IMPACT: Our data indicate that CC chemokine genes were not associated with NHL risk.

Staudt ND, Jo M, Hu J, et al.
Myeloid cell receptor LRP1/CD91 regulates monocyte recruitment and angiogenesis in tumors.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(13):3902-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Recruitment of monocytes into sites of inflammation is essential in the immune response. In cancer, recruited monocytes promote invasion, metastasis, and possibly angiogenesis. LDL receptor-related protein (LRP1) is an endocytic and cell-signaling receptor that regulates cell migration. In this study, we isografted PanO2 pancreatic carcinoma cells into mice in which LRP1 was deleted in myeloid lineage cells. Recruitment of monocytes into orthotopic and subcutaneous tumors was significantly increased in these mice, compared with control mice. LRP1-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) expressed higher levels of multiple chemokines, including, most prominently, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/CCL3, which is known to amplify inflammation. Increased levels of CCL3 were detected in LRP1-deficient tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), isolated from PanO2 tumors, and in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells in which LRP1 was silenced. LRP1-deficient BMDMs migrated more rapidly than LRP1-expressing cells in vitro. The difference in migration was reversed by CCL3-neutralizing antibody, by CCR5-neutralizing antibody, and by inhibiting NF-κB with JSH-23. Inhibiting NF-κB reversed the increase in CCL3 expression associated with LRP1 gene silencing in RAW 264.7 cells. Tumors formed in mice with LRP1-deficient myeloid cells showed increased angiogenesis. Although VEGF mRNA expression was not increased in LRP1-deficient TAMs, at the single-cell level, the increase in TAM density in tumors with LRP1-deficient myeloid cells may have allowed these TAMs to contribute an increased amount of VEGF to the tumor microenvironment. Our results show that macrophage density in tumors is correlated with cancer angiogenesis in a novel model system. Myeloid cell LRP1 may be an important regulator of cancer progression.

Zambra FM, Biolchi V, Brum IS, Chies JA
CCR2 and CCR5 genes polymorphisms in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.
Hum Immunol. 2013; 74(8):1003-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) are two chronic conditions, very common in aged men, that have been associated to inflammatory process. Chemokines and their receptors are recognized as critical mediators of inflammatory responses, they regulate immune cell migration and are implicated in tumor pathogenesis. The impact of two chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms, CCR2-64I (rs1799864) and CCR5-Δ32 (rs333), was evaluated in BPH and PCa. 385 DNA samples (130 BPH, 136 PCa, 119 healthy control) were genotyped. The allele frequencies were similar among control, BPH and PCa groups. Median of serum PSA levels was different between groups: 0.79, 1.45 and 6.91 ng/mL in control, BPH and PCa groups, respectively (all p<0.001). The prostate volume median was 20.00 cm(3) in the control group, thus, lower than BPH (35.35 cm(3)) and PCa (35.80 cm(3)) (both p<0.001), nevertheless no statistical significant difference was observed between BPH and PCa patients (p=0.172). Remarkably, CCR2-64I was a protective factor to PCa when compared with BPH (OR=0.550; 95%CI=0.311-0.975), although the statistically significant difference was lost after correction for multiple comparisons. No significant associations of CCR5-Δ32 variant were observed with BPH, PCa or PCa clinicopathologic status. Our data suggest the influence of CCR2-64I variant in the development of prostate cancer.

Biragyn A, Bodogai M, Olkhanud PB, et al.
Inhibition of lung metastasis by chemokine CCL17-mediated in vivo silencing of genes in CCR4+ Tregs.
J Immunother. 2013; 36(4):258-67 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Despite significant attractiveness of antisense oligonucleotide/RNAi technology, its clinical application has been precluded by a lack of methods for targeted delivery and transduction of primary immune cells in vivo. Here, we devised a chemokine CCL17-based strategy (TARC-arp) that transiently silences expression of genes in immune cells by delivering inhibitory oligonucleotides through their chemokine receptors. In modeling studies using mice with established 4T1.2 breast cancer, we show that IL10 produced by CCR4 cells, in particular FoxP3 regulatory T cells (Tregs), plays an important role in lung metastasis. As such, TARC-arp-mediated silencing of IL10 or FoxP3 in CCR4 Tregs is sufficient to block lung metastasis. Thus, we provide a simple solution that circumvents the problems of RNAi use in vivo, indicating that a disease outcome can be successfully controlled by delivering inhibitory oligonucleotides with chemokines to inactivate a selective subset of immune cells.

Higuchi T, Nakayama T, Arao T, et al.
SOX4 is a direct target gene of FRA-2 and induces expression of HDAC8 in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 121(18):3640-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previously, we have shown that an AP-1 family member, FRA-2, is constitutively expressed in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and, together with JUND, upregulates CCR4 and promotes ATL cell growth. Among the identified potential target genes of FRA-2/JUND was SOX4. Here, we examine the expression and function of SOX4 in ATL. SOX4 was indeed consistently expressed in primary ATL cells. FRA-2/JUND efficiently activated the SOX4 promoter via an AP-1 site. Knockdown of SOX4 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) strongly suppressed cell growth of ATL cell lines. Microarray analyses revealed that SOX4 knockdown reduced the expression of genes such as germinal center kinase related (GCKR), NAK-associated protein 1 (NAP1), and histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). We confirmed consistent expression of GCKR, NAP1, and HDAC8 in primary ATL cells. We also showed direct activation of the HDAC8 promoter by SOX4. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of GCKR, NAP1, and HDAC8 each significantly suppressed cell growth of ATL cell lines. Taken together, we have revealed an important oncogenic cascade involving FRA-2/JUND and SOX4 in ATL, which leads to the expression of genes such as GCKR, NAP1, and HDAC8.

Elton TS, Selemon H, Elton SM, Parinandi NL
Regulation of the MIR155 host gene in physiological and pathological processes.
Gene. 2013; 532(1):1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small nonprotein-coding RNAs, play a critical role in posttranscriptional gene regulation by acting as adaptors for the miRNA-induced silencing complex to inhibit gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression and/or cleavage. miR-155-5p and miR-155-3p are processed from the B-cell Integration Cluster (BIC) gene (now designated, MIR155 host gene or MIR155HG). MiR-155-5p is highly expressed in both activated B- and T-cells and in monocytes/macrophages. MiR-155-5p is one of the best characterized miRNAs and recent data indicate that miR-155-5p plays a critical role in various physiological and pathological processes such as hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immunity, inflammation, viral infections, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Down syndrome. In this review we summarize the mechanisms by which MIR155HG expression can be regulated. Given that the pathologies mediated by miR-155-5p result from the over-expression of this miRNA it may be possible to therapeutically attenuate miR-155-5p levels in the treatment of several pathological processes.

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